Sufism蘇菲主義

General Information 一般信息

The word Sufism, which is probably derived from the Arabic suf ("wool"; hence sufi, "a person wearing an ascetic's woolen garment"), denotes Islamic mysticism.蘇菲主義一詞,這可能是來自阿拉伯頻譜使用費( “毛” ;因此蘇菲, “一個人身穿苦修的毛紡服裝” ) ,是指伊斯蘭神秘主義。 Although outside movements have had some influence on Sufi terminology, Sufism is definitely rooted in Islam itself.雖然外面運動已經取得了一些影響蘇菲術語,蘇菲主義無疑是根植於伊斯蘭教本身。 Its development began in the late 7th and 8th centuries when worldliness and loose morals in ruling Umayyad circles evoked a strong reaction among certain pious persons. Individuals such as Hasan of Basra (d. 728) urged the Muslim community to heed the Koranic call to fear God, its warnings for Judgment Day, and its reminders of the transitoriness of life in this world. A new emphasis on the love of God brought the transition from asceticism to mysticism. The woman saint Rabia of Basra (d. 801) called for love of God "for his own sake," not out of fear of hell or hope for heaven.其發展後期開始的第7和第8世紀時,世故和鬆散的道德裁決伍瑪亞德各界引起了強烈反應,在某些虔誠的人。個人如哈桑的巴士拉( 4 728 )敦促穆斯林社會重視古蘭經呼籲恐懼上帝,它警告審判日,它提醒transitoriness生活在這個世界上。 一個新的重點放在上帝的愛帶來的過渡禁慾主義,以神秘主義。女子聖耶巴士拉( 4 801 )呼籲愛上帝“為自己的酒” ,而不是出於恐懼地獄或希望的天堂。

Sufism was early criticized by those who feared that the Sufis' concern for personal experiential knowledge of God could lead to neglect of established religious observances and that the Sufis' ideal of unity with God was a denial of the Islamic principle of the "otherness" of God. The execution (922) of al - Hallaj, who claimed mystical communion with God, is related to this second issue, and in later centuries some Sufis did indeed move to a theosophical monism (for example, Ibn Arabi, d. 1240; and Jili, dc 1428). 蘇菲主義是早期批評那些誰擔心,蘇菲關心個人經驗性知識的上帝會導致忽視建立宗教儀式,而蘇菲'理想的團結與上帝是否定伊斯蘭原則的“異類”的上帝。執行( 922 )的Al - Hallaj ,誰聲稱神秘與上帝,是與此相關的第二個問題,並在以後的幾個世紀一些蘇菲確實轉向theosophical論(例如,伊本阿拉比, 4 1240年;和吉利,哥倫比亞特區1428年) 。 By combining a traditional theological position with a moderate form of Sufism, al - Ghazali made mysticism widely acceptable in the Muslim world.通過結合傳統的神學立場溫和形式的蘇菲主義,阿爾-加扎利取得廣泛接受的神秘主義在穆斯林世界。

