Shiites, Shia, Shi'a什葉派穆斯林,什葉派穆斯林,什葉派

General Information 一般信息

The Shiites ( a name derived from the Arabic shiat Ali, "the party of Ali" ) constitute one of the two major branches of Islam, the other, larger branch being the Sunnites.什葉派( 名稱來源於阿拉伯語shiat阿里“的阿里黨” )構成的兩個主要分支伊斯蘭教,另一方面,大處是遜尼派。 Following the death of Muhammad, disagreement arose as to the necessary qualifications and exact function of his successors as leaders (Imams) of the Muslim community.去世後穆罕默德,分歧便產生了必要的資格和具體職能,他的繼任者為領袖(伊瑪目)的穆斯林社區。 The Shiites are those who insisted that only members of the Prophet's clan, specifically, the descendants of Muhammad's daughter Fatima and her husband Ali, could qualify.什葉派是誰堅持認為,只有成員先知家族,特別是後裔穆罕默德的女兒法蒂瑪和她的丈夫阿里,有資格。 Although Ali became (655) the fourth caliph, he was murdered in 661, and the majority recognized the Umayyad Muawiya I as caliph.雖然阿里成為( 655 )第四哈里發,他被謀殺的661 ,大多數承認伍瑪亞德Muawiya我作為哈里發。 The Shiites, however, supported the claims of Ali's sons: Hasan, who died mysteriously c.什葉派,但是,支持索賠的阿里的兒子:哈桑,誰死於神秘角 669, and Husayn, who was killed by Umayyad troops at Kerbala in 680 (Kerbala, in Iraq, became the major pilgrimage center for the Shiites). 669 ,和Husayn ,誰被打死的伍瑪亞德部隊在卡爾巴拉在680 (卡爾巴拉,在伊拉克,成為朝聖中心主要為什葉派) 。

Shiism has three major subdivisions as well as numerous offshoots. The majority are called Twelvers (Ithna Ashariyya), because they recognize 12 imams, beginning with Ali; the 12th disappeared in 873 but will return as the Mahdi (messiah).什葉派有三個主要的分支機構以及眾多的分支。多數被稱為Twelvers ( Ithna Ashariyya ) ,因為他們認識到12阿訇開始,阿里12日失踪的873 ,但將返回馬赫迪(救世主) 。 Twelver Shiism became the state religion of Persia (Iran) under the Safavid dynasty in the 16th century; it retains that position in the present - day Islamic republic of Iran. Twelver什葉派成為國教的波斯(伊朗)根據薩法維王朝在16世紀,它仍保留了這一立場在本-一天,伊朗伊斯蘭共和國。 The other two major subdivisions are the Seveners (Ismailis) and the Fivers (Zaydites).其他兩個主要分支是Seveners (伊斯瑪儀派)上班族( Zaydites ) 。

Shiism emphasizes the spiritual function of the Prophet's successor, the imam, in whom the Prophetic Light is ever present in this world.什葉派強調精神的作用先知的繼任者,伊瑪目,在他預言輕是以往任何時候都存在於這個世界。 He is believed to be divinely protected against sin and error and to have an infallible understanding of the Koran, a supernatural knowledge of future events, and intercessory powers.他被認為是神保護,以防止罪惡和錯誤,並有可靠的了解可蘭經,超自然的知識對未來事件和intercessory權力。

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Bibliography: 參考書目:
JR Cole and NR Keddie, eds., Shi'ism and Social Protest (1986); M Momen, An Introduction to Shi'i Islam (1985); A Tabatabai, Shi'ite Islam (1975).乘坐JR科爾和NR凱迪合編。 ,什葉派和社會抗議( 1986年) ; M Momen ,介紹什葉派伊斯蘭( 1985年) ;阿塔巴塔巴伊,什葉派伊斯蘭( 1975年) 。


Shia Islam什葉派穆斯林

General Information 一般信息

The followers of Ali were known as the Shia (partisans) of Ali. Although they began as a political group, the Shia, or Shia Muslims, became a sect with specific theological and doctrinal positions.阿里的追隨者被稱為什葉派(黨派)的阿里。雖然他們開始作為一個政治集團,什葉派,或什葉派穆斯林,成為節具體神學和理論立場。 A key event in the history of the Shia and for all Muslims was the tragic death at Karbala of Husayn, the son of Ali, and Muhammad's daughter Fatima.一個關鍵的事件在歷史上的什葉派穆斯林和所有的不幸逝世是在卡爾巴拉的侯賽因的兒子阿里,和穆罕默德的女兒法蒂瑪。 Husayn had refused to recognize the legitimacy of the rule of the Umayyad Yazid, the son of Mu'awiyah, and was on his way to rally support for his cause in Kûfah.侯賽因拒絕承認的合法性,規則的伍瑪亞德亞西德的兒子Mu'awiyah ,並前往集會支持他的事業在Kûfah 。 His plans were exposed before he arrived at Kûfah, however, and a large Umayyad army met him and 70 members of his family at the outskirts of the city.他的計劃暴露在他抵達Kûfah ,然而,和一個大伍瑪亞德軍會見了他和70名家庭成員在城市的郊區。 The Umayyads offered Husayn the choice between a humiliating submission to their rule or a battle and definite death.伍瑪亞德的選擇提供了Husayn之間的屈辱提交給他們的統治或戰爭和明確的死亡。 Husayn chose to fight, and he and all the members of his family with him were massacred.侯賽因選擇鬥爭,他和所有的家庭成員與他被屠殺。 The incident was of little significance from a military point of view, but it was a defining moment in the history of Shia Islam.這一事件幾乎沒有任何意義從軍事的角度來看,但這是一個決定性的時刻的歷史上什葉派穆斯林。 Although not all Muslims are Shia Muslims, all Muslims view Husayn as a martyr for living up to his principles even to death.雖然並非所有的穆斯林什葉派穆斯林,認為所有穆斯林的Husayn作為一個殉道者辜負他的原則,甚至死亡。

The Twelver Shia, or Ithna-'Ashariyya, is the largest of the Shia Muslim sects.Twelver什葉派,Ithna - 'Ashariyya ,是最大的什葉派穆斯林教派。 They believe that legitimate Islamic leadership is vested in a line of descent starting with Muhammad's cousin and son-in-law, Ali, through Ali's two sons, Hasan and Husayn, and then through Husayn's descendants. These were the first 12 imams, or leaders of the Shia Muslim community.他們認為,合法的伊斯蘭領導屬於一個系列的後裔開始穆罕默德的表弟和女婿,阿里,通過阿里的兩個兒子,哈桑和Husayn ,然後通過侯賽因的後代。 這是頭12阿訇,或領導人什葉派穆斯林社區。 The Shia Muslims believe that Muhammad designated all 12 successors by name and that they inherited a special knowledge of the true meaning of the scripture that was passed from father to son, beginning with the Prophet himself. This family, along with its loyal followers and representatives, has political authority over the Shia Muslims.在什葉派穆斯林認為,所有12個穆罕默德指定接班人的名字,他們繼承了一個專門知識的真正意義上的經文是通過從父親到兒子,從先知本人。這個家庭,連同其忠實追隨者和代表,有政治權力的什葉派穆斯林。

