The Koran, Qur'an or Qora’an古蘭經,古蘭經或Qora'an

General Information 一般信息

The Koran, or Qur'an (Arabic for "recital"), is the Sacred Scripture of Islam. 可蘭經,或古蘭經(阿拉伯語為“獨奏” ) ,是聖經的伊斯蘭教。 Muslims acknowledge it as the actual words of God revealed to the Prophet Muhammad between c.610 and his death (632). 穆斯林承認它的實際的話上帝透露給先知穆罕默德之間c.610和他的死亡 ( 632人) 。 The text contains 114 chapters (suras), arranged--except for the opening sura--approximately according to length, beginning with the longer chapters.案文包含114章( suras ) ,安排-除了開幕式蘇拉-大約根據長度,從長遠的章節。

The Koran, termed glorious and wonderful (50:1; 72:1), describes itself as a healing and mercy, as light and guidance from God (17:82; 27:77; 41:44; 42:52), as the absolute Truth (69:51), and as a perspicuous Book sent down from heaven in Arabic (12:1-2), part by part (17:106; 25:32), upon Muhammad. Presented as a blessed reminder and an admonition to people everywhere (21:50; 38:87; 80:11-15), it calls for grateful recognition of the many signs, around us and in us (51:20-21), of the goodness of him from whom all good comes (4:79) and urges a total commitment to him who alone is God (112:1-4). Announcing Judgment Day as the final fulfillment of God's threat and his promise (21:97-104), it warns evildoers and those who are ungrateful (17:89; 25:50) but brings good tidings to those who accept the guidance to the straightest path (17:9) and who live in accord with its message and its commandments (regarding marriage and divorce, children and inheritance, lawful foods, spoils of war, and so on).可蘭經,稱為光榮和美好( 50:1 , 72:1 ) ,自稱是醫治創傷和憐憫,輕和指導,從神( 17:82 , 27:77 , 41:44 , 42:52 ) ,作為絕對真理( 69:51 ) ,並作為一個明白的圖書送往從天堂阿拉伯語( 12:1-2 ) ,部分部分( 17:106 ; 25:32 )時,穆罕默德。 作為提醒和祝福告誡人們到處( 21:50 ; 38:87 ; 80:11-15 ) ,它呼籲感激承認許多跡象,在我們周圍和我們( 51:20-21 ) ,善良的他從他們都是好來( 4:79 ) ,並敦促總承諾,僅他誰是上帝( 112:1-4 ) 。宣布審判日的最後圓滿上帝的威脅和他的諾言( 21:97-104 ) ,它警告那些壞人和誰是忘恩負義( 17:89 ; 25:50 ) ,但帶來了好消息對那些誰接受指導的直路( 17時09分) ,誰住在符合其信息和誡命(關於婚姻和離婚,子女和繼承權,合法的食品,戰利品,等等) 。 The text asserts that its message is neither a human invention (as its inimitability proves, 17:88) nor an innovation, since it confirms and clarifies the Scripture that Jews and Christians had received earlier (3:3; 5:15, 48; 35:31).文聲稱,它的信息既不是人類的發明(作為其inimitability證明, 17:88 ) ,也不是一個創新,因為它確認和澄清聖經說,猶太人和基督教徒已收到前( 3點03 ; 5:15 , 48 ; 35:31 ) 。

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It is generally believed that the standard text of the Koran, adopted during the reign (644-56) of the caliph Uthman, is based on the compilation of one of Muhammad's secretaries, Zayd Ibn Thalbit. By calligraphic copying of its verses, and in many other ways as well, Muslims express their devotion to this Scripture over which, they trust, God himself watches (15:9). 人們普遍認為的標準文本,可蘭經,通過統治期間( 644-56 )的哈里發奧斯曼,是基於彙編之一穆罕默德的秘書,栽德本Thalbit 。書法複製到其詩句,並在許多其他方式,以及穆斯林表達他們的奉獻本聖經了,他們相信,上帝自己手錶( 15:9 ) 。

Willem A. Bijlefeld威廉字母a. Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Ali, Abdullah Yusuf, The Holy Qur'an, 2 vols. (1937-38; repr. 1973); Arberry, AJ, The Koran Interpreted, 2 vols.阿里阿卜杜拉優素福的古蘭經,第2卷。 ( 1937年至1938年; repr 。 1973年) ; Arberry ,歐塞爾,可蘭經解釋,第2卷。 (1955; repr. 1969); Bell, Richard, Introduction to the Qur'an, ed. ( 1955年; repr 。 1969年) ;貝爾,理查德介紹古蘭經,編輯。 by W. Montgomery Watt, 2d ed.由美國蒙哥馬利瓦特, 2版。 (1970); Jeffery, Arthur, The Qur'an as Scripture (1952); Pickthall, Marmaduke, trans., The Meaning of the Glorious Koran (1930; repr. 1970). ( 1970年) ;杰弗裡,亞瑟,古蘭經的經文( 1952年) ; Pickthall , Marmaduke ,轉。含義,可蘭經的輝煌( 1930年; repr 。 1970年) 。


The Koran or Qur'an可蘭經或古蘭經

Editor's Notes 編者注

The Prophet Muhammad was certainly important, and Muslims should definitely respect him.先知穆罕默德無疑是重要的,和穆斯林一定要尊重他。 The following notes/comments are all carefully based on reliable Islamic scholars' works, particularly the early scholars who personally knew the facts and the people. None of these comments are meant to damage Islam and all are intended to assist Muslims and others to more fully know the history and background of the Holy Qu'ran.下面的說明/評論都仔細基於可靠的伊斯蘭學者的作品,尤其是早期的學者親自誰知道的事實和人民的重托。所有這些意見都是為了破壞伊斯蘭教和所有的目的是幫助穆斯林和其他人更充分地了解歷史和背景的羅馬Qu'ran 。 It appears that the majority of Muslims are never taught about many of these issues, and they are presented here in the quest for honesty and knowledge.看來,大多數穆斯林都從來沒有教給許多這些問題,他們提出了在這裡的追求誠實和知識。

As mentioned in the above article, the Koran is believed by Muslims to ACTUALLY be the words of God (Allah) as given to their Prophet Muhammad.正如上述文章中,蘭被認為是穆斯林,以實際的話上帝(真主)為給他們的先知穆罕默德。 It was originally written down (in Arabic) around 645 AD, around 10-15 years after Muhammad's death.原來寫下來(阿拉伯文)公元645左右,大約10-15年後,穆罕默德的死刑。

By the year 325 AD, three hundred years before the Koran, Christians had established the concept of the Trinity, as being ONE God, Who seemed to exist as Three different Persons, the Father (YHWH or Jehovah), the Son (Jesus) and the Holy Ghost, and never varied from that.到公元325年,三百年前的古蘭經,基督教徒設立了概念的三位一體,作為一個上帝,他似乎不存在三種不同的人,父親(或耶和華耶和華) ,聖子(耶穌)和聖靈,從來沒有不同的。 If the Koran is actually the words of God (Allah), and not altered in any way since they were given to Muhammad, it seems odd that the Koran presents the Christian Trinity as being God, Jesus, and Mary !如果古蘭經實際上是的話上帝(真主) ,並沒有改變以任何方式,因為他們給穆罕默德,似乎奇怪的是,蘭介紹了基督教三一是上帝,耶穌和瑪麗 (Sura 5:116) This seems to imply that God (Allah) made a mistake, or Muhammad made a mistake, or later copyists/commentators made a mistake (several times, as at Sura 5.77 and Sura 4.169). (蘇拉5:116 )這似乎意味著,上帝(真主)犯了一個錯誤,或穆罕默德犯了一個錯誤,或稍後copyists /評論員犯了一個錯誤(好幾次,在蘇拉5.77和蘇拉4.169 ) 。 Scholars see such things as obvious problems, but virtually all Muslims overlook them, and consider anyone bringing up such things as blasphemous.學者看到這種事情存在的突出問題,但幾乎所有的穆斯林忽略了他們,並考慮任何人帶來了諸如褻瀆。

Over the past two hundred years, scholars have found hundreds of such apparent errors.在過去的二百年,學者們發現數以百計的這種明顯的錯誤。 Many are in sentences that have incorrect Arabic grammar.許多人在判決有阿拉伯語語法不正確。 There have been listed either 107 (al-Suyuti) or 275 (Jeffery) words in the Koran which are not even Arabic. Several dozen problems are stories that had long been proven untrue, but which had been published in previous centuries by aberrant Christians and Jews who had written books that resembled Biblical Books, and which are now called "apocryphal". Such stories which were already known wrong also appear in the Koran. If God said such things, or Muhammed announced them, it would seem that something is wrong somewhere.已上市或107 (鋁Suyuti )或275 (杰弗裡)字古蘭經其中甚至沒有阿拉伯文。幾十個問題的故事,早已被證明不真實,但已出版了數百年前的異常基督徒和猶太人誰寫了類似的書籍聖經書籍,和現在所謂的“未經證實” 。這樣的故事已經知道錯誤也出現在可蘭經。如果上帝說,這種事情,或穆罕默德宣布,他們,似乎有些是錯誤的某處。

There are many scholarly books which are in print that discuss those very many obvious errors.有許多學術書籍是在打印的討論這些很多明顯的錯誤。 Islam seems very intent on ignoring and suppressing such analytical scholasticism of their Koran and their Faith.伊斯蘭教似乎很有意忽視和制止這種分析墨守成規的可蘭經和他們的信仰。 They regularly go so far as to issue Fatwas (death sentences) on authors like Salman Rushdie (by the Ayatollah Khomeini, in 1989) for publishing works that question anything in Islam.他們經常竟然發出法特瓦(死刑)的作家拉什迪(由霍梅尼於1989年)出版的作品,什麼問題伊斯蘭教。 Actually, soon after that, hundreds of authors and journalists were executed and buried in mass graves because they had written books or articles critical of Islam.實際上,不久之後,數百名作家和新聞記者被處死並埋葬在萬人坑,因為他們的書面書籍或文章批評伊斯蘭教。

We do not want to get into all those criticisms, many of which seem extremely persuasive, as the Trinity/Mary one seems to be.我們不想進入所有這些批評,其中許多似乎非常有說服力的,因為三一/瑪麗一個似乎是。 Rather, our intent here is to present aspects of the Koran (and therefore, of Islam) which are parallel to, and possibly taken directly from Christian and Jewish sources.相反,我們在這裡的意圖是本方面的古蘭經(因此,伊斯蘭教) ,這是平行的,並可能直接取自基督教和猶太教來源。 For example, 502 verses in 36 Suras of the Koran are about Moses, directly from the Jewish Pentateuch. Two hundred forty-five verses in 25 Suras are about Abraham, from the same source, and 131 more verses in 28 Suras are about Noah, also from the Pentateuch.例如, 502的詩句36 Suras古蘭經約摩西,直接從猶太摩西五。兩百年45詩句25 Suras約亞伯拉罕,來自同一來源,和131多詩句28 Suras約諾亞,也從五。

There is actually a secondary complication that arises in this area. Modern scholarly research has discovered a number of flaws in the (modern) wording of the Jewish Pentateuch Books, which is generally believed to have occurred due to imprecise copying by Jewish Scribes over the many early centuries.因此實際上是一個次要的並發症產生這方面的工作。現代學術研究已經發現了一些缺陷(現代)的措辭猶太摩西五書,這是普遍認為,發生了由於不精確複製猶太文士的許多世紀初。 But, as the Koran presents those (now know to be incorrect) stories, that seems to imply that God (Allah) either deceived Muhammad as to the Truth or He really didn't directly provide it, except through the earlier sources.但是,正如可蘭經介紹這些(現在知道是不正確的)的故事,這似乎意味著,上帝(真主)或者欺騙穆罕默德的真相或他真的沒有直接提供,但通過早期來源。

Extending that thought, Muhammad's claim that the Koran was "God's Word" would still be indirectly true, as the majority of the Koran's 80,000 words, actually came from much older Manuscripts from God, primarily the Pentateuch (Torah, or Taurat).擴展的思想,穆罕默德聲稱,古蘭經是“上帝的詞”仍是間接的真實,因為大多數古蘭經的80000字,實際上是來自更古老的手稿來自上帝,主要是五(聖經,或Taurat ) 。 It's just that the accumulated errors of those earlier documents had become absorbed into the Koran as a result.只是積累的錯誤,這些早期的文件已成為吸收到古蘭經作為一個結果。 Whether or not Muhammad actually conversed with God (Allah) in those caves, at least some of the Koran is certainly directly based on (flawed) earlier Manuscripts attributed to God / Allah.無論穆罕默德實際交談與上帝(真主)在這些洞穴,至少有一些古蘭經無疑是直接的基礎上(缺陷)早些時候手稿歸因於神/真主。

Muslim Tradition asserts that one of Uthman's generals had asked the Caliph to make a collection of the contents of the Koran, because serious disputes had broken out among his troops from different provinces in regard to the correct readings of the Koran. Uthman chose Zayd ibn Thabit to prepare the official text. That Tradition indicates that he carefully revised the Koran, by comparing portions held by Umar's daughter with his own, with careful analysis regarding dialect.穆斯林的傳統聲稱之一奧斯曼的將軍曾要求哈里發,使收集的內容可蘭經,因為嚴重的爭端爆發了他的部隊中來自不同省份的關於正確讀可蘭經。奧斯曼選擇栽德本薩比特準備正式文本。這一傳統表明,他仔細修訂了可蘭經,通過比較部分由奧馬爾的女兒與他自己的,認真分析有關方言。

A different Tradition still credits Zayd, but much earlier, during Abu Bakr's very brief period as Caliph.另一種不同的傳統仍然信貸栽德,但要早得多,在阿布貝克很短暫的時期內作為哈里發。 In this case, the motivation was allegedly that so many people who had known the Koran by heart had died in battles, and the concern was to write it down before it might be irretrievably lost, and this was the version that was later held by Umar's daughter, Hafsa.在這種情況下,動機,據稱有這麼多的人誰知道可蘭經心臟已經死亡的戰鬥,並關切的是將它寫下來之前,它可能是不可挽回的損失,這是版本,後來舉行的奧馬爾的女兒,哈芙賽。

Other Traditions indicate that it was collected during the Caliphates of Umar or Ali.其他傳統表明,它收集在Caliphates的歐麥爾或阿里。 So there is no actual agreement in Tradition as to exactly when it was collected.所以,沒有實際協議的傳統,以確切時間是收集。 The Uthman Tradition is generally considered the most likely.傳統的奧斯曼通常被認為是最有可能的。

Muslims today generally insist that their Koran is precisely the wording of the original, and they therefore criticize the many "Versions" of the Christian Bible (even though all those Versions are actually translations of the exact same original Greek and Aramaic source Manuscripts). But such a claim is incorrect. 今天穆斯林普遍堅持說,它們恰恰是古蘭經的措詞原來的,因此,它們的許多批評“版本”基督教聖經(即使所有這些版本實際上是翻譯的完全相同原來希臘和阿拉姆來源手稿) 。但這種說法是不正確的。 There were at least 14 variant Arabic versions of the Koran in common use around 900 AD, and possibly several more.至少有14個變種版本的阿拉伯文古蘭經共同使用約900廣告,並有可能更多。 These arose due to the method of writing and copying that existed at that time.這些原因引起的方法,寫作和存在抄襲那個時候。 (Short) Vowels were not recorded, only the consonants. (短)元音沒有記錄,只有輔音。 The short vowels could sometimes be represented by a comma-like or slanting-dash mark either above or below a letter.短元音有時候可以代表一個逗號狀或斜,短跑標誌著高於或低於一封信。 Also, differences between 'b' and 't' and 'th', which are identical except for dots (points) that distinguish them, were unclear because the dots were not recorded in the consonantal text of the time.此外,之間的差異' b '和'噸'和'日' ,這是相同的除外點(點)的區別,尚不清楚點,因為沒有記錄在consonantal文字的時間。 Other letter/sound pairs also have exactly identical symbols.其他信/聲音對也有完全相同的符號。 Therefore, a reader or a copyist could sometimes read different actual words from the same set of symbols. No question regarding the ORIGINAL wording was involved, but rather the many variations arose due to writing and copying the texts.因此,讀者或抄寫有時候可以閱讀不同的實際字相同的符號。 毫無疑問對原來的措詞參與,而是出現許多變化由於寫作和複製的文本。

As a result, a number of codices developed:因此,一些發達國家codices :
Very Early:極早期:

Later, the Koranic scholar Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (early 900s AD) fixed on one system of consonants and some control on application of vowels, which resulted in the general acceptance of seven basic systems.後來,伊斯蘭教學者阿布貝克本穆賈希(公元900年初)固定在一個系統中的輔音和一些控制中的應用元音,導致人們普遍接受的七項基本制度。

The Seven Qiraa'aat (ie, Readings): 七Qiraa'aat (即讀) :
The 'seven readings' were standardized in the second/eighth century. Abu Bakr Ibn Mujahid (d. 936 AD), a ninth-century Muslim scholar from Iraq, wrote a book entitled The Seven Readings, in which he selected seven of the prevailing modes of recitation as the best transmitted and most reliable.在'七讀'了標準化的第二/ 8世紀。阿布貝克本穆賈希(草公元936 ) ,第九世紀的穆斯林學者從伊拉克撤軍,寫了一本書,題為七讀,他在選定的7個普遍存在的背誦方式是最好的傳播和最可靠的。 Others were subsequently disfavoured and even opposed, among them the readings of Ibn Mas'ud and Ubay ibn Ka'b. However, this is not to say that one must restrict oneself to one of these seven readings, or to all of them.另一些人後來處境不利,甚至反對,其中包括讀本Mas'ud和Ubay本Ka'b 。然而,這並不是說,人們必須限制自己對其中的7個讀數,或全部。 Below are listed the local origin of the seven readings and the names of readers and some later transmitters (in arabic 'raawis') connected with them:下面列出的當地原產地的7個讀數和姓名的讀者和一些後來的發射機(阿拉伯文' raawis ' )與他們聯繫:
Readers 讀卡器