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Sufism exercised a tremendous influence, partly through mystical poetry, for example, that of Jalal al - Din al - Rumi, and partly through the formation of religious brotherhoods.蘇菲主義發揮了巨大的影響,部分是通過神秘的詩,例如,對賈拉勒塔-丁基地-魯米,部分是通過形成的宗教教派。 The latter grew out of the practice of disciples' studying under a mystical guide (pir, or "saint") to achieve direct communion with God.後者源自實踐門徒的學習指導下的神秘組織( PIR ,或所謂“聖人” ) ,以實現直接與上帝。 Some of the brotherhoods (turuq; singular, tariqa, "way") had a significant missionary impact.一些團( turuq ;奇異, tariqa , “辦法” )有重大的傳教士的影響。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
AJ Arberry, Sufism: An Account of the Mystics of Islam (1950); M Lings, A Sufi Saint of the Twentieth Century: SA a - 'Alawi, His Spiritual Heritage and Legacy (1971); RA Nicholson, The Mystics of Islam (1914); A Schimmel, Mystical Dimensions of Islam (1975); I Shah, The Sufis (1971); J Subhan, Sufism: Its Saints and Shrines (1938); JS Trimingham, The Sufi Orders in Islam (1971).歐塞爾Arberry ,蘇菲主義:敘述了神秘的伊斯蘭( 1950年) ; M Lings ,阿蘇菲聖二十世紀:公司1 - '阿拉維,他的精神遺產和遺產( 1971年) ;類風濕性關節炎尼科爾森,在神秘的伊斯蘭教( 1914年) ,一名希米爾,神秘的尺寸伊斯蘭教( 1975年) ;我沙阿的蘇菲( 1971年) ; J Subhan ,蘇菲主義:它的聖徒和聖地( 1938年) ;爵士Trimingham的訂單伊斯蘭教蘇菲( 1971年) 。


Sufism蘇菲主義

General Information 一般信息

An ascetic tradition called Sufism emphasized personal piety and mysticism and contributed to Islamic cultural diversity, and further enriched the Muslim heritage.一個所謂的禁慾主義傳統孝道蘇菲主義強調個人的貢獻和神秘主義和伊斯蘭文化的多樣性,進一步豐富了穆斯林遺產。 In contrast to the legal-minded approach to Islam, Sufis emphasized spirituality as a way of knowing God.與此相反的法律的態度,伊斯蘭教,蘇菲強調精神作為一種知道上帝。 During the 9th century Sufism developed into a mystical doctrine, with direct communion or even ecstatic union with God as its ideal. One of the vehicles for this experience is the ecstatic dance of the Sufi whirling dervishes. Eventually Sufism later developed into a complex popular movement and was institutionalized in the form of collective, hierarchical Sufi orders.在9世紀蘇菲主義發展成為一個神秘的理論,直接交流,甚至欣喜若狂聯盟與上帝作為其理想。 其中一輛車的這方面的經驗是欣喜若狂舞蘇菲旋轉dervishes 。最後蘇菲派後來發展成一個複雜的民眾運動和制度化的形式,集體,等級蘇菲訂單。

The Sufi emphasis on intuitive knowledge and the love of God increased the appeal of Islam to the masses and largely made possible its extension beyond the Middle East into Africa and East Asia.蘇菲強調了直觀的知識和上帝的愛增加了呼籲伊斯蘭教群眾,在很大程度上得以將其延伸超出了中東到非洲和東亞。 Sufi brotherhoods multiplied rapidly from the Atlantic coast to Indonesia; some spanned the entire Islamic world, others were regional or local. The tremendous success of these fraternities was due primarily to the abilities and humanitarianism of their founders and leaders, who not only ministered to the spiritual needs of their followers but also helped the poor of all faiths and frequently served as intermediaries between the people and the government.蘇菲教派成倍迅速從大西洋沿岸到印度尼西亞;一些橫跨整個伊斯蘭世界,另一些地區或地方。的巨大成功這些兄弟主要是由於能力和人道的創始人和領導人,不僅事奉誰的精神需求及其追隨者,而且還幫助窮人所有信仰和經常充當中間人之間的人民和政府。