Ahmad S. Dallal艾哈邁德號火箭


Shiites什葉派

General Information 一般信息

Introduction導言

Shiites (Arabic, "partisans") are the only surviving major sectarian movement in Islam.什葉派(阿拉伯文, “游擊隊員” )是唯一倖存的主要宗派運動伊斯蘭教。

Origins起源

The Shiites emerged out of a dispute over the succession to Muhammad.什葉派出現的爭端繼承穆罕默德。 After the assassination of the fourth caliph, Ali, in 661, the Shiites (partisans of Ali) were those Muslims claiming that it had been Ali's right to succeed Muhammad directly and that the previous caliphs had therefore been usurpers.被暗殺後的第四代哈里發阿里,在661 ,什葉派(游擊隊員阿里)是那些穆斯林聲稱它已阿里的權利,成功穆罕默德直接和,前caliphs因此篡權。 They maintained that only the descendants of Ali and his wife, Fatima, Muhammad's daughter, were entitled to rule the Muslim community.他們堅持認為,只有後裔阿里和他的妻子法蒂瑪,穆罕默德的女兒,都有權統治穆斯林社區。 This doctrine, known as legitimism, was rejected by the majority of the Muslim community, who came to be known as Sunnites.這一理論被稱為正統,被否決的大多數穆斯林社區,誰被稱為遜尼派。

Distinctive Beliefs and Practices獨特的信仰和習俗

The Shiites developed a doctrine of the infallibility, sinlessness, and divine right to authority of the descendants of Ali, whom they called Imams.什葉派制定了一個理論犯錯誤,清白,和神聖的權利,權力阿里的後裔,他們所謂的伊瑪目。 The main body of Shiites recognize 12 imams and are called the "Twelvers"; the Ismailis recognize 7 and are called the "Seveners."正文什葉派承認12阿訇和被稱為“ Twelvers ” ;的伊斯瑪儀派承認7和被稱為“ Seveners 。 ” The last imam disappeared in 880, and Shiites to this day await his return, when they believe that justice will be established on earth.最後消失在880目,和什葉派穆斯林這一天等待他返回時,相信正義將要成立的關於地球。

The Imam, as the Shiites conceive him, is a repository of wisdom, absolute in his political and religious authority. Under the theoretical aegis of the 12th imam, Shiite religious leaders exercise immense influence. They are more likely to take an innovative approach to religious issues and to defy political authority than Sunnites.伊瑪目,什葉派想像的,他是一個倉庫的智慧,絕對在他的政治和宗教權威。 根據理論主持的第12伊瑪目,什葉派宗教領袖行使巨大的影響力。他們更有可能採取了創新做法,宗教問題和蔑視政治權威比遜尼派。

During the early centuries of Islam, the Shiites, politically defeated and persecuted, became an underground movement and adopted the principles of taqwa (which in this case means "dissimulation of faith") and of an esoteric interpretation of the Qur'an (Koran).早在幾百年的伊斯蘭教什葉派,政治失敗和迫害,成為一個地下運動,並通過了原則taqwa (在本案中的意思是“異化的信仰” )和一個深奧的解釋古蘭經(蘭) 。 Thus, Shiites believe that beneath the explicit and literal meaning of the Qur'an are other levels of meaning, which are known only to the imam, who can reveal them to chosen followers.因此,伊拉克認為,下方的明確和字面意義的古蘭經是其他層次的含義,這是已知的唯一的伊瑪目,誰可以顯示他們選擇的追隨者。 These principles, useful to the movement when it was politically powerless, are still accepted by Shiites. They also affirm the validity of a form of temporary marriage called muta. Shiites pay the tax called zakat (originally levied by Muhammad to help the poor and later levied by Muslim states) to their religious leaders rather than to state authorities, as they did before achieving political power (for instance, in Iran in the 15th century).這些原則,有益的運動時,在政治上軟弱無力,但仍然接受了什葉派穆斯林。 他們還申明有效性的臨時婚姻形式的所謂突變。什葉派繳稅稱為扎卡特(原徵收的穆罕默德幫助窮人和更高徵收的穆斯林國家)的宗教領袖,而不是國家機關,因為他們在實現政治權力(例如,伊朗在15世紀) 。 As a result, many Shiite leaders in Iran and Iraq have immense wealth and property.因此,許多什葉派領導人在伊朗和伊拉克有巨大的財富和財產。

Development and Extent發展和程度

During the 10th and 11th centuries, Shia Islam had a large following throughout the Middle East, but the spread of the popular mystical movement known as Sufism seems to have greatly diminished its strength.在第10和11世紀以來,什葉派穆斯林進行了大下列整個中東地區,但流行蔓延的神秘運動稱為蘇菲主義似乎已大大削弱其力量。 Today Shiites are in the majority in Iran, and large numbers are found in Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, India, Pakistan, and parts of Central Asia.今天,什葉派佔多數的伊朗,以及大量存在於伊拉克,敘利亞,黎巴嫩,印度,巴基斯坦和中亞部分地區。 Their total number exceeds 165 million.其總數超過1.65億美元。

In recent years several Shiite leaders, including the Iranian political leader the Ayatollah Khomeini, advocated rapprochement and solidarity with Sunni Islam.近年來,一些什葉派領導人,包括伊朗的政治領袖霍梅尼,主張和解和團結,遜尼派伊斯蘭。

Fazlur Rahman法茲勒拉赫曼


Imams伊瑪目

General Information 一般信息

Imam (Arabic, "leader" or "exemplar"), in general usage in Islam, is the political head of the Muslim community or the person who leads prayer services.伊瑪目(阿拉伯語, “領導者”或“典範” ) ,在一般使用的伊斯蘭教,是政治領導的穆斯林社區或線索的人誰祈禱服務。 The Prophet Muhammad and his early successors-including those of the Umayyad caliphate-performed both functions; the head of state himself led Friday prayers in the central capital mosque, and his governors did the same in provincial capitals.先知穆罕默德和他的繼任年初,包括伍瑪亞德政教合一,履行兩種職能;國家元首親自領導的星期五祈禱中部資本清真寺,和他的政府也做了同樣的省會城市。 Later, however, administrative and political functions were separated from religious ones.然而,後來的行政和政治職能分開,宗教的。