Each of these seven actually had two variants, due to different pathways (Transmitters):所有這些七個實際上有兩個變種,由於不同的途徑(發射機) :

Fourteen accepted readings in all. 14名接受讀數所有。 Some scholars recognize even more, such as:一些學者更認識到,如:
Place / Reader地點/閱讀器
Madinah / Abu Ja'far (130/747)麥地那/阿布Ja'far ( 747分之130 )
Basra / Ya'qub (205/820)巴士拉/ Ya'qub (八百二十零分之二百〇五)
Kufa / Khalaf (229/843)庫法/卡拉夫( 843分之229 )
Basra / Hassan al Basri (110/728)巴士拉/哈桑巴斯里(七百二十八分之一百一十〇 )
Makkah / Ibn Muhaisin (123/740)麥加/本Muhaisin (七百四十○分之一百二十三)
Basra / Yahya al-Yazidi (202/817)巴士拉/葉基地,雅茲迪(八百十七分之二百零二)
Kufa / al-A'mash (148/765)庫法/人, A'mash ( 765分之148 )

The selected 'Seven Readings' of Mujahid were:所選定的'七讀'的穆賈希是:
Place / Reader / Transmitter :地點/閱讀器/變送器:

1. 1 。 Madinah / Naafi' (d. 169H/785AD) / Qaaluun or Warsh (d. 197H/812AD)麥地那/ Naafi ' (草169H/785AD ) / Qaaluun或沃什(草197H/812AD )
2. 2 。 Makkah / Ibn Kathir (d. 119H/737AD)麥加/本Kathir (草119H/737AD )
3. 3 。 Damascus / Ibn 'Amir (d. 118H/736AD)大馬士革/本'埃米爾(草118H/736AD )
4. 4 。 Basra / Abu 'Amr (d. 154H/771AD) / Suusi or Duuri (d. 246H/860AD)巴士拉/阿布' Amr (草154H/771AD ) / Suusi或Duuri (草246H/860AD )
5. 5 。 Kufa / 'Aasim (d. 128H/746AD) / Hafs (d. 180H/796AD)庫法/ ' Aasim (草128H/746AD ) /阿布哈夫斯(草180H/796AD )
6. 6 。 Kufa / Hamza (d. 156H/773AD)庫法/哈姆扎(草156H/773AD )
7. 7 。 Kufa / Al-Kisaa'i (d. 189H/805AD) / Duuri (d. 246H/860AD)庫法/鋁Kisaa'i (草189H/805AD ) / Duuri (草246H/860AD )

Readings No. 1 and 5 are of particular importance: the reading transmitted by Warsh is now widespread in Africa, except Egypt, where, as now in almost all other parts of the Muslim world, the reading transmitted by Hafs is observed.讀第1和第5款具有特別重要的意義:閱讀轉交沃什現在人們普遍在非洲,除了埃及,在那裡,現在幾乎在所有其他地方的穆斯林世界,閱讀轉發阿布哈夫斯得到遵守。

Three of these prevailed, for uncertain reasons: Warsh (around 800 AD), Hafs (around 800 AD) and al-Duri Abu Amr (around 850 AD), with two others used in small regions.這三個盛行,不確定的原因:沃什(約公元800 ) ,阿布哈夫斯(約公元800 )和al -杜里阿布Amr (約公元850 ) ,與另外兩個用於小區域。 This represents five distinctly different versions of the Koran currently in use by Muslims in different parts of the world.這五個明顯的不同版本的古蘭經目前使用的穆斯林在世界不同地區。 Their separate justification for using their version is closely associated with their 'chain' or path of information from the Prophet Muhammad.各自的理由,使用他們的版本是密切相關的'鏈'或路徑的資料先知穆罕默德。

The five current versions of the Koran are:五當前版本的古蘭經是:

  1. The Transmitter Hafs , who is Hafs ibn Suleyman ibn Al-Mugheerah Al-Asadi Al-Kuufi (d. 180H): 阿布哈夫斯的發射機,誰是阿布哈夫斯本蘇萊曼德伊本Mugheerah基地阿薩迪基地Kuufi (草180H ) :

    His Qiraa'ah named Hafs from 'Aasim is the most popular reading of the Quran in the world today , except for some parts of Africa.他Qiraa'ah命名阿布哈夫斯從' Aasim 最流行的閱讀可蘭經在當今世界上 ,除了非洲一些地區。 Hafs was officially adopted by Egypt in 1924.阿布哈夫斯正式通過埃及於1924年。 His chain from 'Aasim:他的鏈條從' Aasim :

    He heard from 'Aasim ibn Abu Najud Al-Kuufi (d. 128H) who was Taabi'i, ie, among the generation following the Sahaabah, who heard from Abu Abdur-Rahman Abdullah ibn Habib As-Sulami, who heard from Uthman ibn Affan and Ali ibn Abi Talib and Zayd ibn Thaabit and Ubayy ibn Ka'b, who heard from the Prophet (PBUH).他聽到從' Aasim本阿布Najud基地Kuufi (草128H )誰是Taabi'i ,即各代後, Sahaabah ,誰聽到阿布阿卜杜勒拉赫曼阿卜杜拉伊本哈比砷Sulami ,誰聽到奧斯曼本阿凡和阿里本艾比Talib和栽德本Thaabit和Ubayy本Ka'b ,誰聽到先知( PBUH ) 。

  2. The Transmitter Duuri , is Abu 'Amr Hafs ibn Umar ibn Abdul-Aziz ibn Subhan Ad-Duuri Al-Baghdaadi (d. 246H): Duuri的發射機,是阿布' Amr阿布哈夫斯本奧馬爾本阿卜杜勒阿齊茲伊本Subhan廣告Duuri基地Baghdaadi (草246H ) :

    His Qiraa'ah named Duuri from Abu 'Amr is popular in parts of Africa like Somalia, Sudan as well as in other parts. His chain of from Abu 'Amr:他Qiraa'ah命名Duuri由Abu ' Amr很受歡迎的部分非洲象索馬里,蘇丹以及其他地區。他鏈由Abu '座標:

    He heard from Abu Muhammad Yahya ibn Mubarak ibn Mugheerah Yazidiyy (d. 202H), who heard from Abu 'Amr Zuban ibn 'Ala Maziniyy Al-Busriyy (d. 154H), who heard from the Qiraa'aat from Sahaabis Ali and Uthman and Abu Musa and Umar and Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Zayd ibn Thaabit, who heard from the Prophet (PBUH).他聽到從阿布穆罕默德葉海亞本穆巴拉克本Mugheerah Yazidiyy (草202H ) ,誰聽到阿布' Amr Zuban伊本阿拉Maziniyy基地Busriyy (草154H ) ,誰聽到Qiraa'aat從Sahaabis阿里和奧斯曼和阿布穆薩和奧馬爾和Ubayy本Ka'b和栽德本Thaabit ,誰聽到先知( PBUH ) 。

  3. The Transmitter Warsh , who is Abu Saeed Uthman ibn Saeed Al-Misri, nicknamed Warsh, (d. 197H): 沃什的發射機,誰是阿布賽義德奧斯曼本賽義德Misri ,綽號沃什, (草197H ) :

    HIs Qiraa'ah named Warsh from Naafi' is popular in North Africa .他Qiraa'ah命名沃什從Naafi '是流行北非。 His chain from Naafi':他從Naafi鏈' :

    He heard from Naafi' ibn Abdur-Rahman ibn Abu Nu'aim Al-Madani (d. 169H), who heard from Abu Ja'far Yazid ibn Al-Qa'qaa' and Abu Dawud Abdur-Rahman ibn Hurmuz Al-A'raj and Shaybah ibn Nisah Al-Qaadhi and Abu Abdullah Muslim ibn Jundub Al-Hudhali and Abu Rawh Yazid ibn Ruman, who heard from Abu Hurairah and Ibn Abbaas and Abdullah ibn 'Ayyaash ibn Abi Rabii'ah, who heard from Ubayy ibn Ka'b, who heard from the Prophet (PBUH).他聽到從Naafi '伊本阿卜杜勒拉赫曼本阿布Nu'aim基地馬達尼(草169H ) ,誰聽到阿布Ja'far亞西德伊本Qa'qaa '和阿布Dawud阿卜杜爾拉赫曼本Hurmuz鋁甲'瑞澤和Shaybah本Nisah基地Qaadhi和阿布穆斯林阿卜杜拉伊本Jundub基地Hudhali和阿布Rawh亞西德本魯曼,誰聽到阿布Hurairah和本Abbaas和阿卜杜拉伊本' Ayyaash本阿比Rabii'ah ,誰聽到Ubayy本卡' b ,聽到誰先知( PBUH ) 。

  4. The Transmitter Suusi :發射機Suusi

    His Qiraa'ah named Suusi from Abu 'Amr is also found around the world in small parts .他Qiraa'ah命名Suusi由Abu ' Amr還發現世界各地的小部分。

  5. The Transmitter Qaaluun , who is Imaam Qaaluun: Qaaluun的發射機,誰是Imaam Qaaluun :

    His Qiraa'ah named Qaaluun from Naafi' is popular in places like Libya in Africa.他Qiraa'ah命名Qaaluun從Naafi '是最受歡迎的地方利比亞等非洲國家。 His chain from Naafi':他從Naafi鏈' :

    He heard from Naafi' ibn Abdur-Rahman ibn Abu Nu'aim Al-Madani (d. 169H), who heard from Abu Ja'far Yazid ibn Al-Qa'qaa', who heard from Abdullah ibn Abbaas and Abu Hurairah, who heard from Ubayy ibn Ka'b and Zayd ibn Thaabit, who heard from the Prophet (PBUH).他聽到從Naafi '伊本阿卜杜勒拉赫曼本阿布Nu'aim基地馬達尼(草169H ) ,誰聽到阿布Ja'far亞西德伊本Qa'qaa ' ,誰聽到阿卜杜拉伊本Abbaas和阿布Hurairah ,誰聽到Ubayy本Ka'b和栽德本Thaabit ,誰聽到先知( PBUH ) 。

In case Muslim readers should be greatly concerned: The variances between these different versions of the Koran are generally quite small and minor, although there are a substantial number of them. Muhammad Fahd Khaaruun has published a version of the (Hafs) Koran which contains the variant readings from the 10 Accepted Readers in its margins.如穆斯林的讀者應該十分關注:在這些差異不同版本的可蘭經一般都相當小和未成年人,雖然有相當多的人。穆罕默德法赫德Khaaruun出版了一版(阿布哈夫斯)古蘭經其中包含變讀的10個接受讀者在其利潤率。 About 2/3 of the ayat (verses) have some sort of variant reading. The great majority are differences in the vowels inserted in certain words (remembering that the early written kufic texts of the Koran did not include vowels or diacritical marks).約2 / 3的阿亞特(經文)有某種變異讀。絕大多數不同的元音插入某些詞(記住,早期的書面kufic文本古蘭經不包括元音或diacritical引號) 。 There appears to be only one difference that might represent a significant effect on belief, that in surah 2:184.人們似乎只有一個差異,可能代表了重大影響的信念,在章節2:184 。 There are many Islamic scholars' discussions about these many differences.有許多伊斯蘭學者們在討論這些許多分歧。 As an example of one, in Hafs, surah 2:140 reads taquluna, while in Warsh, that text is in surah 2:139 and reads yaquluna.作為一個例子之一,在阿布哈夫斯,章節2:140內容taquluna ,而在沃什,這些文字是在2:139和章節內容yaquluna 。 Another example: Hafs surah 2:214 reads yaquula while Warsh surah 2;212 reads yaquulu.另一個例子: 2:214阿布哈夫斯章節內容yaquula而沃什章節2 ; 212全文yaquulu 。 Muslim scholars agree that such variations do not seriously alter the meaning of statements made in the Koran.穆斯林學者一致認為,這種差異不認真改變的含義所作的發言中可蘭經。

The main point being made here is that the ORIGINAL texts associated with the Prophet Muhammad are not questioned, but that the absolute and precise accuracy claimed by Muslims regarding their modern Koran is not quite correct.要點提出的是,原文與先知穆罕默德並不懷疑,但絕對準確性和精確的穆斯林人就其現代古蘭經不是很正確的。 The reality of the situation is very much like the Christian Bible, which had one Original source text but now exists in a multitude of language translations of that one Original text.在現實的情況是非常相似的基督教聖經,其中有一個原始來源的文字,但現在存在於多種語文翻譯,一個原文。


A brief mention should be made regarding the "Satanic Verses" that inspired author Rushdie to write the book that caused his death sentence.簡短應當提到關於“撒旦詩篇”的作者拉什迪的靈感寫這本書,造成他的死刑判決。 Unimpeachable Muslim sources (Waqidi and al-Tabari) indicate that, prior to the flight to Medina, Muhammad was sitting with some important Meccan leaders, next to the Kaaba, and he began to recite Sura 53, which describes the Angel Gabriel's first and second visits to Muhammad.無可指責的穆斯林來源( Waqidi和al -塔巴里)表明,之前,飛行梅迪納,穆罕默德坐在Meccan一些重要領導人,旁邊的克爾白,他開始背誦蘇拉53歲,其中敘述了天使加布里埃爾第一次和第二次訪問穆罕默德。

The wording was: "What do you think of Lat and Uzza And Manat the third beside? These are exalted Females, Whose intercession verily is to be sought after."的措詞是: “你覺得緯度和Uzza與馬納特的第三旁邊?這些都是崇高的女性,其調解肯定是要追求。 ”

These references were to some of the many Gods the Meccans then worshipped, so the words seem to acknowledge the existence and even the importance of them, TOTALLY opposite of what Islam claims (of the One God, Allah).這些人提到的一些神的許多Meccans然後崇拜,所以的話似乎承認存在,甚至他們的重要性,完全相反的伊斯蘭教的債權(在一個上帝,真主) 。 Islam says that Muhammad was later visited by Gabriel again, who reprimanded him and gave him the "true" ending for that verse, which eliminated the praise for the gods and turned it into denigration.伊斯蘭教的穆罕默德說,後來被訪問的加布里埃爾再次,誰訓斥他和給他的“真正”結束這一詩句,這消除了讚揚神和把它變成詆毀。 They consider those initial verses as being put into his mouth by Satan, ie Satanic Verses.他們認為這些最初的詩句作為付諸他的嘴的撒旦,即撒旦詩篇。

These verses represent a serious problem for Muslims. Did that event actually happen?這些詩句是一個嚴重的問題,穆斯林。難道這一事件實際發生的呢? Did Muhammad actually praise those multiple gods only to be later corrected by Gabriel? That would explain why the text of the Koran might have been revised, but it still seems to leave the reality of the original event. Those (original) words seem to imply that Muhammad was carefully cultivating the Meccan leaders by saying things they "politically" wanted to hear.穆罕默德實際上沒有讚美那些多神只是後來更正的加布里埃爾?這可以解釋為什麼文古蘭經可能已經修訂,但它似乎仍然離開現實的原始活動。那些(原件)的話似乎意味著這穆罕默德進行了仔細的培養Meccan領導人說,他們的事情“政治”想聽到的。 That idea would greatly damage his credibility as a Prophet.這一想法,將大大損害他的信譽作為一個先知。 His sincerity would seem to be in question.他的誠意,似乎是問題。 On the other hand, if Satan was so easily able to put words in the mouth of the Prophet, how much Faith could anyone put in him?另一方面,如果撒旦是那麼容易能夠把字口的先知,有多少人信仰可以在他嗎? Might there be (many?) other passages where Satan affected the wording of the Koran, which never got corrected?可能有(很多? )其他通道受影響的地方撒旦的措詞,可蘭經,它從來沒有糾正?