Ahmad S. Dallal艾哈邁德號火箭


General Essay on Sufism一般論蘇菲主義

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The term "Sufi" derives from the Arabic word "suf" (meaning "wool") and was applied to Muslim ascetics and mystics because they wore garments made out of wool.術語“蘇菲”源自阿拉伯語單詞“頻譜使用費” (意思是“毛” ) ,並適用於穆斯林修行和神秘主義者,因為他們穿著服裝的羊毛。 Sufism represents a dimension of Islamic religious life that has frequently been viewed by Muslim theologians and lawyers with suspicion.蘇菲主義的一個層面的伊斯蘭宗教生活,常常被認為是穆斯林神學家和律師的懷疑。 The ecstatic state of the mystic can sometimes produce extreme behaviour or statements that on occasion appear to border on the blasphemous.激動的狀態,有時會產生神秘的極端行為或聲明,有時似乎邊界上的褻瀆。 The cause of this is that the Sufis can sometimes feel so close to God that they lose a sense of their own self identity and feel themselves to be completely absorbed into God.原因是,蘇菲有時會感到如此接近上帝,他們失去了意義上的自身特性和感覺自己被完全吸收到上帝。 This in fact is the goal of the Sufi.這其實是在目標的蘇菲。 Through following a series of devotional practices, which lead to higher levels of ecstatic state, Sufis aspire to realise a condition in which they are in direct communion with God.通過以下一系列虔誠的做法,從而導致更高程度的興奮狀態,蘇菲渴望實現的一個條件,他們在直接與上帝。 Ultimately the individual human personality passes away and the Sufi feels his soul absorbed into God.最終個別人的個性去世和蘇菲覺得他的靈魂融入上帝。

The origins of Islamic mysticism can be traced back to the 8th century.起源的伊斯蘭神秘主義的可以追溯到8世紀。 A consequence of the rapid spread of Islam under the Ummayad dynasty was the exposure of Muslims to a large number of different ethnic groups and the acquisition of considerable wealth that was the fruit of military conquest.的後果,迅速蔓延,伊斯蘭教的Ummayad王朝是穆斯林暴露了大量的不同種族群體和獲取可觀的財富,這是果實的軍事征服。 The growing opulence of Islam was symbolised by the relocation of the capital of the empire from Medina to the more cosmopolitan city of Damascus.日益富裕的伊斯蘭象徵的搬遷資本帝國梅迪納更大都會大馬士革。 In reaction to the more worldly outlook of the Ummayads various groups and figures emerged who encouraged a return to the pure values of the Prophet and the Qur'an.在反應更世俗觀Ummayads各種團體和人物出現誰鼓勵回到純價值觀的先知和古蘭經。 One such figure, Hasan al-Basri (642-728), preached a rejection of the world and courageously criticised those in power when he felt that they were not conducting themselves according to the ethical standards of Islam.這樣一個人物,哈桑-巴斯里( 642-728 ) ,鼓吹拒絕世界和勇敢批評當權者時,他認為,他們沒有進行自己按照伊斯蘭教的道德標準。 A second figure, Rabi'ah al-Adawiyah (d.801), cultivated the attainment of mystical union with God through the love of God.第二個數字,拉比阿鋁Adawiyah ( d.801 ) ,耕地實現神秘聯盟與上帝通過上帝的愛。 A third, and controversial, mystic, al-Hallaj (857-922), lived as a wandering preacher who gathered around him a large number of disciples.第三,和有爭議的,神秘的,基地Hallaj ( 857-922 ) ,流浪的生活作為傳道誰在他周圍聚集了大量的弟子。 Such was al-Hallaj's sense of the intimate presence of God that he sometimes appeared to be identifying himself with God.這是鋁Hallaj的意義上的親密上帝存在,他有時似乎是確定自己的上帝。 He is reported to have made one statement - "I am the Truth!"他的報告,提出了一項聲明- “我的真相! ” - which caused such outrage that he was imprisoned for eight years and in 922 executed by crucifixion. -造成這種憤怒,他被囚禁了8年,並在922所執行受難。 Al-Hallaj's death illustrates in an extreme way the tensions that would characterise the relationship between Sufi mysticism and the Islamic legal authorities.鋁Hallaj的死亡說明在一個極端的方式的緊張局勢,將特徵之間的關係蘇菲神秘主義和伊斯蘭法律當局。

