Wahhabism, Wahhabiyyah瓦哈比主義, Wahhabiyyah

General Information 一般信息

The term Wahhabism is an outsiders' designation for the religious movement within Islam founded by Muhammad ibn Abd al - Wahhab (1703 - 92).瓦哈比主義一詞是一個外人'指定的宗教運動在伊斯蘭教創立的穆罕默德伊本阿卜杜勒-瓦哈卜( 1703至1792年) 。 Members describe themselves as muwahhidun ("unitarians"), those who uphold firmly the doctrine that God is one, the only one (wahid).議員形容自己muwahhidun ( “ unitarians ” ) ,這些誰堅持堅定的原則,上帝是唯一一個(瓦希德) 。 This self designation points to the movement's major characteristic, its opposition to any custom and belief threatening and jeopardizing the glorification of the one God. It condemns as illegal and un - Islamic the practice of using the name of any prophet, saint, or angel in a prayer, of calling upon any such beings for intercession and making vows to them, and of visitations to tombs of saints. Adherents insist on a literal interpretation of the Koran and a strict doctrine of predestination.這種自我指定點的運動的主要特徵,它反對任何習俗和信仰的威脅和危害美化一個上帝。 安理會譴責非法和聯合國-伊斯蘭的實踐中使用的名稱,任何先知,聖,或天使祈禱的呼籲任何人的干預等,並承諾給他們,並參觀到墳墓的聖人。遺民堅持字面解釋可蘭經和嚴格的理論命。

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Abd al - Wahhab, who had spent some years in Medina and various places in Iraq and Iran, won the support of Ibn Saud, ruler of the Najd (now in Saudi Arabia), in 1744, after being expelled from his native city, Uyayna, because of controversial teachings in his Kitab al - tawhid (Book of Unity).阿卜杜勒-瓦哈卜,誰花了一些年來在梅迪納和各地方在伊拉克和伊朗,贏得了支持伊本沙特,統治者的Najd (現在在沙特阿拉伯) ,在1744年後,被驅逐出自己的城市, Uyayna ,因為有爭議的教義,他基塔基地-統一 (圖書的統一) 。 The realization of the ideal of an Islamic state based on the Sharia now seemed feasible.實現理想的一個伊斯蘭國家的伊斯蘭教教法的基礎上現在似乎是可行的。 Between about 1763 and 1811 the Wahhabi Saudis established control of most of Arabia.之間關於1763年和1811年沙特的瓦哈比建立控制大多數沙特阿拉伯。 Although pushed back by the Egyptian ruler Muhammad Ali, they recovered part of their first empire between 1821 and 1833. A long period of decline followed, but, in 1932, Ibn Saud succeeded in establishing the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.雖然推遲了埃及統治者穆罕默德阿里,他們收回其部分第一帝國1821年和1833年之間。長時間的衰退之後,但在1932年,伊本沙特成功地建立沙特阿拉伯王國。 Wahhabi teachings have also played a role in the 19th century history of parts of Nigeria, India, and Indonesia.瓦哈比教義也發揮了作用,在19世紀歷史的部分尼日利亞,印度和印度尼西亞。

Willem A Bijlefeld威廉阿Bijlefeld

Bibliography: 參考書目:
HS Philby, Arabia of the Wahhabis (1982) and Saudi Arabia (1955); J Sabini, Armies in the Sand (1981).高速Philby ,沙特阿拉伯的瓦哈比派( 1982年)和沙特阿拉伯( 1955年) ; J薩比尼,軍隊中的砂( 1981年) 。

The BELIEVE Religious Information Source web site is not connected with the organization described in this presentation. This happens to be ONE of the 1,000 religious subjects which are included in BELIEVE.相信宗教的信息來源網站不與該組織中所描述此演示文稿。這種情況將是1000宗教科目列入相信。

Our small Protestant Christian Church, which created and maintains the BELIEVE site, has no contact with the organization described here, so we cannot help in providing contacts or addresses. In addition, since BELIEVE does not "sell" anything, we cannot help in finding books, icons or souvenirs.我們小的新教教會,創造和維護相信網站,沒有任何聯繫的組織與描述,所以我們不能幫助提供接觸或地址。此外,由於相信不會“賣”什麼,我們不能幫助找到書籍,圖標或紀念品。


Wahhabiyyah

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Doctrines理論

Wahabbiyyah is not a new sect within Islam but a movement whose purpose is to purify Islam of perceived heretical accretions. Wahabbiyyah不是一個新的教派,但在伊斯蘭運動,其目的是淨化伊斯蘭教認為邪教accretions 。 The Wahhabis claim to base their doctrines on the teachings of the fourteenth century scholar Ibn Taymiyya and the rulings of the Hanbali school of law, the strictest of the four recognised in the Sunni consensus.瓦哈比聲稱其理論基礎上的教誨, 14世紀的學者伊本Taymiyya和裁決的罕百里法學院嚴格四個確認遜尼派共識。 They believe that all objects of worship other than Allah are false, and anyone who worships in this way deserves to be put to death.他們認為,所有對象以外的其他禮拜真主是假的,和任何人都崇拜誰以這種方式值得處死。 To introduce the name of a prophet, saint or angel into a prayer, or to seek intercession from anyone but Allah constitutes a form of polytheism.引進的名稱先知,聖徒或天使變成祈禱,或尋求任何人的干預,但真主構成一種多神教。 Attendance at public prayer is compulsory, and the shaving of the beard and smoking are forbidden. Mosques should be architecturally simple, not luxurious or ornate. Prohibited are the celebration of the Prophet's birthday, making offerings at the tomb of saints, and playing music.出席公共祈禱是強制性的,而且剃了鬍子,吸煙是被禁止的。清真寺應建築簡單,沒有豪華的或華麗。禁止的慶祝先知穆罕默德誕辰,使產品的陵墓聖人,和播放音樂。 The injunctions of the Qur'an are to be taken literally.該禁令的古蘭經要字面。

