New Testament新約全書

Jewish Information 猶太新聞

-Historical Books:歷史書籍:

The name of "New Testament" was given by the Christian Church, at the close of the second century, to the gospels and to other apostolic writings, inasmuch as they were composed with the purpose of showing that by the advent of Jesus of Nazareth the Messianic prophecies had been fulfilled and a new covenant (LXX., διαϑέκη; Vulgate, "testamentum") or dispensation had taken the place of the old Mosaic one (Gal. iii. 15-22; Luke xxii. 20; Heb. ix. 15-22; comp. Ex. xxiv. 7; II Kings xxiii. 2, 23; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxiv. 23).名為“新約全書”是由基督教會結束時的第二個世紀,向福音和其他使徒的著作,因為它們組成,其宗旨是顯示的到來拿撒勒的耶穌的彌賽亞的預言已經完成,新的公約( LXX. , διαθέκη ;武加大, “ testamentum ” )或免除已取代舊的馬賽克一( Gal.三。 15-22 ;路加福音二十二。 20 ;希伯來。九。 15-22 ;補償。惠。二十四。 7 ;二世國王二十三。 2 , 23 ; Ecclus 。 [ Sirach ] 24 。 23 ) 。 The idea of the new covenant is based chiefly upon Jer.的想法,新的公約是根據主要應哲。 xxxi. 31-34 (comp. Heb. viii. 6-13, x. 16).三十一。 31-34 ( comp.希伯來。八。 6月13日,十16 ) 。 That the prophet's words do not imply an abrogation of the Law is evidenced by his emphatic declaration of the immutability of the covenant with Israel (Jer. xxxi. 35-36; comp. xxxiii. 25); he obviously looked for a renewal of the Law through a regeneration of the hearts of the people.這先知的話並不意味著廢除法律是有力的證明了他的宣言不可改變的盟約與以色列( Jer.三十一。 35-36 ;補償。三十三。 25 ) ;他顯然尋找延長法通過再生人民的心中。 To Paul and his followers, however (see Rom. x. 4; II Cor. iii. 14), the Mosaic dispensation ended with Jesus, and consequently the Hebrew Scripture became the "Old Covenant," or "Testament," while Jesus was regarded as the mediator of the "New."保羅和他的追隨者,但(見光盤。十4 ;二心病。三。 14 ) ,摩西與耶穌分配名額,因此成為希伯來聖經“老公約”或“聖經” ,而耶穌被視為調解的“新” 。 But the names "Old" and "New Testament," when used by Jewish writers, serve only as terms of identification, and do not imply acceptance of the principle implied.但名字“老”和“新約全書” ,使用時,猶太作家,只能作為條件確定,並且不意味著接受的原則暗示。

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Contents of the New Testament.內容新約全書。

The early Church had no other sacred books than those in use in the Synagogue, and on these were based the claims of the Messiahship of Jesus as "the fulfilment of Scripture."初期教會沒有其他神聖的書籍以外使用的猶太教堂,並就這些是根據要求的Messiahship耶穌是“履行聖經。 ” In the course of time, however, the custom adopted from the Synagogue of reading at the service epistles of apocalyptic or Messianic character (see Tan., Wa'era, ed. Buber, p. 4; Baruch i. 3; Apoc. Baruch lxxviii.) not merely established the regular reading of the apostolic epistles in the Church, but made the reading of the story of the advent and doings of Jesus as the good tidings or gospel ("good spell" =εὐαγγέλιον; Mark i. 1, 15; Luke iv. 18; comp. Isa. lii. 7, lxi. 1) an essential part of the service; readings from the Old Testament were selectedas containing the prophecy or preparation, and those from the New as showing the fulfilment ("Apostolic Constitutions," ii. 55; Justin, "Apologia," i. 67; comp. 28; idem, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," §§ 18, 48, 49).隨著時間的推移,然而,通過自定義的猶太教堂閱讀服務書信的世界末日或彌賽亞性質(見談。 , Wa'era ,教育署。布伯,第4頁;巴魯克一3 ; Apoc 。巴魯克lxxviii 。 )不僅建立了經常讀使徒書信中的教會,但讀了這個故事的到來和做法的耶穌是好消息或福音( “良好的拼寫” = εὐαγγέλιον ;馬克一, 1 , 15 ;路加福音四。 18 ;補償。赫伊薩。崇禮。 7 , LXI聯盟。 1 )的一個重要組成部分的服務;讀了舊約的預言selectedas載或製劑,以及那些從展示新作為實現( “使徒憲法, “二。 55 ;賈斯汀, ”縱容“ ,一67 ;補償。 28 ;同上, ” Dialogus暨Tryphone , “ § § 18 , 48 , 49 ) 。

Concerning the mode of composition and the dates of the various New Testament writings a wide divergence of opinion prevails among the several schools of Christian theologians and critics.關於模式的組成和日期的各種著作新約全書廣泛意見分歧普遍存在的幾所學校的基督教神學家和評論家。 It is solely from the Jewish point of view that they are considered here, the attempt being made to indicate to what extent their contents may be called Jewish in origin and character, and to what extent they contain anti-Jewish elements.這完全是從猶太人的角度來看,他們認為在這方面,正在作出努力,以表明在何種程度上它們的內容可被稱為猶太人的來源和性質,以及在何種程度上含有反猶太人的內容。

The New Testament consists of the following books: I. The historical books: the Four Gospels-(1) according to Matthew; (2) according to Mark; (3) according to Luke; (4) according to John-and the Acts of the Apostles.新約包括以下書籍:一,歷史書籍:四福音書( 1 )根據馬修; ( 2 )根據馬克; ( 3 )根據盧克; ( 4 )根據約翰的行為的使徒。 II.二。 The Pauline epistles: (1) to the Romans; (2 and 3) to the Corinthians; (4) to the Galatians; (5) to the Ephesians; (6) to the Philippians; (7) to the Colossians; (8 and 9) to the Thessalonians; (10 and 11) to Timothy; (12) to Titus; (13) to Philemon; (14) to the Hebrews.該波利娜書信: ( 1 )羅馬( 2和3 )的科林蒂安; ( 4 )向加拉太; ( 5 )向以弗所; ( 6 )向腓利; ( 7 )向歌羅西書; ( 8和9 )的撒羅; (第10和第11 ) ,以蒂莫; ( 12 )提圖斯; ( 13 )以腓利門書; ( 14 )的猶太人。 III.三。 The so-called Catholic epistles: (1) the Epistle of James; (2 and 3) of Peter; (4, 5, and 6) of John; (7) of Jude; and (8) the Apocalypse of John, called also the Revelation of St. John the Divine.所謂天主教書信: ( 1 )書信詹姆斯; ( 2和3 )的彼得; ( 4 ,第5和6 )的約翰; ( 7 )的裘德;和( 8 )約翰的啟示,所謂還啟示聖約翰。 Of these works it is necessary here to deal with only the first section.這些工程有必要在這裡只處理的第一部分。

The Four Gospels:四福音:

The gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, were in the main composed between 80 and 150 CE; each relates, with a characteristic tendency of its own, the story of Jesus from the time of the appearance of John the Baptist until the "resurrection," with the purpose of showing that he was the looked-for Messiah of the Jewish prophecies.福音馬太,馬克,路加,約翰,是在主要由80至150名行政長官;每個涉及的特徵傾向自己的故事,耶穌從時間上的出現,直到施洗約翰的“復活” ,其目的是表明他是期待中的猶太彌賽亞的預言。 But while the first three gospels, called the "synoptic gospels," bear the same character and agree as to the plan of the work and the conception of Jesus as the Messiah, the son of David, the fourth gospel attempts to put a metaphysical and mystical construction upon the doings and sayings of Jesus narrated in the other three, with the view of presenting him as the son of God in the cosmic sense of the word.但是,儘管前三福音書,名為“天氣福音” ,承擔相同的特點,並同意作為該計劃的工作和觀念的救世主耶穌的兒子大衛,第四福音試圖把形而上學和神秘的建設的做法和說法敘述耶穌在其他三個,以期提出他是上帝之子的宇宙意義的。

The gospels do not claim to have been written by any of the apostles, but only to have been transmitted orally as tradition emanating from them.福音並不聲稱已書面的任何宗徒,但僅限於已口頭轉達的傳統來自它們。 Thus Luke i.因此盧克島 1-3 refers to the existence of many gospels resting upon the report of "eye-witnesses and disciples," and Papias, an early second-century authority, relates that Mark wrote down what he, in a rather disconnected way, heard from Peter, and that Matthew had made a collection of the sayings of Jesus in the Hebrew (Aramean) without the historical framework, which was given differently by each commentator (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iii. 39, § 16). 1-3指的是存在著許多福音休息的報告後, “目擊者和門徒”和帕皮亞,早日第二世紀的權力,涉及標誌著寫下了他,在一個相當脫節的方式,聽取了彼得,並作出了馬修收集格言耶穌在希伯來語( Aramean )的歷史框架,這是由於不同的每個評論員(優西比烏, “組織胺。 Eccl 。 ”三。 39 , § 16 ) 。