The kind of loose master-disciple relationship characteristic of 9th century mystical Islam gradually evolved into organised establishments. By the 11th century there were distinctive groups associated with a particular master.這種鬆散的主門徒關係特點神秘九世紀伊斯蘭教逐漸演變成有組織的機構。到了11世紀,有獨特的群體與一個特定的主人。 These groups, however, were often not cohesive enough to survive the death of the master.這些群體,但是,往往沒有足夠的生存凝聚力死亡的主人。 It was only in the 12th and 13th centuries that orders emerged which were stable enough to continue after the death of the founder.只有在第12和13世紀的訂單出現了足夠穩定繼續去世後的創始人。 This continuity was achieved through the current master nominating a successor who would lead the order following the current master's death.這種連續性是通過目前掌握的繼任提名誰將導致該命令後,目前總的死亡。 Thus, these orders were able to trace their origins through a chain of masters.因此,這些訂單能夠追踪它們的起源,通過一連串的主人。 Such orders were called tariqahs.這種被稱為tariqahs訂單。

The three regions principally associated with Sufism are Mesopotamia (Iran and Iraq), Central Asia and North Africa.這三個地區,主要與蘇菲主義是美索不達米亞(伊拉克和伊朗) ,中亞和北非。 The most important orders to emerge out of Mesopotamia are Rifa'iyyah, Suhrawardiyyah, Kubrawiyyah and Qadiriyyah.最重要的訂單出現了美索不達米亞的Rifa'iyyah , Suhrawardiyyah , Kubrawiyyah和Qadiriyyah 。 These are all among the earliest of the Sufi orders.這些都是最早的蘇菲訂單。 Rifa'iyyah was founded in Basra, Iraq in the 12th century, soon spreading from Iraq into Syria and Egypt. Suhrawardiyyah, also founded in 12th century Iraq spread westwards into India. Rifa'iyyah成立於巴士拉,伊拉克於12世紀,盡快從伊拉克蔓延到敘利亞和埃及。 Suhrawardiyyah ,還成立於12世紀的伊拉克向西傳播到印度。 Qadiriyyah and Kubrawiyyah are both Iranian orders. Qadiriyyah和Kubrawiyyah都是伊朗的訂單。 Qadiriyyah, the earliest of the two orders, emerged in the 12th century, and spread both eastwards and westwards into India and North Africa. Qadiriyyah ,最早的兩個命令,出現於12世紀,都向東蔓延,並向西進入印度和北非。 Kubrawiyyah is historically linked to Suhrawardiyyah in that its founder, Nayim al-din Kubra (1145-1221), was a disciple of the founder of Suhrawardiyyah, Abu Najib as--Suhrawardi (1097-1168). Kubrawiyyah是歷史上的聯繫Suhrawardiyyah在其創始人, Nayim al - Din的Kubra ( 1145年至1221年) ,是一個弟子的創始人Suhrawardiyyah ,納吉布為阿布- Suhrawardi ( 1097年至1168年) 。

Sufism was transplanted into North Africa as a result of the expansion of the Rifa'i order into Syria and then Egypt.蘇菲主義是移植到北非由於擴大了裡法伊命令,然後進入敘利亞埃及。 The presence of Rifa'iyyah inspired the founding of other orders.在場的情況下Rifa'iyyah啟發成立其他命令。 In the 13th century Badawiyyah was founded in Egypt by Ahmad al-Badawi (1199-1276), who acquired a reputation for mysticism and the performance of miracles.在13世紀Badawiyyah成立於埃及的艾哈邁德巴達維( 1199年至1276年) ,誰獲得了聲譽,神秘主義和性能的奇蹟。 This order continues today and thousands of visitors attend its annual festival in Tanta, Egypt.這令一直持續到今天,成千上萬的遊客參加其年度節坦塔,埃及。

