Jews猶太人

General Information 一般信息

The Jews are a people who trace their descent from the biblical Israelites and who are united by the religion called Judaism. They are not a race; Jewish identity is a mixture of ethnic, national, and religious elements.猶太人是一個人誰追查他們的後裔從聖經的猶太人,誰是美國的所謂宗教猶太教。他們是不是一個種族;猶太身份是混合種族,民族,宗教的內容。 An individual may become part of the Jewish people by conversion to Judaism; but a born Jew who rejects Judaism or adopts another religion does not entirely lose his or her Jewish identity.個人可以成為猶太民族的猶太教皈依;而是一個出生的猶太人誰反對猶太教或採用其他宗教沒有完全失去他或她的猶太身份。

The word Jew is derived from the kingdom of Judah, which included 2 of the 12 Israelite tribes.這個詞猶太人是來自猶太王國,其中包括2 12個以色列人部落。 The name Israel referred to the people as a whole and especially to the northern kingdom of 10 tribes.以色列的名字提交給全國人民,特別是沙特北部10個部落。 Today it is used as a collective name for all Jewry and since 1948 for the Jewish state.今天,它是用來作為一個集體的名字為所有猶太人,並自1948年以來的猶太國家。 (Citizens of the state of Israel are called Israelis; not all of them are Jews.) In the Bible, Hebrew is used by foreign peoples as a name for the Israelites; today it is applied only to the Hebrew Language. (公民以色列國被稱為以色列人;並不是所有這些都是猶太人。 )在聖經,希伯來文是用外國人民的名稱以色列人;今天是只適用於希伯來語。

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Biblical Period聖經時期

The origin of the Jews is recounted in the Hebrew Bible (called the "Old Testament" by Christians).原產地的猶太人是敘述在希伯來文聖經(所謂的“舊約”的基督教徒) 。 Despite legendary and miraculous elements in its early narratives, most scholars believe that the biblical account is based on historic realities.儘管傳說和神奇的內容在其早期的說明,大多數學者認為,聖經的帳戶是基於歷史的現實。 According to the Book of Genesis God ordered the patriarch Abraham to leave his home in Mesopotamia and travel to a new land, which he promised to Abraham's descendants as a perpetual inheritance.根據創世記上帝命令亞伯拉罕元老離開他的家在美索不達米亞和旅行到一個新的土地,他答應亞伯拉罕的後裔作為一個永久的遺產。 Although the historicity of Abraham, his son Isaac, and his grandson Jacob is uncertain, the Israelite tribes certainly came to Canaan (later Palestine) from Mesopotamia.雖然歷史性的亞伯拉罕,他的兒子以撒,和他的孫子雅各是不確定的,部落的以色列人當然來到迦南(後來巴勒斯坦)由美索不達米亞。

Later they, or some of them, settled in Egypt, where they were reduced to slavery; they finally fled to freedom under the leadership of an extraordinary man named Moses, probably about 1200 BC.後來他們,或有些人,定居在埃及,他們在那裡淪為奴隸,他們終於逃到自由的領導下,特別叫摩西,大概公元前1200年。 After a period of desert wandering, the tribes invaded Canaan at different points, and over a lengthy period of time they gained control over parts of the country.經過一段時間的沙漠流浪,部落的入侵迦南不同點,並有一個漫長的時間內,他們控制了該國部分地區。 (It is uncertain if there is any connection between the Hebrews and the Habiru mentioned in 14th century BC Egyptian documents found at Tell el - Amarna.) (這是不確定的,如果有任何聯繫希伯來和哈比魯中提到公元前14世紀埃及發現的文件在告訴埃爾-阿瑪爾納。 )

Formation of a National Kingdom形成了一個全國王國

For a century or more the tribes, loosely united and sometimes feuding among themselves, were hard pressed by Canaanite forces based in fortified strongholds and by marauders from outside.一個世紀或更多的部落,鬆散聯合,有時它們之間的爭鬥,是很難的迦南駐紮在森嚴的堡壘和亂兵來自外部。 At critical moments tribal chieftains (traditionally called judges) rose to lead the people in battle.在關鍵時刻部落酋長(傳統上所謂的法官)的股票上漲才能帶領人民戰鬥。 But when the Philistines threatened the very existence of the Israelites, the tribes formed a kingdom under the rule (1020 - 1000 BC) of Saul, of the tribe of Benjamin.但是,當非利士人的威脅生存的猶太人,部落形成了英國的統治下( 1020至1000年前)的索爾,該部落的本傑明。 Saul died fighting the Philistines, and was succeeded by David of the tribe of Judah.掃羅戰死的非利士人,並成功地由大衛的猶太部落。

David crushed the Philistine power and established a modest empire.大衛粉碎了庸俗的權力,並設立了微薄的帝國。 He conquered the fortress city of Jerusalem, which up to that time had been controlled by a Canaanite tribe, and made it his capital.他征服了山城耶路撒冷城,其中最多的時間已控制的迦南部落,並使其他的資本。 His son Solomon assumed the trappings of a potentate and erected the Temple in Jerusalem, which became the central sanctuary of the distinctive monotheistic Israelite religion and ultimately the spiritual center of world Jewry.他的兒子所羅門承擔了服飾的君主和廟建在耶路撒冷,成為中央聖殿的一神教以色列人獨特的宗教和最終的精神中心,世界猶太人。

Division, Conquest, and Exile司,征服,和流亡

The national union effected by David was shaky.國家工會的影響大衛動搖。 The economically and culturally advanced tribes of the north resented the rule of kings from pastoral Judah, and after Solomon's death the kingdom was divided.在經濟上和文化上先進的部落北方反感法治的國王從牧區猶太後,所羅門群島的死亡王國被劃分。 The larger and richer northern kingdom was known as Israel; Judah, with Benjamin, remained loyal to the family of David.在較大和較富裕的北部地區王國被稱為以色列的猶太,與本傑明,仍忠於家庭的大衛。 Israel experienced many dynastic changes and palace revolutions.以色列經歷了許多王朝的宮殿變化和革命。 Both Israel and Judah, located between the empires of Egypt and Assyria, were caught in the struggle between the two great powers.以色列和猶太,位於帝國之間的埃及和亞述,被捕獲的鬥爭中兩國之間的偉大的權力。 Assyria was the dominant empire during the period of the divided kingdom.亞述是佔主導地位的帝國期間分為王國。 When Israel, with Egyptian encouragement, tried to throw off Assyrian rule, it was destroyed and a large number of its inhabitants were deported (722 BC).當以色列與埃及的鼓勵下,試圖擺脫亞述人的規則,它被摧毀,大批居民被驅逐出境( 722年) 。