In Shia Islam, the term imam is applied to the person who is both the political and religious leader. He must be descended from Ali and Fatima (the son-in-law and daughter of the Prophet Muhammad). No imam, however, except Ali, ever ruled, and beginning with the sixth imam, Jafar al-Sadiq, all eschewed political power. The imam is regarded by the main body of Shiites as immune from error and sin and by the Ismailis as a veritable incarnation of God. Both sects believe the last imam to be in concealment and await his return. 在什葉派穆斯林中,伊瑪目應用於人誰是政治和宗教領袖。他必須後裔阿里和法蒂瑪(的女婿和女兒的先知穆罕默德) 。沒有伊瑪目,不過,除了阿里以往裁定,並開始與第六伊瑪目,賈法鋁蒂薩迪,所有迴避政治權力。 的伊瑪目視為主體的什葉派穆斯林作為免於錯誤和罪惡的伊斯瑪儀派作為一個真正的上帝的化身。雙方教派認為過去阿訇要在隱瞞和等待他回來。

Fazlur Rahman法茲勒拉赫曼


Shi'a什葉派

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Doctrines理論

The term Shi'a is Arabic for 'group' or 'faction'.這個詞是阿拉伯語的什葉派'組'或'派' 。 It is applied to those who believe that, after the death of the Prophet, the Imamate (the political and religious leadership of the Muslim community) should have gone to 'Ali - the cousin and son-in-law of the prophet - and his descendants as a divine right. The three caliphs who preceded 'Ali - Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman - were not intended by Muhammad to be his immediate successors.它是適用於那些誰認為,死亡後的先知,是伊斯蘭教長(在政治和宗教領導人的穆斯林社區)應去阿里-的表弟和女婿的先知-和他的後裔作為神聖權利。三個caliphs誰之前,阿里-艾布伯克爾,歐麥爾和奧斯曼-並不打算由穆罕默德是他的直接繼承人。

The Imam is regarded by Shi'ites not merely as a political leader but as a metaphysical being, one who is without sin, whose doctrinal pronouncements are infallible and who bestows true knowledge on humanity. The Imams are referred to within the Shi'ite tradition as masum - free from error or sin - and are regarded by the majority of Shi'as as twelve in number.伊瑪目被認為是什葉派不只是作為一個政治領袖,但作為一種形而上學的,一個是沒有罪的,誰就誰,他們的表態是萬無一失的理論,誰賦予真正的知識對人類。的伊瑪目被稱為傳統的什葉派作為masum -免於錯誤或罪過-和被認為的多數什葉派穆斯林為12的號碼。 The last Imam, the Mahdi, is believed not to have died but to be in hiding and will appear at the end of time in order to bring about the victory of the Shi'a faith.過去的伊瑪目,救世主,相信沒有死亡,但要在隱藏和將出現在年底的時間,以便實現勝利的什葉派信仰。

Unlike the Sunnis, who perform prayers five times a day, the Shi'ites pray three times a day: in the morning, in the afternoon, and at night. Like other Muslims, they perform ritual ablutions before prayer. 不同的是遜尼派,誰執行的祈禱5次,每天的什葉派祈禱每天三次:上午,下午和晚上。同其他穆斯林,他們的表現儀式浴室前祈禱。 However, they customarily place a tiny tablet of clay brought from a holy place on the spot where their forehead will touch the ground.然而,他們慣用的一小片地方的粘土帶來的一個神聖的地方,當場將他們的額頭接觸地面。 They also build very sumptuous monuments to their saints, organize pilgrimages to the tombs of the Imams and their descendants, and turn death and martyrdom into the focal point of their devotion.他們還建立非常華麗的紀念碑的聖人,組織朝聖的墳墓的伊瑪目和他們的後裔,並把死亡和殉難的焦點出的奉獻精神。

In the sphere of law the principal difference between Shi'a and Sunni is that Shi'a allows for temporary marriage, called mu'tah, which can legally be contracted for a fixed period of time on the provision of a fixed dower.領域中的法律的主要區別什葉派和遜尼派是什葉派允許臨時婚姻,所謂mu'tah ,可以合法的合同固定的時間內就提供一個固定的嫁妝。 With regard to theology, the Shi'a, particularly the Zaydis and Imamis, differ from the Sunnis in adopting the principles of the Mu'tazilite school of theology.關於神學,什葉派,尤其是Zaydis和Imamis ,不同於遜尼派在通過的原則, Mu'tazilite神學院。 A controversial aspect of Shi'a theology is called taqiya, which means dissimulation of one's real beliefs.引起了很大爭議方面的什葉派神學被稱為taqiya ,這意味著掩飾自己的真正的信仰。 This doctrine allows believers to hide their true beliefs for the sake of their own self-protection in the face of persecution.這一理論使信徒隱藏自己真正的信仰,為了自己的自我保護在面臨迫害。

History歷史

The movement that came to be known as Shi'a first appeared as a political tendency resulting from the conflict between the supporters of the Prophet's son in law, 'Ali, and the Umayyad dynasty over who should have authority over the Muslim community.的運動,後來被稱為什葉派首次出現的政治傾向產生的支持者之間的衝突的先知的兒子在法律上,阿里,以及伍瑪亞德王朝在誰應有權對穆斯林社區。 Following the assassination of 'Ali, his supporters claimed that leadership should go to 'Ali's descendants.被暗殺後,阿里,他的支持者聲稱,領導應該到阿里的後裔。 The conflict was exacerbated by the assassination in 671 of Ali's son, Husain, at the hands of government troops, an event which gave the movement a distinctively religious, as well as political, impulse.衝突加劇了暗殺在671阿里的兒子侯賽因,在政府軍手中,這一事件使該運動一獨特的宗教,以及政治,衝動。

According to mainstream Shi'a (The Twelver Shi'is) there have been twelve Imams who have succeeded the Prophet Muhammad.根據主流什葉派(該Twelver Shi'is )已有12伊瑪目誰成功先知穆罕默德。 These are: 1) Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad (d.661); 2) al-Hasan (d.670); 3) al-Husayn (d.680); 4) Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (d.713); 5) Muhammad al-Baqir (d.733); 6) Ja'far al-Sadiq (d.765); 7) Musa al-Kazim (d.799); 8) 'Ali al-Rida (d.818); 9) Muhammad al-Jawad (d.835); 10) 'ali al-Hadi (d.868); 11) al-Hasan al-'Askari (d.874); 12) Muhammad al-Mahdi.這些國家是: 1 )阿里的表弟和女婿穆罕默德( d.661 ) ; 2 )哈桑( d.670 ) ; 3 )鋁的Husayn ( d.680 ) ; 4 )阿里Zayn基地- '阿比丁( d.713 ) ; 5 )穆罕默德Baqir ( d.733 ) ; 6 ) Ja'far鋁蒂薩迪( d.765 ) ; 7 )香蕉基地卡齊( d.799 ) ; 8 ) '東阿里裡達( d.818 ) ; 9 )穆罕默德賈瓦德( d.835 ) ; 10 ) '東阿里哈迪( d.868 ) ; 11 )哈桑鋁'Askari ( d.874 ) ; 12 )穆罕默德邁赫迪。

