Sunnites, Sunni, Ahl-i Sunnah遜尼派,遜尼派, Ahl我松納

General Information 一般信息

The term Sunnites refers to the great majority of the world's Muslims, distinguishing them as the ahl al - sunna wal - jamaa ("the people of the sunna and the community") from the Shiites. Sunnites are, by this definition, Muslims who strictly follow the sunna (practices) of the Prophet Muhammad and preserve the unity and integrity of the community. Anyone who stands within the mainstream of the Islamic tradition and acts in accordance with generally accepted practices of the community is, therefore, a Sunni. Most Muslims see the sunna as complementary to the Koran insofar as it explains certain points and elaborates some Koranic principles by offering details necessary for the practice of Islamic law.任期遜尼派指的是偉大的世界上大多數穆斯林,區分他們的教派基地-空沃爾瑪-賈瑪( “人民的空和社區” )由什葉派。遜尼派是,通過這一定義,嚴格的穆斯林誰按照空(做法)的先知穆罕默德和維護的統一和完整的社會。 市民站在誰的主流伊斯蘭傳統和行為按照普遍接受的做法的社會,因此,一個遜尼派。多數穆斯林看空的補充可蘭經,因為它說明某些要點和原則,闡述了一些古蘭經提供必要的詳細資料的做法伊斯蘭法。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
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Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
I Al Faruqi and L Lamya, The Cultural Atlas of Islam (1986); JL Esposito, Islam and Politics (1984); IM Lapidus, A History of Islamic Societies (1988).餘鋁法魯基和L Lamya ,文化地圖集伊斯蘭教( 1986年) ;巨浪埃斯波西托,伊斯蘭與政治( 1984年) ;即時拉皮迪,史伊斯蘭社會( 1988年) 。


Sunni Islam遜尼派伊斯蘭

General Information 一般信息

Sunni Islam was defined during the early Abbasid period (beginning in AD 750), and it included the followers of four legal schools (the Malikis, Hanafis, Shafi'is, and Hanbalis ).遜尼派伊斯蘭界定初期阿巴斯期間(從公元750 ) ,它包括四個追隨者法律學校(在Malikis , Hanafis , Shafi'is ,和Hanbalis ) 。 In contrast to the Shias, the Sunnis believed that leadership was in the hands of the Muslim community at large.與此相反的什葉派,遜尼派認為,領導手中的穆斯林社區。 The consensus of historical communities, not the decisions of political authorities, led to the establishment of the four legal schools.的共識,歷史的社區,而不是決定的政治當局,導致設立了四個法律學校。 In theory a Muslim could choose whichever school of Islamic thought he or she wished to follow and could change this choice at will.從理論上講一個穆斯林可以選擇哪個學校的伊斯蘭思想他或她願意遵循,並可能改變這種選擇會。 The respect and popularity that the religious scholars enjoyed made them the effective brokers of social power and pitched them against the political authorities.尊重和受歡迎的宗教學者享受使他們有效經紀人的社會力量和投他們對政治當局。

After the first four caliphs, the religious and political authorities in Islam were never again united under one institution.經過前四個caliphs ,宗教和政治當局在伊斯蘭教決不再下一個聯合國機構。 Their usual coexistence was underscored by a mutual recognition of their separate spheres of influence and their respective duties and responsibilities.他們通常共存強調了相互承認各自的勢力範圍和各自的義務和責任。 Often, however, the two powers collided, and invariably any social opposition to the elite political order had religious undertones.通常情況下,然而,這兩個權力相撞,並無一例外地反對任何社會精英的政治秩序的宗教意味。

Ahmad S. Dallal艾哈邁德號火箭


Sunni Islam遜尼派伊斯蘭

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Doctrines理論

The Sunni tradition is one of the two main sectarian divisions in Islam (the other being Shi'a).遜尼派的傳統是兩個主要教派分歧伊斯蘭教(另一個是什葉派) 。 A number of important principles govern the Sunni tradition.一些重要的原則遜尼派傳統。