These two facts-a collection by Matthew of the sayings of Jesus in the Aramean language, and a gospel by Mark, as the oldest connected narrative of Jesus' sayings and doings-have served modern critics as the basis of their investigations.這兩個事實,收集了馬修的諺語耶穌在Aramean語言,和馬克福音,作為最古老的連接說明耶穌的說法和做法,已成為現代批評的基礎上進行調查。 Finding a striking similarity in the arrangement, and at times even an identity in the diction, of the larger part of the three gospels, they have arrived at the conclusion that the second gospel, which presents the whole record of Jesus in the simplest form and the best chronological order, was the original composition and was used by the other two; whereas the stories and sayings offered either by the other two gospels in common or by each separately rest on collections and traditions clustering around those of Matthew and others.發現一個驚人的相似性的安排,有時甚至一個身份的文辭,較大部分的三個福音,他們得出的結論是第二個福音,其中介紹了整個記錄耶穌在最簡單的形式和最好的時間順序排列,是原來的組成和使用的是其他兩個;而故事和諺語提供或者由其他兩名福音在共同或各自單獨休息的收藏和傳統聚類周圍的馬修和其他人。

Still, there are other criteria by which the Jewish investigator is able to ascertain the origin and authenticity of the gospel stories and trace the various stages of their growth.儘管如此,還有其他的標準,猶太調查能夠確定來源和真實性的福音故事和微量元素的不同階段,它們的增長。 A careful analysis corroborates the conclusion, assumed to be axiomatic by Jewish scholars, that the older and more genuine the records, written or unwritten, of the doings and teachings of Jesus, the more they betray close kinship with and friendly relations to Jews and Judaism; but that the more remote they are from the time and scene of the activity of Jesus, the more they show of hostility to the Jewish people and of antagonism to the Mosaic Law.仔細分析證實了最後,假定為不言自明的猶太學者,即老年人和更真實的記錄,書面或不成文的,在做法和耶穌的教導,更密切的血緣關係,他們出賣的友好關係對猶太人和猶太教;但較偏遠他們從時間和現場活動的耶穌,更顯示出的敵意對猶太人民和對抗的摩西律法。 The changing attitude and temper of the new sect influenced the records at every stage, and this accounts for the conflicting statements found beside each other in the various gospels and gospel stories.不斷變化的態度和脾氣的新教派影響記錄在每一個階段,這個賬戶的矛盾說法旁邊發現彼此在各個福音和福音的故事。

The Different Versions.不同版本。

To begin with the crucifixion story, the older version knows only that the chief priests and scribes constituting the Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to death and handed him over to the Romans, who mocked, scourged, and killed him (Mark x. 33; Matt. xx. 17-19; comp. Mark xiv. 14; also Matt. xxvi. 45, where the term "sinners" is used for "heathen").首先,與受難的故事,舊版本僅知道該祭司長和文士構成公會譴責耶穌死刑,把他交給羅馬人,誰嘲笑, scourged ,殺害了他(馬克十33 ;馬特。第二十條。 17-19 ;補償。馬克十四。 14 ;也馬特。二十六。 45 ,那裡的“罪人”是用於“異教徒” ) 。 Later on (see Mark viii. 31; Matt. xvi. 21; Luke ix. 22), the reference to the Romans as the crucifiers has been altogether omitted, while in Mark ix.後來(見馬克八。 31 ;馬特。十六。 21 ;路加福音九。 22 ) ,提到了羅馬人的crucifiers已經被完全忽略,而在馬克九。 31, Matt. 31日,馬特。 xvii.十七。 22, Luke ix. 44 the general term "men" is used instead. 22日,盧克九。 44的一般術語“男人”是用來代替。 With the older version tallies the story according to which the cause of his condemnation by the Sanhedrin was Jesus' hostility toward the Temple (Mark xiv. 58; Matt. xxvi. 61; comp. Mark xi. 15-18, xiii. 2, xv. 29, and parallels; comp. also John ii. 19; see Wellhausen, Commentary to Mark, 1903, pp. 131-133), a crime termed "pashaṭ yado ba-zebul" (he stretched out his hand against the Temple; Acts vi. 13; Tos. Sanh. xiii.; RH 17a; comp. Yer. Sanh. vi. 23c-"pashaṭ yado be-iḳḳar"). It was at a later time and in contradiction to facts showing their friendly attitude (Luke xiii. 31) that the Pharisees were represented as having conspired against the life of Jesus, either with the Herodians or high priests (Mark iii. 6, xii. 13; Matt. xvi. 6, 11; xxii. 15-16; but comp. Luke xx. 19, where the Pharisees are not mentioned, and Matt. xxvii. 62; John vii, 32, 45; xi. 47; xviii. 3) or without them (Matt. xii. 14 [comp. vi. 7], xvi. 11; Luke xi. 53, xii. 1).與舊版本計的故事,根據這項事業,他譴責公會是耶穌的敵視寺(馬克十四。 58 ;馬特。二十六。 61 ;補償。馬克十一。 15-18 ,十三。 2 ,十五。 29日,和Parallels ;補償。還約翰二世。 19 ;見豪森,評馬克, 1903年,頁。 131-133 ) ,犯罪稱為“ pashaṭ宿托巴恩zebul ” (他伸出他的手對寺;行為六。 13 ; Tos 。 Sanh 。十三。 ;濕度17A條;補償。層。 Sanh 。六。 23C條, “ pashaṭ宿即將iḳḳar ” ) 。這是在以後的時間和矛盾的事實顯示了友好的態度(路十三。月31日)表示,法利賽派有陰謀耶穌的生命,無論是與Herodians或高神父( Mark III的。 6 ,十二。 13 ;馬特。十六。 6日, 11日;二十二。 15-16但補償。路加福音二十。 19日,那裡的法利賽人未提及的,和馬特。二十七。 62 ;約翰七, 32 , 45 ;十一。 47 ;十八。 3 )或沒有他們(太十二。 14 [壓縮機。六。 7 ] ,十六。 11 ;路加福音十一。 53 ,十二。 1 ) 。 Accordingly, the charges singled out to account for his persecution by the Pharisees were violation of the Sabbath (Mark ii. 23-iii. 6, et al.) and the claim of being the son of God (Mark xiv. 61-64, et al.).因此,收費挑出考慮到他的迫害的法利賽人違反安息日(馬克二。 23三。 6 ,等。 )和聲稱上帝之子(馬克十四。 61-64 ,等。 ) 。

Again, in the original version the Jewish multitudes side with Jesus to the very last (Luke xx. 19, xxiii. 27; Mark xii. 12); later on, both Herod, thepersecutor whom Jesus called "that fox" (Luke xiii. 32), and Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect (Luke xiii. 1, xix. 1), are transformed into friends and protectors of Jesus (Luke xxiii. 8, 15; Mark xv. 14; Luke xxiii. 4; Matt. xxvii. 17-25; John xviii. 38; xix. 4, 6, 12, 16), and the Jews described as his real crucifiers (Mark xv. 13-14; Matt. xxvii. 22-23; John xix. 12; Acts iv. 10); nay, more, the Jews become synonyms for fiends and bloodthirsty tyrants (John vii. 1, 13; viii. 44; x. 31; et al.).再次,在原始版本的猶太人眾多方面與耶穌到最後(路加福音二十。 19 , 23 。 27 ;馬克十二。 12 ) ;後來,這兩個希律, thepersecutor人耶穌所謂的“福克斯” (路十三。 32 ) ,和本丟彼拉多,羅馬行政區(路十三。 1 ,十九。 1 ) ,轉化為朋友和保護者的耶穌(路加福音二十三。 8日, 15日;馬克十五。 14 ;路加福音二十三。 4 ;馬特。二十七。 17-25 ;約翰十八。 38 ;十九。 4 , 6 , 12 , 16 ) ,和猶太人稱為他的真實crucifiers (馬克十五。 13-14 ;馬特。二十七。 22-23 ;約翰十九。 12 ;行為四。 10 ) ;不,更重要的是,猶太人成為同義詞fiends和嗜血的暴君(約七。 1 , 13 ;八。 44 ;十31 ;等。 ) 。