The early history of the Shi'ite branch of Islam is characterised by a series of unsuccessful insurrections against the dominant Sunnis and the subsequent persecution of the Shi'is by the Sunnis.的早期歷史的伊斯蘭教什葉派科的特點是一連串的失敗對起義的主要遜尼派和隨後的迫害Shi'is的遜尼派。 However, in the 10th century the Shi'is acquired a substantial measure of self-determination as a result of the establishment of various independent Shi'i dynasties which came to control much of the Muslim world.然而,在10世紀的Shi'is獲得了相當程度的自決,由於建立了各種獨立的什葉派朝代來控制它的許多穆斯林世界。 In Iraq and Iran a dynasty called the Buyids held sway.在伊拉克和伊朗的朝代稱為Buyids舉行搖擺。 Syria was controlled by the Shi'i Hamdanid dynasty.敘利亞控制的什葉派Hamdanid王朝。 Egypt and much of North Africa was under the control or influence of the Isma'ili Fatimid dynasty.埃及和北非的大部分是根據控制或影響的Isma'ili Fatimid王朝。

In the 11th century, however, these dynasties were swept away by Turkish tribes who were invading the region from Central Asia and who came to adopt Sunni, rather than, Shi'i Islam.在11世紀,但是,這些朝代的沖走誰土族部落地區被入侵來自中亞和誰來通過遜尼派,而不是,什葉派伊斯蘭。 These were followed by invasions by the Mongols in the 13th and 14th centuries, the first of which was particularly devastating for both Sunni and Shi'i Muslims.其次是由蒙古人入侵中的13和14世紀,其中第一個是特別嚴重的遜尼派和什葉派穆斯林。

Shi'i independence was once again reestablished with the emergence of the Safavid dynasty in Iran at the beginning of the 16th century.什葉派獨立再次重新出現了薩法維王朝的伊朗開始時的16世紀。 The establishment of the Safavids exacerbated tensions between the Sunni and Shi'i areas of the Islamic world.建立了Safavids之間的緊張局勢進一步加劇遜尼派和什葉派地區的伊斯蘭世界。 The rise of the Ottoman empire to the west led to a long series of struggles between the two empires for control of Iraq.崛起的奧斯曼帝國的西部導致了一系列的鬥爭兩個帝國的控制伊拉克。 It was, however, internal weaknesses followed by the invasion of Iran by the Safavids' Afghani subjects that led to the fall of the Safavid dynasty in 1722.然而,它內部的弱點之後,入侵伊朗的Safavids '阿富汗尼科目,導致秋薩法維王朝的1722年。

After a brief attempt to reimpose Sunni Islam on Iran by its new Shah, Nadir Khan (r.1736-47), and a period of anarchy and factional fighting following Nadir Khan's assassination in 1747, the country came under the authority of Karim Khan (r.1750-79) whose wise rule brought temporary stability and prosperity to the region.經過簡短的企圖重新遜尼派伊斯蘭對伊朗進行新的沙阿納迪爾汗( r.1736 - 47 ) ,以及一個時期的無政府主義和派系鬥爭以下納迪爾汗在1747年遭暗殺,來到該國的權力下卡里姆汗( r.1750 - 79 )的英明統治帶來了暫時的穩定和繁榮的地區。 Following the death of Karim Khan in 1779 the country was led by a series of weak leaders until a new dynasty, the Qajars, established themselves and ruled Iran until 1909. The reign of the Qajars coincided with the beginnings of the attempt to modernise Iran in the context of the growing impact of the European presence in Iran.去世後卡里姆汗在1779年該國是由一系列的薄弱領導人到一個新的王朝, Qajars ,建立自己的統治,直到1909年伊朗。時期的Qajars同時開始嘗試現代化伊朗的背景下,日益影響歐洲在伊朗。

The attempt to modernise and westernise Iran was taken further by the final ruling dynasty the Pahlavis (1925-1979).嘗試現代化和westernise伊朗採取進一步的最後裁決王朝的Pahlavis ( 1925年至1979年) 。 Following the ascendancy of the Pahlavis a series of laws were passed which were designed to erode the power of Islamic law in favour of a form of secularised civil law.以下佔支配地位的Pahlavis了一系列法律,通過了旨在削弱權力的伊斯蘭法律贊成某種形式的世俗化的民法。 In 1928 a law was passed making it illegal to wear traditional dress.在1928年通過了一項法律,使非法穿著傳統服裝。 In the 1931 the power of the religious courts was reduced.在1931年的權力,宗教法庭減少。 In 1936 the use of the veil was forbidden. 1936年,使用被禁止的面紗。 Between 1941 and 1953 the Shah was forced to abdicate because of his support for the National Socialists during the second world war. 1941和1953年伊朗國王被迫退位,因為他支持國家社會黨在第二次世界大戰期間。 On his return he continued the process of secularisation and westernisation.他在返回的過程中繼續和西方世俗。

Growing opposition to the Shah's westernising policies on the part of the clergy and their supporters, accompanied by increased political corruption and oppression within Iran, led to the downfall of the Shah in 1979 and its replacement with an Islamic republic under the rule of Ayatullah Khomeini.越來越反對沙阿的westernising政策對部分神職人員和他們的支持者,隨之而來的政治腐敗和壓迫,在伊朗,導致垮台的沙阿在1979年並代之以一個伊斯蘭共和國的統治下Ayatullah霍梅尼。 The regime immediately introduced the Shi'i version of the shari'ah, thereby undoing the modernising reforms that had been introduced by the Pahlavis and their predecessors.該政權立即介紹了什葉派版本的教法,從而消除了現代化改革,實行了由Pahlavis和他們的前輩。 Although Ayatullah Khomeini died in 1989, the Islamic revolution which he founded continues to dominate the political and religious life of Iran.雖然Ayatullah霍梅尼去世於1989年,伊朗伊斯蘭革命,他創辦繼續佔主導地位的政治和宗教生活的伊朗。