  1. The Prophet and his revelation are of foremost authority.先知和他的啟示是重要的權力。
  2. In order for the Qur'an to be used as a basis for sound judgement for subjects under dispute it is necessary to take sound hadiths into account.為了古蘭經被用來作為基礎,健全的判斷力的題目爭端有必要採取健全的聖訓到。
  3. Qur'anic verses should be interpreted in the context of the whole of the Qur'an.古蘭經經文的解釋應在整個古蘭經。
  4. In understanding the Qur'an rational thinking is subordinate to revelation.在了解古蘭經理性思考服從啟示。 If the Qur'an or the Sunnah of the Prophet offers a clear judgement on anything, the Muslim is obliged to follow this judgement.如果古蘭經或松納先知提供了一個明確的判斷什麼,穆斯林必須遵循這一判決。 If there is no clear judgement about anything in the Qur'an, then it is necessary to make a rational opinion (known as Ijtihad) which is consistent with Qur'anic teaching.如果沒有明確的判斷中的任何古蘭經,那麼它必須作出一個合理的意見(稱為Ijtihad )這符合古蘭經教學。
  5. The first four caliphs were the legitimate rulers of the early community.前四個caliphs人的合法統治者的早期社會。
  6. Faith and deeds are inseparable.信念和行為是分不開的。
  7. Everything occurs according to the divine plan.一切都發生根據神聖的計劃。
  8. Allah will be seen in the life after death.真主將被視為生活中的後死亡。

The Sunni tradition also emphasises the importance of religion in the formation of public policy.遜尼派還強調傳統的重要性,宗教的形成公共政策。 This emphasis has, according to Sunni-Muslim scholars, given rise to two interrelated processes: the supremacy of the Shari'a and the sovereignty of the Islamic community. According to the Sunni tradition, if Islam is a legalistically oriented religion, concerned with the organization of human society, it follows that religious teaching must concern itself with matters of marriage and divorce, inheritance and ownership, commercial transactions and contractual dealings, government, banking, investment, credits, debts and so on.這強調,根據遜尼派穆斯林學者,引起兩個相互關聯的過程:至高無上的主權伊斯蘭教和伊斯蘭社會。據遜尼派的傳統,如果伊斯蘭教是一種宗教legalistically導向,關注人類社會的組織,因此,宗教教學必須關注事項的結婚和離婚,繼承權和所有權,商業交易和合同交易,政府,銀行,投資,信貸,債務等等。 The proper execution of these contractual matters according to the principles of the shari'a based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah of the Prophet constitutes an important part of the way to salvation.適當執行這些合同事項根據伊斯蘭教原則的基礎上古蘭經和先知穆罕默德的重要組成部分的方式救贖。

History歷史

Islam is divided between the minority Shia tradition and the majority Sunni tradition.伊斯蘭教分為什葉派之間的少數民族傳統和遜尼派穆斯林為主的傳統。 The minority group regard the Prophet's Son in law, Ali, and his descendants as divinely authorised to rule the Muslim community.少數人群體方面先知的兒子在法律上,阿里和他的後代作為神授權規則穆斯林社區。 The majority group believed that the caliph should be appointed through the consensus of the community.多數集團認為,應任命哈里發通過協商一致的意見。

The Muslim community's encounter with other cultures, coupled with further divisions in the community itself, brought home the need to formulate the principles of faith within a rational framework.穆斯林社會的接觸其他文化,再加上進一步分裂的社會本身,使我們有必要制定的原則,信仰在一個合理的框架。 In the 10th century much of the contents of the Muslim community's theology was put into a set of propositions known as Sunni (orthodox) theology.在10世紀的大部分內容在穆斯林社會的神學投入一套主張稱為遜尼派(東正教)神學。 The word Sunni derives from the sunnah, or example, of the Prophet, and indicates the orthodoxy of the majority community as opposed to the peripheral positions of schismatics who by definition must be in error.遜尼派一詞源自松納,或例如,先知,並表明了大多數正統社會的反對立場schismatics周邊誰的定義必須是錯誤的。

A further response to schisms involved developing a trend of accommodation and synthesis.另一項針對分裂參與發展的趨勢,住宿和合成。 The principle of accommodation made it possible for diverse schools of thought to coexist and recognize each other.住宿的原則,使不同的思想流派並存和相互承認。 Thus, the two principal theological schools of al-Ashari and al-Maturidi accepted each other as orthodox while opposing minority traditions such as Mu'tazilah, Kharijites and Shi'a. The legal framework of the Sunni tradition was provided by the Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maliki and Hanbali schools.因此,這兩個主要神學院的Al - Ashari和Al - Maturidi接受對方為東正教,反對少數人的傳統,如Mu'tazilah , Kharijites和什葉派。的法律框架遜尼派傳統提供了哈納菲,沙菲'我,馬利基和罕百里學校。