For and Against the Law.支持和反對該法。

The same irreconcilable differences are found in the sayings attributed to Jesus concerning the Jews and the Law.同樣是不可調和的分歧中找到諺語歸功於耶穌的猶太人和法律。 According to the older version (Matt. v. 17-19; Luke xvi. 17), he declared that he had not come to destroy but to fulfil-that is, to practise-the Law.根據舊版本(太五17-19 ;路加福音十六。 17 ) ,他宣布說,他沒有來摧毀,但履行,即實行,該法。 In fact, he urged the sacrifice of the sin-offering for the leper (Mark i. 43, and parallels).事實上,他敦促犧牲的單提供的台階(馬克島43 ,和Parallels ) 。 It was the abuses of the Law and the hypocrisy of the Pharisees that he rebuked in scathing language (Matt. xxiii.; Mark vii. 11; Luke xi. 42-43; comp. similar denunciations of Pharisaic hypocrisy in Soṭah 22b, Yer. Ber. ix. 14b, Ab. RN xxxvii.), while demanding a higher standard of righteousness of his disciples (Matt. v. 20, 37, 48).這是踐踏法律和偽善的法利賽人,他在嚴厲的語言譴責(太二十三。 ;馬克七。 11 ;路加福音十一。 42-43 ;補償。類似的譴責Pharisaic虛偽Soṭah 22B款,也門里亞爾。誤碼率。九。 14B條,抗體。護士三十七。 ) ,同時要求更高的標準正義的門徒(太五20 , 37 , 48 ) 。 He expressly stated that he had been "sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel" and found it "not meet to take the children's bread and cast it to the dogs" (that is, to the heathen), enjoining even his disciples to go not to the Gentiles, but to the lost sheep of Israel (Matt. x. 5-6, xv. 24-27).他明確指出,他已“發出,但給迷途羔羊的眾議院以色列” ,並認為“不符合採取兒童的麵包和鑄造它的狗” (即對異教徒) ,責令他甚至門徒去不外邦人,但失去的羊以色列(太十, 5月6日,十五。 24-27 ) 。 He shows special love for a daughter of Abraham and a son of Abraham (Luke xix. 9).他顯示出特別的愛的女兒和一個兒子亞伯拉罕亞伯拉罕(路十九。 9 ) 。 His name, Jesus (Joshua), is interpreted "he who shall save his people [from their sins]" (Matt. i. 21, ii. 6), and those whom he has healed "glorify the God of Israel" (Matt. xv. 31).他的名字,耶穌(約書亞) ,是解釋“誰應挽救他的人[從他們的罪孽] ” (太一21 ,二。 6 ) ,以及那些已經痊癒,他“美化以色列的上帝” (馬特。十五。 31 ) 。

On the other hand, he is declared to be the hope of "the Gentiles" (Matt. xii. 21; comp. "Savior of the world" of John iv. 42), and he becomes the exponent of the Pauline ideas that the old must give way to the new (Mark ii. 21-22; Luke v. 36-38; comp. 39); that the gospel should "be preached unto all nations" (Mark xiii. 10; Matt. xxiv. 14); nay, more-that the Kingdom of God be taken away from the Jews and given to another nation (Matt. viii. 11-12; xxi. 43).另一方面,他被宣布為希望“外邦人” (太十二。 21 ;補償。 “救世主”的約翰四。 42 ) ,他將成為指數的波利娜意見,舊的必須讓位給新的(馬克二。 21-22 ;路加福音訴36-38 ;補償。 39 ) ;的福音“應該給所有國家鼓吹” (馬克十三。 10 ;馬特。二十四。 14 ) ;不,更是上帝王國的被帶走的猶太人和考慮到另一個國家(太八。 11月12日; 21 。 43 ) 。

Unhistorical Character of the Gospels. Unhistorical特徵福音。

As a matter of fact, the discrepancies in the records extend over all parts of the Four Gospels and invalidate the claim of historicity advanced for Mark or for any other of the gospels.事實上,這些不一致的記錄擴展到所有地區的四福音書和無效的要求歷史性先進的標誌或任何其他的福音。 For instance, it is very singular that the only possible date for the crucifixion is found in the late fourth gospel (John xviii. 28), according to which it took place on Friday, the eve of Passover, and not on Passover, as Mark xiv.舉例來說,這是非常獨特的,唯一可能的日期為受難被發現在該晚第四福音(約十八。 28 ) ,根據它發生在週五,逾越節前夕,而不是逾越節,因為馬克十四。 12, Matt. 12日,馬特。 xxvi.二十六。 17, and Luke xxii. 17 ,和路加福音二十二。 7 have it. 7多。 True, a trace of the correct date has been discovered in Mark xiv.誠然,微量正確的日期已被發現的馬克十四。 1 (see Wellhausen on the passage); but then the Last Supper can no longer be the paschal feast, as John xiii. 1 (見豪森的通道) ;但最後的晚餐可以不再是復活節的節日,如約翰十三。 2 has no reference at all to it. 2 ,沒有提到在所有它。 So Jesus is reported to have defended his claim to the Messiahship by proving (from Ps. cx. 1) that the Messiah need not be a son of David (Mark xii. 35-37), while the all-knowing demons of the possessed call him "Jesus, son of David" (Mark x. 47).所以耶穌是據報導,捍衛其索賠的Messiahship證明(由聚苯乙烯。國泰航空。 1 )彌賽亞不需要的兒子大衛(馬克十二。 35-37 ) ,而無所不知的擁有魔鬼叫他“耶穌的兒子大衛” (馬克十47 ) 。 Here, too, John's gospel is more consistent.在這裡,約翰福音較為一致。 It knows nothing of the Davidic descent of Jesus; on the contrary, his legitimacy of birth is disputed (John viii. 48), while stress is laid upon the view that Jesus is the son of God.它什麼也不知道的Davidic耶穌的後裔,與此相反,他的合法性是有爭議的誕生(約八。 48 ) ,而強調的是下崗後認為,耶穌是神的兒子。 The genealogies in Matthew (i. 1-17) and Luke (iii. 23-28), while conflicting with each other, are late attempts at establishing his Davidic descent, actually disproving the claim of his supernatural origin (Matt. i. 18; Luke ii. 5).該族譜馬太(一, 1月17日)和盧克( iii. 23-28 ) ,而互相衝突的,是已故的企圖建立自己Davidic後裔,實際上駁斥他的要求超自然起源(太一18 ;路加福音二。 5 ) 。 The claim that Jesus was "Christ the son of God" all the gospels endeavor to establish.聲稱耶穌是“基督上帝的兒子說: ”所有的福音努力建立。

Most incompatible with the Jewish mode of thinking and speaking is the story, in Matt.最不符合猶太人的思維方式和講的故事,在馬特。 i.字母i. 18-23 (with which Luke i. 27, 34, ii. 5, and iii. 23 were afterward harmonized), of his conception by the virgin from the Holy Ghost ("Ruaḥ" = "Spirit," being feminine both in Hebrew and Aramaic). 18-23 (與路加福音一27 , 34 ,二。 5 ,和第三。 23人後統一) ,他的概念由維爾京從聖靈( “ Ruaḥ ” = “精神”被女性在希伯來語和阿拉姆語) 。 The older view was that Jesus became the son of God through the descent of the Holy Ghost at the moment of his rebirth by baptism, when the heavenly "bat ḳol" spoke to him, "Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee" (Acts xiii. 33; comp. Mark i. 11; Luke iii. 22; see Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," §§ 88, 103), and the Holy Ghost lifted him to the "ḥayyot" of the heavenly throne, even above the angels (comp. Mark i. 13; Matt. iv. 11).舊的觀點是,耶穌是上帝的兒子通過後裔的聖靈的時候,他重生的洗禮,在天上的“蝙蝠科爾”以他說, “你是我的兒子,這一天我生你“ (使徒行十三。 33 ;補償。馬克一11 ;路加三。 22 ;見賈斯汀, ” Dialogus暨Tryphone , “ § § 88 , 103 ) ,和聖靈取消他的” ḥayyot “王位的天堂,甚至超過了天使( comp.馬克一13 ;馬特。四。 11 ) 。

Mythical as is this story at the beginning of Mark, it is but the reflex of the older tale of his transfiguration, representing him as having been lifted to a high mountain, where he was enveloped in a cloud, together with Moses and Elijah (comp. Targ. Yer. to Ex. xii. 42), while the heavenly voice said, "This is my beloved son" (Mark ix. 2-9, and parallels).神話的是這個故事的開頭標記,它的反射,但老的故事,他變形,代表他已被提升到一個高的山區,他在那裡被籠罩在一片陰雲,加上摩西和以利亞(壓縮機。 Targ 。也門里亞爾。移。十二。 42 ) ,而天上的聲音說: “這是我最鍾愛的兒子” (馬克九。 2-9 ,和Parallels ) 。 Probably this was originally applied to the "resurrection" (comp. Acts i. 9-10; Wellhausen on Mark ix. 2-9).也許這是最初用於“復活” ( comp.行為一9月10日;豪森對馬克九。 2-9 ) 。 Not the living but the departed Jesus became the son of God.不是生活,但離開耶穌成為神的兒子。 As such, he was first seen by Peter and the other apostles in Galilee, six days after his death (Mark xvi. 7; comp. ib. ix. 2 and John xxi. 1-29, which is the continuation of Mark xvi. 8).因此,他是第一次看到彼得和其他使徒在加利利,六天後,他的死亡(馬克十六。 7 ;補償。國際文憑。九。 2和約翰二十一。 1月29日,這是繼續馬克十六。 8 ) 。 The story of Peter having recognized him as "Christ, the Son of the living God" (Matt. xvi. 16; Mark viii. 29; Luke ix. 20), is accordingly as mythical as is the beginning of the story, according to which he had foretold to his disciples his crucifixion and his resurrection on the third day in fulfilment of the Scripture (comp. Hosea vi. 1-2)-a story discredited by the very attitude of these disciples (Mark xvi. 8; Luke xxiv. 21; John xx. 9).的故事,彼得已經認識到他是“基督的兒子活著的上帝” (太十六。 16 ;馬克八。 29 ;路加福音九。 20 ) ,因此,作為神話的是年初的故事,根據他預言到他的弟子他的十字架和復活第三天履行聖經( comp.何西阿六。 1月2日) ,一個故事掃地的非常的態度,這些弟子(馬克十六。 8 ;路加福音二十四。 21 ;約翰二十。 9 ) 。