Symbols符號

See Islam.見伊斯蘭教。

Adherents遺民

The Twelver Shi'i population in 1980 was estimated to be 72,750,000.該Twelver什葉派人口在1980年估計為7275.0萬。 There are important Shi'i communities in the following countries: Iran (34,000,000); Pakistan (12,000,000); India (10,000,000); Iraq 7,500,000; the former Soviet Union (4,000,000); Turkey (1,500,000); Afghanistan (1,300,000); Lebanon (1,000,000); Kuwait (270,000); Saudi Arabia (250,000); Bahrain (160,000); Syria (50,000).有重要的什葉派社區在以下國家:伊朗(三千四點零零零萬) ,巴基斯坦(一千二百點零萬) ,印度( 10000000 ) ;伊拉克七百五十○點零萬;前蘇聯(四百點零萬) ;土耳其(一百五十○點零萬) ;阿富汗(一百三十零點○○○萬) ;黎巴嫩( 1000000 ) ;科威特(二十七點零零萬) ;沙特阿拉伯( 250000 ) ;巴林(一十六點零零零萬) ;敘利亞( 50000 ) 。 There are also small Shi'i communities in Europe, Africa, North and South America, and Australia and New Zealand (Momen 1985, 282).也有小什葉派社區在歐洲,非洲,北美,南美,澳大利亞和新西蘭( Momen 1985年, 282 ) 。

Headquarters / Main Centre總部/主要中心

The tradition has no headquarters.這個傳統沒有總部。 It is above all dominant in Iran.它首先是佔主導地位的伊朗。

Bülent Þenay阿林克Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project總觀世界宗教工程


General Essay on Shi'a Islam一般論伊斯蘭教什葉派

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The branch of Islam that is called Shi'a has its origins in a series of disputes within the early Muslim community over who has the right to rule the community.分支被稱為伊斯蘭什葉派源於一系列爭端早日穆斯林社會對誰有權法治社會。 Shi'ites believe that shortly before his death the Prophet Muhammad publicly nominated his cousin and son-in-law, 'Ali, to be his successor.什葉派認為,前不久他的死亡先知穆罕默德公開提名他的表姐和女婿,阿里,是他的繼任者。 However, according to Shi'ites, contrary to the expressed wishes of the Prophet, the community came under the leadership of three of his companions: Abu Bakr, 'Umar, and 'Uthman ibn 'Affan.然而,根據什葉派,這違背了表達的願望先知,來到社區的領導下,他的三個同伴:艾布伯克爾,歐麥爾和奧斯曼本阿凡。 It was only as a consequence of the assassination of 'Uthaman in 656 that 'Ali himself was chosen as caliph.這不僅是因為刺殺' Uthaman在656的阿里本人被選為哈里發。

Not everyone accepted 'Ali's authority.不是每個人都接受了阿里的權威。 A rebellion led by 'A'isha, the daughter of Abu Bakr and wife of the Prophet, was defeated by 'Ali's supporters at the Battle of the Camel, which took place near Basra in 656. (The battle is so-called because 'Ali observed the battle while seated on a camel.) A second rebellion, led by Mu'awiyya of the Ummayad clan, culminated in the inconclusive battle of Sefin in Iraq.叛亂領導的' A'isha的女兒和妻子阿布貝克的先知,是輸給了阿里的支持者在駱駝之戰,發生在巴士拉附近的656 。 (戰爭所謂因為'阿里觀察戰鬥而坐在駱駝。 )第二叛亂,由Mu'awiyya的Ummayad部族,最終在決定性戰役Sefin在伊拉克。 The conflict between 'Ali and Mu'awiyya was brought to an end in 661 when 'Ali was stabbed to death by a Kharijite in front of a mosque in his capital city Kufa.之間的衝突,阿里和Mu'awiyya是結束了在661時,阿里被人用刀刺死的Kharijite在一座清真寺前在他的首都城市庫法。 'Ali's death enabled Mu'awiyya to establish himself as the next caliph.阿里之死使Mu'awiyya建立自己的下一個哈里發。

The response of 'Ali's sons, al-Hasan and al-Husayn, to the ascendancy of the Umayyads was to remain silent in the hope that, on the death of Mu'awiyya, the caliphate would be transferred back to the Prophet's family.的反應, '阿里的兒子哈桑和阿爾侯賽因,以佔支配地位的伍瑪亞德是保持沉默,是希望,在死亡的Mu'awiyya ,哈里發將轉回到先知的家屬。 When, however, the caliphate was passed on to Mu'awiyya's son, Yazid, Husayn was persuaded to rebel against the Ummayads.然而,如果哈里發是轉嫁到Mu'awiyya的兒子,亞西德,侯賽因是說服反抗Ummayads 。 The rebellion proved to be futile.叛亂被證明是徒勞的。 In 680 Husayn, his family and seventy of his followers were intercepted and massacred at a site called Karbala', near Kufa.在680侯賽因,他的家人和他的追隨者70的被攔截,並屠殺現場呼籲卡爾巴拉附近的庫法。 This event, which is commemorated annually by Shi'ites, is generally regarded as the point at which Shi'ism emerged as a religious movement in its own right.此事件,這是紀念每年由什葉派,被普遍認為是一點上成為一個什葉派宗教運動自身的權利。

Central to Shi'i belief is the doctrine of the Imam. The status of the Imam within Shi'i Islam is different from that of the Sunni caliph. The Sunni caliph is the spiritual and political head of the community. 什葉派信仰的核心是理論的伊瑪目。的地位伊斯蘭教什葉派伊瑪目內不同於遜尼派哈里發。遜尼派哈里發是精神和政治領導的意見。 The Shi'i Imam, however, is not only the political and religious leader of the Shi'i community; he is also considered to be infallible and free of sin and, therefore, one whose unique spiritual status enables him to mediate between the human world and the invisible world.的什葉派伊瑪目,不過,不僅是政治和宗教領袖的什葉派社區;他也被認為是可靠的和自由的罪孽,因此,其獨特的精神狀態使他能夠在人類之間進行調解世界上的和看不見的世界。

The various schisms that have taken place within the tradition are largely to do with disputes over who has the right to inherit the Imamate. The solid lines in the chart depict groups which have separated themselves from the dominant tradition as a result of disagreements over who is the rightful heir to the Imam.各種分裂已經發生的傳統基本上跟爭端誰有權繼承了伊斯蘭教長。固體線圖描繪群體的分離自己佔主導地位的傳統,由於分歧,誰是合法繼承者的伊瑪目。 The broken lines reveal groups who have adopted doctrines and practices that are so different from those of the mainstream Islam that they are considered by mainstream Shi'a to have placed themselves outside of the Islamic tradition.斷裂線揭示群體誰通過了理論和做法,以便不同於主流伊斯蘭教,他們被認為是主流什葉派已經放在自己以外的伊斯蘭傳統。