At about the same time that Sufism was developing in Egypt, it was gaining in strength in North-West Africa through the support of the ruling Almohad dynasty (1130-1269), who ruled over Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Muslim Spain.大約在同一時間,蘇菲主義是發展中國家在埃及,這是越來越多的力量在西北非的支持下,執政的阿蒙哈德時期( 1130年至一二六九年) ,誰統治摩洛哥,阿爾及利亞,突尼斯和穆斯林西班牙。 In 13th century Tunisia a certain al-Shadhili acquired a group of disciples and formed who formed the basis of an order that came to be known as Shadhiliyyah.在13世紀的突尼斯某基地Shadhili收購了一批弟子,形成誰的基礎上形成的命令,後來被稱為Shadhiliyyah 。 This order continues to flourish in Algeria, Tunisia and Morocco.本命令繼續蓬勃發展的阿爾及利亞,突尼斯和摩洛哥。

In the 18th century the Islamic world fell under the influence of a reform movement called Wahabiyyah.在18世紀伊斯蘭世界的下跌的影響下,所謂的改革運動Wahabiyyah 。 This movement sought to rid Islam of what it regarded as illegitimate innovations such as the worship of saints and to encourage strict adherence to the shari'ah.這一運動試圖擺脫伊斯蘭教的東西視為非法的創新技術,如聖人的崇拜,並鼓勵嚴格遵守伊斯蘭教教法。 The spirit of reform spread into North Africa, leading to the establishment of new orders which rejected the more extreme forms of behaviour characteristic of some Sufi orders.以改革的精神傳播到北非,從而建立新訂單而拒絕了更多的極端形式的行為特點,一些蘇菲訂單。 An important order that came out of this context is Tidjaniyyah, which was founded in the 1780s by Ahmad al-Tidjani (d.1815) and which rejected many popular Sufi practices such as the adoration of saints. This order continues to exist today and has spread throughout North Africa and western Sub-Saharan Africa.一個重要的秩序,出來的這方面Tidjaniyyah ,這是成立於1780年代收藏的艾哈邁德蒂賈尼( d.1815 ) ,並拒絕接受許多常用蘇菲的做法,如崇拜的聖人。這項命令今天繼續存在,並已遍布北非和西部非洲撒哈拉以南地區。

Another order of this type is Sanusiyyah, which was founded in Cyrenaica (in eastern Libya) in the 1840s by Muhammad b.另一個令這類Sanusiyyah ,成立於昔蘭尼加(利比亞東部)於1840年穆罕默德灣 ali Sanusi (1787-1859).阿里Sanusi ( 1787年至1859年) 。 This order was characterised by the rejection of all forms of luxury and a strong sense of veneration for the Prophet.這項命令是由反對一切形式的豪華和強烈的崇拜為先知。 Following the departure of European colonialists from North Africa in the 1940s and 1950s the Sanusis established the state of Libya.離開後歐洲殖民者從北非在1940年代和1950年代建立的Sanusis國利比亞。 The Sanusis were overthrown in 1969 by Colonel Muammar al-Qadafi.被推翻的Sanusis上校於1969年穆阿邁爾Qadafi 。 Since then the Sanusis have provided an important source of opposition to the Qadafi regime and survive to the present day in spite of the Qadafi regimes attempt to curtail their activities.自那時以來, Sanusis提供了一個重要來源,反對Qadafi制度和生存到今天,儘管Qadafi制度試圖限制他們的活動。

In Central Asia and Anatolia (equivalent to modern day Turkey) a number of major Sufi orders emerged between the 12th and 17th centuries. The earliest of these, Yasawiyyah, was founded in the region now known as Turkestan and played a major role in spreading Islam among the Turkish tribes of Central Asia.在中亞和安納托利亞(相當於現代土耳其)的一些主要蘇菲之間出現訂單的第12和17世紀。最早的這些, Yasawiyyah ,成立於該地區現在被稱為東突厥斯坦,並發揮了重要作用,傳播伊斯蘭教土耳其族之間的中亞地區。 Possibly deriving from Yasawiyyah is the Bektashiyyah order.可能源自Yasawiyyah是Bektashiyyah秩序。 According to tradition, Hajj Bektash, the putative founder of Bektashiyyah, originally belonged to the Yasawiyyah order. Bektashiyyah continues to survive in the Balkan region to the present day.按照傳統,朝聖Bektash ,推定創始人Bektashiyyah ,原本屬於Yasawiyyah秩序。 Bektashiyyah繼續生存在巴爾幹地區到今天。