It is superfluous to say that the story of the feeding of the five thousand (Mark vi. 30-46; recorded also in John vi. 1-15) is legendary, as well as its counterpart, the story of the feeding of the four thousand recorded in Mark viii.它是多餘的說的故事餵養的5000 (馬克六。 30-46 ;記錄也約翰六。 1月15日)是傳奇,以及其對應的故事餵養的四個1000記錄在馬克八。 1-9. 1月9日。 So is the story of Jesus' apparition on the water (Mark vi. 47-56; Matt. xiv. 24-36; John vi. 16-21)-probably originally a Galilean fishermen's tale referring to the time after the death of Jesus-given a different version in Mark iv.這樣的故事,耶穌的幽靈在水面上(馬克六。 47-56 ;馬特。十四。 24-36 ;約翰六。 16-21 ) ,可能原本是伽利略漁民的故事時,提到去世後,耶穌賦予了不同版本的馬克四。 35-41, and parallels. 35-41 ,和Parallels 。 The stories of the centurion's servant (Luke vii. 1-10), of the nobleman's son (John iv. 46-50), and of the raising of Jairus' daughter (Mark v. 21-43) have many features showing their common origin in tradition (see Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Mattheus," 1904, p. 36); but while the last-mentionedhas preserved its Judæo-Christian character, the other two are anti-Jewish in conception.故事中的百夫長的僕人(路七。 1月10日)的貴族的兒子(約翰四。 46-50 ) ,以及提高Jairus '女兒(馬克五21-43 )有許多特性顯示它們的共同起源於傳統的(見豪森, “達斯福音Mattheus , ” 1904年,第36頁) ;但是,雖然最後mentionedhas保留了其Judæo基督教的特點,另外兩個是反猶太人的概念。 The story of the anointment of Jesus in the house of Simon the leper (Mark xiv. 3-9; Matt. xxvi. 6-13; recorded also in John xii. 3) is identical with the one told of the sinner (Magdalene?) in the house of Simon the Pharisee (Luke vii. 36-50), the name = "Simon the Essene" having been misread = "the leper" (as Chajes, "Markus-Studien," p. 74, suggests).的故事,塗油的耶穌在眾議院的西蒙台階(馬克十四。 3-9 ;馬特。二十六。 6月13日;記錄也約翰十二。 3 )是相同的一對的罪人(抹大拉的? )在眾議院的西蒙法利賽人(路加福音七。 36至50 ) ,名稱= “西蒙的厄色尼”被誤讀= “台階” (如Chajes , “馬庫斯- Studien , ”第74頁,顯示) 。

Altogether, the story of Jesus was built up upon Bible passages, which Mark, who writes for non-Jewish readers, omits in most cases, just as he omits the debate with Satan.總之,耶穌的故事後,建立了聖經經文,這標誌,誰寫的非猶太人的讀者,忽略了在大多數情況下,正如他忽略了辯論,撒旦。 Only in i.只有在一 2, xiv. 2 ,十四。 27, 49, xv. 27 , 49 ,十五。 28 does he refer to the Scripture, while in i. 28日,他指的是聖經,而在一 11 and ix. 11和第九。 7 reference to Ps. 7提及聚苯乙烯。 ii.二。 7, and in viii. 7 ,在第八。 31 reference to Hosea vi. 31參考何西阿六。 1-2, are indirectly made. 1月2日,是間接的。 In Matthew the statement "This is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord" is repeated in various forms (i. 22; ii. 5, 15, 17, 23; iii. 3; iv. 14; viii. 17; xii. 17; xiii. 14, 35; xxi. 4; xxii. 31; xxvi. 54, 56; xxvii. 9, 35); also in the latter but much older part of John (xii. 38; xiii. 18; xv. 25; xvii. 12; xviii. 9, 32; xix. 24, 36), as well as in Luke (i. 20; iv. 21; xx. 37; xxi. 22).在馬太的聲明說: “這是來傳遞,這可能是實現這是上帝所講: ”是一再以各種形式(一22 ;二。 5 , 15 , 17 , 23 ;三。 3 ;四。 14八。 17 ;十二。 17 ;十三。 14 , 35 ;二十一。 4 ; 22 。 31 ; 26 。 54 , 56 ;二十七。 9 , 35 ) ;還老得多,但後者的一部分約翰( xii. 38 ;十三。 18 ;十五。 25 ;十七。 12 ;十八。 9 , 32 ;十九。 24 , 36 ) ,以及在路加福音(一20 ;四。 21 ;二十。 37 ; 21 。 22 ) 。 In most cases the Messianic, or alleged Messianic, passages suggested the story, rather than the story suggesting the passages.在大多數情況下,彌賽亞,或所謂的救世主,通道建議的故事,而不是故事暗示通道。

The Sayings of Jesus.語錄耶穌。

The sayings of Jesus were collected and grouped together by several writers before they were embodied in the first and third gospels; and they were circulated in many forms afterward as "Logia" ("Oracular Sayings of Christ").格言耶穌收集和歸類在一起之前的一些作家,他們都體現在第一個和第三個福音,他們散發了許多形式之後的“ Logia ” ( “ Oracular熟語基督” ) 。 This accounts for the repetition and dislocation of many of them.此帳戶的重複和混亂的許多人。 As they were handed down originally in the Aramaic language, traces of which are still preserved in Mark (iii. 17; v. 41; vii. 34; xv. 34), they were often misread; as, for instance, in Luke iv.由於他們是傳世最初的阿拉姆語,痕跡仍保存在馬克( iii. 17 ;五41 ;七。 34 ;十五。 34 ) ,他們往往被誤解;作為,例如,在路加福音四。 26: "armalita" (widow) for "aramaita" (heathen; see Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Lucæ," 1904, p. 10); or Matt. 26日: “ armalita ” (寡婦)的“ aramaita ” (異教徒;見豪森, “達斯福音Lucæ , ” 1904年,第10頁) ;或馬特。 vii.七。 6: "ḳudsha" (holy thing) for "ḳodosha" (ring, parallel to pearls); or Matt. 6 : “ ḳudsha ” (羅馬的事情)的“ ḳodosha ” (環,平行的珍珠) ;或馬特。 viii.八。 22, where the original reading was "Sheboḳ li-bene mata de-yikberun yat metehon" (= "Let the men of the town bury their dead"; see Credner, "Einleitung ins Neue Testament," 1836, i. 75). 22 ,如果原來的理解是“ Sheboḳ力貝德拉馬塔去yikberun逸metehon ” ( = “讓男人鎮埋葬死者留出時間” ;見Credner , “新舊約導論集” , 1836年,一75 ) 。

Misunderstood Passages.被誤讀的通道。

Often the "Logia" were misunderstood by the translator, as in the case of the expressions "'ayin ṭob" and "'ayin ra'" (= "a good [friendly], unbegrudging eye" and "a malevolent, begrudging eye" (Matt. vi. 22-23; Luke xi. 34-36). Similarly, the fourfold meaning of "barnasha" ("son of man," "man," "I," and "the Messiah") was misunderstood by the first three evangelists (see Man, Son of). So with the words (Luke xvii. 20-21), "The kingdom of God cometh not by calculation" (comp. the rabbinical "cursed be the calculators of the end" ["meḥashbe ḳiẓẓim"], Sanh. 97b), "but suddenly, imperceptibly it is with you" (comp. "The Messiah comes when the thought of him is absent" ["be-ḥesseaḥ ha-da'at"], Sanh. 97a). The "heathen" of Matt. vi. 7 (comp. Ber. 24b, xviii. 17) seems to be a mistranslation of the term "'amme ha-araẓot" (the ignorant class of men).往往是“ Logia ”被誤解的翻譯,如表達“ ayin ṭob ”和“ ' ayin嶺” ( = “一個很好的[友好] , unbegrudging眼睛”和“惡意的, begrudging眼” (太六。 22-23 ;路加福音十一。 34-36 ) 。同樣,四倍意義“ barnasha ” ( “人子” , “男人” , “我”和“救世主” )是誤解前三福音(見曼的兒子) 。做的話(路十七。 20-21日) , “神的國而不是由人來計算” ( comp.猶太教“詛咒是計算器的結束” [ “ meḥashbe ḳiẓẓim ” ] , Sanh 。汕97B ) , “但突然,無形中它是與你” ( comp. “來當救世主的思想,他不在” [ “是, ḥesseaḥ河da'at ” ] , Sanh 。汕97A ) 。的“異教徒”的馬特。六。 7 ( comp.小蘗鹼。 24b ,十八。 17 )似乎是一個誤譯的任期“ amme河araẓot ” (一流的無知的男人) 。