There is one other major matter that should be mentioned.有一個其他重大事項,應當提及的。 After Muhammad had become well established as leader in Medina, he considered returning to Mecca to conquer it and to convert the population there to Islam.經過穆罕默德已成為公認的領導者梅迪納,他認為返回麥加征服它,並轉換人口有伊斯蘭教。 Very late, he realized that his people were not yet ready for a battle, and so he entered into negotiations with the Meccans regarding permission to make a Pilgrimage to Mecca the following year, in return for Muhammad's promises of a few simple things (the Peace of Hudaibiya).很晚,他意識到,他的人民還沒有準備好戰鬥,因此他進入談判的Meccans關於許可作出麥加朝聖的第二年,以換取穆罕默德的承諾,一些簡單的事情(和平的Hudaibiya ) 。 Muhammad broke those promises, according to accepted Muslim sources (such as Ibn Ishaq).穆罕默德打破這些承諾,根據公認的穆斯林來源(如伊本伊斯哈格) 。 Since he had made those promises, as Prophet, and for a religious purpose, the fact that he soon broke them, is sometimes seen as behavior not appropriate to any ethical leader, and certainly not to a Prophet.由於他作出了這些承諾,因為先知,並為宗教目的,但事實上,他很快打破他們,有時是被視為不恰當的行為的任何道德的領導人,肯定不是一個先知。

Finally, we list the most revered early Muslim commentators on the Koran:最後,我們列出了最受尊敬的早期穆斯林評論員古蘭經:

(The earliest accurate English translation of the Koran was by George Sale in 1734. (最早的準確的英文翻譯的古蘭經是由喬治在1734年銷售。


Old Testament (Bible) Characters also in the Koran舊約(聖經)特性也可蘭經

Old Testament 舊約 Koran 古蘭經
Aaron阿龍 Harun哈倫
Abel阿貝爾 Habil
Abraham亞伯拉罕 Ibrahim易卜拉欣
Adam亞當 Adam亞當
Cain該隱 Qabil
David大衛 Daud達烏德
Elias埃利亞斯 Ilyas伊利亞斯
Elijah以利亞 Alyasa
Enoch伊諾克 Idris伊德里斯
Ezra以斯拉 Uzair
Gabriel加布里埃爾 Jibril賈布里勒
Gog (Gen 10:2; Ezek 38)戈格(根10時零二分; Ezek 38 ) Yajuj
Goliath巨人 Jalut賈魯
Isaac艾薩克 Ishaq伊沙克
Ishmael伊斯梅爾 Ismail司馬義艾買
Jacob雅各布 Yacub
Job工作 Aiyub
Jonah喬納 Yunus尤努斯
Joshua喬舒亞 Yusha' Yusha '
Joseph約瑟夫 Yusuf優素福
Korah Qarun
Lot地段 Lut
Magog (Gen 10:2; Ezek 38) Magog ( 10點02根; Ezek 38 ) Majuj
Michael邁克爾 Mikail
Moses摩西 Musa穆薩
Noah諾亞 Nuh努赫
Pharaoh法老 Firaun
Saul索爾 Talut
Solomon所羅門群島 Sulaiman蘇萊曼
Terah Azar阿扎爾


The Koran or Qur'an可蘭經或古蘭經

Beginning Excerpt 從摘錄

650 AD公元650

Translated by EH Palmer譯者:嗯帕爾默

(Editor's Note: This translation, apparently acceptable by most Muslims, refers to Allah as God, Jibril as Gabriel, and other names that are familiar from the Christian Bible. We include this excerpt in BELIEVE not as a religious guide, but to assist Western people in better understanding Muslim beliefs. We have also highlighted certain text for the same reason. (編者注:本翻譯,顯然是可以接受的大多數穆斯林,安拉是指為上帝,賈布里勒的加布里埃爾,以及其他名字,熟悉的基督教聖經。我們這個摘錄包括在不信作為宗教指導,而是要幫助西部人民更好地了解穆斯林的信仰。我們還強調了某些文字出於同樣的原因。

Muslims fully believe that the Koran is actually Allah's (God's) words.穆斯林完全相信,可蘭經實際上是安拉的(上帝)的話。 Because they are concerned that poor translations could corrupt the true meaning of those words, they ONLY consider as a valid Koran, one which has translated text on one page and the original Arabic on the opposite.因為他們感到關切的是,窮人可以翻譯腐敗的真正含義,這些話,他們只考慮作為一個有效的可蘭經,其中有翻譯的文字在一個頁面上和原來的阿拉伯文對面。 They feel that in that way, corruption cannot occur.他們認為,這樣,腐敗不可能發生。 This excerpt obviously does not include the Arabic original, so strict Muslims would not approve of it.)這摘錄顯然不包括阿拉伯文原始,所以嚴格的穆斯林不會批准的。 )


.

The Opening Chapter開幕式第一章

I. Mecca 一麥加

In the name of the merciful and compassionate God. Praise belongs to God, the Lord of the worlds, the merciful, the compassionate, the ruler of the day of judgment! 在名稱的仁慈和富有同情心的上帝。禮讚屬於上帝,上帝的世界,仁慈的同情心,統治者的一天的判決! Thee we serve and Thee we ask for aid. 你提供的服務和你我們要求援助。 Guide us in the right path, the path of those Thou art gracious to; not of those Thou art wroth with; nor of those who err. 指導我們正確的道路,道路的人你對藝術熱情;不是你的憤怒與藝術,也不是誰的錯。

(Editor's Note: This opening Chapter (or Sura), called Fatiha or Fatihah, is included as part of all religious Prayers by Muslims.) (編者注:此開幕章(或蘇拉) ,所謂Fatiha或Fatihah ,是包括所有宗教祈禱的穆斯林。 )

The Chapter of the Heifer該章的小母牛

II. 二。 Medina 麥地那

IN the name of the merciful and compassionate God. Alif Lam Mim.的名義,仁慈和富有同情心的上帝。 Alif林的MIM 。 That is the book!這是這本書! there is no doubt therein; a guide to the pious, who believe in the unseen, and are steadfast in prayer, and of what we have given them expend in alms; who believe in what is revealed to thee, and what was revealed before thee, and of the hereafter they are sure.這是毫無疑問有一個指導虔誠,誰相信看不見的,是堅定不移地祈禱,是我們給予他們花費在施捨,誰相信什麼是透露你,是什麼之前,你發現,並在以下這些肯定。 These are in guidance from their Lord, and these are the prosperous.這些都是在他們的指導上帝,這是繁榮的。 Verily, those who misbelieve, it is the same to them if ye warn them or if ye warn them not, they will not believe.真的,這些誰疑,這是同他們警告說,如果你們或你們發出警告,如果他們不,他們不會相信。 God has set a seal upon their hearts and on their hearing; and on their eyes is dimness, and for them is grievous woe. And there are those among men who say, 'We believe in God and in the last day;' but they do not believe.上帝創造了印章後他們的心和他們的聆訊;和他們的眼睛是dimness ,並為他們是嚴重的呼吸,共命運。還有那些男人誰說, '我們相信上帝,並在最後一天; ' ,但他們不相信。 They would deceive God and those who do believe; but they deceive only themselves and they do not perceive.他們將上帝和欺騙那些不相信誰,但他們只能欺騙自己和他們不認識。 In their hearts is a sickness, and God has made them still more sick, and for them is grievous woe because they lied.在他們的心中是一種疾病,上帝使他們更病態,並為他們是嚴重的呼吸,共命運,因為他們說謊。 And when it is said to them, 'Do not evil in the earth,' they say, 'We do but what is right.'而當這是對他們說: '不要邪惡的地球, '他們說, '我們這樣做,但什麼是正確的。

Are not they the evildoers?沒有他們的惡人? and yet they do not perceive. And when it is said to them, 'Believe as other men believe,' they say, 'Shall we believe as fools believe?'但他們不認識。而當這是對他們說, '相信,其他人認為,他們說, '我們相信,傻瓜相信嗎? ' Are not they themselves the fools?難道他們自己的傻瓜? and yet they do not know.但他們不知道。 And when they meet those who believe, they say, 'We do believe;' but when they go aside with their devils, they say, 'We are with you; we were but mocking!'而當他們滿足這些誰相信,他們說, '我們相信'但是當他們去除了他們的魔鬼,他們說, '我們與你;我們,但諷刺! God shall mock at them and let them go on in their rebellion, blindly wandering on.上帝應模擬他們,讓他們去他們叛亂,就盲目地遊蕩。 Those who buy error for guidance, their traffic profits not, and they are not guided.誰買這些錯誤的指導,他們的交通沒有利潤,而且沒有導遊。 Their likeness is as the likeness of one who kindles a fire; and when it lights up all around, God goes off with their light, and leaves them in darkness that they cannot see.他們的肖像是因為相似的一個誰kindles火災;和燈光時,周圍所有上帝外出的光,使他們在黑暗中,他們無法看到的。

Deafness, dumbness, blindness, and they shall not return!聾, 70年代,失明,而且不得返回! Or like a storm - cloud from the sky, wherein is darkness and thunder and lightning; they put their fingers in their ears at the thunder - clap, for fear of death, for God encompasses the misbelievers.或像一個風暴-雲從天空的,其中的黑暗和雷電;他們把他們的手指在他們的耳朵在打雷-拍手,怕死亡,包括對上帝的m i sbelievers。 The lightning well - nigh snatches off their sight, whenever it shines for them they walk therein; but when it is dark for them they halt; and if God willed He would go off with their hearing and their sight; verily, God is mighty over all.雷電以及-幾乎攫取了他們的視線,每當它閃耀的步行他們那裡;但是當它是黑暗他們停止,如果上帝意志,他將離開他們的聽力和視力;真的,上帝是偉大的全部。

O ye folk! ö業民歌! serve your Lord who created you and those before you; haply ye may fear!提供給您勳爵誰創造你和你的面前;或許你們可能擔心! who made the earth for you a bed and the heaven a dome; and sent down from heaven water, and brought forth therewith fruits as a sustenance for you; so make no peers for God, the while ye know!誰使地球為你一張床和一天堂穹頂;並送交從天上水,並提出了條文水果作為生活資料為您;所以沒有同行的上帝,而你們知道!

And if ye are in doubt of what we have revealed unto our servant, then bring a chapter like it, and call your witnesses other than God if ye tell truth.如果你們有什麼疑問,我們發現我們祂的僕人,然後把一章,喜歡它,並撥打您的證人以外的上帝,如果你們告訴真相。 But if ye do it not, and ye shall surely do it not, then fear the fire whose fuel is men and stones, prepared for misbelievers.但是,如果你們不這樣做,你們應這樣做肯定沒有,那麼害怕火災的燃料是男子和石塊,準備misbelievers 。 But bear the glad tidings to those who believe and work righteousness, that for them are gardens beneath which rivers flow; whenever they are provided with fruit therefrom they say, 'This is what we were provided with before,' and they shall be provided with the like; and there are pure wives for them therein, and they shall dwell therein for aye.但是,承擔喜訊那些誰相信正義和工作,這為他們的花園底下河流;每當他們提供水果由此他們說, '這是我們提供了面前,並應提供等; ,有純為他們的妻子,並應詳細情況的贊成。

Why, God is not ashamed to set forth a parable of a gnat, or anything beyond; and as for those who believe, they know that it is truth from the Lord; but as for those who disbelieve, they say, 'What is it that God means by this as a parable?唉,上帝不是羞於提出了一個比喻蚊蚋,或任何超越;和那些誰相信,他們知道,這是實事求是上帝,但對那些相信誰,他們說, '那是什麼上帝手段,這是一個寓言? He leads astray many and He guides many;' - but He leads astray only the evildoers; who break God's covenant after the fixing thereof, and cut asunder what God has ordered to be joined, and do evil in the earth; - these it is who lose.他領導誤入歧途許多許多,他指導; ' -但他只能導致誤入歧途的惡人,誰打破上帝的契約確定後,及削減四分五裂什麼上帝已下令將加入,做邪惡的地球; -這是誰失去。

How can ye disbelieve in God, when ye were dead and He made you alive, and then He will kill you and then make you alive again, and then to Him will ye return?你們怎麼能相信上帝,當你們死和他在你還活著,然後他將殺了你,然後你還活著,然後他將你們回報? It is He who created for you all that is in the earth, then he made for the heavens and fashioned them seven heavens; and He knows all things.這是他誰為您創建的一切是在地球,那麼他的天空和老式他們7天;和他知道所有的事情。

And when thy Lord said unto the angels, 'I am about to place a vicegerent in the earth,' they said, 'Wilt Thou place therein one who will do evil therein and shed blood?而當你的上帝說,你們的天使, '我將建立一個vicegerent在地球上,他們說, '你的地方張伯倫有一個誰將盡邪惡,並流血? we celebrate Thy praise and hallow Thee.'我們慶祝你的讚美和神聖你。 Said (the Lord), 'I know what ye know not.' And He taught Adam the names, all of them; then He propounded them to the angels and said, 'Declare to me the names of these, if ye are truthful.'說(上帝) , '我知道你們不知道。 ' ,他告訴亞當的名字,所有這些,然後他提出他們的天使說, '我申報的名字這些,如果你們是真實的。 ' They said, 'Glory be to Thee!他們說, '榮耀歸於你! no knowledge is ours but what Thou thyself hast taught us, verily, Thou art the knowing, the wise.'不知道是我們的,但你是你自己什麼你告訴我們,真的,你藝術的了解,以明智的。 Said the Lord, 'O Adam declare to them their names;' and when he had declared to them their names He said, 'Did I not say to you, I know the secrets of the heavens and of the earth, and I know what ye show and what ye were hiding?'上帝說,澳亞當向他們宣布他們的名字; '時,他已經宣布他們的名字,他說, '我不是告訴你,我知道的秘密天空和大地,我知道什麼你們表現出與你們有什麼隱瞞? ' And when we said to the angels, 'Adore Adam,' they adored him save only Iblis, who refused and was too proud and became one of the misbelievers. And we said, 'O Adam dwell, thou and thy wife, in Paradise, and eat therefrom amply as you wish; but do not draw near this tree or ye will be of the transgressors.當我們說的天使,崇拜亞當,崇拜他,他們只保存Iblis ,誰拒絕和太驕傲,並成為一個misbelievers 我們說,澳亞當詳談,你和你的妻子,在天堂吃由此充分為您想,但不接近這棵樹或業將是違法。

And Satan made them backslide therefrom and drove them out from what they were in, and we said, 'Go down, one of you the enemy of the other, and in the earth there is an abode and a provision for a time.'和撒旦使他們倒退,並由此將它們從什麼他們在,我們說, '去,你一敵對方,並在地球上有一個居留權,並規定了一段時間。 And Adam caught certain words from 'his Lord, and He turned towards him, for He is the compassionate one easily turned.與亞當陷入某些詞由'他的上帝,和他轉過身來對他,對他是一個富有同情心很容易轉向。 We said, 'Go down therefrom altogether and haply there may come from me a guidance, and whoso follows my guidance, no fear is theirs, nor shall they grieve.我們說, '去了,由此或許有可能來自於我的指導,我whoso如下指導意見,沒有擔心的是他們的,也不得悲傷。 But those who misbelieve, and call our signs lies, they are the fellows of the Fire, they shall dwell therein for aye.'但是,這些誰疑,並要求我們的標誌在於,它們是研究員消防,它們應詳談其中的贊成。

O ye children of Israel! ö業以色列兒童! remember my favours which I have favoured you with; fulfil my covenant and I will fulfil your covenant; me therefore dread. 記得我贊成,我贊成你;履行我的契約,我將履行你的契約;因此,我害怕。 Believe in what I have revealed, verifying what ye have got, and be not the first to disbelieve in it, and do not barter my signs for a little price, and me do ye fear. 相信我剛才發現,核實你們什麼了,並且不是第一次不相信它,不要我的貨易貨的跡象一點價格,我做你們害怕。 Clothe not truth with vanity, nor hide the truth the while ye know. 衣服沒有真理的虛榮心,也掩蓋事實真相的,而你們知道。 Be steadfast in prayer, give the alms, and bow down with those who bow. Will ye order men to do piety and forget yourselves? ye read the Book, do ye not then understand? 堅定不移地祈禱,給予施捨,並低頭彎腰與誰鞠了一躬。請問你們為了男人做虔誠和忘記你們?你們閱讀這本書,請你們並非那麼明白嗎? Seek aid with patience and prayer, though it is a hard thing save for the humble, who think that they will meet their Lord, and that to Him will they return.尋求援助的耐心和祈禱,儘管這是一個很難的事情為拯救謙遜,誰認為他們會滿足他們的上帝,而且他將他們返回。

O ye children of Israel! ö業以色列兒童! remember my favours which I have favoured you with, and that I have preferred you above the worlds. Fear the day wherein no soul shall pay any recompense for another soul, nor shall intercession be accepted for it, nor shall compensation be taken from it, nor shall they be helped. 記得我贊成,我贊成你,我喜歡你以上的世界。恐懼的一天,其中沒有靈魂須支付任何補償的另一個靈魂,也不得接受調解的,也應採取補償它,也不應得到幫助。

When we saved you from Pharaoh's people who sought to wreak you evil and woe, slaughtering your sons and letting your women live; in that was a great trial for you from your Lord. 當我們救你們於法老王的人誰尋求發洩你邪惡和災難,屠宰您的兒子,讓您的婦女生活在這是一個偉大的審判為您從您的主。 When we divided for you the sea and saved you and drowned Pharaoh's people while ye looked on. 當我們為您分為海上和保存你和淹死法老的人,而你們看的。

When we treated with Moses forty nights, then ye took the calf after he had gone and ye did wrong. Yet then we forgave you after that; perhaps ye may be grateful. And when we gave Moses the Scriptures and the Discrimination; perhaps ye will be guided. When Moses said to his people, 'O my people! 當我們治療摩西第四十三夜,然後你們了小腿,他已經和你們沒有錯。然而,那麼我們原諒你之後,也許你們可能會表示感謝。 而當我們給摩西聖經和問題;也許你們會為指導。摩西說,當他的人民, '啊,我的人! Ye have wronged yourselves in taking this calf; repent unto your Creator and kill each other; that will be better for you in your Creator's eyes; and He turned unto you, for He is the compassionate one easily turned.'葉有委屈自己採取這一小腿;懺悔你們的Creator和互相殘殺,這將更好地為你創造的眼睛和他轉過身來告訴你們,因為他是一個富有同情心很容易轉向。 And when ye said to Moses, 'O Moses!當你們說,摩西,澳摩西! we will not believe in thee until we see God manifestly,' and the thunderbolt caught you while ye yet looked on. Then we raised you up after your death; perhaps ye may be grateful. And we overshadowed you with the cloud, and sent down the manna and the quails; 'Eat of the good things we have given you.'我們不會相信你,直到我們看見上帝顯然, '和你被雷電同時還期待你們的。然後,我們提出你去世後,您也許你們可能會表示感謝。而且我們蒙上你的雲,並送交下跌在甘露和鵪鶉; '吃的好東西,我們給你。 They not wrong us, but it was themselves they were wronging.他們沒有錯,但我們是自己被侵害,他們。 And when we said, 'Enter this city and eat therefrom as plentifully as ye wish; and enter the gate worshipping and say 'hittatun.當我們說, '輸入這個城市,並由此作為吃豐富的業宜;並輸入崇拜和門說: ' hittatun 。 So will we pardon you your sins and give increase unto those who do well.'因此,我們會原諒你的罪孽,並增加你們這些誰做好。