The main branch of Shi'ite Islam is called Imamiyyah or Twelver Shi'ism.總店的什葉派穆斯林被稱為Imamiyyah或Twelver什葉派。 This branch claims that there have been twelve Imams who have descended from the Prophet Muhammad.這個分支聲稱,有12伊瑪目誰擁有後裔先知穆罕默德。 With the exception of the third Imam, Husayn, who became Imam after his brother abdicated his claim to the caliphate, the Imamate has been passed down from father to son.除了第三伊瑪目,侯賽因,誰成為伊瑪目退位後,他的弟弟他聲稱哈里發的伊斯蘭教長已傳了由父親傳給兒子。 The twelfth Imam, however, did not have any sons and did not designate a successor.第十二伊瑪目,不過,沒有任何的兒子,並沒有指定一個繼任者。 According to Shi'i tradition, this Imam did not die but is concealed and will return one day to establish a reign of peace on earth. The twelfth Imam is known as the Mahdi.根據什葉派的傳統,這一目沒有死,但隱瞞和將返回一天建立一個統治地球上的和平。第十二伊瑪目被稱為阿里馬赫迪。

The first major schisms took place in the 8th century.第一次重大分裂發生在8世紀。 The first of these was led by Zayd b.'Ali, the son of the fourth Imam and half-brother of the fifth Imam.其中第一項是由栽德灣阿里的兒子,第四目和同父異母的弟弟第五目。 He challenged the principle that the Imamate should automatically go to the eldest son of the previous Imam; the Imamate should instead be available to any descendant of 'Ali who was worthy of the position.他質疑這樣的原則,即伊斯蘭教長應自動轉到長子前伊瑪目;的伊斯蘭教長反而應當提供給任何後裔阿里誰是值得的立場。 Zayd's followers came to be known as Zaydis.栽德的追隨者後來被稱為Zaydis 。 Zaydi communities continue to the present day in the Yemen region. Zaydi社區繼續當今在也門地區。

In the same century a second dispute arose over who should succeed the sixth Imam, Jaf'ar al-Sadiq (d.765).在同一個世紀的第二個爭議出現了誰應該接替第六伊瑪目, Jaf'ar鋁蒂薩迪( d.765 ) 。 The Imamate was originally intended to go to al-Sadiq's eldest son, Isma'il.在伊斯蘭教長原先打算去基地蒂薩迪的長子,伊斯梅爾。 However, because Isma'il predeceased his father by five years, al-Sadiq nominated his younger son, al-Must'alis, to be the next Imam.然而,由於他的父親伊斯梅爾先以五年,基地蒂薩迪提名他的小兒子,阿爾Must'alis ,成為下一個目。 This decision was not accepted by certain groups.這一決定是不能接受的某些群體。 Some claimed that Isma'il did not in fact die but was in hiding, and would return as the Mahdi.有人聲稱,伊斯梅爾其實並沒有死,但在藏匿,並將返回馬赫迪。 Others recognised that Isma'il had died but argued that the Imamate should go to Isma'il's son Muhammad.其他確認已經死亡,但伊斯梅爾認為,伊斯蘭教長應該去伊斯梅爾的兒子穆罕默德。

Both groups were overshadowed by another faction: the Fatimids. The Fatimids rose to power in Egypt at the beginning of the 10th century and established a dynasty which they claimed to be directly descended from 'Ali through Isma'il to themselves.兩組人員都被蒙上了陰影另一派別:在Fatimids 。上漲的Fatimids權力在埃及開始時的10世紀,並建立了一個王朝,他們聲稱是直接後裔阿里通過伊斯梅爾自己。 As professed descendants of 'Ali, the Fatimids claimed the title of Imam for themselves.至於聲稱後裔'阿里Fatimids的標題,聲稱自己的伊瑪目。 The Fatimid dynasty lasted from 909 to 1171, during which period they set themselves up as rivals to the Ummayad caliphs who were based in Baghdad.王朝的Fatimid持續從909到1171年,在此期間,他們為自己確立了作為競爭對手的Ummayad caliphs誰是設在巴格達。

The Isma'ilis who lived in Iraq and the Persian Gulf were divided in their attitude towards the Fatimids.誰的Isma'ilis居住在伊拉克和波斯灣分為其態度Fatimids 。 Some accepted Fatimid authority; others rejected it.一些接受Fatimid權力;其他拒絕。 This latter group, which came to be known as Qarmartis, continued to regard Muhammad ibn.這後一組,這後來被稱為Qarmartis ,繼續把穆罕默德伊本。 Isma'il as the Mahdi.伊斯梅爾是馬赫迪。 This group survived until the 14th century.該工作組下來,直到14世紀。

The next schism to take place within Isma'iliyyah happened in the early decades of the 11th century.在今後發生分裂Isma'iliyyah內發生的最初幾十年的11世紀。 An Isma'ili missionary called al-Darazi proclaimed the sixth Fatimid caliph, Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021), to be God, and denounced both Islam and Isma'iliyyah to be mere superstitions.一個傳教士呼籲Isma'ili鋁Darazi宣布了第六屆Fatimid哈里發,阿布'東阿里曼蘇爾哈基姆( 985-1021 ) ,是上帝,並譴責伊斯蘭和Isma'iliyyah都將僅僅是迷信。 It is not exactly certain when this event occurred; the earliest evidence of it is a letter of November 1017 written to al-Darazi rebuking him for his unorthodox teachings.這是不完全肯定這件事發生時的最早證據,這是一個信1017年11月寫信給鋁Darazi譴責他非正統的教誨。 Following the death of al-Hakim the sect was driven out of Egypt into Syria where it flourished and continues to the present day and is known as the Druzes. The Druzes are also important minority groups within Israel and the Lebanon.去世後哈基姆教派被逐出埃及進入敘利亞那裡蓬勃發展,並持續到今天,是被稱為Druzes 。該Druzes也是很重要的少數群體,黎巴嫩和以色列。

In the final decade of the 11th century Isma'iliyyah itself split into two groups: Nizariyyah and Musta'liyyah.在最後十年的11世紀Isma'iliyyah本身分成兩組: Nizariyyah和Musta'liyyah 。 Following the death of the Fatimid Imam, al-Mustansir, in 1094, his two sons, Nizar and al-Must'ali, fought with each other over who had the right to inherit the Imamate. Al-Must'ali prevailed and imprisoned and executed his brother.人死亡後Fatimid目,基地Mustansir ,在1094年,他的兩個兒子,尼扎爾和Al - Must'ali ,交戰的對方誰有權繼承了伊斯蘭教長。鋁Must'ali盛行和監禁和執行他的弟弟。 Nizar's followers fled Egypt and established themselves in Iran, from where they spread to India.尼扎爾的追隨者逃往埃及,並確立了自己在伊朗,從那裡蔓延到印度。 Indian Nizaris are today known as Khojas.印度Nizaris今天被稱為Khojas 。 Al-Must'ali's descendants continued in Egypt until the fall of the Fatimid dynasty. Today Must'alis are to be found in India, China, Russia and South-East Asia.鋁Must'ali的後人繼續在埃及,直到秋天的Fatimid王朝。今天Must'alis發現有在印度,中國,俄羅斯和東南亞。