Judah managed to outlive the Assyrian Empire (destroyed c. 610), but the Chaldean (Neo Babylonian) Empire that replaced it also insisted on control of Judah. When a new revolt broke out under Egyptian influence, the Chaldeans under Nebuchadnezzar II destroyed Jerusalem and burned the Temple (587 or 586 BC); the royalty, nobility, and skilled craftsmen were deported to Babylonia.猶太設法活得的亞述帝國(銷毀角610 ) ,但迦勒(新巴比倫)帝國,取代它也堅持控制猶太。當一個新的起義爆發了埃及的影響力,迦勒下尼布甲尼撒二世和耶路撒冷被毀焚燒寺( 587或586年) ;的版稅,貴族和熟練技工被驅逐到巴比倫。

Loss of state and Temple, however, did not lead to the disappearance of the Judeans, as it did in the northern kingdom.損失的國家和寺,但並沒有導致失踪的Judeans ,因為它沒有在英國北部。 The peasantry that remained on the land, the refugees in Egypt, and the exiles in Babylonia retained a strong faith in their God and the hope of ultimate restoration.農民仍然在土地上,這些難民在埃及和巴比倫流亡者在保留了強大的信心,他們的上帝,並希望最終恢復。 This was largely due to the influence of the great Prophets.這主要是因為影響的偉大的先知。 Their warnings of doom had been fulfilled; therefore, the hopeful message they began to preach was believed.他們警告末日已經完成,因此,有希望的訊息他們開始相信說教。 The universal prophetic teaching assured Jews that they could still worship their God on alien soil and without a temple. Henceforth the Jewish people and religion could take root in the dispersion (Diaspora) as well as in the homeland.普遍的預言保證教學猶太人,他們仍然可以崇拜天主的外來土壤和寺廟。此後猶太人民和宗教紮根於分散(海外)以及在祖國。

Return to Palestine返回巴勒斯坦

Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylonia in 536 BC. Subsequently he permitted the exiles to return to Judah and rebuild the Temple.賽勒斯的大波斯征服了巴比倫在公元前536 。隨後,他允許流亡者返回和重建猶太聖殿。 (Many chose, however, to remain in Mesopotamia, where the Jewish community existed without interruption for more than 2,500 years until the virtual elimination of Jewish presence in Iraq after World War II.) Leadership of the reviving Judean center was provided largely by returning exiles - notably Nehemiah, an important official of the Persian court, and Ezra, a learned priest. (許多選擇,但留在美索不達米亞,那裡的猶太社區存在的不中斷超過2500年,直到基本上消除了猶太人在伊拉克的存在第二次世界大戰後。 )領導的朱迪亞恢復中心提供主要由流亡者回國-尤其是尼希米記,一個重要官員的波斯法院,以斯拉,一個教訓神父。 They rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem and consolidated spiritual life by a public ceremony of allegiance to the Torah (Law of Moses) and by stringent rules against mixed marriage.他們的牆壁重建耶路撒冷和鞏固精神生活的一個公共儀式,忠於聖經(摩西法)和嚴格的規則對異族通婚。 In the following centuries leadership was provided mainly by priests, who claimed descent from Moses' brother Aaron; the high priest usually represented the people in dealings with the foreign powers that successively ruled the land.在隨後的數百年的領導提供了主要由神父,誰人後裔從摩西弟弟阿龍;的大祭司通常代表了人民的交往與外國列強先後統治的土地。

Hellenistic and Roman Periods希臘和羅馬時期

The available information about the Persian period is meager. Alexander the Great conquered Palestine in 322; his successors, the Macedonian rulers of Egypt (the Ptolemies) and Syria (the Seleucids) vied for control of this strategically important area; eventually the Syrians won.現有的信息,波斯灣是微薄的時期。亞歷山大大帝征服了巴勒斯坦在322 ;他的繼任者,馬其頓的統治者的埃及(在托勒密)和敘利亞(對Seleucids )爭奪控制這一具有重要戰略意義的地區;最終敘利亞人韓元。 Hellenistic influences penetrated Jewish life deeply, but when the Seleucid king Antiochus IV tried to impose the worship of Greek gods upon the Jews, a rebellion ensued (168 BC).希臘猶太人的影響深入生活深入,但是當塞琉國王安提四試圖強行崇拜希臘諸神的猶太人,隨後叛亂( 168年) 。

The Maccabees在馬加比

The popular revolt was led by the Maccabees, a provincial priestly family (also called Hasmoneans).全民起義是由馬加比,一個省級牧師家庭(也稱為哈斯摩年王朝) 。 By 165 they recaptured the Temple, which had been converted into a pagan shrine, and rededicated it to the God of Israel. 165他們奪回寺,已轉化為異教徒的靖國神社,並再次向以色列的上帝。 Hostilities with Syria continued; but Simon, the last of the Maccabean brothers, consolidated his power and was formally recognized in 131 BC as ruler and high priest.與敘利亞的敵對行動繼續,但西蒙,最後的Maccabean兄弟,鞏固自己的權力被正式承認為公元前131尺,高神父。 His successors took the title of king and for about a century ruled an independent commonwealth.他的繼任者了標題國王和約一個世紀統治一個獨立的聯邦。 Dynastic quarrels, however, gave the Roman general Pompey the Great an excuse to intervene and make himself master of the country in 63 BC.王朝爭吵,但是,給羅馬的龐培一般大的藉口進行干預,並讓自己掌握在該國63年。

The Herodians該Herodians

In subsequent decades a family of Idumaean adventurers ingratiated themselves with the successive Roman dictators; with Roman help, Herod the Great made himself ruler of Judea, eventually (37 BC) with the title of king.在隨後的幾十年家庭的Idumaean冒險家獻媚自己羅馬的連續獨裁者;與羅馬的幫助,大希律王自己提出的統治者朱迪亞,最終( 37年)的稱號國王。 Able but ruthless, he was hated by the people, although he rebuilt the Temple with great magnificence.可以,但無情的,他恨的人,儘管他重建聖殿十分壯觀。 The Romans allowed Herod's sons less authority and in 6 BC put the country formally under the control of their own officials, known as procurators.羅馬允許希律王的兒子少的權威和6年使該國正式的控制之下,自己的官員,稱為檢察官。

New spiritual forces emerged during the Maccabean and Herodian periods.新的精神力量出現在Maccabean和Herodian時期。 The leadership of hereditary priests was contested by laymen distinguished for their learning and piety, who won the respect and support of the people.領導的教士是遺傳爭議外行人尊敬他們的學習和虔誠,誰贏得了尊重和支持的人。 The priestly conservatives came to be known as Sadducees, the more progressive lay party as the Pharisees.保守派的牧師後來被稱為撒都該人,更進步奠定黨的法利賽人。 The latter came to dominate the Sanhedrin, which was the highest religious and legal authority of the nation.後者來主宰公會,這是最高的宗教和法律權威的國家。