But those who did wrong changed it for another word than that which was said to them: and we sent down upon those who did wrong, wrath from heaven for that they had so sinned.但是,這些誰沒有錯誤的改變它的另一個詞比這是對他們說:我們發出了呼籲這些誰沒有錯誤的,從天上憤怒的,他們這樣犯過罪。

When Moses, too, asked drink for his people and we said, 'Strike with thy staff the rock,' and from it burst forth twelve springs; each man among them knew his drinking place.當摩西,也請喝他的人民和我們說, '你的攻擊與工作人員的岩石,並從它迸發12彈簧;每個人知道它們之間發生的飲用水。 'Eat and drink of what God has provided, and transgress not on the earth as evildoers.' '吃喝什麼上帝提供了,並沒有超越地球上的惡人。

And when they said, Moses, we cannot always bear one kind of food; pray then thy Lord to bring forth for us of what the earth grows, its green herbs, its cucumbers, its garlic, its lentils, and its onions.'而當他們說,摩西,我們不能總是承擔一種食品,那麼你的祈禱上帝,使我們提出什麼地球的增長,其綠色藥草,其黃瓜,它的大蒜,其扁豆,洋蔥和。 Said he, 'Do ye ask what is meaner instead of what is best? Go down to Egypt, - there is what ye ask.'他說, '你們不要問什麼是meaner不是什麼是最好?去埃及, -有什麼要求你們。 Then were they smitten with abasement and poverty, and met with wrath from God.然後,他們重拳自卑和貧困,並會見了來自上帝的憤怒。 That was because they had misbelieved in God's signs and killed the prophets undeservedly; that was for that they were rebellious and had transgressed.這是因為他們已經misbelieved上帝的跡象和殺害先知undeservedly ,這是他們反抗,並transgressed 。

Verily, whether it be of those who believe, or those who are Jews or Christians or Sabaeans, whosoever believe in God and the last day and act aright, they have their reward at their Lord's hand, and there is no fear for them, nor shall they grieve.真的,不論是誰的人認為,或那些誰是猶太人或基督徒或Sabaeans ,誰相信上帝的最後一天,並採取正確地,它們有獎勵在上帝的手,也沒有為他們擔心,也不應他們悲傷。

And when we took a covenant with you and held the mountain over you; 'Accept what we have brought you with strong will, and bear in mind what is therein, haply ye yet may fear.'當我們採取了契約與你和山區舉行了您'接受我們帶來了你堅強的意志,並記住是什麼情況,或許你們還可能擔心。

Then did ye turn aside after this, and were it not for God's grace towards you and His mercy, ye would have been of those who lose.然後你們又沒有撤銷後,這一點,如果不是上帝的恩典對你和他的憐憫,你們本來這些誰輸。 Ye know too of those among you who transgressed upon the Sabbath, and we said, 'I Become ye apes, despised and spurned.'葉也知道這些你們中間誰transgressed的安息日,我們說, '我成為你們猿,鄙視和唾棄。

Thus we made them an example unto those who stood before them, and those who should come after them, and a warning unto those who fear.因此,我們使他們的一個例子告訴那些站在誰面前,那些誰應該來後,並警告那些你們誰害怕。

And when Moses said to his people, 'God bids you slaughter a cow,' they said, 'Art thou making a jest of us?'當摩西說,他的人民, '上帝你出價屠宰牛,他們說, '你藝術使我們開玩笑? ' Said he, 'I seek refuge with God from being one of the unwise.'他說, '我尋求庇護與上帝從其中一個不明智的。 They said, 'Then pray thy Lord for us to show us what she is to be.'他們說, '那麼你的上帝祈禱,我們向我們展示了她要。 He answered, 'He saith it is a cow, nor old, nor young, of middle age between the two; so do as ye are bid.'他回答說, '他必是牛,也不老,也不年輕,中年兩國之間的;這樣做你們的出價。 They said, 'Pray now thy Lord to show us what her colour is to be.'他們說, '現在你祈禱上帝向我們展示她的膚色是。 He answered, 'He saith it is a dun cow, intensely dun, her colour delighting those who look upon her.'他回答說, '他必是暗褐色的牛,激烈的逼債,她的膚色delighting那些誰看她。

Again they said, 'Pray thy Lord to show us what she is to be; for cows appear the same to us; then we, if God will, shall be guided.' He answered, He saith, it is a cow, not broken in to plough the earth or irrigate the tilth, a sound one with no blemish on her.' They said, 'Now hast thou brought the truth.'再次他們說, '你祈禱上帝向我們展示了她要;的奶牛出現同樣給我們,然後我們,如果上帝會,應遵循。 '他回答說,他必,這是一個瘋牛病,而不是打破犁在大地或灌溉耕層,健全的人,沒有污點她。 '他們說, '現在你把你的真相。 And they slaughtered her, though they came near leaving it undone.他們屠宰和她的,儘管他們走近留撤消。

When too ye slew a soul and disputed thereupon, and God brought forth that which ye had hidden, then we said, 'Strike him with part of her.'當你們也擺一個靈魂和爭議隨即,上帝提出了那些隱藏了你們,那麼我們說, '攻擊他自己的一部分。 Thus God brings the dead to life and shows you His signs, that haply ye may understand.因此,上帝將死的生命和您顯示他的跡象,這或許你們會理解的。

Yet were your hearts hardened even after that, till they were as stones or harder still, for verily of stones are some from which streams burst forth, and of them there are some that burst asunder and the water issues out, and of them there are some that fall down for fear of God; but God is never careless of what ye do.然而,你的心是連硬化後,直到他們發現石塊或更難,因為忠實的石頭是從其中的一些溪流迸發,和他們還有一些突發四分五裂和水的問題了,其中有一些跌倒害怕上帝,但上帝是永遠不小心你們什麼事情。

Do ye crave that they should believe you when already a sect of them have heard the word of God and then perverted it after they had understood it, though they knew?你們不要渴望,它們應該相信你時,已經是一個節他們聽到上帝的話,然後扭曲後,他們的理解,雖然他們知道?

And when they meet those who believe they say, 'We believe,' but when one goes aside with another they say, 'Will ye talk to them of what God has opened up to you, that they may argue with you upon it before your Lord?而當他們滿足這些誰相信他們說, '我們相信' ,但如果不用一邊與另一他們說, '你們會和他們交談的是上帝打開了你,他們可能會認為你對你的前上帝? Do ye not therefore understand?'你們不要因此不明白嗎? ' Do they not then know that God knoweth what they keep secret and what they make known abroad?難道他們不知道,然後上帝knoweth他們保守秘密,並讓他們知道在國外?

And some of them there are, illiterate folk, that know not the Book, but only idle tales; for they do but fancy.其中有些有,文盲民俗,即不知道這本書,但只空閒的故事;因為他們這樣做,但幻想。 But woe to those who write out the Book with their hands and say 'this is from' God; to buy therewith a little price!但是,休戚與共的誰寫的書,他們的手,並說: '這是從'上帝;購買條文一點價格! and woe to them for what their hands have written, and woe to them for what they gain!和呼吸,共命運,以他們為自己的雙手已經寫信,休戚與共,並給他們為自己獲得!

And then they say, 'Hell fire shall not touch us save for a number of days.'然後他們說, '地獄之火,不得觸摸我們節省了若干天。 Say, 'Have ye taken a covenant with God?'說: '有你們採取了契約與上帝? ' but God breaks not His covenant.但上帝沒有休息,他的盟約。 Or do ye say of God that which ye do not know?或者說,你們的上帝,你們不知道嗎?

Yea!是啊! whoso gains an evil gain, and is encompassed by his sins, those are the fellows of the Fire, and they shall dwell therein for aye! But such as act aright, those are the fellows of Paradise, and they shall dwell therein for aye! whoso收益邪惡的增益,是包括他的罪過,這些學員的火災,並應詳細情況的贊成!但如行為韙,這些都是天堂的研究員,並應詳細情況的贊成!

And when we took from the children of Israel a covenant, saying, 'Serve ye none but God, and to your two parents show kindness, and to your kindred and the orphans and the poor, and speak to men kindly, and be steadfast in prayer, and give alms;' and then ye turned back, save a few of you, and swerved aside. 當我們採取了從兒童以色列契諾,說, '你們服務,但沒有上帝,和你的父母表現出的善意,和你的親屬和孤兒,窮人,男人說話懇請,並堅定地祈禱,施捨; ' ,然後你們擋回,節省幾個你,駛向擱置。

And when we took covenant from you, 'shed ye not your kinsman's blood, nor turn your kinsmen out of their homes:' then did ye confirm it and were witnesses thereto. Yet ye were those who slay your kinsmen and turn a party out of their homes, and back each other up against them with sin and enmity. 當我們約了你,你們不跌你的親人的血液,也使您的麵團離開自己的家園: '你們才確認它是證人。然而,你們是那些誰殺死你的麵團,並把黨的他們的家園,並回到了對方對他們的罪惡和仇恨。 But if they come to you as captives ye ransom them!但是,如果他們來找你作為人質勒索贖金你們了! - and yet it is as unlawful for you to turn them out. -但它是非法的,你把他們。 Do ye then believe in part of the Book and disbelieve in part?你們不要再相信部分圖書和部分相信? But the reward of such among you as do that shall be nought else but disgrace in this worldly life, and on the day of the resurrection shall they be driven to the most grievous torment, for God is not unmindful of what ye do.但是,這種獎勵之間的你做到這一點應化為烏有別人,但在這個恥辱世俗生活,對一天的復活不得被驅使的最嚴重的折磨,上帝沒有忘記你們什麼事情。

Those who have bought this worldly life with the Future, the torment shall not be lightened from them nor shall they be helped.這些誰買這個世俗的生活與未來,折磨不得減輕他們也不應得到幫助。

We gave Moses the Book and we followed him up with other apostles, and we gave Jesus the son of Mary manifest signs and aided him with the Holy Spirit. Do ye then, every time an apostle comes to you with what your souls love not, proudly scorn him, and charge a part with lying and slay a part? 我們給了摩西的書,我們跟著他與其他使徒,我們給耶穌的兒子,瑪麗明顯標誌和輔助他的聖靈。你們不要那麼,每一次的使徒來你你不愛的靈魂,他自豪地蔑視,並收取部分低窪,斬的一部分?

They say, 'Our hearts are uncircumcised;' nay, God has cursed them in their unbelief, and few it is who do believe.他們說, '我們的心是猶太人; '不,上帝詛咒他們不信教,很少它是誰這樣認為。 And when a book came down from God confirming what they had with them, though they had before prayed for victory over those who misbelieve, yet when that came to them which they knew, then they disbelieved it, - God's curse be on the misbelievers.而當一本書是從上帝確認他們已與他們,但他們收到了祈禱戰勝那些誰疑,然而當他們來到他們知道,他們這disbelieved , -上帝的詛咒上m isbelievers。

For a bad bargain have they sold their souls, not to believe in what God has revealed, grudging because God sends down of His grace on whomsoever of His servants He will; and they have brought on themselves wrath after wrath and for the misbelievers is there shameful woe.對於一個壞協議,他們出售他們的靈魂,不相信什麼上帝透露,到目前為止,勉強,因為上帝派了他的寬限期對任何人的他的僕人,他將和他們自己帶來的憤怒後,憤怒和misbelievers有可恥的呼吸,共命運。

And when they are told to believe in what God has revealed, they say, 'We believe in what has been revealed to us;' but they disbelieve in all beside, although it is the truth confirming what they have.而當他們被告知相信什麼上帝透露,到目前為止,他們說, '我們相信已經揭示給我們; ' ,但他們相信在所有旁邊,雖然這是事實,確認他們的。 Say, 'Wherefore did ye kill God's prophets of yore if ye were true believers?說, '你們何故沒有殺死上帝的先知昔日如果你們是真正的信徒?

Moses came to you with manifest signs, then ye took up with the calf when he had gone and did so wrong. And when we took a covenant with you and raised the mountain over you, 'Take what we have given you with resolution and hear;' they said, 'We hear but disobey;' and they were made to drink the calf down into their hearts for their unbelief. 摩西來表現您的跡象,然後拿起你們的小腿時,他已經和這樣做是錯誤的。當我們採取了契約與你並提出了山區著你, '把我們給你決議,並聽取'他們說, '我們聽到,但不服從' ,他們喝了小腿成他們的心為他們不信教。 Say, 'An evil thing is it which your belief bids you do, if ye be true believers.'說, '一個邪惡的一點是,您認為您的出價,如果你們是真正的信徒。 Say, 'If the abode of the future with God is yours alone and not mankind's: long for death then if ye speak the truth.'說, '如果居留權的未來是你們的上帝,而不是單單人類的:只要然後死亡,如果你們講真話。 But they will never long for it because of what their hands have sent on before; but God is knowing as to the wrong doers.但是,他們永遠不會長,因為他們手中有前發出的,但上帝知道,以錯誤的事。

Why, thou wilt find them the greediest of men for life; and of those who associate others with God one would fain live for a thousand years, - but he will not be reprieved from punishment by being let live, for God seeth what they do.為什麼,你病找到他們的greediest男人的生活;和那些誰聯繫其他神人會欣然活了一千多年, -但他不會被緩刑懲罰被讓別人活,看在上帝s eeth他們所做的事情。

Say, 'Who is an enemy to Gabriel? 說, '誰是敵人加布里埃爾? for he hath revealed to thy heart, with God's permission, confirmation of what had been before, and a guidance and glad tidings to believers. 他透露上帝你的心,與上帝的許可,確認了哪些面前,並指導和喜訊,以信徒。 Who is an enemy to God and His angels and His apostles and Gabriel and Michael? 誰是敵人向上帝和他的天使和他的使徒和加布里埃爾和邁克爾? - Verily, God is an enemy to the unbelievers. We have sent down to thee conspicuous signs, and none will disbelieve therein except the evildoers. -真主,真主的敵人向信教。我們已經派遣到你顯眼的跡象,沒有人會相信,但有惡。 Or every time they make a covenant, will a part of them repudiate it?或每次都作出契諾,將一部分人拋棄呢? Nay, most of them do not believe.唔,其中大部分是不相信。

And when there comes to them an apostle confirming what they have, a part of those who have received the Book repudiate God's book, casting it behind their backs as though they did not know. And they follow that which the devils recited against Solomon's kingdom; - it was not Solomon who misbelieved, but the devils who misbelieved, teaching men sorcery, - and what has been revealed to the two angels at Babylon, Harut and Marut; yet these taught no one until they said, 'We are but a temptation, so do not misbelieve.'和來時,他們的倡導者,確認他們的,一部分是誰已經收到了圖書否定上帝的書,鑄造它在背後,好像他們不知道。 而且他們的後續那些魔鬼背誦對所羅門的王國; -這不是所羅門誰m isbelieved,但誰m isbelieved魔鬼,教學男子巫術-和已發現的兩個天使在巴比倫,H a rut和馬魯特;但這些沒有人教,直到他們說, '我們只是誘惑,所以不疑。 Men learn from them only that by which they may part man and wife; but they can harm no one therewith, unless with the permission of God, and they learn what hurts them and profits them not.男子向他們學習只是其中的一部分,他們可能丈夫和妻子,但他們可以損害任何人條文,除非徵得上帝,他們了解什麼傷害他們和利潤他們不要。 And yet they knew that he who purchased it would have no portion in the future; but sad is the price但他們知道,他誰購買不會有任何部分在未來,但不幸的是價格

(continues . . . ) (繼續。 。 。 )


The Koran or Qur'an可蘭經或古蘭經

Excerpt: Sura 19.16-21; 3.45-48 摘錄:蘇拉19.16-21 ; 3.45-48

Regarding Jesus and Mary 關於耶穌和瑪麗

Behold!看哪! the angels said: "O Mary! God gives you glad tidings of a Word from Him; his name will be Jesus Christ, the son of Mary, held in honor in this world and the hereafter and of those nearest to God; he shall speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. And he shall be of the righteous."天使說: “啊,瑪麗!上帝給你喜訊一個詞從他;他的名字將被耶穌基督的兒子,瑪麗,舉行了紀念在這個世界上,和以下和那些最接近上帝,他應講人民在童年和成熟。他應正義的。 “ "How, O my Lord, shall I have a son, when no man has touched me?" “怎麼,啊,我的上帝,我有一個兒子,當任何人觸及我嗎? ” asked Mary.問瑪麗。 He said, "Thus: God creates whatever He wants, when He decrees a thing He has only to say, 'Be' and it is. And God will teach him the Book and Wisdom, the Torah and the Gospel."他說, “因此:上帝創造了什麼,他想,當他法令的事,他只說, '是' ,它是。上帝會教他的書和智慧,聖經和福音。 ”


Koran古蘭經

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God. Supplemented by the so-called Hadith, or traditions, it is the foundation of Islam and the final authority in dogma and belief, in jurisprudence, worship, ethics, and in social, family, and individual conduct.本書的神聖的穆斯林,誰被看作是上帝的啟示。輔之以所謂的聖訓,或傳統,這是基礎的伊斯蘭教和最後權威的教條和信仰,在法律,信仰,道德操守,並在社會,家庭和個人的行為。