In addition to groups that seceded from Isma'iliyyah, a number of groups have emerged from within the Imamiyyah branch of Shi'a.除了團體退出Isma'iliyyah ,一些群體出現了從Imamiyyah分行什葉派。 The first of these are the Nusayris.其中第一項是Nusayris 。 the Nusayris trace their origins to the eleventh Shi'i Imam, al-Hasan al-'Askari (d.873), and his pupil Ibn Nusayr (d.868).在Nusayris追踪它們的起源第十一屆什葉派伊瑪目,哈桑鋁'Askari ( d.873 ) ,和他的學生本Nusayr ( d.868 ) 。 the sect, however, seems to have been organised by a certain al-Khasibi who died in Aleppo in about 969.該教派,但是,似乎已經由某基地Khasibi誰死在阿勒頗約969 。 His grandson, al-Tabarani, moved to al-Ladhiqiyya on the Syrian coast, where he refined the Nusayri religion and, with his pupils, converted much of the local population. Today Nusayriyyah exists as a minority, but politically powerful, religion in Syria.他的孫子,基地Tabarani ,轉移到鋁Ladhiqiyya關於敘利亞海岸,在那裡他完善了Nusayri宗教和,與他的學生,轉換很多當地居民。今天Nusayriyyah存在的少數,但政治上強大,宗教在敘利亞。

Following the Nusayri schism the Imami tradition remained relatively stable until the 19th century when a number of millenarian sects emerged anticipating the return of the hidden Imam.繼Nusayri分裂的伊馬米傳統保持相對穩定,直到19世紀時,一些教派出現千禧年預期回報的隱藏伊瑪目。 One such sect, the Babis, was founded by Ali Muhammad Shirazi, who claimed initially to be the Bab (gate) of the hidden Imam and then the hidden Imam himself.這樣的一個節,該Babis ,是由阿里穆罕默德希拉茲,誰聲稱最初是巴布(門)的隱藏的伊瑪目,然後隱藏的伊瑪目本人。 These claims led to his arrest in 1845 and execution in 1850.這些索賠導致他於1845年逮捕和執行於1850年。 In 1863 one of the Shirazi's followers, Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri, proclaimed himself to be the prophetic figure foretold by the Bab.在1863年的一個希拉茲的追隨者,米爾扎侯賽因阿里裡,自封為先知預言的數字巴布。 Shirazi taught that God had been manifest in many different forms, and that he was the most recent (but not final) manifestation. Shirazi的告訴我們,上帝已經體現在許多不同的形式,並說,他最近的(但不是最後一次)的表現。 Since its inception the Baha'i faith has developed into a world wide religion completely independent of its Shi'ite roots. Baha'is do not consider themselves to be Muslims and are not regarded as Muslims by any Islamic tradition.自其成立以來的巴哈教已經發展成為一個世界各地的宗教完全獨立的什葉派根源。巴哈教徒不認為自己是穆斯林,而不是視為穆斯林任何伊斯蘭傳統。

Bülent Þenay阿林克Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project總觀世界宗教工程

Bibliography : 參考書目

Betts, Robert Brenton. The Druze. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.貝茨,羅伯特的胳膊。 德魯茲。紐黑文:耶魯大學出版社, 1988 。

Brockelmann, Carl. History of the Islamic Peoples. Trans. Brockelmann ,卡爾。 歷史的伊斯蘭人民。橫貫。 Joel Carmichael and Moshe Perlmann.喬爾卡邁克爾和摩西卡Perlmann 。 London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1948.倫敦:勞特利奇和根保, 1948年。

Cole RI, Juan and Nicki R. Keddie. Shi'ism and Social Protest. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1986.科爾康復,胡安和澳洲河凱迪。 什葉派和社會抗議。紐黑文:耶魯大學出版社, 1986 。

Daftary, Farhad. The Isma'ilis: Their History and Doctrines. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990. Daftary ,法哈德。 該Isma'ilis :他們的歷史和理論。劍橋:劍橋大學出版社, 1990 。

Esslemon, JE Baha'u'llah and the New Era. London: the Baha'i Publishing Trust, 1974. Esslemon ,乙腦巴哈歐拉和新的時代。倫敦:巴哈出版信託, 1974年。

Gross, Jo-Ann. Muslims in Central Asia. Durham: Duke University Press, 1990.毛,朝安。 穆斯林在中亞地區。達勒姆:杜克大學出版社, 1990年。

Halm, Heinz. Shi'ism. Trans. Halm ,海因茨。 什葉派。橫貫。 Janet Watson.珍妮沃森。 Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1991.愛丁堡:愛丁堡大學出版社, 1991 。

Harris, Ian et al. Longman Guide to Living Religions. Harlow, Essex: Longman, 1994.哈里斯,伊安等人。 朗文生活指南宗教。哈洛,埃塞克斯:朗文, 1994 。

Lewis, Bernard. The Assassins: a Radical Sect in Islam. Al-Saqi Books, 1985.路易斯貝爾納。 刺客:激進教派伊斯蘭教。鋁Saqi的圖書, 1985 。

Makarem, Sami Nasib. The Druze Faith. Delmar, New York: Caravan Books, 1974. Makarem ,薩米奈西卜。 德魯茲信仰。德爾瑪,紐約:大篷車圖書, 1974 。

Momen, Moojan. An Introduction to Shi'i Islam: The History and Doctrines of Twelver Shi'ism. New haven: Yale University Press, 1985. Momen , Moojan 。 介紹伊斯蘭教什葉派:歷史和理論Twelver什葉派。紐黑文:耶魯大學出版社, 1985 。

Nasr, Seyyed Hosein, Hamid Dabashi and Seyyed Vali Reza Nasr (eds.) Shi'ism: Doctrines, Thought, and Spirituality. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1988.奈斯爾,賽義德Hosein , Dabashi和賽義德哈米德禮奈斯爾瓦利(合編) 什葉派:理論,思想和靈性。奧爾巴尼:美國紐約州立大學出版社, 1988 。

Pinault, David. The Shiites: Ritual and Popular Piety in a Muslim. London: IB Taurus and Co. Ltd., 1992.皮諾特,大衛。 什葉派:儀式和3,915孝在一個穆斯林。倫敦:國際文憑金牛座和有限公司, 1992年。

Richard, Yann. Shi'ite Islam. Trans.理查德揚。 什葉派穆斯林。橫貫。 Antonia Nevill.安東尼內維爾。 Oxford, Blackwell, 1995.牛津,布萊克威爾, 1995年。