Misunderstanding of the term "be-ḥad le-shabba tinyana" (on the first of the second week after Passover), preserved only in Luke vi. 1, caused the confusion of the law concerning the new produce of the year (Lev. xxiii. 11-14) with the Sabbath law (see Jew. Encyc. vii. 168, sv Jesus).誤區“一詞是,有樂shabba tinyana ” (第一,第二週後,逾越節) ,只保留在路加福音六。 1 ,造成混淆的法律關於新生產的一年( Lev.二十三。 11月14日)與安息日法(見猶。 Encyc 。七。 168 ,希沃特耶穌) 。 In the one case Jesus, referring to David, defended his disciples, who in their hunger plucked the new corn in the field and ate it without waiting for the offering upon the altar; in the other case he himself disregarded the Sabbath law in view of the "pikkuaḥ nefesh" (peril of life), a case in which the Rabbis admitted the suspension of the law, upon the principle, "The Sabbath is given over to you ["the son of man"], and not you to the Sabbath" (see Mek., Wayaḳhel, 1; Chwolson, "Das Letzte Passahmahl," 1892, pp. 59-67, 91-92).在一個案例耶穌,指的是大衛,捍衛他的弟子,誰在其飢餓摘新玉米在外地,吃它,而無需等待發行的祭壇;在其他情況下他自己無視法律的安息日鑑於在“ pikkuaḥ訴願” (危險的生活) ,在其中一個案件的拉比承認暫停法,根據這項原則, “安息日是交給你[ ”人子“ ] ,而不是你的安息日“ (見Mek 。 , Wayaḳhel , 1 ; Chwolson ”之終極Passahmahl “ , 1892年,頁。 59-67 , 91-92 ) 。

Many of the sayings attributed to Jesus have been literally taken over from the Didache; others were Pharisaic teachings well known in the rabbinical schools, as has been shown by Lightfoot ("Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ," 1684), Shöttgen ("Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ," 1737), Nork ("Rabbinische Quellen und Parallelen zu Neutestamentlichen Schriften," 1839), Zipser ("The Sermon on the Mount," 1852), Wünsche ("Neue Beiträge zur Erläuterung der Evangelien," 1878), and others.許多諺語歸功於耶穌實際上已經接管了十二使徒遺訓;人Pharisaic教義眾所周知的猶太教學校,作為已被證明的娜萊( “ Horæ Hebraicæ等Talmudicæ ” , 1684年) , Shöttgen ( “ Horæ Hebraicæ等Talmudicæ , “ 1737年) , Nork ( ” Rabbinische Quellen與Parallelen楚蘭Neutestamentlichen文集“ , 1839年) , Zipser ( ”在講道的山“ , 1852年) , Wünsche ( ”新Beiträge楚Erläuterung之Evangelien , “ 1878年) ,和其他。 It has been pointed out by Schreiner ("Die Jüngsten Urtheile über das Judenthum," 1902, pp. 27-29) that while Jesus' sayings are simply assertions without support of Scripture, the Rabbis show that they were derived from Scripture and thereby establish their claim to priority.有人指出由興農( “模具Jüngsten Urtheile黚er之Judenthum , ” 1902年,頁。 27-29日) ,雖然耶穌的說法僅僅是斷言不支持聖經的拉比表明,他們是來自聖經,從而建立他們宣稱的優先事項。 Thus, the injunction to pray for the offender (Matt. v. 44) is derived (Tos. B. Ḳ. ix. 29) from the example of Abraham and Job (Gen. xx. 17; Job xlii. 8, 10); the idea of heavenly treasures (Matt. vi. 20) is derived from Deut. xxxii.因此,禁令祈禱罪犯(太五44 )導出( Tos.灣K表。九。 29 )從例如亞伯拉罕和工作(將軍二十。 17 ;就業四十二。 8日, 10日) ;的想法,天上寶藏(太六。 20 )來自Deut 。三十二。 34, in connection with Isa. 34 ,關於伊薩。 iii.三。 10 and Ps. 10和聚苯乙烯。 xxxi.三十一。 20 (AV 19; Sifre, Deut. 324; comp. Tosef., Peah, iv. 8); the deprecation of lengthy prayers (Matt. vi. 7-8), from Ex. 20 (影音19 ; Sifre , Deut 。 324 ;補償。 Tosef 。 , Peah ,四。 8 ) ;的deprecation冗長的祈禱(太六。 7月8日) ,由前。 xv.十五。 21 and Num. 21日和序號。 xii.十二。 13 (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 3; Sifre, Num. 105; comp. Ber. 39a). 13 ( Mek. , Beshallaḥ , 3 ; Sifre ,序號。 105 ;補償。小蘗鹼。 39a ) 。 So also with the sentence, "Let your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay" (Matt. v. 37, RV), which is derived from Lev.因此,也有一句, “讓你的講話是,是啊,是啊,唔,唔” (太五37 ,風疹病毒) ,這是來自列夫。 xix.十九。 36 (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, viii. 7; BM 49a; comp. Tos. Soṭah vii. 2; Giṭ. 35a; Num. R. xxii.); and the condemnation of the lustful look (Matt. v. 28), from Deut. xxiii. 36 ( Sifra , Ḳedoshim ,八。 7 ;骨髓49A條;補償。 Tos 。 Soṭah七。 2 ; Giṭ 。 35A條;序號。河二十二。 ) ;和譴責淫蕩期待(太五28 ) ,來自Deut 。二十三。 9 ('Ab. Zarah 20a) and Job xxxi. 9 ( '抗體。 Zarah 20A條)和就業三十一。 (Midr., Yalḳuṭ, to the passage). ( Midr. , Yalḳuṭ ,以通過) 。

When in his dispute with the Sadducees concerning resurrection Jesus cites the passage, "I am the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," to prove that the Patriarchs shall come to life again, because "God is the God of the living, not of the dead," the argument fails to convince the believer in Scripture; but when Gamaliel refers the Sadducees to Deut.當在他的爭端與撒都該人關於耶穌復活列舉了通過, “我的上帝亞伯拉罕,以撒和雅各, ”以證明始祖應來的生活,因為“上帝是上帝的生活,而不是死者“的論點未能說服信徒在聖經;但是當加馬利亞指的撒都該人以Deut 。 xi.十一。 21, or Ex. 21 ,或前。 vi.六。 4, ". . . the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers to give them," the argument is logical and convincing: "The dead can not receive, but they shall live again to receive the land" (Sanh. 90b). 4 , “ 。 。 。的土地主sware給您的父親給他們, ”是符合邏輯的論據和有說服力的: “死者不能接受,但他們應生活再次獲得土地” ( Sanh.第九十B ) 。 The originality, then, is with the Rabbis.在原創性,那麼,與拉比。 In like manner the beautiful story of the widow's two mites (Mark xii. 42-44) betrays its midrashic origin in the words, "she has given all her living," which are an allusion to the Biblical phrase "we-nefesh ki taḳrib" (Lev. ii. 1), interpreted in Lev.同樣美麗的故事,寡婦的兩個蟎(馬克十二。 42-44 )背叛其midrashic原產地的話, “她給了她所有的生活, ”這是指的是聖經“一詞我們,訴願基taḳrib “ ( Lev.二。 1 ) ,解釋列夫。 R. iii.河三。 as signifying,"The gift of the poor who includes his or her very life in the gift counts for more before God than the hecatombs of Agrippa the king."作為象徵, “禮物窮人誰,包括他或她的生命中的禮物罪狀更多上帝面前比hecatombs的阿格里帕國王。 ” So the strange words of Jesus in regard to the adulteress: "He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her" (John viii. 7), are possibly merely an echo of the rabbinical saying, "Only when the husband is without sin will the ordeal of the wife suspected of adultery prove effective" (Sifre, Num. 21, based upon Num. v. 31).因此,奇怪的話,耶穌在關於通姦: “他是沒有罪的,誰就在你們中間,讓他第一次投下一塊石頭在她的” (約八。 7 ) ,有可能只是一個迴聲猶太教說, “只有當丈夫是沒有罪的,誰就將在磨難的妻子涉嫌通姦證明是有效的“ ( Sifre ,序號。 21日,根據數。五31 ) 。 Expressions such as "If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out," and "if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off" (Matt. v. 29-30), are explained by similar rabbinical utterances (Niddah 13b).如“如果你的右眼得罪你,摘了, ”和“如果你的右手得罪你,切斷它關閉” (太五29-30 ) ,說明類似的猶太教話語( Niddah 13B條) 。 For other instances of New Testament sayings derived from Scripture see Jew.對於其他情況的新約全書說法源於聖經見猶。 Encyc. Encyc 。 iv.四。 588-592, sv 588-592 ,希沃特