The name Koran, or better Qur'an, from the Arabic stem Qara'a, "to read", "to recite", means the "Reading", the "Recitation", ie the "Book", par excellence. It is also called -- to select a few of many titles -- "Alkitab" (The Book), "Furquan" ("liberation", "deliverance", of the revelation), "Kitab-ul-lah" (Book of God), "Al-tanzil" (The Revelation).可蘭經的名字,或更好的古蘭經,從阿拉伯文幹Qara'a , “閱讀” , “背誦” ,是指“讀”的“背誦” ,即“書” ,出類拔萃。這是還呼籲-選擇少數的許多書籍- “A l kitab”(書) , “ F u rquan”( “解放”, “解脫”,在啟示), “基塔,超啦” (此書上帝) “基地tanzil ” (啟示) 。 It consists of one hundred and fourteen suras or chapters, some being almost as long as the Book of Genesis, others consisting of but two or three sentences.它由114 suras或章節,有些幾乎只要創世記,其他組成的,但兩個或三個句子。 It is smaller than the New Testament, and in its present form has no chronological order or logical sequence.這是小於新約,並在其目前的形式並沒有時間順序,或邏輯順序。

CONTENTS AND ANALYSIS內容和分析

The Koran contains dogma, legends, history, fiction, religion and superstition, social and family laws prayers, threats, liturgy, fanciful descriptions of heaven, hell, the judgment day, resurrection, etc. -- a combination of fact and fancy often devoid of force and originality.可蘭經載教條,傳說,歷史,小說,宗教和迷信,社會的和家庭的法律祈禱,威脅,禮儀,幻想描述的天堂,地獄,一天的判決,復活等-結合的事實和幻想往往缺乏武力和獨創性。 The most creditable portions are those in which Jewish and Christian influences are clearly discernible.最可信的部分是那些猶太教和基督教的影響是清晰可見。 The following analysis is based on Sir William Muir's chronological arrangement (op. cit. infra).下面的分析是基於威廉爵士繆爾的時間安排(同前。紅外線) 。

First Period第一期

Suras 103, 91, 106, 101, 95, 102,104, 82, 92, 105 - rhapsodies, which may have been composed before Mohammed conceived the idea of a Divine mission, or of a revelation direct from Heaven. Suras 103 , 91 , 106 , 101 , 95 , 102104 , 82 , 92 , 105 -狂想曲,它可能已經組成穆罕默德之前構想的神聖使命,或一個啟示直接從天堂。

Second Period (the opening of Mohammed's ministry)第二期(開放的穆罕默德部)

Sura 96, the command to "recite in the name of the Lord"; sura 113, on the unity and eternity of the Deity; sura 74, the command to preach, the denunciation of one of the chiefs of Mecca who scoffed at the resurrection, unbelievers threatened with hell; sura 111, Abu Lahab (the Prophet's uncle) and his wife are cursed.蘇拉96 ,命令“背誦的名字上帝” ;章113條,對團結和永恆的神;蘇拉74 ,命令說教,退出的一個酋長麥加誰嘲笑復活,信教與地獄的威脅;章111條,阿布Lahab (先知的叔叔)和他的妻子是詛咒。

Third Period (from the beginning of Mohammed's public ministry to the Abyssinian emigration)第三階段(從開始穆罕默德的公共事務部的阿比西尼亞移民)

Suras 87, 97, 88, 80, 81, 84, 86, 90, 85, 83, 78, 77, 76, 75, 70, 109, 107, 55, 56, descriptions of the resurrection, paradise, and hell, with references to the growing opposition of the Koreish tribe. Suras 87 , 97 , 88 , 80 , 81 , 84 , 86 , 90 , 85 , 83 , 78 , 77 , 76 , 75 , 70 , 109 , 107 , 55 , 56 ,說明復活,天堂,地獄,同提及日益反對Koreish部落。

Fourth Period (from the sixth to the tenth year of Mohammed's ministry)第四階段(從第六到第十個年頭穆罕默德部)

Suras 67, 53, 32, 39, 73, 79, 54, 34, 31, 69, 68, 41, 71, 52, 50, 45, 44, 37, 30, 26, 15, 51, narratives from the Jewish Scriptures and from rabbinical and Arab legends; the temporary compromise with idolatry is connected with sura 53. Suras 67 , 53 , 32 , 39 , 73 , 79 , 54 , 34 , 31 , 69 , 68 , 41 , 71 , 52 , 50 , 45 , 44 , 37 , 30 , 26 , 15 , 51 ,說明從猶太聖經從猶太和阿拉伯的傳說;暫時妥協的偶像是與蘇拉53 。

Fifth Period (from the tenth year of Mohammed's ministry to the Flight from Mecca)第五階段(從第十個年頭穆罕默德部的航班從麥加)

Suras 46, 72, 35, 36, 19, 18, 27, 42, 40, 38, 25, 20, 43, 12, 11, 10, 14, 6, 64, 28, 22, 21, 17, 16, 13, 29, 7, 113, 114. Suras 46 , 72 , 35 , 36 , 19 , 18 , 27 , 42 , 40 , 38 , 25 , 20 , 43 , 12 , 11 , 10 , 14 , 6 , 64 , 28 , 22 , 21 , 17 , 16 , 13 29日, 7日, 113 , 114 。 The suras of this period contain some narratives from the Gospel, enjoin the rites of pilgrimage, refute the cavillings of the Koreish, and contain vivid descriptions of the resurrection, judgment, heaven, and hell, with proofs of God's unity, power, and providence. Gradually the suras become longer, some of them filling many pages.該suras這一時期包含了一些說明的福音,責成朝聖儀式,駁斥了cavillings的Koreish ,並載有生動的描述,復活的判斷,天堂,地獄,以證明上帝的團結,電力和普羅維登斯。 suras逐步成為更長,其中有些填補許多網頁。 In the later suras of the fifth period Medina passages are often interpolated.在後來的suras第五期間梅迪納通道往往插。

Last Period (suras revealed at Medina)最後期限( suras顯示在梅迪納)

This period includes the following suras:這一時期包括以下suras :

Sura 98: on good and bad Jews and Christians.蘇拉98 :上好的和壞的猶太人和基督徒。

Sura 2, the longest in the Koran, is called the "Sura of the Cow" from the red heifer described in verse 67 as having been sacrificed by the Israelites at the direction of Moses.蘇拉2 ,最長的可蘭經,被稱為“蘇拉的奶牛”的紅色小母牛詩句中所描述的67個已經犧牲了以色列人在摩西的方向。 It is a collection of passages on various subjects, delivered during the first two or three years after the Flight.這是一個段落收集關於各種議題,發表在第一個兩年或三年後的飛行。 The greater portion relates to the Jews, who are sometimes exhorted and sometimes reprobated.更大的一部分涉及到猶太人,誰有時勸告,有時reprobated 。 Biblical and rabbinical stories abound.聖經和猶太教的故事不勝枚舉。 This sura contains the order to change the Qibla (or direction at prayer) a denunciation of the disaffected citizens of Medina, injunctions to fight, permission to bear arms in the sacred months and much matter of a legislative character promulgated on first reaching Medina, with passages of a later date interpolated.這章包含為了改變朝拜(或方向祈禱)退約的心懷不滿的公民的麥地,打擊禁令,允許攜帶武器的神聖個月,許多問題的立法性質頒布了第一個達到梅迪納,與段落以後插。

Sura 3 belongs partly to the time immediately after the Battle of Bedr.蘇拉屬於第3部分的時間後立即Bedr戰役。 The Jews are referred to in terms of hostility.猶太人被稱為方面的敵意。 The interview with Christian deputation from Najran (verses 57-63) is of a later date.在採訪時從基督教派遣納季蘭(詩句57-63 )是一個較後的日期。 Passages pertaining to the farewell pilgrimage are introduced with other (probably) earlier texts on the rites of pilgrimage.通道有關告別朝聖介紹與其他(可能)前文的朝覲儀式。

Sura 8 contains instructions on the division of spoil at Bedr.蘇拉8載的指示分工的破壞在Bedr 。 Some parts are in the old Meccan style and the Koreish are frequently referred to.有些地方是在舊的Meccan作風和Koreish是經常提及。 In sura 47 war and slaughter are enjoined, and idolaters of Mecca threatened.在蘇拉47戰爭和屠殺的命令,和偶像崇拜者麥加的威脅。 In sura 62 the Jews are denounced for their ignorance; the Friday service is to take precedence of secular engagements.在蘇拉62的猶太人都是譴責他們的無知;週五的服務是優先的政教分離的承諾。 In sura 5 the Jews are reviled; the doctrines of the Christians are controverted; it contains also civil ordinances and miscellaneous instructions.在蘇拉5猶太人謾罵;學說的基督徒controverted ;它包含民間也和雜項法令的指示。

Sura 59, on the siege and expulsion of the Banu Nadhir.蘇拉59歲,就封鎖和驅逐巴努旁觀者。

Sura 4 entitled "women", from the large portion devoted to the treatment of wives and relation of sexes.蘇拉4 ,題為“婦女” ,從很大一部分用於治療的妻子和男女關係。 There are also ordinances on the law of inheritance and general precepts, social and political.也有條例的法律繼承權和一般規律,社會和政治。 Idolatrous Meccans are to be shunned, and there are animadversions against the Jews.盲目崇拜Meccans要迴避,有批判反對猶太人。 The "disaffected" are blamed for taking the part of the Jews.該“心懷不滿”原因是考慮的部分猶太人。

Sura 65: on divorce and kindred subjects, with some religious observations.蘇拉65 :關於離婚和親屬科目,與一些宗教的意見。

Sura 63: menances against 'Abdallah ibn Obey for his treasonable language on the expedition against the Banu Mustaliq.蘇拉63 : menances對'阿卜杜拉伊本服從他的叛國語言的遠征打擊巴努Mustaliq 。

Sura 24: vindication of 'Ayisha, with the law of evidence for conjugal unfaithfulness, and miscellaneous precepts.蘇拉24 :維護' Ayisha ,法律證據的夫妻異心,和雜項戒律。

Sura 33, composed of portions covering the year AH 5.蘇拉33歲,組成部分包括今年的AH 5 。 The marriage of the Prophet with Zeinab, wife of his adopted son, is sanctioned.婚姻先知與Zeinab ,他的妻子收養的兒子,是認可的。 There are various passages on the conjugal relations of Mohammed, the siege of Medina, and the fall of the Banu Qoreitza.有各種通道的夫妻關係的穆罕默德,圍困梅迪納和秋季的巴努Qoreitza 。

Sura 57: injunctions to fight and contribute towards the expenses of war.蘇拉57 :禁令作鬥爭,有助於開支的戰爭。 The disaffected are warned. Christians are mentioned in kindly terms.心懷不滿的警告。 基督徒中提到懇請條件。

Sura 61: on war; speedy victory is promised.蘇拉61 :關於戰爭;迅速勝利是承諾。 -- The remaining suras belong exclusively to the last five years of the Prophet's life. -其餘的s uras屬於過去五年來的先知的生命。

Sura 48 refers to the truce of Hodeibia, and the prospect of victory and spoil to be obtained elsewhere.蘇拉48指的是停戰的Hodeibia ,以及勝利的前景和破壞,以得到別處。

Sura 60: on the treatment of the women who, after the truce, came over from Mecca; idolaters of Mecca to be shunned.蘇拉60 :治療的婦女誰後,停火,是從麥加;偶像崇拜者麥加要迴避。

Sura 66: on the affair of Mohammed and the Coptic maid.蘇拉66 :關於這件事的穆罕默德和科普特女傭。

Sura 49: blaming the profession of the Bedouin Arabs as insincere, chiding the deputation which called out rudely at Mohammed's door, and exhorting believers against distrust and uncharitableness among themselves.蘇拉49 :責怪專業的貝都因阿拉伯人誠意,裡根的要求派遣了穆罕默德粗暴的大門,並敦促信徒對信任和彼此之間的uncharitableness 。

Sura 9 treats of the campaign to Tebuk (AH 9).蘇拉9日對待的Tebuk運動(歷9 ) 。 It opens with the "release" promulgated at the pilgrimage of the same year and declares the antagonism of Islam to all other religions.它打開的“釋放”頒布了朝聖的同一年,並宣布了伊斯蘭教的對抗所有其他宗教。 All but Muslims are excluded from Mecca and the rites of pilgrimage.所有穆斯林,但被排除在麥加和朝覲儀式。 Idolaters are threatened with slaughter and slavery.偶像崇拜者的威脅與屠殺和奴役。 War is declared against Jews and Christians until they are humbled and pay tribute.戰爭是宣布對猶太人和基督徒,直到他們謙卑和敬意。 This sura is called "the crusade chapter", and in the early campaigns was often read on the field before battle.這章是所謂的“十字軍東征章” ,並在早期的運動往往是閱讀的領域之前,戰鬥。

DOCTRINE主義

The doctrine of the Koran will be fully discussed in the article on the religion of Islam.理論古蘭經將在充分討論的文章伊斯蘭教。 It is sufficient to note here that the doctrine may be classified under four categories:這是足以在這裡指出,理論可分為四類:

faith, or what to believe;信仰,或者相信;

practice or worship;實踐或崇拜;

ethics, or what to do and what to avoid;道德,或怎樣做以及如何避免;

moral, historical, and legendary lessons taken from the canonical, but mostly apocryphal, Christian and Jewish Scriptures, and from contemporary and ancient Arabian heathenism.道德,歷史,傳說中的經驗教訓,並從規範,但大多未經證實,基督教和猶太教聖經,從現代和古代阿拉伯異教。

CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER AND DISTINCTIVE FEATURES OF THE SURAS時間順序和特色的SURAS

Various efforts have been made by Muslim writers and European scholars to arrange the suras chronologically, but Noldeke's arrangement is generally considered the most plausible.各種努力取得了一些穆斯林作家和歐洲學者安排suras順序,但Noldeke的安排通常被認為是最可信的。 He divides the suras into Meccan and Medinian, namely those delivered at Mecca before the Flight or Hegira, and those delivered at Medina after the Flight.他劃分suras到Meccan和Medinian ,即那些在麥加交付之前飛行或Hegira ,以及那些在梅迪納交付後的飛行。 The Meccan suras are divided into three periods.該Meccan suras分為三個時期。 To the first (from the first to the fifth year of Mohammed's mission) belong the following suras - 96, 74, 111,106, 108, 104, 107, 102, 105, 92, 90, 94, 93, 97, 86, 91, 80, 68, 87, 95, 103, 85, '73, 101, 99, 82, 81, 53, 84,100, 79, 77, 78, 88, 89, 75, 83, 69, 5l, 52, 56, 55, 112, 109, ll3, 114, and 1.第一(從第一至第五年穆罕默德的使命)屬於下列suras -9 6, 7 4, 1 11106, 1 08, 1 04, 1 07, 1 02, 1 05, 9 2, 9 0, 9 4, 9 3, 9 7, 8 6, 9 1, 80 , 68 , 87 , 95 , 103 , 85 ,七三年, 101 , 99 , 82 , 81 , 53 , 84100 , 79 , 77 , 78 , 88 , 89 , 75 , 83 , 69 ,五升, 52 , 56 , 55 , 112 , 109 , ll3 , 114和1 。 To the second period (the fifth and sixth year of his mission) are assigned suras 54, 37, 7l, 76, 44, 50, 20, 26, 15, 19, 38, 36, 43, 72, 67, 23, 21, 25, 17, 27, and 18.第二期(第五和第六個年頭,他的任務)分配suras 54 , 37 ,七升, 76 , 44 , 50 , 20 , 26 , 15 , 19 , 38 , 36 , 43 , 72 , 67 , 23 , 21 , 25 , 17 , 27和18 。 To the third period (from the seventh year to the Flight) belong the following suras: 32, 41 45, 16, 30, 11, 14,12, 40, 28, 39, 29, 31, 42, 10, 34, 35, 7, 46, 6, and 13.第三期(從第七個年頭的航班)屬於下列suras : 32 , 41 45 , 16 , 30 , 11 , 14,12 , 40 , 28 , 39 , 29 , 31 , 42 , 10 , 34 , 35 , 7 , 46 ,第6和13 。 The Medina suras are those which remain, in the following order: 2, 98, 64, 62, 8, 47, 3, 61, 57, 4, 65, 59, 33, 63, 24, 58, 22, 48, 66, 60, 110, 9, and 5.梅迪納suras的是那些依然存在,其順序如下: 2 , 98 , 64 , 62日, 8日, 47日, 3日, 61歲, 57歲, 4 , 65 , 59 , 33 , 63 , 24 , 58 , 22 , 48 , 66今年60歲, 110 , 9日和5 。

The characteristic features of the various suras and of the periods in which they were delivered is described by Mr. Palmer as follows:特徵的各種suras和期間,他們在作了描述為Palmer先生如下:

In the Meccan Suras Mohammed's one and steady purpose is to bring his hearers to a belief in the one only God; this he does by powerful rhetorical displays rather than logical arguments, by appealing to their feelings rather than their reason; by setting forth the manifestation of God in His works; by calling nature to witness to His presence; and by proclaiming His vengeance against those who associate other gods with Him, or attribute offsprings to Him.在Meccan Suras穆罕默德的一個穩定的目的是為了使他的聽眾的信念只有一個上帝,這他並不強大的修辭顯示,而不是合乎邏輯的論據,呼籲他們的感受,而不是其原因;所列明的表現形式上帝在他的作品;呼籲性質的證人,他的存在,並宣布他的報復打擊那些誰聯繫其他神與他或屬性子女給他。 The appeal was strengthened by glowing pictures of the happiness in store for those who should believe, and by frightful descriptions of the everlasting torments prepared for the unbelievers.這項呼籲是加強了光輝的照片幸福的商店為那些誰應該相信,和可怕的描述,永恆的折磨準備信教。 In the earlier chapters, too, the prophetic inspiration, the earnest conviction of the truth of his mission, and the violent emotion which his sense of responsibility caused him are plainly shown.在前面幾章,也預言靈感,真誠的信念的真相他的使命,並以暴力情緒,他的責任感使他顯然表現。 The style is curt, grand, and often almost sublime; the expressions are full of poetical feeling, and the thoughts are earnest and passionate, though sometimes dim and confused, indicating the mental excitement and doubt through which they struggled to light.作風是簡短,隆重,而且往往幾乎崇高的表情充滿詩意的感覺,和思想是認真和熱情,雖然有時暗淡和混亂,這表明精神興奮,毫無疑問通過這些努力輕。