Smith, Peter. The Babi and Baha'i Religion: From Messianic Shi'ism to a World Religion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987.史密斯,彼得。 巴比和巴哈教的宗教:從彌賽亞什葉派的世界宗教。劍橋:劍橋大學出版社, 1987 。


Sunni-Shi'i Relationships遜尼派和什葉派的關係

Shi'a Viewpoint什葉派觀

One of the most important socio-political issues in life is that of leadership, its quality, authority and method of appointment.其中最重要的社會政治生活中的問題是,領導,其質量,權威和方法任命。 The Qur`an and the prophetic teachings emphasize obedience to Allah, His Prophet and the upright 'people of authority'. `的古蘭經和先知的教誨強調服從真主,他的先知和正直的人民的權力。 No Muslim disagrees with this.沒有穆斯林不同意這一點。 It is only with the method of legitimizing a 'person of authority' that differences occur and around which the Sunni and Shi'i theologies diverge.這是唯一的方法合法化一個人的權力'的分歧和周圍發生的遜尼派和什葉派theologies分歧。

During the early centuries of Islam the terms Sunni and Shi'i meant different things at different times, as did many other names designating various schools of thought.早在數百年的伊斯蘭教遜尼派和什葉派條款意味著不同的事情,在不同的時間,就像許多其他名稱指定不同的思想流派。 It was not until the eleventh and twelfth centuries that the current pattern of usage stabilized.但直到11和12世紀,目前的模式,使用穩定。

Sunni essentially means one who follows the Sunnah, which is the desired aim of every sincere Muslim.遜尼派的主要手段之一的松納誰如下,這是理想的目標是每一個真誠的穆斯林。 It has come to mean, however, those Muslims who follow the Sunnah and Jama'ah, that is, the way of Muhammad and the consensual majority of Muslims.它的意義,然而,這些穆斯林誰遵循松納和Jama'ah ,就是這樣的先知穆罕默德和協商一致的大多數穆斯林。 The term was first adopted by a faction of Muslims who had accepted Abbasid rule, stressing the importance of its continuity with the Marwani past.這個詞最初是通過一個派別的穆斯林誰接受阿巴斯規則的重要性,強調其連續性與Marwani過去。 It was well over a century after Muhammad that the term Sunni began to be widely used to distinguish between the largest common group (which is the literal meaning of Jama'ah) and the Shi'i, that is, those who were loyal to `Ali's party.大家都在一個多世紀後,穆罕默德的任期遜尼派開始被廣泛用於區分最大的共同組(這是字面意義Jama'ah )和什葉派,那就是,這些人忠於誰`阿里的黨。 It also implied those who strictly and exclusively referred to the Hadith as opposed to engaging in theological and philosophical discourse as a means of gaining guidance.它也意味著那些誰嚴格和專門提到聖訓而不是從事神學和哲學話語作為一種手段以獲得指導。 In latter-day usage Sunni has become synonymous with 'orthodox', though it would be more accurate to employ the term Jama'ah to signify the popular mainstream.在後者天使用遜尼派已經成為'正統' ,雖然這將是更準確地運用長期Jama'ah標誌流行的主流。

In the early years after the Prophet's death the term Shi`i meant 'follower' or 'partisan', with particular reference to `Ali.早在年後的先知去世任期施`我的意思'追隨者'或'黨' ,並特別提到'阿里。 The Shi'as believe that the Prophet had categorically appointed `Ali Ibn Abi Talib as his successor at the gathering of Ghadir Khum.在什葉派穆斯林認為,先知斷然任命`阿里伊本阿比艾布泰利伯作為他的繼任者在集會上的蓋Khum 。 `Ali in turn nominated as his successor his eldest son Hasan, who then nominated his brother Husayn and so on through another ten generations of the Prophet's descendants. `阿里又提名他的繼任他的長子哈桑,誰再提名他的弟弟侯賽因等通過另一家10代的先知的後裔。 Although the Sunnis all acknowledge the event at Ghadir Khum, they take the Prophet's message as merely an acknowledgement of `Ali's merit rather than a definite political appointment.雖然遜尼派都承認發生在蓋Khum ,他們採取先知的消息,只是承認`阿里的優點,而不是一個明確的政治任命。

In the end, however, the successor to the Prophet was elected by a group of Medinan elders (while the Prophet was being buried).最後,然而,繼任者先知當選由一群Medinan長老(同時先知被掩埋) 。 The first Muslim ruler (later to be called Caliph) was Abu Bakr, the Prophet's father-in-law and a close and loyal Companion.第一穆斯林統治者(後來被稱為哈里發)是艾布伯克爾,先知的岳父和密切和忠實的伴侶。 Though `Ali and his followers made occasional protests, they did not contest or revolt against the early Caliphs.雖然阿里和他的追隨者只是偶爾抗議,但他們並沒有反抗競賽或早期Caliphs 。 `Ali himself remained loyal to the cause of Islam and served wherever and whenever he could alongside his predecessors. `阿里仍忠於自己的事業,伊斯蘭教和服務無論何時何地,他可以與他的前任。 Upon the demise of the third Caliph, however, `Ali was elected the fourth.經消亡第三哈里發然而,阿里被選為第四。

...

The general Sunni stance on leadership was that peace under an unjust ruler was better than anarchy under a just one.一般遜尼派領導的立場是,和平不公正統治者優於無政府狀態下的只有一個。 For the Shi`i, justice in the government of human affairs could not grow if the ruler did not reflect the Prophet.對於施我,正義在政府的人權事務不能成長如果統治者沒有反映先知。 The ruler had the status of a prophetic figure who, in the Prophet's absence, should be the ultimate spiritual and temporal authority.統治者的地位,誰先知數字,在先知的情況下,應是最終的精神和時間上的權威。 The prophetic mantle was taken up by the Sufis in the person of their Shaykhs or teachers. This fact is significant because while most Sufis were Sunni, the necessity for enlightened leadership reflects the essential nature of transmission of knowledge and guidance.預言地幔是由蘇菲的人在他們的Shaykhs或教師。這一事實具有重要意義,因為雖然大多數蘇菲是遜尼派,必須開明領導反映的基本性質傳播知識和指導。 Hence the Shi`is turned to their Imams.因此,施`打開他們的伊瑪目。

Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri謝赫Fadhlalla Haeri
THE ELEMENTS OF ISLAM伊斯蘭的要素


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-聖訓從圖書1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-聖訓從圖書2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-聖訓從圖書3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-聖訓從圖書10布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短的祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書20布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝覲(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書26布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書52布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari ONENESS ,獨特性的真主( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書93布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 愷阿白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德人
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 伊達艾沙
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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