Didascalia. Didascalia 。

The "sayings" attributed to Jesus may be divided, according to form and contents, into (1) Ethical Teachings, (2) Parables, (3) Apocalyptic (Messianic) Utterances, (4) Essene Polemics.的“名言”歸於耶穌可劃分,根據形式和內容,到( 1 )道德教義, ( 2 )寓言, ( 3 )啟示(救世主)話語, ( 4 )厄色尼論戰。

The "Sayings."在“熟語” 。

1. Ethical Teachings: These were grouped together in the Sermon on the Mount as if to form the program of the new dispensation (Matt. v. 1-vii. 27; in less elaborate form in Luke vi. 20-49), but are partly found, in varying order, elsewhere (Mark ix. 43-47, x. 11, xi. 25; Matt. xviii. 8-9; Luke xi. 2-4, 9-13, 34-36; xii. 22-31, 33-34). 1 。倫理教學:這些人組合在一起的寶訓如山,形成的新的計劃分配(太五1至七。 27 ;在不到制訂形式在路加福音六。 20-49 ) ,但部分發現,在不同的命令,在其他地方(馬克九。 43-47 ,十,十一,十一。 25 ;馬特。十八。 8-9 ;路加福音十一。 2-4 , 9-13 , 34-36 ;十二。 22-31 , 33-34 ) 。 The main characteristic of these teachings is not, as Matthew puts it, antagonism to the Law, but what the Rabbis term "li-fenim mi-shurat ha-din"-"a withdrawing within the line of the Law" (B. Ḳ. 101a) as behooves the esoteric circle of the pious; in other words, their main ethical characteristic is Hasidean (comp. B. Ḳ. 30a; BM 83a, with reference to Prov. ii. 20; see Essenes).的主要特點是沒有這些教誨,因為馬修所說的那樣,對抗法律,但長期的拉比“李fenim美shurat公頃丁” - “退出行內法” (灣Ḳ 。 101A章)為值得的深奧循環虔誠的,換句話說,其主要特點是Hasidean道德( comp.灣K表。 30A的;骨髓83a ,參照省。二。 20 ;見愛色尼) 。 Hasidean views similar to those contained in Matt.類似Hasidean意見中所載的馬特。 vi.六。 25-34 are voiced also (Ḳid. iv. 14; Tos. Ḳid. v. 15; Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayissa'u, 2-4). 25-34是表示還( Ḳid.四。 14 ; Tos 。孩子。訴15 ; Mek 。 , Beshallaḥ , Wayissa'u , 2月4日) 。

2. Parables: The parables follow the rabbinical "meshalim," illustrative of some ethical truth, either in the form of similitudes, like the rabbinical "Mashal le-mah ha-dabar domeh" ("A similitude: To what may this be likened? To a man," etc.; see Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb."; Parables), or in the form of a longer narrative. 2 。寓言:在比喻按照猶太教“ meshalim ” ,說明了一些道德真理,無論是在形式的similitudes ,如猶太教“馬沙勒樂麻將河達巴爾domeh ” ( “一個相似:為了什麼這個好比?一個人“等;看到利維” Neuhebr 。 Wörterb 。 “ ;寓言) ,或的形式,不再說明。 The former kind is found in Mark iii.前一種是在Mark III的。 23, iv. 23日,四。 1-9 (the parable of the sower), 26-32, and xii. 1月9日(寓言的索維) , 26-32 ,和第十二。 1-12; the latter is especially developed in Luke xv.-xvi. 1月12日,後者尤其是發達國家在路加福音xv. -十六。 and xix.和第19條。 11-28 (the parables of the lost sheep, the lost piece of silver, the prodigal son, the unrighteous steward, and the ten talents), and in Matt. 11月28日(該寓言的迷途羔羊,失去一塊銀牌的浪子,在不義的管家,和10人才) ,並在馬特。 xxv.二十五。 1-30 (the parables of the wise and foolish virgins, and of the unprofitable servant). 1月30日(該寓言的智慧和愚蠢的處女,和無利可圖的僕人) 。 Some of these parables have their parallels among the sayings of first-century rabbis, and it may, therefore, justly be claimed that they originated among these.其中的一些寓言有相似之處的格言世紀猶太教,它可能會,因此,理所當然地聲稱,他們是來自其中。 Compare, for instance, the parable of the wise and foolish guests of the king told by R. Johanan b.比較,例如,寓言聰明和愚蠢的客人國王告訴河Johanan灣 Zakkai with reference to the Messianic banquet, in commenting upon Isa. Zakkai參照彌賽亞宴會,在評論時伊薩。 lxv. lxv 。 13 and Eccl. 13日和Eccl 。 ix.九。 8 (Shab. 153a). 8 ( Shab. 153a ) 。 The simple meaning of these parables, however, was lost later on, and they were taken to be allegories and mysteries, especially when they alluded to the Messianic expectations, about which it was not safe to speak in public, as they assumed the end of the kingdom of Satan (Rome; comp. Mark iv. 11, 34; Matt. xiii. 1-52, especially 35 and 39).簡單意義上的這些比喻,但是,失去以後,他們將採取寓言和神秘,尤其是當他們提到彌賽亞的期望,這是不是安全的公開發言,因為他們假定結束王國撒旦(羅馬;補償。馬克四。 11 , 34 ;馬特。十三。 1-52 ,尤其是35和39 ) 。 Thus "the parable of the fig-tree" (Mark xiii. 28; see Wellhausen, who is at a loss to explain it) is actually a "symbol" of the Messianic advent, according to the Midrash (Cant. R. ii. 13), but was no longer understood by the evangelists, either as an allegory or as a sign of Messianic success or failure, in the story of the blasted fig-tree (Mark xi. 13-14, 20-23).因此, “寓言的無花果樹” (馬克十三。 28 ;見豪森,誰是無法解釋的)實際上是一個“象徵”的救世主的到來,根據米德拉士( Cant.河二。 13 ) ,但已不再理解的福音,無論是作為寓言或視為救世主的成功或失敗,在這個故事的抨擊圖樹(馬克十一。 13-14 , 20-23 ) 。

3. Apocalyptic (Messianic) Utterances: For the most part, these are taken over from Jewish apocalypses and embodied in the gospels as discourses of Jesus (Matt. xxiv.-xxv. 31-45; comp. Midr. Teh. Ps. cxviii. 17; Mark xiii. 7-23; Luke xiii. 24-30, xvii. 22-35, xxi. 7-36). 3 。啟示(救世主)話語:在大多數情況下,這些都是接管猶太啟示和體現在福音中耶穌的話語(太xxiv. -二十五。 31-45 ;補償。 Midr 。的。聚苯乙烯。 cxviii 。 17 ;馬克十三。 7月23日;路加福音十三。 24-30 ,十七。 22-35 , 21 。 7-36 ) 。

4. Essene Polemics: These are directed chiefly against (a) Herodian high priests (Mark xi. 27-xii. 27, xiii. 1-2; Luke xi. 47-xii. 8) and are encountered also in rabbinical records (Tos. Men. xiii. 21-22), and against (b) Pharisaic hypocrisy (Matt. xxiii., et al.); the latter also have their parallels in rabbinical writings (Ab. RN xxxvii.; Soṭah 22; Pesiḳ. R. xxii.: "Thou shalt not utter the name of the Lord in vain; that is, Thou shalt not wear phylacteries and long fringes [ẓiẓit] while at the same time thou art bent upon sin"). 4 。厄色尼論戰:這些都是針對主要針對(一) Herodian大祭司(馬克十一。 27 - 12 。 27 ,十三。 1-2 ;路加福音十一。 47十二。 8 )和所遇到的還猶太教記錄( Tos 。男性。十三。 21-22 ) ,以及對(二) Pharisaic虛偽(太二十三。 ,等。 ) ;後者也有其相似之處在猶太教著作( Ab.考試三十七。 ; Soṭah 22 ; Pesiḳ 。 R 。二十二。 : “你應該不完全的名稱主徒勞的,也就是說,你應該不穿phylacteries和長期邊緣[ ẓiẓit ]同時祢彎曲時罪” ) 。 See Pharisees.見法利。