In the second period of the Meccan Suras, Mohammed appears to have conceived the idea of still further severing himself from the idolatry of his compatriots, and of giving to the supreme deity Allah another title, Ar-Rahman, "the merciful one".在第二期的Meccan Suras ,穆罕默德似乎已經構想的進一步切斷自己的偶像,他的同胞,並給予最高神安拉另一個標題,氬拉赫曼, “仁慈的人” 。 The Meccans, however, seem to have taken these for the names of separate deities, and the name is abandoned in the later chapters.該Meccans然而,似乎已經採取的這些名稱不同的神,和被遺棄的名稱是在稍後的章節。

In the Suras of the second Meccan period we first find the long stories of the prophets of olden times, especial stress being laid upon the punishment which fell upon their contemporaries for disbelief, the moral is always the same, namely, that Mohammed came under precisely similar circumstances, and that a denial of the truth of his mission would bring on his fellow-citizens the self-same retribution.在Suras第二Meccan期間,我們首先找到長期的故事先知的古代,尤其是強調被解僱的懲罰落在他們的同時代人的懷疑,在道義上始終是相同的,即穆罕默德遭到恰恰類似的情況,並剝奪了的真理他的使命將他的同胞公民的自我相同的報復。 They also show the transition stage between the intense and poetical enthusiasm of the early Meccan chapters and the calm teaching of the later Medinah ones.他們還表明,過渡階段之間的緊張和詩意的熱情早期Meccan章節和教學的平靜後梅的。 This change is gradual, and even in the later and most prosaic we find occasionally passages in which the old prophetic fire flashes out once more.這種變化是漸進的,而且即使在後來,最平凡的我們找到通道偶爾在舊的預言消防閃爍出一次。 The three periods are again marked by the oaths which occur throughout the Koran.這三個時期又明顯的宣誓各地發生的可蘭經。 In the first period they are all frequent and often long, the whole powers of nature being invoked to bear witness to the unity of God and the mission of His Apostle; in the second period they are shorter and of rarer occurrence; in the last period they are absent altogether.在第一階段他們都頻繁和往往很長,整個權力的性質援引見證的團結和上帝的使命他的使徒;在第二階段是短的罕見現象;在最後期限他們是完全沒有。

To understand the Medinah Suras we must bear in mind Mohammed's position with respect to the various parties in that city.為了了解梅Suras我們必須牢記穆罕默德的立場對各方在這個城市。 In Mecca he had been a prophet with little honour in his own country, looked on by some as a madman, and by others as an impostor, both equally grievous to him, while his following consisted of the poorest and meanest of his fellow townsmen.在麥加,他已先知沒有履行自己的國家,看似被一些人視為一個瘋子,和其他人作為一個騙子,都同樣嚴重的他,而他的下面包括最貧窮的和卑鄙的同鄉。 His own clansmen, for the reason that they were his clansmen and for no other, resented the affronts against him.他自己的宗親,理由是他們是他的宗親和沒有其他,憎恨對他的侮辱。 In Medinah he appears as a military leader and a prince, though as yet possessing far from absolute authority.在梅看來,他作為一個軍事領導人和一位王子,但還遠遠不能擁有絕對的權威。 Around in the city were, first, the true believers who had fled with him El Muhagerin; next, the inhabitants of Yathrib, who had joined him and who were called El Ansar, "the helpers"; and lastly, a large class who are spoken of by the uncomplimentary name of Munafiqun or "hypocrites", consisting of those who went over to his side from fear or compulsion, and lastly those "in whose heart is sickness", who, though believing in him, were prevented by tribal or family ties from going over to him openly.各地在城市有:第一,誰真正的信徒逃離他的薩爾瓦多Muhagerin ;今後,居民的Yathrib ,誰加入了他,誰被稱為厄爾尼諾安薩爾“的助理” ;最後,一大類是誰spoken of by the uncomplimentary name of Munafiqun or "hypocrites", consisting of those who went over to his side from fear or compulsion, and lastly those "in whose heart is sickness", who, though believing in him, were prevented by tribal or家庭關係進入了他的公開。 Abdallah ibn Ubai was a chief whose influence operated strongly against Mohammed, and the latter was obliged to treat him for a long time almost as an equal, even after he had lost his political power.阿卜杜拉伊本Ubai是一個其影響力主要經營堅決反對穆罕默德,後者不得不對他很長一段時間幾乎作為一個平等的,即使在他已經失去了政治權力。

The other party at Medinah was composed of the Jewish tribes settled in and around the city of Yathrib.另一方在梅組成的猶太定居在部落和周圍的城市Yathrib 。 The Jews were at first looked to as the most natural and likely supporters of the new religion, which was to confirm their own.猶太人起初期望的最自然災害和可能的支持者新的宗教,這是證實自己。 These various parties together with the pagan Arabs of Mecca and the Christians are the persons with whom the Medinah Suras chiefly deal.這些各方同異教徒的阿拉伯人的麥加和基督徒的人,並與之梅Suras主要交易。 The style of the Medinah Suras resembles that of the third period of the Meccan revelations, the more matter-of-fact nature of the incidents related or the precepts given amounting in a great measure for the more prosaic language in which they are expressed.的風格梅Suras相似的第三個時期的Meccan揭露,更事的事實性質的事件有關的戒律,或給予總額在很大程度上為更多的平凡的語言,他們表示支持。

The other party at Ivledinah was composed of the Jewish tribes settled in and around the city of Tathrib.另一方在Ivledinah組成的猶太定居在部落和周圍的城市Tathrib 。 The Jews were at first looked to as the most natural and likely supporters of the new religion, which was to confirm their own.猶太人起初期望的最自然災害和可能的支持者新的宗教,這是證實自己。 These various parties together with the pagan Arabs of Mecca and the Christians are the persons with whom the Medinah Suras chiefly deal.這些各方同異教徒的阿拉伯人的麥加和基督徒的人,並與之梅Suras主要交易。 The style of the Medinah Suras resembles that of the third period of the Meccan revelations, the more matter-of-fact nature of the incidents related or the precepts given accounting in a great measure for the more prosaic language in which they are expressed.的風格梅Suras相似的第三個時期的Meccan揭露,更事的事實性質的事件相關或特定的戒律會計在很大程度上為更多的平凡的語言,他們表示支持。 In the Medinah Suras the prophet is no longer trying to convert his hearers by examples, promises, and warnings; he addresses them as their prince in general, praising them or blaming them for their conduct, and giving them laws and precepts as occasion required.在梅Suras先知不再嘗試轉換他的聽眾的例子,承諾,並警告他的地址作為他們的王子一般,稱讚他們或指責他們的行為,使他們的法律和規則的場合需要。 (The Qur'an in "Sacred Books of the East", I, Oxford, 1880, pp. LXI, LXII, and LXIII). (古蘭經在“聖書東” ,我,牛津, 1880年,頁。 LXI , LXII ,並LXIII )號決議。

SOURCES

The sources of the Koran be reduced to six:來源古蘭經減少到6 :

The Old Testament (canonical and apocryphal) and the hybrid Judaism of the late rabbinical schools.舊約(規範和未經證實)和猶太教的雜交晚猶太教學校。 During Mohammed's time the Jews were numerous in many parts of Arabia, especially around Medina.在穆罕默德猶太人的時間有許多許多地區的沙特阿拉伯,尤其是麥地。 Familiarity with them is undoubtly responsible for many Old Testament stories alluded to in Koran.熟悉他們無疑是負責許多舊約故事中提到可蘭經。 Later Judaism and Rabbinism are equally well represented (Geiger, "Was hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthum aufgenommen?", Wiesbaden, 1833; tr. "Judaism and Islam", Madras, 1898).後來猶太教和Rabbinism也同樣很好的代表(格爾“的帽子穆罕默德澳大利亞DEM的Judenthum aufgenommen ? ” ,威斯巴登, 1833年;文。 “猶太教和伊斯蘭教” ,馬德拉斯, 1898年) 。

The New Testament (canonical and apocryphal) and various heretical doctrines. On his journeys between Syria, Hijaz, and Yemen, Mohammed had every opportunity to come in close touch with Yemenite, Abyssinian, Ghassanite, and Syrian Christians, especially heretic.新約(規範和未經證實)和各種邪教教義。在他的旅途敘利亞之間, Hijaz和也門,穆罕默德曾利用一切機會來密切聯繫也門,阿比西尼亞, Ghassanite ,和敘利亞的基督徒,尤其是邪教。 Hence, while the influence of orthodox Christianity upon the Koran has been slight, apocryphal and heretical Christian legends, on the other hand, are one of the original sources of Koranic faith.因此,雖然影響的正統基督教的古蘭經已經很小,未經和邪教基督教傳說,另一方面,是一個原始來源古蘭經的信仰。 (See Muir, op. cit. infra, 66-239; Tisdall, "The Original Sources of the Qur'an", London, 1905, 55-211.) (見繆爾,同前。前。紅外線, 66-239 ; Tisdall , “原始的古蘭經” ,倫敦, 1905年, 55-211 。 )

Sabaism, a combination of Judaism, Manicheism, and old disfigured Babylonian heathenism. Sabaism ,它結合了猶太教,摩尼教,舊毀容巴比倫的異教。

Zoroastrianism.拜火教。 On account of Persia's political influence in the north-eastern part of Arabia, it is natural to find Zoroastrian elements in the Koran.考慮到波斯的政治影響力在東北部的一部分,沙特阿拉伯,這是很自然找到拜火教內容可蘭經。

Hanifism, the adherents of which, called Hanifs, must have been considerable in number and influence, as it is known from contemporary Arabian sources that twelve of Mohammed's followers were members of this sect. Hanifism ,信徒,其中所謂Hanifs ,必須有相當的數量和影響力,因為它是由當代著名阿拉伯來源, 12穆罕默德的追隨者的成員,此節。

Native ancient and contemporary Arabian heathen beliefs and practices.原古代和當代的阿拉伯異教徒的信仰和習俗。

Wellhausen has collected in his "Reste des arabischen Heidentums" (Berlin, 1897) all that is known of pre-Islamic Arabian heathen belief, traditions, customs, and superstitions, many of which are either alluded to or accepted and incorporated in the Koran.威爾已收集在他的“ Reste萬arabischen Heidentums ” (柏林, 1897年)所有已知的前伊斯蘭阿拉伯異教徒的信仰,傳統,習俗,和迷信,其中有許多是不是暗示或接受,並納入可蘭經。 From the various sects and creeds, and Abul-Fida, the well-known historian and geographer of the twelfth century, it is clear that religious beliefs and practices of the Arabs of Mohammed's day form one of the many sources of Islam.從各教派和信仰,和阿布,菲達,著名的歷史學家和地理學家的12世紀,很顯然,宗教信仰和習俗的阿拉伯人穆罕默德的一天形成一個多種來源的伊斯蘭教。 From this heathen source Islam derived the practices of polygamy and slavery, which Mohammed sanctioned by adopting them.從這個異教徒來源伊斯蘭教產生的做法,一夫多妻制和奴隸制,其中穆罕默德通過制裁他們。

AUTHORSHIP, COMPILATION作者,編輯

It is generally admitted that the Koran is substantially the work of Mohammed. According to the traditionalists, it contains the pure revelation he could neither read nor write, but that immediately afterwards he could do both; others believe that even before the revelation he could read and write; while others, again, deny that he could ever do so.人們普遍承認,可蘭經是大大的工作穆罕默德。根據傳統,它包含純粹的啟示,他無法讀,寫,但隨即他可以兩者都做,另一些則認為,即使面前的啟示,他可以讀取寫;而其他國家,再次否認,他都不能這樣做。 Thus it is uncertain whether any of the suras were written down by the Prophet himself or all delivered by him orally and afterwards writen down by others from memory.因此,目前尚不能確定是否任何suras被寫下來的先知本人或全部由他提供口頭和書面下降之後由他人從記憶體。

The Koran is written in Arabic, in rhymed prose, the style differing considerably in the various suras, according to the various periods of the Prophet's life.可蘭經是用阿拉伯文寫的,在押韻的散文,風格大大不同的各種suras ,根據各個時期的先知的生命。 The language is universally acknowledged to be the most perfect form of Arab speech, and soon became the standard by which other Arabic literary compositions had to be judged - grammarians, lexirographers, and rhetoricians presuming that the Koran, being the word of God, could not be wrong or imperfect.語言是公認是最完美的形式阿拉伯講話,並很快成為標準的其他阿拉伯文學成分,必須判斷-文法學家, l exirographers,並假定r hetoricians的古蘭經,是上帝的話,無法是錯誤的或不完善的。

Mohammed's hearers began by trusting their memories to retain the words of the revelation they had received from him.穆罕默德的聽眾開始相信自己的記憶保留的話披露,他們已收到來自他。 Later, those who could write traced them in ancient characters on palm leaves, tanned hides, or dry bones.後來,這些誰可以寫追查他們在古代人物棕櫚樹葉上,鞣皮,或幹骨頭。 After the Prophet's death all these fragments were collected.之後先知的死亡所有這些碎片收集。 Zaid ibn Thabit, Mohammed's disciple, was charged by Abu Bekr, the caliph, to collect all that could be discovered of the sacred text in one volume.扎伊德本薩比特,穆罕默德的弟子,被指控阿布Bekr ,哈里發,收集所有可能被發現的神聖文字,一個卷。 The chapters were then arranged according to their length and without regard to historical sequence.章節安排,然後根據他們的長度和沒有考慮到歷史序列。 The revision made twenty years later affected details of language of the text. The best and most accessible edition of the Koran is that of Flugel, "Al-Qoran: Corani textus Arabicus" (Leipzig, 1834 and since).修訂了20年後受影響的細節,語言,文字。最好的和最容易版的古蘭經是Flugel , “基地Qoran : Corani textus Arabicus ” (萊比錫, 1834年以來) 。 Maracci's famous Latin translation of the Koran, with a refutation and commentary, is still unique and useful: "Alcorani textus universus" (Padua, 1698). Maracci著名的拉丁美洲翻譯的古蘭經,以駁斥和評論,仍然是獨特的和有益的: “ Alcorani textus universus ” (帕多瓦, 1698年) 。 The standard English versions are those of Sale (London, 1734) with a still useful introductory essay; Rodwel (London, 1861), arranged in chronological order; and Palmer in "Sacred Books of the East" (Oxford, l880).標準的英文版本是那些銷售(倫敦, 1734 )的仍然是有用的介紹性文章; Rodwel (倫敦, 1861年) ,按照時間順序排列;和帕爾默在“聖書東” (牛津, l880 ) 。

Publication information Written by Gabriel Oussani.出版信息撰稿加布里埃爾Oussani 。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910. 1910年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat ,十月一日,一九一零年。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor. Imprimatur.雷米Lafort ,性病,檢查員。認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


The Koran or Qur'an可蘭經或古蘭經

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

The sacred scriptures of Islam.神聖的伊斯蘭教經文。 According to Mohammedan belief, based upon the testimony of the book itself, the Koran consists of separate revelations vouchsafed by God to Mohammed through the angel Gabriel (sura ii. 91, xxv. 34).根據伊斯蘭教信仰,根據證詞,這本書本身,古蘭經組成單獨的啟示vouchsafed穆罕默德上帝通過天使加布里埃爾(蘇拉二。 91 , 25 。 34 ) 。 These were delivered in Arabic (xxvi. 195) and were thus first of all for the Arabs, who had previously received no manifestation of the will of God (xxxiv. 43). They were designed, also, to confirm the older books of the Torah and the Gospels, and to lead mankind in the right way (iii. 2, et al.).這些交付阿拉伯語( xxvi. 195 ) ,因此首先為阿拉伯人,誰曾收到任何體現了上帝的意志( xxxiv. 43 ) 。他們的目的,還以確認老年人的書籍,聖經和福音,並導致人類以正確的方式( iii. 2 ,等。 ) 。 Mohammed is, therefore, the messenger of God (xcviii. 2, etc.) and the seal of the Prophets (xxxiii. 40).穆罕默德,因此,上帝的使者( xcviii. 2 ,等等)和印章的先知( xxxiii. 40 ) 。 In the prime of life this remarkable man, whose developmentis traced in no authentic records, voluntarily retired to solitude.在年富力強這一非凡的男子,其developmentis追溯到沒有真實記錄,自願退休,以孤獨。 There, through vigils and fasting, he fell into religious trances, in which he felt himself inspired to warn his fellows of an impending judgment.因此,通過祈禱和禁食,他落入宗教trances ,他覺得自己的啟發,提醒他的研究生即將到來的判決。