Burdened by excessive taxation and outraged by acts of brutality, the Judeans became more and more restive under Roman rule, all the more because they were confident that God would ultimately vindicate them.負擔過重稅收和憤怒的暴行,在Judeans變得越來越動盪的羅馬統治之下,更因為他們相信,上帝將最終證明他們。 Revolutionary groups such as the Zealots emerged calling for armed revolt.革命團體,如出現狂熱呼籲武裝叛亂。 The Sadducees were inclined to collaborate with the Romans; the Pharisees advocated passive resistance but sought to avoid open war.該撒都該人傾向於與羅馬;的法利賽人主張消極抵抗,但試圖避免公開的戰爭。

The Era of Revolts and the Mishnah and Talmud時代的起義和米示拿和塔木德

The Great Revolts偉大的起義

In 66 AD the moderates could no longer control the desperate populace, and rebellion against Roman tyranny broke out. After bitter fighting the Romans captured Jerusalem and burned the Temple in 70; at Masada the Zealots held out until 73, when most of the 1,000 surviving defenders killed themselves to defy capture by the Romans.在公元66溫和派再也無法控制絕望的民眾,以及反抗暴政羅馬爆發了。經過激烈戰鬥,羅馬人佔領耶路撒冷和聖殿燒毀70個;在馬薩達舉行的狂熱,直到73時,大部分尚存1000個捍衛自己的死亡違抗捕獲的羅馬。 As a result of the revolt thousands of Jews were sold into slavery and thus were scattered widely in the Roman world.由於起義成千上萬的猶太人被賣入奴役,從而被廣泛地散佈在羅馬的世界。 The last vestiges of national autonomy were obliterated.最後殘餘的國家自治殆盡。

The Pharisaic leaders, shortly thereafter given the title of Rabbi (Hebrew, "my teacher"), rallied the people for a new undertaking - the reconstruction of religious and social life. Using the institution of the Synagogue as a center of worship and education, they adapted religious practice to new conditions.該Pharisaic領導人,此後不久,由於標題拉比(希伯來文, “我的老師” ) ,凝聚了人民的一個新的事業-重建宗教和社會生活。利用該機構的猶太教堂為中心的崇拜和教育,他們適應宗教實踐,以新的條件。 Their assembly, the Sanhedrin, was reconvened at Jabneh, and its head was recognized by the Romans and given the title of patriarch; the Diaspora Jews accepted his authority and that of the Sanhedrin in matters of Jewish law.他們的集會,公會,重新在Jabneh ,其頭部被公認的羅馬和授予的家長;散居猶太人接受了他的權威和公會事項的猶太法律。 The leaders of the Jabneh period included Johanan Ben Zakkai, Gamaliel of Jabneh, and Akiba Ben Joseph.領導人Jabneh期間包括Johanan本Zakkai ,加馬利亞的Jabneh ,並秋葉本約瑟夫。

Many Diaspora Jewish communities rebelled against Rome early in the 2d century; however, their rebellions were crushed, with much bloodshed.許多散居猶太人社區反抗羅馬早在2世紀,但是,他們的叛亂被鎮壓,許多流血事件。 Still more bitter was the revolt of Palestinian Jewry led by Bar Kochba in 132; it was put down after three years of savage fighting.但更痛苦的是巴勒斯坦人的起義為首的猶太人律師Kochba 132 ,這是放下經過三年的野蠻戰鬥。 For a time thereafter observance of basic Jewish practices was made a capital crime, and Jews were banned from Jerusalem.一段時間以後遵守基本的猶太人的做法是資本罪,被禁止猶太人從耶路撒冷。 Under the Antonine emperors (138 - 92), however, milder policies were restored, and the work of the scholars was resumed, particularly in Galilee, which became the seat of the patriarchate until its abolition (c. 429) by the Romans.根據安多寧皇帝( 138 -9 2) ,但溫和的政策,恢復和工作的學者得到恢復,特別是在加利利,成為所在地的主教,直到其廢除(角4 29)的羅馬。 There the sages called tannaim completed the redaction of the Mishnah (oral law) under the direction of Judah Ha - Nasi.還有所謂的聖賢tannaim完成了編輯的米示拿(口服法)的指導下猶太哈-納西。

Babylonian Community巴比倫社區

In the 3d and 4th centuries scholarly activity in Palestine declined as a result of bad economic conditions and oppression by Christian Rome.在3D和第4世紀的學術活動在巴勒斯坦下降是由於惡劣的經濟條件和壓迫基督教羅馬。 Meanwhile, two Babylonian pupils of Judah ha - Nasi had returned home, bringing the Mishnah with them, and established new centers of learning at Sura and Nehardea.與此同時,兩個巴比倫猶太學生公頃-納西已經返回家園,使米示拿他們,並建立了新的學習中心,在蘇拉和N ehardea。 A period of great scholarly accomplishment followed, and leadership of world Jewry passed to the Babylonian schools. The Babylonian Talmud became the standard legal work for Jews everywhere.一段時間的偉大學術成果之後,和領導世界猶太人傳遞到巴比倫的學校。巴比倫塔木德,成為標準的法律工作,各地的猶太人。 Babylonian Jewry enjoyed peace and prosperity under the Parthian and Sassanian rulers, with only occasional episodes of persecution.巴比倫的猶太人享有和平與繁榮的帕提亞和波斯薩珊的統治者,只是偶爾發生的迫害。 In addition to the heads of the academies, the Jews had a secular ruler, the exilarch.除了首長的院校,猶太人有一個世俗統治者的exilarch 。

This situation was not significantly changed by the Muslim conquest of the Persian empire.這種狀況沒有明顯改變了穆斯林征服波斯帝國。 At the end of the 6th century, the heads of the academies had adopted the title of gaon (Hebrew, "excellency"), and the next four centuries are known as the gaonic period; communities throughout the world turned to the Babylonian leaders for help in understanding the Talmud and applying it to new problems.截至6世紀,元首的院校已通過的標題gaon (希伯來文, “大人” ) ,並在未來4個世紀被稱為gaonic期;社區世界各地的轉向巴比倫領導人幫助在了解塔爾穆德並應用到新問題。 About 770 the sect of Karaites, biblical literalists who rejected the Talmud, appeared in Babylonia.大約770該教派的卡拉派信徒,聖經literalists誰拒絕了塔木德,出現在東風。 Despite the vigorous opposition of the great Saadia Ben Joseph Gaon and other leaders, the Karaites continued to flourish for centuries in various lands; today the sect has only a few small remnants.儘管強烈反對的偉大Saadia本約瑟夫Gaon和其他領導人,卡拉派信徒繼續發展數百年的各種土地;節今天只有幾個小的殘餘物。