The political leadership of the Sunni community, and therefore the symbol of orthodoxy has been the caliphate.政治領導的遜尼派社區,因此,正統的象徵,一直是政教合一。 After the first four caliphs the community came under the authority of the Ummayads, who set up their capital in Damascus.經過前四個caliphs社區受到的權威Ummayads ,誰建立了自己的資本在大馬士革。 The period of the Ummayad caliphs (661-750) saw the conquest of North Africa and Spain. In 732 Muslim armies reached as far as Toulouse in the south-west of France.期間的Ummayad caliphs ( 661-750 )看到征服北非和西班牙。 732穆斯林軍隊在達成盡可能圖盧茲西南法國。 In the East, Muslim armies arrived in Afghanistan and the region that is present-day Pakistan.在東方,穆斯林軍隊抵達阿富汗和該區域是當今巴基斯坦。 In 750 the Ummayad caliph was overthrown in rebellion led by the 'Abbasids, who were to form the next caliphate.在750的Ummayad哈里發被推翻叛亂領導的' Abbasids ,誰是下一個政教合一的形式。 Remnants of the Ummayad family, however, were able to establish themselves in Muslim Spain, where they ruled until 1031.遺留的Ummayad家庭,然而,能夠建立起自己的穆斯林西班牙,他們在那裡統治,直到1031年。

The 'Abbasids established their capital in Baghdad in 750.在' Abbasids建立自己的資本在巴格達750 。 From then until the 10th century both the Muslim empire and the power of the 'Abbasids continued to grow.從那時起直到10世紀的穆斯林帝國的權力' Abbasids持續增長。 However, from the 10th century the empire began to fragment.然而,從10世紀帝國開始片段。 A rival caliphate, the Fatimids, was established in North Africa.它的競爭對手哈里發的Fatimids ,成立於北非。 The Mongol invasions and the capture of Baghdad in 1258 brought to an end the caliphate in Iraq.蒙古入侵和佔領巴格達, 1258年結束了在伊拉克的哈里發。 An 'Abbasid caliphate was established in Cairo, but this was without any real political power.一個'阿巴斯哈里發在開羅成立,但這是在沒有任何真正的政治權力。

The caliphate was taken over when the Ottomans invaded Egypt in 1517.哈里發接管時,奧斯曼帝國入侵埃及在1517年。 The defeat of the Ottoman empire after the first world war, and the creation of a secular state in Turkey (which had been at the heart of the Ottoman empire) brought the caliphate to an end.打敗奧斯曼帝國第一次世界大戰後,建立一個政教分離的國家,土耳其(已的核心,奧斯曼帝國)提請哈里發結束。 For the first half of the twentieth century many regions of the Islamic world have sought to free themselves from European colonial rule. In the absence of the caliphate a pan-Islamic identity has been sought through organisations such as the Muslim World League and the Islamic Conference.首二十世紀下半葉許多地區的伊斯蘭世界試圖擺脫歐洲殖民統治。不在哈里發一個泛伊斯蘭身份一直設法通過組織,如世界穆斯林聯盟和伊斯蘭會議。 Internal divisions have, however, impeded any real scope for Islamic unity.內部分歧,但是,阻礙了任何真正的餘地伊斯蘭團結。

Symbols符號

See Islam.見伊斯蘭教。

Adherents遺民

Today Ahl-i Sunna/Sunnism is the madhhab of 90% of all Muslims.今天Ahl我松納/ Sunnism是madhhab的90 %的穆斯林。

Headquarters / Main Centre總部/主要中心

None.毫無。

Bülent Þenay阿林克Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project總觀世界宗教工程


General Essay on Sunni Islam一般論遜尼派伊斯蘭

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Sunni tradition is known in Arabic as the Ahl-i Sunnah (the People of Sunnah), a term which according to the earliest classical sources emerged in the ninth century.遜尼派的傳統是在阿拉伯文作為Ahl我松納(人民松納) ,一個長期而根據古典來源最早出現在九世紀。 The word "Sunnah" means custom, method, path or example and refers particularl y to the example of the prophet Muhammad as found in the Hadith.改為“聖”是指自定義,方法,路徑或榜樣,是指particularl Ÿ的例子先知穆罕默德的聖訓中找到。 Thus, the Ahl-i Sunnah are those who follow the tradition of the prophet and his companions in understanding the Islamic faith.因此, Ahl我松納是誰按照傳統的先知和他的同伴們在了解伊斯蘭信仰。