Form of Revelation.形式的啟示。

The oldest portions of the Koran represent the material result of this inspiration.最古老的部分代表古蘭經的材料由於這種靈感。 They reflect an extraordinary degree of excitement in their language-in their short, abrupt sentences and in their sudden transitions, but none the less they carefully maintain the rimed form, like the oracles and magic formulas of the pagan Arab priests (Al-A'sha, in Ibn Hisham).它們反映了非凡的興奮程度在他們的語言,在其短,突然判決,並在其突然轉型,但他們不小心保持rimed形式,如神諭和魔法公式的阿拉伯異教牧師(鋁甲'白沙,在本希沙姆) 。 This form is preserved in the later sections also, in some of which the movement is calm and the style expository.這種形式是保存在稍後章節另外,在其中一些運動是平靜的和說明性的風格。 The book, which is about equal to the New Testament in size, was put together long after the prophet's death; and its 114 sections were arranged without any regard for chronological sequence.這本書,這是約等於新約的大小,是把很久之後先知的死亡;和114節安排方面沒有任何的時間順序。

Quotations from the Koran are found as early as the period of Mohammed's activity in Mecca (Ibn Hisham, ib. p. 226).引用可蘭經發現,早在穆罕默德時期的活動在麥加(本希沙姆,興業。第226頁) 。 The oldest fragments may have been recited by the prophet himself before a band of followers, though probably a small one, who could more easily preserve them, either orally or in writing.最古老的碎片可能已背誦的先知在自己帶的追隨者,但可能只佔很小一部分,誰可以更容易地維護這些,無論是口頭或書面形式。 The following extracts, referring to the most important articles of faith taught in the Koran, will give an approximate idea of its language and mode of thought:以下摘錄,指的是最重要的條款的信念講授可蘭經,將大致想法的語言和思維模式:

Allah and Creation.阿拉和創作。

"Allah is the Creator of the heavens and the earth; when He says 'Be,' it is" (ii. 111; iii. 42, 52). “真主是創造天地;時,他說'是, '這是” (白介素111 ;三。 42 , 52 ) 。 "With Him are the keys of the unseen. None knows it save Him; His is the understanding of all that is in the land and in the sea; and no leaf falls without His knowledge" (vi. 59). “與他的關鍵是看不見的。都不知道救他,他的理解是,所有這一切是在陸地和海上,沒有葉不屬於他的知識” ( vi. 59 ) 。 "Should God touch thee with harm, there is none to remove it save Him; and if He wish thee well, there is none to restrain His bounty" (x. 107). “如果你聯繫上帝與傷害,也沒有將它移除救他,如果他想你的好,也沒有限制他的恩惠” (十107 ) 。 "Do not the unbelieving see that the heavens and the earth were one until We clove them asunder and made every living thing from water" (xxi. 31). “不要不信看到天地是一個直到我們丁香他們四分五裂,使每一個生活的事情從水” ( xxi. 31 ) 。 "He it is who appointed the sun for brightness; He established the moon for light and ordained her stations, that ye may know the number of the years and the reckoning of them" (x. 5). “他這是誰任命了太陽的亮度;他在月球建立的輕型和祝她站,你們可知道,一些年,他們推算” (十5 ) 。 "The cattle, likewise, have We created for you; in them are warmth and much profit, and of them ye eat. In them is there beauty for you when ye fetch them from their pastures, and when ye drive them forth to graze. They bear your heavy burdens to towns which ye could not otherwise reach, save with great wretchedness of soul: verily, your Lord is gracious and merciful!" “牛,同樣有我們為您創建;在他們的熱情和很多的利潤,以及他們你們吃。他們是在那裡為你美麗時,葉提取他們的牧場,當你們把他們提出來吃草。他們承擔的沉重負擔,以城鎮你們不能以其他方式達成,保存非常痛苦的靈魂:忠實,您的上帝是仁慈和憐憫! “ "Horses, too, has He created, and mules, and asses, for you to ride upon and for an ornament" (xvi. 5-8). “馬也有他創建和騾子,和評估,為你坐,並為裝飾” ( xvi. 5-8 ) 。 "He it is that sends rain from heaven, whereof ye drink; from which grow the trees whereby ye feed your flocks." “他是,將雨水從天上,信守業飲料;從生長的樹木,即飼料業的雞群。 ” "He makes the corn to grow, and the olives, and the palms, and the grapes, and all manner of fruit: verily, herein is a sign unto them that reflect" (xvi. 10, 11). “他使玉米的成長,和橄欖,棕櫚樹和,以及葡萄,以及所有形式的水果:忠實地,這裡是你們的標誌,反映他們” ( xvi. 10日, 11日) 。 "He it is that subjected the sea unto you, that ye may eat fresh meat therefrom and bring forth from it the ornaments which ye wear; and thou mayest see the ships that sail upon it" (xvi. 14). “他認為這是受到海告訴你們,你們可以吃鮮肉和由此帶來的從這些燁飾磨損;和你mayest看到船隻航行賦予它” ( xvi. 14 ) 。 "He it is that created you of dust, then of a drop, then of clotted blood, and then brought you forth as children; then ye attain your full strength; then ye become old men-though some of you are taken sooner-and then ye reach the time appointed for you" (xl. 69). “他是你創建的灰塵,然後的下降,那麼血液凝塊,然後把你提出的兒童;然後業實現您的完整實力;然後你們成為老年男性,雖然有些你是越早採取和然後你們到達指定的時間為你“ ( xl. 69 ) 。

Last Judgment; Resurrection.最後的審判;復活。

"O ye men! fear your Lord! Verily the earthquake of the Hour is a mighty thing!" “啊,你們男人!擔心你的上帝!真主地震的時刻是一個強大的東西! ” "On the day ye shall see it, every suckling woman shall forget her sucking babe; and every woman with child shall cast forth her burden; and thou shalt see men drunken, though they have drunk naught" (xxii. 1, 2).他說: “你們每天應看到,每個哺乳婦女應忘記她吸吮寶貝;和每名婦女與兒童應投下了她的負擔;和你應該看到男子喝醉酒的,雖然他們已經喝醉了一事無成” ( xxii. 1 , 2 ) 。 "And the day when We shall move the mountains, and thou shalt see the earth a level plain; and We shall gather all men together, and leave no one of them behind: then shall they be brought before thy Lord in ranks. Now are ye come to Us as we created you at first! Nay, but ye thought that we would never make Our promise good! And each shall receive his book, and thou shalt see the sinners in alarm at that which is therein; and they shall say, 'Alas for us! what a book is this, leaving neither small nor great unnumbered!' “和有朝一日我們將推動山區,你應該看到地球上的水平平原;和我們將收集所有的人在一起,沒有留下任何其中一人背後:然後將他們帶到你的主的行列。現在是你們來我們為我們創造你的第一次!不,但你們認為,我們永遠不會使我們的承諾好!每個應接受他的書,和你應該看到罪人的震驚,認為這是那裡,他們應說'唉,我們!什麼一本書是本,離開既不小,也不大的一間! And they shall find therein what they have done; and thy Lord shall deal unjustly with none" (xviii. 45-47). "We shall set just balances for the Day of Resurrection, and no soul shall be wrong; even though it be the weight of a grain of mustard-seed, We shall bring it" (xxi.48).他們會發現他們有什麼做;和你的上帝應處理不公正與無“ ( xviii. 45-47段) 。 ”我們應建立公正結餘日的復活,並沒有靈魂應是錯誤的;即使它是重量一粒芥菜籽,我們應把它“ ( xxi.48 ) 。 "Verily, those that believe, and those that are Jews, and the Sabeans, and the Christians, and the Magians, and those that join other gods with God-verily, God will decide between them on the Day of Resurrection" (xxii. 17). “真的,那些認為,和那些猶太人,以及Sabeans ,以及基督教徒,和襖教徒,和那些同其他神上帝忠實,上帝將決定它們之間的對日的復活” ( xxii. 17 ) 。

Hell and Paradise.地獄和天堂。

"Verily, We have prepared for the evil-doers a fire, the smoke whereof shall encompass them; and if they cry for help they shall be helped with water like molten brass, which shall scald their faces" (xviii. 28). “真的,我們已經準備為邪惡的事了火災,濃煙信守應包括他們,如果他們呼救聲,他們應幫助與水一樣熔化黃銅,其中應燙傷他們的面孔” ( xviii. 28 ) 。 "But for those that misbelieve, for them are cut out garments of fire; there shall be poured over their heads boiling water; what is in their bellies, and their skins, shall be dissolved; and for them are maces of iron. Whenever in their pain they shall come forth, they shall be thrust back into it" (xxii. 20-22). “但是,對於那些疑,為他們減少了服裝的防火;則須倒在他們的頭上開水;什麼是他們的肚子,他們的皮膚,應予以解散,並為他們maces鐵。每當他們的痛苦,他們應站出來,他們應推力回到它“ ( xxii. 20日-22日) 。 "Nay, when the earth shall be crushed with crushing on crushing, and thy Lord shall come, and the angels, rank on rank, and hell on that day shall be brought nigh-on that day man shall be reminded! But how shall he have a reminder? He will say, 'Would that I had prepared in my life for this!' “不,當地球上須粉碎粉碎的粉碎,和你的上帝應來,天使,排名上的排名,與地獄在這一天應提請近,在這一天的人應提醒!但他如何應有一個提醒?他會說, '請問,我已準備在我生活的這個! But on that day none shall be punished with a punishment like his, and none shall be bound with chains like his!"但是,在這一天沒有任何應處以處罰喜歡他,沒有應約束與鏈喜歡他! “ (lxxxix. 22-27). ( lxxxix. 22-27日) 。

"On that day shall there be joyous faces, well pleased with their past deeds, in a lofty garden where they shall hear no vain discourse; wherein is a flowing fountain; wherein are high couches and goblets set, and cushions laid in order, and carpets spread!" (lxxxviii. 8-16). “在這一天將有歡樂的面孔,也很高興與他們過去的事蹟,在一個崇高的花園,他們應沒有聽到徒勞的話語;其中是一個流動的噴泉;其中高沙發和坫集,埋在墊子秩序,地毯蔓延! “ ( lxxxviii. 8-16 ) 。 "Verily, the righteous shall dwell among delights; seated on couches they shall gaze about them; thou mayest recognize in their faces the brightness of delight; they shall be given to drink wine that is sealed, whose seal is musk; for that let the aspirants aspire! And it shall be tempered with Tasnim, a spring from which thosethat draw nigh to God shall drink" (lxxxiii. 22-28). "O thou soul that art at rest! return unto thy Lord, well pleased and pleasing him! And enter among my servants, and enter my paradise" (lxxxix. 27-30). “真的,正義之間應詳細美味;坐在沙發應他們的目光;你mayest承認在他們臉上的亮度高興,他們應考慮到飲用葡萄酒是密封,蓋章的麝香;為讓追求渴望!而且應與Tasnim鍛煉,春季從thosethat提請幾乎上帝應喝“ ( lxxxiii. 22-28 ) 。 ”啊,你的靈魂,藝術在休息!返回祂你的上帝,也感到高興和滿意他! ,並輸入我的僕人,並輸入我的天堂“ ( lxxxix. 27-30日) 。

Old and New Testament Stories.舊的和新約聖經故事。

Although the passages here quoted contain many original phrases and figures, they are frequently reminiscent of similar passages in the Old and New Testaments.雖然在這裡引用段落包含許多原始的詞組和數字,他們經常想起類似的段落中的舊約和新聖經。 These points of contact are the more numerous because Mohammed repeats many Biblical narratives.這些聯絡點的多,因為許多穆罕默德重複聖經說明。 These are found especially in the later suras, which have all the characteristics of sermons.這些發現特別是在後來suras ,這一切特徵的說教。 The chief subjects taken from the Old Testament are: the Creation; Cain and Abel; Noah; Abraham and his sons; Jacob and his sons; Moses and Aaron; Saul; David and Solomon; Job and Jonah; but from the New Testament, besides Jesus and Mary, only John is mentioned.首席主題取自舊約是:創新;該隱和亞伯;諾亞,亞伯拉罕和他的兒子;雅各布和他的兒子;摩西和亞倫;掃羅,大衛和所羅門;就業和喬納; ,而是來自新約,除了耶穌和瑪麗,只有約翰是提及。 In the Old Testament narratives the Koran frequently follows the legends of the Jewish Haggadah rather than the Biblical accounts, as Geiger pointed out in his "Was Hat Muhammad aus dem Judenthume Aufgenommen?"在舊約說明古蘭經經常如下傳說猶太哈加達,而不是聖經的帳戶,蓋革指出,在他的“原價紅帽穆罕默德澳大利亞DEM的Judenthume Aufgenommen ? ” (Bonn, 1834; 2d. ed. Berlin, 1902). (波恩, 1834年;一口。版。柏林, 1902年) 。 Thus, the story of Abraham's destruction of the idols in his father's house, and his answer to those that asked who had done it (xxi. 58-64), agree with Gen. R. xvii.; the sign that restrained Joseph from sin (xii. 24) corresponds to Soṭah 36b; the refusal of Moses to accept food from the Egyptian women (xxviii. 11) parallels Soṭah 12b; and the account of Solomon and the Queen of Sheba (xxvii.) harmonizes with the commentary of Targum Sheni to Esther i.因此,故事亞伯拉罕的破壞偶像在他父親的房子,他的回答那些想知道誰做了它( xxi. 58-64段) ,同意將軍河十七。 ;的跡象,表明抑制約瑟夫從罪孽( xii. 24 )對應Soṭah 36B條;拒絕摩西接受食品埃及婦女( xxviii. 11 )平行Soṭah 12B條;和帳戶的所羅門群島和王后的謝巴赫( xxvii. )統一與評論根社以埃斯特島 13. 13 。

For many of these borrowed narratives the sources are unknown.對於許多這些借來的說明來源不明。 Thus, for instance, the story in the "Sefer ha-Yashar" of the Egyptian women that cut their fingers in bewilderment at Joseph's beauty (xii. 31) is based on the Mohammedan narrative, and no older Jewish source thereof is known.例如,故事中的“之書公頃,亞沙爾”的埃及婦女,切斷他們的手指在困惑在約瑟夫的美麗( xii.月31日)是基於伊斯蘭教的敘述,也沒有老年人猶太源不足是眾所周知的。 For the legend of Samiri, comp.對於傳說Samiri ,補償。 "ZDMG" lvi. “ ZDMG ” 56 。 73. 73 。

In its version of the story of Jesus the Koran shows more dependence on the apocryphal than on the canonical Gospels.在其版本的故事,耶穌古蘭經表明更多的依賴於未經不是典型福音。 Thus the story of the giving of life to the bird of clay (iii. 43, v. 110) is found in the Gospel of Thomas (ed. Tischendorf, ii. 2).這樣的故事讓生活的鳥類的粘土( iii. 43 ,訴110 )被發現在該福音托馬斯(編輯提申多夫,二。 2 ) 。 The account of Mary's marvelous food (iii. 32) is given in the Protevangelium Jacob, viii., as well as the casting of lots for the care of her (ch. ix.), found in iii.該帳戶的瑪麗的神奇食品( iii. 32 )是在Protevangelium雅各布八。以及鑄造大量的照顧她(章九。 )發現,在三。 39. 39 。

Furthermore, there are many variations, especially in the case of proper names, which are due to confusion on the part of Mohammed himself.此外,還有很多變化,特別是在適當的名稱,這是因為混淆了一部分穆罕默德本人。 Thus, Pharaoh desires to build a tower (xxviii. 38), the story being based on the account of Nimrod (Josephus, "Ant." i. 4, §§ 2-3); by a confusion with Miriam, Mary is called the sister of Aaron (xix. 29); Haman is the servant of Pharaoh (xxviii. 38); and Azar becomes the father of Abraham (vi. 74)-a reminiscence in Mohammed's mind of the name of Eliezer (comp. also, for the account of Idris [xix. 57], Nöldeke in "Zeit. für Assyr." xvii. 83).因此,法老希望建立一個塔( xxviii. 38歲) ,故事的基礎上到獵人(約瑟夫, “螞蟻” 。島4 , § § 2-3 ) ;由一個混亂儀,瑪麗被稱為的妹妹,阿倫( xix. 29 ) ;咸安是僕人的法老( xxviii. 38 ) ;和阿扎爾成為父親亞伯拉罕( vi. 74 )一個緬懷在穆罕默德的頭腦中的名稱埃利澤( comp.也,該帳戶的伊德里斯[ 19 。 57 ] , Nöldeke在“時代。獻給Assyr 。 ”十七。 83 ) 。

Application of Quotations and References.應用引文和參考。

There are frequent anachronisms in the teachings of Mohammed.經常有過時的穆罕默德的教義。 Thus, the regulation concerning prayer and almsgiving is mentioned in connection with God's compact with Israel (v. 15); God commanded Moses and Aaron to provide places of prayer in Egypt (x. 87); and the destruction of Lot's wife was foreordained by God (xv. 60). Other additions were made to suit Arabic conditions, such as the description of Moses' staff (xx. 19); the reason assigned for his approach to the burning bush ("I will bring you a blazing brand from it"; xxvii. 7); crucifixion on palm-trees as a punishment (xx. 74); and Joseph as guardian of his brothers' baggage (xii. 17; comp. Wellhausen, "Skizzen," iv. 157; for the description of Solomon's glory, "dishes as large as cisterns"; comp. Al-A'sha, in Al-Mubarrad, 4, 14).因此,有關規例祈禱和施捨中提到的與上帝的契約與以色列(訴15 ) ;上帝命令摩西和亞倫提供祈禱場所在埃及(十87 ) ;和破壞地段的妻子是注定的神( xv. 60 ) 。其他增加了適合阿拉伯條件,如描述摩西的工作人員( xx. 19 ) ;分配的原因,他的方法來燃燒灌木( “我會為您帶來創新品牌它“ ;二十七。 7 ) ;受難的棕櫚樹作為一種懲罰( xx. 74 ) ;和約瑟夫作為監護人,他的兄弟'行李( xii. 17 ;補償。威爾, ” Skizzen , “四。 157 ;的描述所羅門的榮耀, “菜一樣大蓄水池” ;補償。基地A'sha ,在Al - Mubarrad日, 4日, 14 ) 。