The Middle Ages中世紀

The Sephardim該Sephardim

The last influential gaon died in 1038, but as the eastern center was declining, creative forces emerged in North Africa and especially in Muslim Spain.最後有影響力的gaon死於1038年,但隨著東部地區中心卻在不斷下降,創造性力量出現在北非,特別是在穆斯林西班牙。 The Christian Visigoths had all but exterminated the Spanish Jewish communities dating from Roman times, but the tolerant Arab rulers who conquered southern Spain were generally reasonable in their treatment of the Jews.基督教西哥特人都消滅,但西班牙猶太社區的歷史可以追溯到古羅馬時期,但寬容的阿拉伯統治者誰征服了西班牙南部的一般都是合理的,他們的待遇的猶太人。 (The Jews of Spain, Portugal, and the Middle Eastern countries and their descendants are known as Sephardim. They differ somewhat in their rituals, customs, and life style and in their pronunciation of Hebrew from the Ashkenazim, Jews of other European countries and their descendants.) (猶太人的西班牙,葡萄牙和中東國家和他們的後代被稱為Sephardim 。有所不同,他們的禮儀,習俗和生活方式,並在其希伯來文發音從Ashkenazim ,猶太人的歐洲其他國家和他們的後裔。 )

Jews participated in the Arab cultural renaissance.猶太人參加了阿拉伯文化的復興。 They wrote in Arabic on science, philosophy, grammar, and rhetoric; they also produced notable biblical commentaries, legal works, and outstanding Hebrew poetry.他們在阿拉伯文寫的科學,哲學,語法和修辭;他們也產生了顯著的聖經評注,法律著作和優秀希伯來詩歌。 (Among the scholars of this period were Solomon Ibn Gabirol, Judah Ha - Levi, Levi Ben Gershon, and the great Maimonides.) But this golden age was not entirely without problems. (在學者的這一時期被所羅門伊本Gabirol ,猶太河-列維,列維本格爾森,偉大的邁蒙尼德。 )但這黃金時代並非完全沒有問題。 Muslim religious leaders and many of the common people resented the authority entrusted by their monarchs to Jewish statesmen and bankers.穆斯林宗教領袖和許多普通百姓不滿的權力賦予他們的君主猶太政治家和銀行家。 In the 12th century the Almohads, a fanatical sect from North Africa, took control of Muslim Spain, and the Jews had to choose between Islam, martyrdom, and flight.在12世紀的Almohads ,一個狂熱的邪教來自北非,控制了穆斯林西班牙和猶太人之間進行選擇伊斯蘭教,烈士,並外逃。 Many found a precarious refuge in northern Spain, where Christian rulers found Jews useful to them in their effort to reconquer the peninsula.許多人找到了岌岌可危的庇護在西班牙北部,在那裡發現基督教的猶太人的統治者對他們有益的努力奪回半島。

Fanaticism continually stirred the Spanish mobs.不斷激起狂熱的西班牙暴徒。 In 1391 thousands of Jews were massacred and thousands more were converted by force or accepted baptism to save their lives. These "new Christians" (also known as Marranos, Spanish for "swine") were suspected of practicing Judaism in secret; it was largely to ferret out these Marranos that the Inquisition was introduced.在1391年成千上萬的猶太人被殺害,數千人被轉換以武力或接受洗禮,以挽救他們的生命。這些“新基督徒” (也稱為Marranos ,西班牙語為“豬” )被懷疑在實踐猶太教的秘密,它主要是要找出這些Marranos的探討介紹。 Many Marranos rose to high posts in the court and in the church, but they were constantly spied on, and many perished in the autos - da - fe, festive celebrations in which heretics were burned at the stake.許多Marranos上升到高級職位,法院和教堂,但他們不斷地刺探,許多人喪生的汽車-達-鐵,歡度佳節的異端被燒毀的股份。 Such tragic events stimulated the spread among Spanish Jews of the mystical doctrines of Kabbalah.這樣的悲慘事件刺激了分佈在西班牙猶太人的神秘學說的卡巴拉。

Once the last Muslim rulers were driven out and Spain was united under Ferdinand II and Isabella I, all professing Jews had to choose between baptism and expulsion.一旦最後的穆斯林統治者被趕出和西班牙聯合下費迪南德二世和伊莎貝拉一,所有信奉猶太人之間作出選擇的洗禮和驅逐。 In August 1492 most of them left Spain in search of new homes.在1492年8月其中大多數是離開西班牙尋找新的家園。 Under Spanish pressure, Portugal expelled its Jews in 1498.根據西班牙的壓力,葡萄牙驅逐的猶太人在1498年。 The exiles found refuge in North Africa, Italy, and especially in the Ottoman Empire, including the Balkans.該避難流亡在北非,意大利,尤其是在奧斯曼帝國,包括巴爾幹地區。

The Ashkenazim該Ashkenazim

Jews had lived in Italy, Germany, France, and the Low Countries since Roman times and in England since the Norman Conquest (1066). They were generally secure during the early Middle Ages, and because they had ties with other Jews in distant lands, they played a considerable role in international trade.猶太人生活在意大利,德國,法國和低地國家羅馬時代以來在英格蘭和自諾曼征服( 1066 ) 。他們一般都是在安全的中世紀早期,因為他們已經與其他猶太人在遙遠的土地,他們發揮了相當大的作用,國際貿易的發展。 Conditions changed drastically, however, during the Crusades (beginning 1096), when whole communities in France and Germany were massacred.條件發生了巨大的變化,但是,在十字軍東征( 1096年初) ,當整個社區在法國和德國被屠殺。 During the Black Death (1347 - 51 - Bubonic Plague), Jews were accused of poisoning wells; further violence was roused by accusations of ritual murder and of desecrating the Eucharist.在黑死病( 1347年至1351年-鼠疫) ,猶太人被指控中毒井;進一步的暴力行為被驚醒的指控殺人祭神和褻瀆的聖體。

Nevertheless, Jews were needed in the very countries that persecuted them.然而,猶太人需要在國家,非常受迫害他們。 Medieval Christian doctrine forbade Christians to take interest on loans; as a result, Jews were required to engage in money lending.中世紀的基督教教義禁止基督徒以貸款利息,因此,猶太人被要求從事金錢借貸。 The royal treasuries took a large part of the profits, and the Jews bore the popular resentment against usurers.王室國庫了很大一部分利潤,和猶太人負有流行的不滿高利貸者。 In general, they were excluded from ownership of land and from the guilds that controlled the skilled trades.一般來說,他們都被排除在土地所有權和控制協會的技術工人。

When Christian money lenders learned to collect interest under other names, Jews were no longer needed.當基督教放債人的經驗教訓,蒐集感興趣的其他姓名,猶太人已不再需要。 They were expelled from England in 1290, and, after several earlier bans, finally from the kingdom of France in 1394.他們被逐出英格蘭1290 ,並在一些較早禁令,終於從法國沙特在1394 。 In the German states, life for Jews was difficult and uncertain.在德國各州,對猶太人的生活困難和不確定的。 Many moved eastward into Poland, which lacked a middle class with the financial and commercial skills Jews could provide.許多向東移動到波蘭,缺乏一個中產階級的金融和商業技能的猶太人可以提供。