Another Central Asian order is Chishtiyyah.另一個中亞秩序Chishtiyyah 。 The origins of this order are uncertain, although the founder is generally believed to be Mu'in al-Din Chishti (c.1142-1236), a native of Sijistan.起源的這一命令是不確定的,儘管創始人普遍認為是Mu'in al - Din的奇什蒂( c.1142 - 1236 )是一個土生土長的Sijistan 。 The order gradually spread into India where it remains today as the largest and most important Sufi order.該命令逐漸蔓延到印度在今天仍然是最大的和最重要的蘇菲秩序。

Mawalwiyyah traces its origins to the famous Turkish mystic and poet al-Rumi (1207-1273). Mawalwiyyah ,最早可追溯到著名的土耳其神秘和詩人鋁魯米( 1207至73年) 。 The order's name derives from the Arabic word Mawlana (our master), a title given to al-Rumi by the order.該命令的名稱源自阿拉伯語中毛拉納(我們的主人) ,標題給予鋁魯米的秩序。 Mawlawiyyah is based in the Turkish town of Konya. Mawlawiyyah總部設在土耳其城市科尼亞。 Like many Turkish orders it was effectively suppressed when Turkey became a secular state in 1925.像許多土族命令是有效地抑制,土耳其成為一個世俗國家於1925年。 In other parts of the Islamic world the once important order has seriously declined or disappeared altogether.其他地區的伊斯蘭世界的一次重要的秩序嚴重下降或完全消失。

The Naqshbandis, however, have enjoyed more success.該Naqshbandis然而,有著更大的成功。 Founded by Baha al-din Naqshband (d.1389) in a village near Bukhara in Central Asia, the order gradually spread eastwards into India and westwards into Turkey. Supported by the Ottomans, Naqshbandiyyah flourished until the demise of the Ottoman empire and the establishment of a secular state under Kemal Ataturk in Turkey.成立由巴哈al - Din的Naqshband ( d.1389 )在附近的一個村莊布哈拉在中亞,為了向東逐漸蔓延到印度和向西進入土耳其。支持的土耳其人, Naqshbandiyyah蓬勃發展,直至消亡的奧斯曼帝國和建立一個世俗國家根據土耳其國父凱末爾。 Ataturk regarded the Sufi orders as decadent, reactionary and an obstruction to the modernisation of Turkey.阿塔圖爾克認為,蘇菲命令腐朽,反動的,阻礙現代化建設的土耳其。 In order to reform the state in 1925 he ordered the abolition of all mystical orders in Turkey.為了改革國家在1925年他下令取消所有在土耳其神秘的訂單。

The Khalwatiyyah order was founded in Persia but spread quickly into Anatolia.為了在Khalwatiyyah成立於波斯而且迅速蔓延到土耳其。 Out of Khalwatiyyah two other important orders emerged: Bayramiyyah and Jalwatiyyah.在另外兩個重要Khalwatiyyah訂單出現: Bayramiyyah和Jalwatiyyah 。 Bayramiyyah was founded at Ankara in the 14th century and continued until its dissolution in 1925. Bayramiyyah在安卡拉成立於14世紀,並一直持續到1925年解散。 Jalwatiyyah was founded in the 17th century by Aziz Mahmud Huda'i (d.1628) who was previously a member of the Khalwati order. Jalwatiyyah成立於17世紀由阿齊茲馬哈茂德Huda'i ( d.1628 )誰是以前的一名成員Khalwati秩序。 Like the other Turkish orders it was banned in 1925 by the Ataturk government; the last master of the order died in 1946.像其他土耳其訂單都被禁止在1925年的阿塔圖爾克政府;最後船長命令1946年去世。