History歷史

Wahhabiyyah emerged in the middle of the 18th century in Arabia as both a religious and political movement responding to the decline of the Ottoman empire and the increasing strength of Shi'a in Iran. Wahhabiyyah中出現的是18世紀中期在沙特阿拉伯,無論作為宗教和政治運動響應的衰落和奧斯曼帝國的力量日益增加的什葉派在伊朗。 Its founder, Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab (1703-92), had witnessed many examples of laxity, superstition, and blind allegiance to Walis (Sufi saints) during his travels through Iraq and Arabia.它的創始人,伊本阿卜杜勒瓦哈卜( 1703年至1792年) ,目睹了許多例子不嚴,迷信和盲目效忠瓦歷斯(蘇菲聖人)在穿越伊拉克和沙特阿拉伯。

The political character of the movement took the form of opposition to the ruling Ottoman empire.政治性質的運動採取的形式是反對奧斯曼帝國統治。 In 1744 Ibn 'Abd al-Wahhab formed an alliance with a local chieftain, Muhammad Ibn Sa'ud (1765), who accepted his doctrine and undertook its defence and propagation.在1744年伊本阿卜杜勒瓦哈卜結盟與當地酋長,穆罕默德伊本Sa'ud ( 1765年) ,誰接受了他的學說,並承諾其國防和繁殖。 The demolition of shrines, tombstones and the capture of Mecca caused alarm in the Ottoman government which despatched an army to crush the movement.拆除聖地,墓碑和捕獲麥加造成警報在奧托曼政府派遣軍隊鎮壓運動。 The decisive defeat of the bedouin troops in 1818 brought to an end the first Sa'udi-Wahhabi venture.失敗的決定性的貝都因部隊在1818年結束了第一Sa'udi -瓦哈比風險。

A remnant of the Wahhabi movement survived in a pocket of Central Arabia.殘餘的瓦哈比運動存活口袋中央沙特阿拉伯。 In 1902 Abd al-Aziz Ibn Sa'ud, who was from the Sa'udi family and a follower of the bedouin faith of the Wahhabiyyah, took Riyadh, an event which led to his gradual conquest of the interior of the Arabian peninsula.在1902年阿卜杜勒阿齊茲伊本Sa'ud ,誰是來自Sa'udi家庭和追隨者的貝都因人的信仰的Wahhabiyyah ,在利雅得,事件導致他逐漸征服內部的阿拉伯半島。 In 1927 Sa'ud signed a treaty with the British (who at that time were controlling parts of the Arabian peninsula) which gave him full independence in exchange for his recognition of British suzerainty over the Gulf sheikdoms.於1927年簽署了一項條約Sa'ud與英國(誰在那個時候被控制的部分阿拉伯半島) ,其中給了他完全獨立,以換取他承認英國的宗主國在海灣sheikdoms 。 Finally in 1932 he named his state the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.最後,他於1932年任命他的國家沙特阿拉伯王國。 Wahhabiyyah then became the official doctrine of the state. Today the Saudi state remains firmly rooted in the Wahhabi creed. Wahhabiyyah然後成為正式的國家學說。今天,沙特阿拉伯國仍然堅定地植根於瓦哈比教義。

Symbols符號

The movement has no distinctive symbol system.該運動並沒有獨特的符號系統。

Adherents遺民

Wahhabiyyah is the official ideology of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Wahhabiyyah是官方意識形態的沙特阿拉伯王國。 There are no official statistics for the number of Muslims who follow the doctrines of Wahhabiyyah.目前沒有官方統計的人數穆斯林誰後續的理論Wahhabiyyah 。

Headquarters / Main Centre總部/主要中心

The movement has no headquarters.這個運動沒有總部。

Bülent Þenay阿林克Þenay
Overview of World Religions Project總觀世界宗教工程


Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,古蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths 聖訓
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-聖訓從圖書1布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-聖訓從圖書2布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-聖訓從圖書3布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-聖訓從圖書10布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短的祈禱(在Taqseer ) -聖訓從圖書20布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝覲(朝聖) -聖訓從圖書26布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 戰鬥的原因阿拉(傑哈德) -聖訓圖書52布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari ONENESS ,獨特性的真主( TAWHEED ) -聖訓圖書93布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義艾買
Early Islamic History Outline 早期伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira Hegira
Averroes 阿威羅伊
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 愷阿白,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派穆斯林,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥地那
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih ,布哈里
Sufism 蘇菲主義
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 艾布伯克爾
Abbasids Abbasids
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads 伍瑪亞德人
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀派(什葉派)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha 伊達艾沙
Ali 阿里
Lilith 莉莉絲
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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