The Ashkenazim were not exposed to a broad secular culture such as the Jews of Spain (and Provence) had enjoyed.該Ashkenazim沒有接觸到廣泛的世俗文化,如西班牙的猶太人(和普羅旺斯)享有。 Theirs was a simple intense piety that repeatedly found expression in martyrdom.他們是一個簡單的激烈虔誠的反复體現在殉難。 Their scholars produced important commentaries on the Bible and Talmud, and works on Kabbalah.他們的學者產生了重要的評注聖經和猶太法典,並適用於卡巴拉。

Early Modern Period早期現代時期

The Ghetto在猶太人區

Jews had long been accustomed to living in neighborhoods of their own, for security and for ready access to a synagogue. From the 16th century, however, they were systematically compelled to live in walled enclosures, to be locked in at night and on Christian holidays, and to wear a distinguishing badge when outside the walls.猶太人一直習慣於生活在社區自身的安全和隨時獲得一座猶太教堂。從16世紀,然而,他們有系統地迫使生活在圍牆的外殼,被鎖定在夜間和節假日基督教,並佩戴胸卡時,區分內外的牆壁。 The Jewish quarter of Venice (established 1516) was called the Ghetto, and this local name became a general term for such segregated areas.猶太季度的威尼斯( 1516年設立)被稱為猶太人,這個地方的名字成為一個通用術語,這種隔離的地區。 Cut off from normal relations with non Jews, few Jews had any idea of the cultural revival of the Renaissance (except in Italy) or of the scientific advances in the 16th and 17th centuries.切斷正常關係與非猶太人,少數猶太人沒有任何思想的文化復興文藝復興(除意大利)或科技進步中的16和17世紀。 Even in the field of Jewish law they tended to a rigid conservatism.即使是在外地的猶太法律,他們往往僵化保守。

In Poland and Lithuania, social conditions also had a segregatory effect.在波蘭和立陶宛,社會條件也有segregatory效果。 The Jews continued to speak a German dialect, mixed with many Hebrew words and with borrowings from Slavic languages - now known as Yiddish.猶太人繼續講德語方言,混有許多希伯萊語和與借款斯拉夫語-現在被稱為意第緒語。 Intellectual life was focused on study of the Talmud, in which they achieved extraordinary mastery.知識分子的生活重點是研究塔木德,他們在取得了非凡的掌握。 They enjoyed a large measure of self government, centralized in the Council of the Four Lands.他們享有很大程度的自治,集中在安理會中的4個土地。

Persecutions became more frequent, however, inspired by competition from the growing Christian merchant class and by overly zealous churchmen.迫害變得更加頻繁,然而,激勵的競爭日益基督教商人階級和過分熱心的牧師。 In 1648 a rebellion of Cossacks and Tatars in the Ukraine - then under Polish rule - led to an invasion of Poland, in which hundreds of thousands of Jews were massacred.在1648年叛亂的哥薩克和韃靼人的烏克蘭-波蘭然後根據規則-導致了入侵波蘭,其中數以十萬計的猶太人被屠殺。 Polish Jewry never recovered from this blow. A little over a century later, Poland was partitioned (1772, 1793, 1795) among Prussia, Austria, and Russia, and most of Polish Jewry found itself under the heartless rule of the Russian tsars.波蘭猶太人從來沒有從這個打擊。小了一個多世紀後,波蘭是分割( 1772 , 1793 , 1795年)在普魯士,奧地利,俄羅斯和波蘭的大多數猶太人發現自己下狠心法治的俄羅斯沙皇。

Sectarian Responses to Persecution教派迫害的答复

In 1665 a Turkish Jew named Sabbatai Zevi proclaimed himself Messiah.在1665年土耳其猶太人命名Sabbatai賽維自封救世主。 Throughout the years there had been a number of such messianic claimants, but none had received more than local support.這些年來出現了一些諸如救世主索賠,但沒有收到了超過本地支持。 Sabbatai's announcement, however, evoked an unheard - of response; thousands of Jews from all over Europe and the Middle East sold their belongings and went to join Sabbatai in Palestine. Sabbatai宣布然而,誘發了聞所未聞的-響應;成千上萬的猶太人從歐洲各地和中東地區出售他們的財物,前往參加S abbatai在巴勒斯坦。 Under threat of death Sabbatai adopted Islam, and the movement collapsed.在死亡威脅Sabbatai通過了伊斯蘭教,運動倒塌。

An outgrowth of the Sabbatean movement was the sect founded in 18th century Poland by Jacob Frank.產物的Sabbatean運動節是始建於18世紀波蘭雅各布弗蘭克。 The latter ultimately converted to Roman Catholicism, and his sect died out early in the 19th century.後者最終轉化為羅馬天主教,他的去世了節早在19世紀。

Poland was also the birthplace of Hasidism, the mystical sect founded by Baal Shem Tov.波蘭還的誕生地Hasidism的神秘教派創辦的巴爾閃Tov 。 Although condemned by the rabbinic leadership, most notably by Elijah Ben Solomon, it established deep roots and became a significant social factor in the life of East European Jewry.雖然譴責拉比領導,尤其值得注意的是,以利亞本所羅門群島,它確立深深紮根,並成為一個重要的社會因素在生活中東歐猶太人。

Toward Emancipation邁向解放

The successful revolt of the Netherlands against Spain during the 16th century encouraged a number of Marranos to flee Spain and Portugal and to settle in Amsterdam, where they formally returned to Judaism.起義的成功,荷蘭和西班牙在16世紀的鼓勵了一些Marranos逃離西班牙和葡萄牙,並定居在阿姆斯特丹,在那裡他們正式回到猶太教。 Members of this Sephardic group later founded the Jewish communities in England, even before they were formally readmitted in 1656, and the New World; they were soon followed by larger numbers of Ashkenazim.各位Sephardic組成立後的猶太社區在英格蘭,甚至在他們被正式接納在1656年,與新的世界;他們很快其次是大量Ashkenazim 。

Western Developments西部發展

Some 18th century liberals began to advocate an improvement of Jewish status; at the same time Moses Mendelssohn and a few other Jews were urging their coreligionists to acquire secular education and prepare themselves to participate in the national life of their countries.一些18世紀的自由主義者開始主張改善猶太人地位;在同一時間摩西門德爾松和其他一些猶太人被敦促其coreligionists獲得世俗教育,並準備參加全國生活的國家。 Such trends were intensified by the French Revolution.這種趨勢的加強了法國大革命。 The French National Assembly granted (1791) Jews citizenship, and Napoleon I, although not free from prejudice, extended these rights to Jews in the countries he conquered, and the ghettos were abolished.法國國民議會授予( 1791年)猶太人的公民權,拿破崙一世,雖然沒有擺脫偏見,這些權利的擴大猶太人的國家,他征服,和貧民窟被廢除。 After Napoleon's fall (1814 - 15), the German states revoked the rights he had granted the Jews, but the struggle for emancipation continued.在拿破崙的秋天( 1814年至1815年) ,德國各州撤銷的權利授予他的猶太人,但爭取解放的鬥爭仍在繼續。