Characteristics of the Gospels.特徵福音。

The gospel of Matthew stands nearest to Jewish life and the Jewish mode of thinking.馬太福音隨時就近猶太人和猶太生活的思維方式。 It was written for Judæo-Christians and made ample use of an Aramaic original.這是書面的Judæo基督徒,並作了充分利用原有的阿拉姆語。 This is evidenced by the terms: "kingdom of heaven," found exclusively in Matthew, a translation of the Hebrew "malkut shamayim" (= "kingdom of God"); "your heavenly Father," or, "your Father in the heavens" (v. 16, vi. 14, et al.); "son of David" for "the Messiah" (ix. 27, et al.; comp. the rabbinical "ben David"); "the holy city" (iv. 5, xxvii. 53) and "the city of the great King" (v. 35) for "Jeru salem"; "God of Israel" (xv. 31); the oft-repeated phrase "that it might be fulfilled, which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet"; the retention of Judæo-Christian conceptions (v. 17, x. 6, xv. 24); the genealogy of Jesus, based upon specific haggadic views concerning Tamar, Ruth, and Bath-sheba, so drawn as to make the assumption of his Messianic character plausible (i. 1-16); and the assignment of the twelve seats of judgment on the Judgment Day to the Twelve Apostles in representation of the twelve tribes of Israel (xix. 28; Luke xxii. 30).證明了這一點的條款: “天國王朝” ,發現僅在馬太,翻譯希伯來文“ malkut shamayim ” ( = “神的國” ) ; “你的天父”或“您的父親在天堂“ (五16 ,六。 14日,等。 ) ; ”大衛之子“的”彌賽亞“ ( ix. 27日,等。 ;補償。猶太教”本大衛“ ) ; ”聖城“ (四。 5 ,二十七。 53 )和“城市大國王” (五35 )的“ Jeru塞勒姆” , “以色列的上帝” ( xv. 31日) ;的經常重複的短語“ ,它可能要完成,這是講上帝的先知“ ;保留Judæo基督教概念(五17 ,十6 ,十五。 24 ) ;耶穌的家譜的基礎上,具體haggadic意見添馬艦,露絲和浴,巴,所以得出的假設,使他的性格可能彌賽亞(一1月16日) ;和轉讓的12個席位的判決審判日的十二門徒在代表12部落以色列( 19 。 28 ;路加福音二十二。 30 ) 。 It has embodied Jewish apocalyptic material, in ch.它體現猶太世界末日材料,在CH 。 xxiv.-xxv., more extensively than have the other gospels; and in the Sermon on the Mount (v.-vii.) it shows a certain familiarity with rabbinical phraseology. xxiv. -二十五。 ,更廣泛地比其他福音;和聖訓山(五至七。 )它顯示出了一定熟悉猶太教用語。

On the other hand, it manifests a spirit of intense hostility to the Jews in the crucifixion story, to a greater degree than do the other gospels (xxvii. 25).另一方面,它體現的精神,強烈的敵視猶太人受難的故事,在更大程度上比其他福音( xxvii. 25 ) 。 In fact, its late composition is shown by its artificial systematization of the whole story of Jesus: There are seven beatitudes in v. 3-10 (verse 5 is a quotation), and accordingly seven "woes" in xxiii.事實上,它的組成是後期所表現出的人工系統化整個故事耶穌:有七個福在五, 3月10日(詩5是一個引號) ,並據此7 “困境”的二十三。 13-32 (Luke vi. 21-26 has five beatitudes and four "woes"); seven parables in xiii. 13-32 (路加福音六。 21-26有五個福和四個“困境” ) ; 7寓言在十三。 1-52 (comp. the four in Mark iv. 1-34), and the twice-seven generations for each of the three periods of the genealogy of Jesus (i. 1-17). 1-52 ( comp.四個在第四。 1-34 ) ,以及兩次七代的每個三個時期的耶穌的家譜(一1月17日) 。 All the miraculous cures narratedin Mark are enlarged upon both as to the number of the persons cured and as to their incidents, so as to adjust them to the Messianic claim (xi. 5; comp. Luke vii. 22; Isa. xxxv. 5; Pesiḳ. R. 42).所有的奇蹟般的治愈narratedin商標作為擴大後的一些人治愈他們的事件,以調整他們的彌賽亞索賠( xi. 5 ;補償。路加福音七。 22 ;赫伊薩。三十五。 5 ; Pesiḳ 。河42 ) 。 Somewhat artificial, and in contrast to such genuine legends as those in Luke, are the birth-stories in ch.有點人為的,並在對比這種真正的傳說那些在路加福音,是出生的故事,在CH 。 ii., woven together from Num.二。 ,交織在一起的序號。 xxiv.二十四。 17 (referred to the Messiah), Micah v. 17 (提到彌賽亞) ,米卡訴 1, Isa. 1 ,伊薩。 lx.勒克斯。 6, and from Moses' childhood story, to which that of Jesus formed a parallel, just as the Law of Mount Sinai was paralleled in the Sermon on the Mount. 6 ,從摩西童年的故事,這是耶穌形成一個平行的,就像法西乃山是平行的講道山上。

Significant is the reference to the established (Judæo-Christian) Church under Peter (xvi. 18; comp. "Petra" ["the rock"] Abraham as foundation of the world [Yalḳ. i. 243; Levy, lc, sv ]), to the secession of which from the Jewish state the story of Peter and the fish seems to allude (xvii. 24-27).重要的是,提及設立( Judæo基督教)教會根據彼得( xvi. 18 ;補償。 “佩特拉” [ “岩石” ]亞伯拉罕為基礎的世界[ Yalḳ 。島243 ;利維,立法會,希沃特] ) ,以分裂國家的從這個猶太國家的故事,彼得和魚類似乎暗示( xvii. 24日至27日) 。 On the other hand, the Trinitarian formula (xxviii. 19) and the way the Jews are spoken of (xxviii. 15; so throughout John) betray a very late final composition.另一方面,在三位一體的公式( xxviii. 19 )和道路的猶太人都是談到( xxviii. 15 ;所以整個約翰)背叛很晚最後組成。 But there are other late additions (v. 10, 11, 14; x. 16-39).但除此以外,還有其他已故增加(五, 10 , 11 , 14 ;十16-39 ) 。


The gospel of Mark is written in the Pauline spirit, for pagans. Being, however, the oldest attempt at presenting the story of Jesus in full, it shows greater simplicity and better historical and geographical knowledge than the rest.的福音馬克是書面的波利娜精神,為異教徒。然而,目前最古老的企圖介紹中的耶穌的故事充分,這表明更大的簡單性和更好的歷史和地理知識比其他。 It intentionally omits the term "the Law" ("Nomos"; comp. xii. 28 with Matt. xxii. 36), although it preserves the "Shema'" omitted in Matthew; it omits also Biblical quotations, only a few of which have been allowed to remain (i. 1, iv. 12, ix. 48), and expressions offensive to pagans. Characteristic is the addition of the words "a house of prayer for all the nations" (xi. 17; comp. Matt. xxi. 13 and Luke xix. 46).它故意忽略了長期的“法律” ( “州” ;補償。十二。 28馬特。二十二。 36 ) ,但它保留了“射麻”省略馬太;省略也聖經報價,只有少數的已獲准留(一1 ,四。 12日,九。 48 ) ,並表達進攻異教徒。特徵是添加“一所房子的祈禱所有國家” ( xi. 17 ;補償。馬特。二十一。路加福音13和19 。 46 ) 。 The Aramaic terms used by Jesus in his exorcisms (v. 41, vii. 34) seem to have been retained purposely.在亞拉姆語使用的術語耶穌在他的驅魔(五41 ,七。 34 )似乎已經被保留下來故意。


Historical Character.歷史人物。

The gospel of Luke is confessedly (i. 1) a compilation from older sources.的福音路加是明白(一1 )彙編舊來源。 It contains genuine legends about the birth of John the Baptist and of Jesus as they were current in Essene circles.它包含真正的傳奇的誕生施洗約翰和耶穌因為它們是目前在厄色尼界。 The whole picture of John the Baptist and of Jesus as bearers of good tidings to the poor (iv. 14; vi. 20, 24-26) has the stamp of greater historical truthfulness.整個圖片的施洗約翰和耶穌作為旗手的好消息向窮人( iv. 14 ;六。 20日, 24日至26日)有更大的郵票歷史真實性。 Here more than in the other gospels is Jesus represented as the friend of sinners (vii. 37-50; xv. 11-32; xviii. 10-14; xix. 1-10; xxiii. 39-43) and of the poor (xvi. 19-31). Especial interest is shown in the women in Jesus' company (viii. 2-3; xxiii. 55; xxiv. 10).在這裡,超過了其他福音派是耶穌的朋友罪人( vii. 37-50 ;十五。 11-32 ;十八。 10月14日;十九。 1月10日;二十三。 39-43 )和窮人( xvi. 19-31 ) 。特殊的興趣表現在婦女在耶穌的公司( viii. 2-3 ;二十三。 55 ; 24 。 10 ) 。