The abolition of these orders in Turkey demonstrates the kinds of pressures they have encountered as a result of the growing strength of secularism in the world during the modern period.廢除這些訂單表明在土耳其的各種壓力,他們所遇到的由於不斷增長的力量在世俗的世界在現代時期。 In many parts of the Arab world the orders have all but disappeared.許多地區的阿拉伯世界的訂單已全部消失。 In other parts of the Islamic world, however, they have continued.其他地區的伊斯蘭世界,但是,他們一直在繼續。 In North Africa and India Sufism has lost the influence they once had but nevertheless remain a part of the religious identity of the area.在北非和印度蘇菲主義已經失去了影響力,他們曾經有過,但儘管如此,仍有一部分的宗教身份的領域。 The continued existence of such orders suggests the inseparability of religion and its mystical dimension.繼續存在的這種命令表明不可分割的宗教和神秘主義的層面。

Bülent Þenay阿林克Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project總觀世界宗教工程

Bibliography : 參考書目

Arberry, AJ Sufism: an Account of the Mystics of Islam. London: Allen and Unwin, 1950. Arberry ,歐塞爾蘇菲主義:敘述了神秘的伊斯蘭教。倫敦:艾倫和Unwin , 1950 。

-----. Muslims Saints and Mystics. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1966. -----. 穆斯林聖徒和神秘主義者。倫敦:勞特利奇和根保, 1966年。

Baldick, Julian. Mystical Islam. London: IB Taurus and Co., Ltd., 1989. Baldick朱利安。 神秘伊斯蘭教。倫敦:國際文憑金牛座和有限公司, 1989年。

Binge, John Kingsley. The Bektashi Order of Dervishes. London: Luzac and Co., 1994.狂飲,約翰金斯利。 Bektashi秩序的Dervishes 。倫敦: Luzac和公司, 1994年。

Burckhardt, Titus. An Introduction to Sufi Doctrine. Trans.伯克哈特,提圖斯。 介紹蘇菲主義。橫貫。 DM Matheson.馬克馬西森。 Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Thorsons Publishers Ltd., 1976.威靈伯魯市,北安普敦郡: Thorsons出版有限公司, 1976 。

Lings, Martin. What is Sufism? London: George Allen and Unwen Ltd., 1975. Lings ,馬丁。 什麼是蘇菲主義?倫敦:喬治艾倫和Unwen有限公司, 1975年。

Norris, HT Islam in the Balkans: Religion and Society between Europe and the Arab World. London: Hurst and Co., 1993.諾里斯,羥色胺在巴爾幹地區伊斯蘭教:宗教與社會之間的歐洲和阿拉伯世界。倫敦:赫斯特和公司, 1993年。

Schimmel, Annemarie. Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1975.希米爾,茨馬。 神秘尺寸伊斯蘭教。教堂山:北卡羅萊納大學出版社, 1975 。

Stoddard, William. Sufism: the Mystical Doctrines and Methods of Islam. Wellingborough, Northamptonshire: Thorsons Publishers Ltd., 1976.斯托達德,威廉。 蘇菲主義:神秘的理論和方法伊斯蘭教。威靈伯魯市,北安普敦郡: Thorsons出版有限公司, 1976 。

Trimingham, Spencer J. The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1971. Trimingham ,斯賓塞學者的訂單在伊斯蘭教蘇菲。牛津: Clarendon出版社, 1971 。


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-聖訓從圖書1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-聖訓從圖書2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-聖訓從圖書3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-聖訓從圖書10布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短的祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書20布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝覲(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書26布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書52布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari ONENESS ,獨特性的真主( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書93布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 愷阿白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德人
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 伊達艾沙
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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