Equal rights were achieved in the Netherlands, and more slowly in Great Britain.享有平等的權利,取得在荷蘭,並在更慢大不列顛。 Germany and Austria, even after 1870, discriminated against Jews in military and academic appointments; in these countries much popular hostility continued, now called Anti Semitism and supposedly justified on racial rather than religious grounds.德國和奧地利,甚至在1870年,歧視猶太人在軍事和學術任用;在這些國家中許多受歡迎的敵對行動仍在繼續,現在所謂的反理應反猶太主義和種族歧視的理由,而不是宗教的理由。 In the American colonies the Jews had suffered relatively minor disabilities; with the founding of the United States, Jews became full citizens - although in a few states discriminatory laws had to be fought.在美國殖民地猶太人遭受相對較小的殘疾人;的成立,美國猶太人成為正式公民-儘管在少數幾個州的歧視性法律,必須戰鬥。

Jews entered the life of the Western world with keen enthusiasm; they contributed significantly to commercial, scientific, cultural, and social progress.猶太人進入生活的西方世界與渴望的熱情,他們作出了重大貢獻的商業,科學,文化,和社會進步。 But the old structure of Jewish life was severely damaged: community controls became less effective, and neglect of religious observance, mixed marriage, and conversion to Christianity occurred.但是,舊體制的猶太人的生活遭到嚴重破壞:社會控制變得不那麼有效,而且忽視了宗教儀式,異族通婚,並改信基督教發生。 In response to such challenges, new modernist versions of Judaism were formulated; these movements originated in Germany and had their greatest development in North America.針對這種挑戰,新的現代版本的猶太教制定;這些運動起源於德國,其最大的發展中北美洲。

Persecution in Russia在俄羅斯的迫害

In Russia hopes of improvement were soon abandoned; the government engaged in open war against Jews.俄方希望在改善人很快就放棄了;政府進行公開的戰爭對猶太人。 Under Nicholas I (r. 1825 - 55), 12 year old Jewish boys were drafted into the army for terms of more than 30 years (whereas other Russians were drafted at 18 for 25 years); and Jewish conscripts were treated with the utmost brutality to make them convert to Christianity.根據尼古拉一世(河1825年至1855年) , 12歲的猶太男孩被編入軍隊,任期超過30年(而其他俄羅斯人起草的為18歲25歲) ;和猶太應徵治療極為殘暴使他們改信基督教。

After 1804, Jews were allowed to reside only in Poland, Lithuania, and the Ukraine; Russia proper was closed to them. This Pale of settlement was later made smaller. 1804年後,猶太人被允許居住僅在波蘭,立陶宛,烏克蘭和俄羅斯適當的被關閉它們。這帕萊的其後解決了較小。 From 1881 on, anti Jewish riots (Pogroms), tolerated and sometimes instigated by the government, sent thousands fleeing to Western Europe and the Americas.從1881年起,反猶太人暴動(大屠殺) ,不能容忍的,有時甚至唆使下,政府派出數千名逃往西歐和美洲。 Because Russia refused to honor the passports of American Jews, the United States abrogated a trade treaty in 1913.由於俄羅斯拒絕履行護照的美國猶太人,美國取消貿易條約於1913年。

In response to these policies, new trends appeared in Russian Jewry.針對這些政策,新趨勢出現在俄羅斯猶太人。 A movement of Jewish nationalism expressed itself in a revival of Hebrew as a secular language and in a few attempts at colonization in Palestine.一個運動的猶太表達自己的民族主義在復活希伯來語作為一個世俗的語言和在少數企圖在巴勒斯坦的殖民統治。 A Jewish socialist movement, the Bund, appeared in urban centers, stressing the Yiddish language and folk culture.猶太人社會主義運動,外灘,出現在城市中心,強調了意第緒語的語言和民俗文化。

The 20th Century 20世紀

The Jewish population of Western Europe and the United States grew rapidly through immigration from Eastern Europe.猶太居民的西歐和美國的快速增長通過移民來自東歐。 Jews shared in the prosperity of these expanding nations, the older settlers helping newcomers make a fresh start.猶太人共同的繁榮擴大這些國家,幫助老年人新的定居者作出一個新的開端。 Various forms of economic and social discrimination persisted, however, and racial anti Semitism became well organized and highly vocal.各種形式的經濟和社會的歧視依然存在,但是,反種族歧視和反猶太主義成為組織嚴密和高度聲帶。

Zionism and Palestine猶太复國主義和巴勒斯坦

The violent outburst of hatred that accompanied the Dreyfus Affair in France inspired Theodor Herzl to launch the movement of Zionism, which sought to establish a Jewish state.暴力爆發的仇恨,伴隨著德雷福斯事件在法國的啟發西奧多赫茨爾發起猶太复國主義運動,試圖建立一個猶太國家。 Its chief support came from East European Jews; elsewhere Herzl's proposals were considered impractical and a threat to newly won civil status.它的主要支持來自東歐的猶太人;其他赫茨爾的建議被認為不切實際,而且威脅到新近獲得公民身份。

During World War I, East European Jews suffered heavily from troops on both sides.第一次世界大戰期間,東歐猶太人遭受嚴重從雙方部隊。 American Jewry now found itself for the first time the leading element in the world Jewish community, bearing the major responsibility for relief and reconstruction of the ravaged centers.美國猶太人現在發現自己第一次領先的元素在世界猶太社區,承擔主要責任的救濟和重建的蹂躪中心。 The peace treaties guaranteed equal rights to minorities in the newly constituted or reconstituted countries, but these agreements were not consistently upheld with regard to Jewish minorities, and colonization in Palestine expanded considerably.該和平條約保障的平等權利,少數人在新組建或改組的國家,但這些協議並沒有始終堅持對猶太少數民族,和殖民統治巴勒斯坦大大擴展。

In the Balfour Declaration of 1917, Great Britain announced its support for a Jewish national home; this purpose, approved by the Allied governments, was embodied in the mandate for Palestine that Britain assumed after the war.在貝爾福宣言1917年,英國宣布支持建立一個猶太國家家園;為此,批准了聯合政府,體現在為巴勒斯坦的任務,英國假定在戰爭結束後。 British agents had secretly made contradictory promises to Arab leaders, however, and growing Arab nationalism expressed itself in anti Jewish riots in Palestine in 1920 - 21 and 1929.英國特工秘密作出相互矛盾的承諾阿拉伯國家領導人,然而,日益增長的阿拉伯民族主義的表達自己的反猶太人在巴勒斯坦暴動在1920至1921年和1929年。 In the latter year leading non Zionist Jews, convinced that Palestine alone offered hope for impoverished and oppressed millions (since Western nations had rigidly restricted immigration), joined with the Zionists to form the Jewish Agency to assist and direct Jewish settlement and development in Palestine.後者今年主要的非猶太复國主義猶太人深信,巴勒斯坦獨立帶來希望的貧困和受壓迫的數以百萬計(因為西方國家已嚴格限制移民) ,加入猶太复國主義者組成的猶太人機構,以協助和直接的猶太人定居點和巴勒斯坦的發展。