During the early centuries following the death of the Prophet Islamic scholars sought to consolidate and systematize Islamic belief and practice.早在數百年後的死亡先知伊斯蘭學者試圖鞏固和系統化的伊斯蘭信仰和實踐。 One of the challenges confronting Muslim scholars was how to determine which of the many thousands of hadith attributed to the Prophet and his companions were authentic.一個穆斯林學者面臨的挑戰是如何確定哪些有成千上萬的聖訓歸咎於先知和他的同伴是真實的。 In the ninth century, two scholars, Muhammad b.在第九世紀,兩位學者,穆罕默德灣 Isma'il Bukhari (d.870) and Muslim b.伊斯梅爾布哈里( d.870 )和穆斯林灣 al Hajjaj (d. 875), collected and sifted through the vast numbers of traditions in order to compile dictionaries containing the authentic traditions of the Prophet. Basing their decisions on the reliability of the particular transmitters, al Bukhari and al Hajjaj reduced the massive number of traditions to several thousand.基地Hajjaj ( 4 875 ) ,收集和篩選,通過廣大的傳統,以編纂字典正宗傳統的先知。根據他們的決定的可靠性,特別是發報機,基地布哈里和Al Hajjaj減少了大量傳統幾千。 In the tenth century these collections were given canonical status by the Muslim community.在10世紀這些藏品有典型地位的穆斯林社區。

In addition to these two collections, four further collections of hadith were compiled by lesser known scholars.除了這兩個集合,四個進一步收集聖訓是由較小的知名學者。 While regarded as authentic and canonical by the Ummah, these do not have quite the same status as those of al Bukhari and al Hajjaj.雖然被視為真正的和典型的民族,這些並沒有十分相同的地位,這些基地布哈里和Al Hajjaj 。

A second area of Islamic life developed at this time was the Shari 'ah, the regulations and principles upon which Islamic law is based.第二個領域的開發伊斯蘭生活在這個時候是丁沙'啊,條例和原則的伊斯蘭法的基礎。 The four orthodox schools of law - Hanafiyyah, Malikiyyah, Shafi'iyyah and Hanbaliyyah - elaborated the rules of procedure by which particular laws could be determined.四東正教學校的法律- Hanafiyyah , Malikiyyah , Shafi'iyyah和Hanbaliyyah -擬訂議事規則,其中特別是法律不能確定。 These rules were based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah and two legal principles known as qiyas and ijma'.這些規則是根據古蘭經和松納和兩個法律原則稱為qiyas和ijma ' 。 Qiyas is the attempt through analogical reasoning to determine how the principles of the Qur'an and the Sunnah could be applied to a situation not clearly addressed through these sources. Qiyas是企圖通過類比推理,以確定如何原則古蘭經和松納可以適用於不明確的情況下解決這些來源。 An example of such a ruling is the extension of the Qur'anic decree against market activities during the Friday congregational prayers to a general prohibition of all business activities at this time.一個例子,這樣的裁決是延長古蘭經法令對市場活動公理在星期五祈禱一般禁止一切商業活動在這個時候。

Ijma', meaning consensus, was based on the principle that when no clear guidance was given by the Qur'an or the Sunnah on a principle of law the consensus of the community would be sought. Ijma ' ,意思一致,所依據的原則,在沒有明確的指導是由古蘭經或松納的一項法律原則的共識,社會將尋求。 All four schools accept these principles as the basis of the Shari 'ah and regard each other as orthodox.所有四所學校接受這些原則為基礎的丁沙'啊,把對方視為正統。 They differ with regard to the particular importance each school attaches to qiyas and ijma' relative to the Qur'an and the Sunnah.這些不同方面,特別重視每個學校重視qiyas和ijma '相對古蘭經和松納。

Concomitant with the systematization of the Shari'ah was the establishment of theological orthodoxy.伴隨系統化的教法是建立神學正統。 The encounter with non-Islamic beliefs and the emergence of deviant theological views within the community itself provided the impetus for the formation of an orthodox theology.相遇與非伊斯蘭信仰和出現偏差神學意見社區本身提供了動力形成一個東正教神學。 The first major challenge to Islam from within came from the Kharijiyyah, who claimed that good works as well as the profession of faith were necessary to be a true Muslim.第一次重大挑戰伊斯蘭教從來自Kharijiyyah ,誰聲稱的優秀作品,以及專業的信心是必要的,是一個真正的穆斯林。 Those who sinned without repenting forfeited their right to belong to the community of believers. Such was their strength of feeling on this issue that they violently persecuted those who disagreed with him.這些誰沒有悔改沒收犯罪的權利屬於社會的信徒。這是他們的力量,感覺在這個問題上,他們以暴力迫害這些誰不同意他。