A fundamental alteration, which has a direct bearing on the Arabs and on Mecca, is found in the story of Abraham and his sons, the Koran representing the Biblical patriarch as the founder of the sanctuary at Mecca.一個根本改變,這直接影響到阿拉伯人和麥加,被發現的故事亞伯拉罕和他的兒子,可蘭經代表聖經家長的創始人,在麥加聖殿。 Ishmael is not mentioned with him until the later suras, whereas, according to the earlier ones, Isaac and Jacob are the sons of Abraham: probably a confusion in Mohammed's own mind (comp. Snouck Hurgronje, "Het Mekkaansche Feest," p. 32). In all the Biblical narratives which are found in the Koran the words placed in the mouths of the speakers are intended to convey Mohammed's opinions and beliefs.伊斯梅爾沒有提到他,直到後來suras ,而根據以前的,以撒和雅各的兒子亞伯拉罕:可能是一個混亂的穆罕默德自己的銘記( comp. Snouck Hurgronje , “黑Mekkaansche Feest ” ,第32頁) 。在所有的聖經說明這是中發現可蘭經的話放在嘴裡的發言者是穆罕默德轉達的意見和信仰。 The relation of Mohammed to the Meccans is but thinly disguised under the warnings of individual prophets to a sinful people, and in the answers of the latter. Noteworthy in this connection are the words of Adam and Eve (vii. 22); of Abel (v. 32); of Noah (vii. 57, 59; xi. 27); of the unbelievers in Noah's time (vii. 58; xi. 34, 45, 48); of Jacob (xii. 99); of Joseph (xii. 33, 37); of Moses (vii. 103, xxviii. 15); of the Egyptian magicians (xx. 75); and of Jesus (xix. 31).關係穆罕默德的Meccans只是稍加偽裝的警告下,個別先知的罪孽深重的人,並在回答後者。在這方面值得注意的話亞當和夏娃( vii. 22 ) ;的阿貝爾(訴32 ) ;的諾亞( vii. 57 , 59 ;喜。 27 ) ;的信教的諾亞時間( vii. 58 ;喜。 34 , 45 , 48 ) ;雅各布( xii. 99 ) ;約瑟夫(十二。 33 , 37 ) ;摩西( vii. 103 ,二十八。 15 ) ;埃及魔術師( xx. 75 )和耶穌( xix. 31 ) 。

A few legends, in addition to the Biblical narratives, have been taken into the Koran, such as the legend of Alexander the Great, with "the two horns" (xviii. 82 et seq.), which is derived from a Syriac source (Nöldeke, "Beiträge zur Gesch. des Alexanderromans," p. 32); the legend of the Seven Sleepers (xviii. 8 et seq.; comp. Koch, "Die Siebenschläfer Legende," Leipsic, 1883; Guidi, "Testi Orientali Inediti Sopra i Sette Dormienti di Efeso," Rome, 1885); the legend of Moses and the servant of God (xviii. 64 et seq.); and the story of the one hundred years' sleep (ii. 261; comp. the story of Ḥoni ha-Me'aggel, Yer. Ta'an. iii. 66d; Guidi, "Sette Dormienti," p. 103).少數圖例,除了聖經的敘述,已考慮到可蘭經,如傳說亞歷山大大帝,與“兩個角” ( xviii. 82起。 ) ,這是來自敘利亞源( Nöldeke , “ Beiträge楚Gesch 。沙漠Alexanderromans ” ,第32頁) ;的傳說七軌枕( xviii. 8日起。 ;補償。科赫, “模具Siebenschläfer傳說” , Leipsic , 1883年;桂帝, “ Testi東方Inediti Sopra字母i澤塞特Dormienti娣Efeso , “羅馬, 1885年) ;的傳說摩西和上帝的僕人( xviii. 64起。 ) ;和的故事百年睡眠(白介素261 ;補償。故事的Ḥoni公頃, Me'aggel ,也門里亞爾。 Ta'an 。三。 66d ;桂帝, “澤塞特Dormienti ” ,第103頁) 。

The Koran contains also native Arabic legends, apparently somewhat altered in form, which are included for the moral they convey.可蘭經也包含本地阿拉伯文的傳說,顯然是有些改變的形式,這是包括他們的道德轉達。 To this class belong the stories of the destruction of the Thamud (the Θαμουδῆνοι of Diodorus Siculus, iii. 44; Ptolemy, vi. 7, 21; "Notitia Dignitatum," ed. Seeck, pp. 58, 59, 73), on account of their disobedience to their prophet (vii. 71, et al.); of the Madyan (vii. 83, et al.; the of the Bible and the Mαδιάμα of Ptolemy, vi. 7, 27); and of the 'Ad (xi. 62, et al.), a general term for a mythological, prehistoric people (comp. Nöldeke, "Fünf Mu'allakat," iii. 31, in "Sitzungsberichte der Wiener Akademie," 1903).這一類屬於故事的破壞Thamud (在Θαμουδῆνοι的狄奧Siculus ,三。 44 ;托勒密,六。 7日, 21日; “通知書Dignitatum , ”版。 Seeck ,頁。 58 , 59 , 73歲) ,在到他們的不服從他們的先知( vii. 71 ,等。 ) ;的Madyan ( vii. 83 ,等。 ;的聖經和Mαδιάμα的托勒密,六。 7 , 27 ) ;和'廣告( xi. 62 ,等。 ) ,一般任期為神話,史前人( comp. Nöldeke , “ Fünf Mu'allakat , ”三。月31日,在“ Sitzungsberichte之維納學院” , 1903年) 。 Here, also, belong the story of the breaking of the dam in Yemen (xxxiii. 14) and the speeches placed in the mouth of Luḳman (xxxi. 12 et seq.), who is mentionedlikewise in old Arabic poems.在這裡,也屬於的故事打破壩也門( xxxiii. 14 )和放置在講話口盧克曼( xxxi. 12日起。 )誰是mentionedlikewise在舊阿拉伯語詩歌。 The Koran, in addition, includes many passages of a legislative character and of later date.可蘭經,此外,包括許多段落的立法性質和稍後的日期。 These contain regulations concerning the pilgrimage (ii. 185); fasting (ii. 181); almsgiving (ii. 273 et seq., lxiv. 17 et seq.); the spoils of war (viii.); marriage (iv. 23, et al.); inheritance (iv. 2, et al.); and the like.這些含有條例朝聖(白介素185號) ;空腹(白介素181 ) ;施捨(白介素273起。 , lxiv 。 17起。 ) ;戰利品( viii. ) ;婚姻( iv. 23等。 ) ;繼承( iv. 2 ,等。 ) ;等。 In these portions, also, the typical expressions of the earlier passages relating to articles of faith recur as interpolations in the text itself. The language of the Koran is held by the Mohammedans to be a peerless model of perfection.在這些部分,也是典型的表現較早通道有關條款的信仰發生的插在文字本身。的語言是古蘭經舉行的伊斯蘭教是一個無與倫比的模式完善。 An impartial observer, however, finds many peculiarities in it.一個公正的觀察員,但認為在許多它的特點。 Especially noteworthy is the fact that a sentence in which something is said concerning Allah is sometimes followed immediately by another in which Allah is the speaker; examples of this are suras xvi.尤其值得注意的是這樣一個事實,即這一句說的東西是有關的安拉有時緊隨其後的另一在真主是一位;這方面的典型例子是suras十六。 81, xxvii. 81 ,二十七。 61, xxxi. 61 ,三十一。 9, and xliii. 10 (comp. also xvi. 70). 9 ,和四十三。 10 ( comp.還十六。 70 ) 。 Many peculiarities in the positions of words are due to the necessities of rime (lxix. 31, lxxiv. 3), while the use of many rare words and new forms may be traced to the same cause (comp. especially xix. 8, 9, 11, 16).許多特殊性的立場的話是由於生活必需品的霧凇( lxix. 31日, lxxiv 。 3 ) ,而使用了許多罕見的文字和新的形式可追溯到同一原因( comp.特別是十九。 8日, 9日, 11 , 16 ) 。 See also Islam; Mohammed.又見伊斯蘭教穆罕默德。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Flügel, Corani Textus Arabicus, Leipsic, 1869; Concordantiœ Corani Arabicœ, ib. Flügel , Corani Textus Arabicus , Leipsic , 1869年; Concordantiœ Corani Arabicœ ,興業。 1842; HO Fleischer, Beidhawii Commentarius in Coranum, i., ii., ib. 1846-48; Wherry, A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran, with additional notes and emendations, 4 vols., London, 1883-86; Ullmann, Der Koran aus dem Arabischen Uebersetzt, 6th ed., Bielefeld, 1862; Kasimirski, Le Koran, Traduction Nouvelle, Paris, 1864; EH Palmer, Translation of the Quran, in SBE vols. 1842年,何弗萊舍Beidhawii Commentarius在Coranum ,一,二。 ,興業。 1846年至1848年;划艇,全面評可蘭經,並補充說明和emendations , 4卷。 ,倫敦, 1883年至1886年;烏爾曼,明鏡古蘭經澳大利亞DEM的Arabischen Uebersetzt ,第6版。 ,比勒費爾德, 1862年; Kasimirski ,樂可蘭經,翻譯新,巴黎, 1864年;高血壓帕爾默,翻譯的古蘭經,在磺丁醚第一卷和第二卷。 vi.六。 and ix., Oxford, 1880; Th.和九。 ,牛津, 1880年;釷。 Nöldeke, Geschichte des Qorans, Göttingen, 1860.GS Fr. Nöldeke ,史Qorans ,哥廷根, 1860.GS神父。

The dependence of Mohammed upon his Jewish teachers or upon what he heard of the Jewish Haggadah and Jewish practises is now generally conceded.的依賴,穆罕默德在他的猶太教師或聽到什麼,他的猶太哈加達和猶太習俗現在人們普遍承認。 The subject was first treated from a general point of view by David Mill, in his "Oratio Inauguralis de Mohammedanismo e Veterum Hebræorum Scriptis Magna ex Parte Composita" (Utrecht, 1718); and by H. Lyth in his "Quo Successu Davidicos Hymnos Imitatus Sit Muhammed" (Upsala, 1806-1807).這個問題最早是處理從一般的角度看大衛軋機,在他的“ Oratio Inauguralis德Mohammedanismo é Veterum Hebræorum Scriptis大單方面通” (烏得勒支, 1718年) ;和閣下Lyth在他的“現狀Successu Davidicos Hymnos Imitatus坐在穆罕默德“ (烏普薩拉, 1806至07年) 。 Geiger's epoch-making work laid the foundation for the study of the Koran in its relation to Jewish writings.蓋格的具有劃時代意義的工作奠定了基礎研究可蘭經在其有關猶太人的著作。 J. Gastfreund, in his "Mohamed nach Talmud und Midrasch" (i., Berlin, 1875; ii., Vienna, 1877; iii., Leipsic, 1880), has attempted to show the parallels, also, in later Mohammedan literature; though not always with success, as Sprenger has pointed out ("ZDMG" xxix. 654).學者Gastfreund ,在他的“塔木德穆罕默德班上與Midrasch ” (島,柏林, 1875年;二。維也納, 1877年;三。 , Leipsic , 1880年) ,一直試圖顯示相似之處,同時,在以後的伊斯蘭教文學;但並不總是成功, Sprenger所指出的那樣( “ ZDMG ”二十九。 654 ) 。 Further parallels are given by Grünbaum (ib. xliii. 4 et seq.).此外相似之處給出了Grünbaum ( ib.四十三。 4起。 ) 。 The subject has received an exhaustive treatment at the hands of Hartwig Hirschfeld, in his "Jüdische Elemente im Ḳoran" (1878), in his "Beiträge zur Erklärung des Ḳoran" (Leipsic, 1886), and more especially in his "New Researches into the Composition and Exegesis of the Qoran" (London, 1902; comp. the remarks of August Müller in "Theologische Literaturzeitung," 1887, No. 12, cols. 278 et seq.).這個問題已經收到了詳盡的治療之手哈特維格Hirschfeld ,在他的“ Jüdische元素免疫古蘭經” ( 1878年) ,在他的“ Beiträge楚Erklärung萬古蘭經” ( Leipsic , 1886年) ,更尤其是在他的“新研究作文和訓詁學的Qoran “ (倫敦, 1902年;補償。言論米勒8月在”神Literaturzeitung , “ 1887年,第12期,列。 278起。 ) 。

Hebrew Translations.希伯萊語翻譯。

Hebrew translations of the Koran were not unknown, and fragments of these may lie buried in Oriental genizahs.希伯萊語翻譯的古蘭經沒有不明,這些碎片可能長眠在東方genizahs 。 Before such translations were made a simple transliteration into Hebrew characters sufficed. Portions of such a transliteration are to be found in Bodleian Manuscript No. 1221 (= Hunt No. 529), the first parts of which are even punctuated; on the margin are Hebrew translations of some passages and references to the Bible and the haggadic literature; the manuscript is in a modern Spanish rabbinical script.在這樣的翻譯作了一個簡單的直譯成希伯來文字符就夠了。部分這樣的直譯都在伯德雷恩手稿第1221 ( =亨特529號) ,第一部分是即使間斷;的利潤率是希伯來文翻譯的一些段落和引用聖經和haggadic文學;手稿是在現代西班牙猶太教腳本。 Additional fragments of such manuscripts are in the libraries of the Deutsche Morgenländische Gesellschaft (from the Crimea; see Rödiger in "ZDMG" xiv. 485), the Vatican (Cod. 357, 2), and the Vienna bet ha-midrash (Pinsker, No. 17).附加片段等手稿是在圖書館的德意志Morgenländische協會(從克里米亞;見Rödiger在“ ZDMG ”十四。 485 ) ,梵蒂岡( Cod. 357 , 2 ) ,和維也納打賭公頃,米特拉斯( Pinsker ,第17號) 。 In a bookseller's list cited in "JQR" xv.在書店的名單中提到的“ JQR ”十五。 77 is mentioned a volume containing the Torah, the Targum, and the Koran bound together ().提到77卷載有聖經的根,和可蘭經結合在一起( ) 。 A translation into Hebrew from the Latin was made in the seventeenth century by Jacob b.譯成希伯來文從拉丁美洲是在17世紀的雅各灣 Israel ha-Levi, rabbi of Zante (d. 1634; see Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS." No. 2207); and, in modern times, by Herrman Reckendorf (, Leipsic, 1857).以色列公頃,列維,拉比的贊特島(草1634 ;見紐鮑爾, “貓。 Bodl 。 Hebr 。衛星。 ”號2207年) ; ,並在近代,由赫爾曼Reckendorf ( , Leipsic , 1857年) 。 A translation into Spanish of sura 70 ("Al-Mi'raj") was made in the thirteenth century, at the behest of Alfonso X., by the physician of Toledo, Don Abraham; a French rendering of this was afterward made by Bonaventura de Seve.翻譯成西班牙文的蘇拉70 ( “基地Mi'raj ” )是在13世紀,在阿方的要求十,由醫生的托萊多,唐亞伯拉罕;法國繪製的,這是後所作的波納文圖拉由塞弗。 Koran citations, either for polemical purposes or in translations from the Arabic, are occasionally found in Hebrew writings (eg, in those of Saadia and Hai Gaon).引用可蘭經,無論是爭論的目的或在翻譯的阿拉伯文,偶爾發現的希伯來文的著作(例如,在那些Saadia和海Gaon ) 。 Simon Duran (1423), in his critique of the Koran (see "Ḳeshet u-Magen," ed. Steinschneider, in "Oẓar Ṭob," 1881), quotes the Koran; but he mixes such quotations with others from the Sunnah, and probably takes them from translations of Averroes' works.西蒙杜蘭( 1423年) ,在他的批評可蘭經(見“ Ḳeshet U型兩座, ”版。 Steinschneider ,在“ Oẓar尖” , 1881年) ,引用古蘭經,但他這種混合與其他報價從松納,並他們可能需要從阿威羅伊的翻譯作品。 In some translations from the Arabic, the citations from the Koran were occasionally replaced by quotations from the Bible (eg, in Al-Bataljusi, and in Judah Nathan's translations of Ghazali's "Maḳaṣid al-Falasifah").在一些翻譯的阿拉伯文,引用古蘭經偶爾改為引用聖經(例如,在Al - Bataljusi ,並在猶太彌敦道的翻譯加扎利的“ Maḳaṣid基地, Falasifah ” ) 。

Richard Gottheil, Siegmund Fränkel理查德Gottheil , Siegmund弗蘭克爾
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Steinschneider, Hebr. Steinschneider , Hebr 。 Bibl. Bibl 。 pp.頁。 309, 339, 591, 854; ZDMG xv. 309 , 339 , 591 , 854 ; ZDMG十五。 381, xlviii. 381 ,四十八。 354; JQR xii. 354 ; JQR十二。 499; Polemische Literatur, pp. 499 ; Polemische文學,頁。 313-316.G. 313 316.G 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 古蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 信仰支柱
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-從圖書的聖訓1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-從圖書的聖訓2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-從圖書的聖訓3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-從圖書的聖訓1 0布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書2 0布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 西遊記(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書2 6布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書5 2布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 統一性,唯一性安拉( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書9 3布哈里
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Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
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Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 克爾白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派穆斯林
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 阿伊莎
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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