Soviet and Nazi Anti Semitism蘇聯和納粹反主義

The Communist Revolution of 1917 did not end the sufferings of the Jewish population in Russia.共產黨革命的1917年並沒有結束痛苦的猶太居民在俄羅斯。 Much of the fighting in the Civil War of 1918 - 20 took place in the Ukraine, where the White Russian armies conducted savage pogroms in which thousands of Jews were massacred.大部分的戰鬥內戰18年至1920年發生在烏克蘭,那裡的白俄羅斯軍隊進行了野蠻的屠殺,成千上萬的猶太人被屠殺。 Although discriminatory decrees were abolished and anti Semitism was banned as counterrevolutionary under the Soviet system, Judaism suffered the same disabilities as other religious groups.雖然歧視性的法令被廢除和反猶太人被禁止作為反革命的蘇維埃制度,猶太教遭受同樣的殘疾人作為其他宗教團體。 After the fall of Leon Trotsky, the old anti Semitism was revived as a government policy.淪陷後托洛茨基,舊的反主義是恢復作為一個政府的政策。

In Germany the Weimar Republic for the first time abolished all official discrimination against Jews.在德國的魏瑪共和國的首次正式廢除所有歧視猶太人。 The republic was unpopular, however, and anti Semitism was popular.該共和國是不得人心的,然而,反猶太主義和反流行。 Calculated use of anti Semitism as an instrument was a major factor in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933, whereupon the German Jews were immediately disfranchised, robbed of possessions, deprived of employment, barred from the schools, and subjected to physical violence and constant humiliation.計算使用殺傷主義作為一種工具是一個主要因素希特勒的崛起之路在1933年,在這種情況下,德國猶太人,立即被剝奪權利,搶劫財物,被剝奪了就業,禁止學校,並遭受身體暴力和不斷的羞辱。 Once World War II occupied the attention of the democracies, Hitler and his supporters attempted "the final solution," the complete extermination of the Jews (Holocaust).一旦第二次世界大戰被佔領的注意民主,希特勒和他的支持者試圖“最後解決方案, ”徹底消滅猶太人(大屠殺) 。 About 6 million Jews - almost a third of their total number - were massacred, starved, or systematically gassed in Concentration Camps. In addition to destroying so many individual lives, the Holocaust eradicated the communities of Central and Eastern Europe, which had been the chief centers of learning and piety for nearly a thousand years.約600萬猶太人-將近三分之一的總數-被屠殺,餓死,或系統毒氣集中營。除了摧毀這麼多的個人生活,大屠殺的社區消除中歐和東歐,這是首席中心的學習和虔誠的近一千多年。

Establishment of Israel建立以色列

The Western democracies all but closed their doors to refugees. Britain meanwhile had gradually abandoned the Balfour Declaration, reducing the number of Jews admitted to Palestine while making concessions to Arab leaders who had supported the Nazis in World War II.在西方民主國家所有,但關閉了大門難民。與此同時英國已逐漸放棄了貝爾福宣言,減少了一些猶太人承認巴勒斯坦,同時作出讓步,以阿拉伯國家領導人支持誰納粹在第二次世界大戰中。 After repeated outbreaks of violence, investigations, and abortive British plans, Britain announced that it was giving up the mandate, and the United Nations adopted a resolution calling for the partition of Palestine into Jewish and Arab areas.經過反复爆發的暴力,調查,和英國的計劃流產,英國宣布,它放棄任務,並在聯合國通過一項決議,要求將巴勒斯坦分為猶太和阿拉伯地區。

On May 14, 1948, the State of Israel was proclaimed. 5月14日, 1948年,以色列國宣布成立。 Since then Israel has fought five wars against Arab coalitions to establish and preserve its independence (Arab - Israeli Wars). A peace treaty (Mar. 26, 1979) between Israel and Egypt was not accepted by the other Arab states.自那時以來,以色列的戰爭打五對阿拉伯聯盟的建立和維護其獨立性(阿拉伯-以色列戰爭) 。一項和平條約( 1 979年3月2 6日)埃及和以色列之間沒有接受其他阿拉伯國家。

The Diaspora since World War II散居自第二次世界大戰以來

Although the USSR voted for the UN partition resolution in 1947, it later became markedly anti Israel in its policies. A resurgence of Jewish self consciousness, however, occurred within Soviet Jewry despite deprivation of religious education and other discriminations.雖然蘇聯投票贊成聯合國分治決議於1947年,它後來成為明顯的反以色列的政策。死灰復燃猶太人自我意識,然而,發生在蘇聯猶太人,儘管被剝奪的宗教教育以及其他歧視。 Over the years a number of Soviet Jews emigrated to Israel and the United States, although official restrictions caused a decline in emigration in the 1980s until 1987, when new legislation provided a liberal emigration policy.多年來一些前蘇聯猶太人移居到以色列和美國,雖然官方限制,造成下降的移民在20世紀80年代直到1987年,當新的立法提供了一個自由的移民政策。

Since World War II the Jews of the United States have achieved a degree of acceptance without parallel in Jewish history, and Jews play a significant role in intellectual and cultural life. The elimination of social barriers has led to a high rate of mixed marriage.自第二次世界大戰以來的猶太人在美國已經取得了一定程度的接受沒有並行的猶太人的歷史,猶太人中發揮重要作用的知識和文化生活。消除社會障礙,導致了很高的異族通婚。 During the same period there has been a growth in synagogue affiliation and support for Israel.在同一時期內出現了增長的猶太教堂的聯繫和對以色列的支持。

Recent estimates put the total number of Jews at about 14 million, of whom over 5 million reside in the United States, more than 2 million in the USSR, and over 3 million in Israel.最近的估計總人數的猶太人約為14萬人,其中500多萬居住在美國,有200多萬蘇聯,以及300多萬在以色列。 France, Great Britain, and Argentina also have significant Jewish populations.法國,英國,阿根廷也有重大的猶太居民。 The once - substantial communities in North Africa and the Middle East have been reduced to small fragments.曾經-大量的社區在北非和中東已減少到小片段。 Most of these Oriental Jews have settled in Israel. Thousands of Ethiopian Jews (Falashas), for example, were airlifted to Israel in 1984 and 1985.大多數這些東方猶太人定居在以色列。數千名埃塞俄比亞猶太人(法拉沙) ,例如,被空運到以色列在1984年和1985年。 Israel's Jewish population increased significantly in the early 1990s, when it received hundreds of thousands of immigrants from the Soviet Union.以色列的猶太居民顯著增加在90年代初,當它收到數以十萬計的移民從蘇聯。