The issue of the relationship between faith and works was taken up by a second group, the Mu'tazilah, who argued that the non-repentant sinner occupied a middle state between belief and non-belief.這個問題關係的誠意和工程採納了第二集團, Mu'tazilah ,誰主張,不悔改的罪人佔領一個中等國家之間的信仰和不信仰。 Although endeavouring to defend Islam against Hellenistic philosophy, the Mu'tazilah drew upon Hellenistic ideas in formulating their understanding of God and the relationship between God and humanity.雖然竭力捍衛伊斯蘭教對希臘哲學, Mu'tazilah借鑒希臘思想在制定其理解上帝和上帝之間的關係和人性。 For the Mu'tazilah, all anthropomorphic language about God was to be interpreted as purely metaphorical.為Mu'tazilah ,所有擬人化的語言對天主是被解釋為純粹的隱喻。 Furthermore, in order to preserve the doctrine of human freedom and responsibility, God's action was interpreted in terms of necessity and duty rather than freedom.此外,為了維護人類自由的原則和責任,上帝的行動是解釋條款的必要性和責任,而不是自由。 It was the denial of God's absolute freedom that was a source of concern to mainstrea m Islamic thinkers.這是剝奪上帝的絕對自由,這是一個令人關切的問題,以mainstrea米伊斯蘭思想家。

In reaction to the Mu'tazilah doctrine, two theological schools emerged in the tenth century: Ash'ariyyah and Maturidiyyah.在反應Mu'tazilah理論,兩個神學學校中出現的10世紀: Ash'ariyyah和Maturidiyyah 。 Both schools endeavoured to elevate revelation and reduce reason as the means by which humanity acquires a knowledge of God.這兩所學校努力提高啟示和減少的原因為手段,人類獲取知識的上帝。 By arguing that there were certain truths about the nature of God which were not accessible to human reason alone these schools sought to restore the doctrine of divine omnipotence. ,認為有一定道理的性質上帝是無法接觸到這些人的原因,學校設法恢復理論的神聖無所不能。

The establishment of broadly based forms of jurisprudential and theological orthodoxy during its early history has not prevented the emergence of anti-orthodox tendencies in more recent times.建立廣泛的基礎形式的法理和神學正統在其早期的歷史,並不能阻止出現反東正教的傾向在最近次。 In the eighteenth century a group known as Wahhabiyyah emerged with the purpose of "purifying" Islam of non-Islamic accretions such as the worship of the saints.早在十八世紀一組稱為Wahhabiyyah出現,其目的是“淨化”伊斯蘭教的非伊斯蘭accretions如崇拜的聖人。 Integral to this project was the attempt to base Islamic law solely on the Qur'an and the Sunnah through the rejection of qiyas and ijma' as elements within the Shari 'ah.積分對這一項目是企圖完全伊斯蘭法基礎上的古蘭經和松納通過拒絕qiyas和ijma '為內容的丁沙'啊。 A second, unrelated group, Ahmadiyyah, was founded in India towards the end of the nineteenth century.第二,無關組, Ahmadiyyah ,成立於印度爭取到十九世紀末。 Its leader, Mirza Ghulam Ahamd, claimed to be the Christian Messiah, the Mahdi, an avatar of Krishna and a reappearance of Muhammad. In spite of being declared heretical by the orthodox Muslim community this group has spread beyond India into other parts of Asia and from there to Europe and Africa.它的領導人,米爾扎古拉Ahamd ,自稱是基督教的彌賽亞,救世主,一個化身的克里希納和再現穆罕默德。儘管被宣布為邪教的正統穆斯林社區這個集團已擴散到印度到亞洲其他地區的和從那裡到歐洲和非洲。

Bülent Þenay阿林克Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project總觀世界宗教工程

Bibliography : 參考書目

Al-Azmeh, Aziz (ed.) Islamic Law: Social and Historical Contexts. London: Routledge, 1988.鋁Azmeh ,阿齊茲(編輯) 伊斯蘭法:社會和歷史背景。倫敦:出版社, 1988 。

Clarke, Peter. West Africa and Islam: a Study of Religious Development from the 8th to the 20th Century. E.克拉克,彼得。 西非和伊斯蘭教:宗教研究開發的第8至20世紀。大腸桿菌 Arnold, 1982.阿諾德, 1982年。

Enayat, Hamid. Modern Islamic Political Thought: The Response of the Shi'i and Sunni Muslims to the Twentieth Century. New York: Macmillan, 1982. Enayat ,哈米德。 現代伊斯蘭政治思想:響應的什葉派和遜尼派穆斯林的二十世紀。紐約:麥克米倫出版公司, 1982年。

Gibb, HAR Islam: A Historical Survey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1953.吉布山伊斯蘭教:歷史考察。牛津:牛津大學出版社, 1953 。

Hasan, A. The Early Development of Islamic Jurisprudence. Islamabad: Islamic Research Institute, 1970.哈桑,答: 早期發展的伊斯蘭法。伊斯蘭堡:伊斯蘭研究所, 1970年。

Hodgson, Marshall GS The Venture of Islam. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1974.霍奇森,馬紹爾群島人伊斯蘭教的風險。芝加哥:芝加哥大學出版社, 1974 。

Martin, Richard C. Islam: A Cultural Perspective. Prentice Hall, 1982.馬丁,理查德伊斯蘭教:一個文化視角。霍爾, 1982年。

Rahman, Fazlur. Islam. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979.拉赫曼法茲勒。 伊斯蘭教。芝加哥:芝加哥大學出版社, 1979 。

Rippin, Andrew. Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Rippin ,安德魯。 穆斯林:他們的宗教信仰和做法。 Vol 1: The Formative Period. London: Routledge, 1990. 第1卷:形成時期。倫敦:出版社, 1990 。

Watt, WM The Formative Period of Islamic Thought. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1973.瓦特,西醫結合的形成時期的伊斯蘭思想。愛丁堡:愛丁堡大學出版社, 1973 。

Wolfson, HA The Philosophy of the Kalam. Cambridge Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1976.沃爾夫森,醫管局的哲學卡拉姆。馬薩諸塞州劍橋:哈佛大學出版社, 1976 。


The four accepted legal schools of Sunnis are:四個公認的法律學校的遜尼派是:

These four schools are somewhat different from each other, but Sunni Muslims generally consider them all equally valid.這四所學校有所不同,但遜尼派穆斯林普遍認為他們都同樣有效。


Sunni-Shi'i Relationships遜尼派和什葉派的關係

Shi'a Viewpoint什葉派觀

One of the most important socio-political issues in life is that of leadership, its quality, authority and method of appointment.其中最重要的社會政治生活中的問題是,領導,其質量,權威和方法任命。 The Qur`an and the prophetic teachings emphasize obedience to Allah, His Prophet and the upright 'people of authority'. `的古蘭經和先知的教誨強調服從真主,他的先知和正直的人民的權力。 No Muslim disagrees with this.沒有穆斯林不同意這一點。 It is only with the method of legitimizing a 'person of authority' that differences occur and around which the Sunni and Shi'i theologies diverge.這是唯一的方法合法化一個人的權力'的分歧和周圍發生的遜尼派和什葉派theologies分歧。

During the early centuries of Islam the terms Sunni and Shi'i meant different things at different times, as did many other names designating various schools of thought.早在數百年的伊斯蘭教遜尼派和什葉派條款意味著不同的事情,在不同的時間,就像許多其他名稱指定不同的思想流派。 It was not until the eleventh and twelfth centuries that the current pattern of usage stabilized.但直到11和12世紀,目前的模式,使用穩定。

Sunni essentially means one who follows the Sunnah, which is the desired aim of every sincere Muslim.遜尼派的主要手段之一的松納誰如下,這是理想的目標是每一個真誠的穆斯林。 It has come to mean, however, those Muslims who follow the Sunnah and Jama'ah, that is, the way of Muhammad and the consensual majority of Muslims.它的意義,然而,這些穆斯林誰遵循松納和Jama'ah ,就是這樣的先知穆罕默德和協商一致的大多數穆斯林。 The term was first adopted by a faction of Muslims who had accepted Abbasid rule, stressing the importance of its continuity with the Marwani past.這個詞最初是通過一個派別的穆斯林誰接受阿巴斯規則的重要性,強調其連續性與Marwani過去。 It was well over a century after Muhammad that the term Sunni began to be widely used to distinguish between the largest common group (which is the literal meaning of Jama'ah) and the Shi'i, that is, those who were loyal to `Ali's party.大家都在一個多世紀後,穆罕默德的任期遜尼派開始被廣泛用於區分最大的共同組(這是字面意義Jama'ah )和什葉派,那就是,這些人忠於誰`阿里的黨。 It also implied those who strictly and exclusively referred to the Hadith as opposed to engaging in theological and philosophical discourse as a means of gaining guidance.它也意味著那些誰嚴格和專門提到聖訓而不是從事神學和哲學話語作為一種手段以獲得指導。 In latter-day usage Sunni has become synonymous with 'orthodox', though it would be more accurate to employ the term Jama'ah to signify the popular mainstream.在後者天使用遜尼派已經成為'正統' ,雖然這將是更準確地運用長期Jama'ah標誌流行的主流。