Bernard J Bamberger伯納德J班貝格

Bibliography: 參考書目:
J Alper, ed., Encyclopedia of Jewish History (1986); J Bacon, The Illustrated Atlas of Jewish Civilization, (1991); SW Baron, A Social and Religious History of the Jews (1952 - 73); HH Ben - Sasson, ed., A History of the Jewish People (1976); P Borchsenius, The History of the Jews (1965); BL Cohen, Jews Among the Nations (1978); SM Cohen, American Assimilation or Jewish Revival (1988) and Jews among the Nations (1978); A Eban, My People (1968); L Fein, Where Are We? J Alper ,編輯。百科全書猶太歷史( 1986年) ; J培根,阿特拉斯的畫報猶太文明( 1991年) ;西南男爵,社會和宗教史的猶太人( 1952年至73年) ;時時本-S asson,版。史猶太人民( 1976年) ; P蚧,歷史的猶太人( 1965年) ;基本法科恩,猶太人的國家之一( 1978年) ;釤科恩,美國同化或猶太人的復興( 1988年)和猶太人之間在聯合國( 1978年) ;阿班,我的人民( 1968年) ; L黨,我們在哪裡? The Inner Life of America's Jews (1988); L Finkelstein, The Jews: Their History, Culture and Religion (1970 - 71); R Gay, Jews in America (1965); D Goldberg and J Rayner, The Jewish People (1987); A Hertzberg, The Jews in America: Four Centuries of an Uneasy Encounter (1989); P Johnson, A History of the Jews (1987); A Kahan, Essays in Jewish Social and Economic History (1986);生命的內在美國的猶太人( 1988年) ; L芬克爾斯坦,猶太人:他們的歷史,文化和宗教( 1970至71年) ; R同性戀,猶太人在美國( 1965年) ; D戈德堡和J雷納,猶太人民( 1987年)一個赫茲伯格,猶太人在美國: 4個世紀的不安座談會( 1989年) ; P約翰遜,歷史的猶太人( 1987年) ;阿Kahan ,散文猶太社會和經濟史( 1986年) ;

R Patai, The Jewish Mind (1977); J Prawer, The History of the Jews in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (1988); C Raddock, Portrait of a People (1967); C Roth, The Jewish Contribution to Civilization (1956), and A Short History of the Jewish People (1969); AL Sachar, A History of the Jews (1967); CA Silberman, A Certain People: American Jews and Their Lives Today (1985); NA Stillman, The Jews of Arab Lands in Modern Times (1991). R •帕泰,猶太人的心靈( 1977年) ; J Prawer ,史猶太人在拉丁美洲的耶路撒冷王國( 1988年) ; ç Raddock ,人像一個人( 1967年) ; ç羅斯,猶太人對文明的貢獻( 1956年) ,並簡史猶太人民( 1969年) ;美聯查,史猶太人( 1967年) ;加利福尼亞州西爾伯曼,某人民:美國猶太人和生活今天( 1985年) ;那斯蒂爾曼,猶太人的阿拉伯土地近代( 1991年) 。


Additional Information 附加信息

A Semite is someone descended from Shem , the eldest son of Noah.阿閃米特人的後裔是從大師的長子諾亞。

A HEBREW is someone descended from Heber (or, "Eber"), one of the great-grandsons of Shem.希伯來人的後裔是從赫柏 (或“韋伯” ) ,一個偉大的,孫子的閃。 So all Hebrews are Semites, but not all Semites are Hebrews.因此,所有希伯來人是閃米特人,但並非所有閃米特人是猶太人。 (Sunnite Arabs are therefore also Semites.) (遜尼派阿拉伯人,因此也閃米特人。 )

Six generations after Heber, Abraham was born to his line, so Abraham was both a Hebrew and a Semite , born of the line of Heber and Shem.六代後,赫柏,亞伯拉罕是他出生的線,所以亞伯拉罕既是一個希伯來文和閃米特人 ,生於線的赫柏和閃。

Ishmael was born of Abraham, and (Sunnite) Arabs (and specifically Muslims) consider themselves to be descendants of him, so they are both Semites and Hebrews. Isaac was born of Abraham, then Jacob of Isaac. 伊斯梅爾出生亞伯拉罕,和(遜尼派)阿拉伯人(特別是穆斯林)認為自己是他的後裔,所以他們都是閃米特和希伯來人。 艾薩克出生亞伯拉罕,然後雅各布以撒。 Jacob's name was changed to "Israel," and he fathered 12 sons.雅各的名字改為以色列, ”他 12個兒子的父親。 His sons and their descendants are called Israelites, and they would therefore be both Semitic and Hebrew.他的兩個兒子和他們的後代被稱為以色列人,他們因此將兩個猶太人和希伯來文。 However, this would not make either Abraham or Isaac "Israelites."但是,這不會使任何亞伯拉罕或艾薩克“以色列人” 。 Those who interchange the words "Jew" and Israelite, call Abraham a Jew, even though Abraham was not even an Israelite, and where the word "Jew" is not used in the Bible until 1,000 years AFTER Abraham.這些誰交換改為“猶太人”和以色列人,要求亞伯拉罕是猶太人,儘管亞伯拉罕甚至沒有一個以色列人,而改為“猶”而不是用來聖經,直到1000年後的亞伯拉罕。

One of Jacob-Israel's children was Judah (Hebrew - Yehudah).其中雅各布,以色列的猶太兒童(希伯來文-Y ehudah) 。 His descendants were called Yehudim ("Judahites").他的後代被稱為Yehudim ( “ Judahites ” ) 。 In Greek this reads Ioudaioi ("Judeans").在希臘本閱讀Ioudaioi ( “ Judeans ” ) 。 The confusing thing here is that almost all Bible translations employ the word "Jew," which is a modern, shortened form of the word "Judahite."在混亂的事情是,幾乎所有的聖經翻譯聘用改為“猶太人” ,這是一個現代化,縮短形式改為“ Judahite 。 ” Every time you come to the word "Jew" in the Old Scriptures, you should read "Judahite;" and every time you come to the word "Jew" in the New Scriptures, you should read it as "Judean." (two distinctly different peoples.)每當你來到這個詞“猶太人”老聖經,你應改為“ Judahite ; ”每次你來改為“猶”在新的聖經,你應該讀為“朱迪亞。 ” (兩個明顯不同的民族。 )

In the late 1960s, Ashkenazi Jews numbered some 11 million, about 84 percent of the world Jewish population.在20世紀60年代末,德系猶太人的人數約為1100萬美元,約百分之八十四的世界猶太居民。

R Novosel R諾沃塞爾


Also, see:此外,見:
Judaism 猶太教


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