In the early years after the Prophet's death the term Shi`i meant 'follower' or 'partisan', with particular reference to `Ali.早在年後的先知去世任期施`我的意思'追隨者'或'黨' ,並特別提到'阿里。 The Shi'as believe that the Prophet had categorically appointed `Ali Ibn Abi Talib as his successor at the gathering of Ghadir Khum.在什葉派穆斯林認為,先知斷然任命`阿里伊本阿比艾布泰利伯作為他的繼任者在集會上的蓋Khum 。 `Ali in turn nominated as his successor his eldest son Hasan, who then nominated his brother Husayn and so on through another ten generations of the Prophet's descendants. `阿里又提名他的繼任他的長子哈桑,誰再提名他的弟弟侯賽因等通過另一家10代的先知的後裔。 Although the Sunnis all acknowledge the event at Ghadir Khum, they take the Prophet's message as merely an acknowledgement of `Ali's merit rather than a definite political appointment.雖然遜尼派都承認發生在蓋Khum ,他們採取先知的消息,只是承認`阿里的優點,而不是一個明確的政治任命。

In the end, however, the successor to the Prophet was elected by a group of Medinan elders (while the Prophet was being buried).最後,然而,繼任者先知當選由一群Medinan長老(同時先知被掩埋) 。 The first Muslim ruler (later to be called Caliph) was Abu Bakr, the Prophet's father-in-law and a close and loyal Companion.第一穆斯林統治者(後來被稱為哈里發)是艾布伯克爾,先知的岳父和密切和忠實的伴侶。 Though `Ali and his followers made occasional protests, they did not contest or revolt against the early Caliphs.雖然阿里和他的追隨者只是偶爾抗議,但他們並沒有反抗競賽或早期Caliphs 。 `Ali himself remained loyal to the cause of Islam and served wherever and whenever he could alongside his predecessors. `阿里仍忠於自己的事業,伊斯蘭教和服務無論何時何地,他可以與他的前任。 Upon the demise of the third Caliph, however, `Ali was elected the fourth.經消亡第三哈里發然而,阿里被選為第四。

...

The general Sunni stance on leadership was that peace under an unjust ruler was better than anarchy under a just one.一般遜尼派領導的立場是,和平不公正統治者優於無政府狀態下的只有一個。 For the Shi`i, justice in the government of human affairs could not grow if the ruler did not reflect the Prophet.對於施我,正義在政府的人權事務不能成長如果統治者沒有反映先知。 The ruler had the status of a prophetic figure who, in the Prophet's absence, should be the ultimate spiritual and temporal authority.統治者的地位,誰先知數字,在先知的情況下,應是最終的精神和時間上的權威。 The prophetic mantle was taken up by the Sufis in the person of their Shaykhs or teachers. This fact is significant because while most Sufis were Sunni, the necessity for enlightened leadership reflects the essential nature of transmission of knowledge and guidance.預言地幔是由蘇菲的人在他們的Shaykhs或教師。這一事實具有重要意義,因為雖然大多數蘇菲是遜尼派,必須開明領導反映的基本性質傳播知識和指導。 Hence the Shi`is turned to their Imams.因此,施`打開他們的伊瑪目。

Shaykh Fadhlalla Haeri謝赫Fadhlalla Haeri
THE ELEMENTS OF ISLAM伊斯蘭的要素


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-聖訓從圖書1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-聖訓從圖書2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-聖訓從圖書3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-聖訓從圖書10布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短的祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書20布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝覲(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書26布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書52布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari ONENESS ,獨特性的真主( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書93布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 愷阿白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德人
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 伊達艾沙
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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