The story of the good Samaritan (x. 25-37), possibly, was told differently in the original version (see Brotherly Love; Jesus of Nazareth).這個故事的好心的撒瑪利亞人(十25-37 ) ,可能的話,被告知中有不同的原始版本(見博愛;拿撒勒的耶穌) 。 The compiler of Luke has, however, infused his Pauline spirit into his record (iv. 25-30, vii. 1-10); hence, instead of the twelve, the seventy apostles, for the seventy nations (x. 1; comp. xxiv. 47), and Adam in place of Abraham (iii. 38); though traces of the original Judean spirit are found in passages such as xxii.編譯路加福音然而,他的波利娜精神注入到他的紀錄( iv. 25-30七。 1月10日) ;因此,不是12 ,是70使徒,為70國(十1 ;補償。 24 。 47 ) ,和亞當代替亞伯拉罕( iii. 38 ) ;儘管痕跡原來猶太精神是在通道,如二十二。 30, where only the twelve tribes of Israel are spoken of as being judged in the future kingdom of Jesus. 30日,在只有12部落以色列談到作為判斷未來王國耶穌。 Luke differs from the other synoptic gospels in that it ignores Galilee as the rallying-point of the disciples of Jesus (Mark xvi. 7; Matt. xxviii. 7) and makes Jerusalem the starting-point and center of the new sect (xxiv. 52).盧克不同於其他天氣福音,因為它無視加利利作為凝聚點的門徒耶穌(馬克十六。 7 ;馬特。二十八。 7 ) ,使耶路撒冷的出發點和中心的新節( xxiv. 52 ) 。


The gospel of John is the work of a Christian of the second century, who endeavors to construe a history of Jesus upon the basis of a belief in his supernatural existence.約翰福音的工作是一個基督教的第二個世紀,誰竭力解釋歷史的耶穌時的基礎,相信在他的超自然的存在。 To him Jesus is no longer the expected Messiah of the Jews, but a cosmic being (viii. 23, 58), one with God his Father (x. 30; xiv. 10), through whom alone life, salvation, and resurrection are obtained (xiv. 6), while on the other hand the Jews were from the beginning his implacable enemies, with whom he had nothing in common (vii. 1, 13; viii. 41-47, 59; x. 8, 10, 31; et al.).耶穌對他已不再是可望彌賽亞的猶太人,但宇宙是( viii. 23日, 58歲) ,一個與上帝父親(十30 ;十四。 10 ) ,其中僅通過生命,救贖,和復活的獲得( xiv. 6 ) ,而另一方面,猶太人被從一開始他的敵人,與他沒有什麼共同點( vii. 1 , 13 ;八。 41-47 , 59 ;十, 8 , 10 , 31 ;等。 ) 。 All his discourses reiterate the same idea: God's fatherhood is understood only through the recognition of Jesus as His son (vi. 29, 46; xiv. 2; xv. 8-10, 26; et al.).他所有的話語重申同樣的想法:上帝的父親的理解,只有通過承認耶穌為他的兒子( vi. 29 , 46 ;十四。 2 ;十五。 8月10日, 26日;等。 ) 。 The teaching of Jesus is summed up in the words, "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another" (xiii. 34); and yet this teaching of love is combined with the most intense hatred of the kinsmen of Jesus.教學中的耶穌是總結的話, “一個新的誡命我請你們,叫你們彼此相愛;因為我愛你們,你們也要彼此相愛” ( xiii. 34條) ;和然而,這一教學愛是結合了最激烈的仇恨的麵團中的耶穌。 All the miracles performed by Jesus assume in John a symbolical character (vi. 26, and frequently).所有的奇蹟承擔由耶穌在約翰一象徵性質( vi. 26日,並經常) 。 The Temple (ii. 21), the manna (vi. 32-59), the water libation on Sukkot (vii. 37), the light of Ḥanukkah (viii. 12, x. 22), the vine (xv. 1-17), "the way" (xiv. 6)-all these are turned into symbols of the Christ.寺(白介素21 ) ,在哪( vi. 32-59 ) ,水奠的住棚節( vii. 37 ) ,鑑於光明( viii. 12 ,十22 ) ,葡萄( xv. 1 - 17 ) , “道路” ( xiv. 6 ) ,所有這些都變成了象徵基督。 In the preface, in place of the genealogies in Luke and Matthew, a heavenly pedigree is given him (i. 1-18), written by one who desired to represent his advent as a new Creation.在序言中,以取代族譜在路加福音和馬修,一個是天上的血統給了他(一, 1月18日) ,誰寫的一個理想的,代表他的到來作為一個新的創造。

The Older Traditions.老人的傳統。

On closer observation, however, there is discernible in this gospel a substratum which points to an older tradition.仔細觀察,但是,有可察覺在這福音一基質這點,舊的傳統。 Not only has it, alone of all the gospels, preserved the one possible date of the crucifixion of Jesus, the 13th of Nisan (xviii. 28); but the remark of Caiaphas the high priest, expressing fear of the Romans as the motive of his action against Jesus (xi. 48-50; xviii. 14) as well as Pilate's act (xix. 1), seems to be part of the older tradition.它不僅單獨所有福音,維護了一個可能的日期十字架的耶穌,尼散月13日( xviii. 28 ) ;但話的大祭司該亞法,並表示擔心羅馬人的動機他的行動,打擊耶穌( xi. 48-50 ;十八。 14 ) ,以及彼拉多的行為( xix. 1 ) ,似乎是部分老傳統。 In fact, the historic chapters in the latter part of the gospel, which represent Jesus with all the pathos of human suffering, differ altogether in character from those, in the earlier part, that represent the superhuman Jesus.事實上,歷史篇章的一部分,後者的福音,這是耶穌的一切可悲的人的痛苦,在性質上完全不同的人,在以前的一部分,這代表了超人的耶穌。 The oft-repeated formula, "that the saying might be fulfilled," which occurs in the latter part only (xii. 38, xiii. 18, xv. 25, xvii. 12, xviii. 9, xix. 24, 36), as throughout the entire first gospel, also betrays an older source.在多次的方式, “該說可能實現, ”是發生在後半只( xii. 38 ,十三。 18日,十五。 25十七。 12 , 18 。 9 , 19 。 24 , 36 ) ,作為整個第一福音,也暴露舊來源。 A greater familiarity with Jewish rites (vii. 7), with Jewish personalities (see Nicodemus), and with the geography of Palestine (ii. 1, iii. 23, iv. 5, v. 2, xii. 21, xix. 13) is shown than in the other gospels-another indication of an older tradition (see Güdemann in "Monatsschrift," 1893, pp. 249-257, 297-303, 345-356).更加熟悉猶太人儀式( vii. 7 ) ,與猶太人的人士(見尼科迪默斯) ,並與地理巴勒斯坦(白介素1 ,三。 23日,四。 5 ,五, 2 ,十二。 21 , 19 。 13 )顯示比其他福音,再次表明一個老傳統(見Güdemann在“月刊” , 1893年,頁。 249-257 , 297-303 , 345-356 ) 。 There are, besides, genuine popular legends which can scarcely be the invention of an Alexandrian metaphysician (comp. ii. 1-11; v. 2-12).有,而且,真正的流行傳說這簡直是發明一種亞歷山大metaphysician ( comp.二。 1月11日;五, 2月12日) 。 The last chapter certainly emanated from another source.最後一章肯定來自另一來源。 Possibly the original gospel bore the name of John, to whom frequent allusion is made as "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (xiii. 23; xix. 26, 27; xx. 2; xxi. 7, 20), and a late compiler elaborated it into a gospel of Christian love and Jew hatred.Güdemann thinks that the whole book was written by a born Jew.可能承擔原來的福音約翰的名字,他們經常提到的是“耶穌的門徒人愛” ( xiii. 23 ;十九。 26日, 27日;二十。 2 ;二十一。 7 , 20 ) ,以及已故編譯闡述成為福音的基督的愛和猶太人hatred.Güdemann認為,整本書的作者是一出生的猶太人。

The Acts of the Apostles:該使徒行傳:

The Acts of the Apostles is a continuation of the gospel of Luke (comp. i. 1-3 with Luke i. 1-3), and relates the history of the spread of the gospel in apostolic times, taking Jerusalem as the starting-point while ignoring, like Luke xxiv.該使徒行傳是一個持續的福音路加( comp.島1-3沃頓一1-3 ) ,以及涉及的歷史,傳播福音的使徒倍,同時考慮耶路撒冷為起點點,而忽略,如路加福音二十四。 52, the dispersion of the disciples after the crucifixion (alluded to in Mark xiv. 27 and Matt. xxvi. 31; see Weizsäker," Das Apostolische Zeitalter," 1892, p. 1) and their first rallying in Galilee (Mark xiv. 28, xvi. 7; Matt. xxvi. 32, xxviii. 7, 10). 52 ,分散門徒後受難(中提到馬克十四。 27和馬特。二十六。月31日;見Weizsäker , “達斯Apostolische時代” , 1892年,第1頁)和第一次聚集在加利利(馬克十四。 28日,十六。 7 ;馬特。二十六。 32 ,二十八。 7日, 10日) 。 Forty days' intercourse with the resurrected Jesus (i. 3; comp. Mark i. 13, and parallels), which preceded the transfiguration (i. 9; comp. Mark ix. 2-13), prepared the Apostles, who hitherto had looked for the establishment of a Jewish kingdom by Jesus (i. 6), for their work.四十天'交往與復活的耶穌(一3 ;補償。馬克島13日,和Parallels ) ,這之前的變形(一9 ;補償。馬克九。 2月13日) ,編寫了使徒,誰迄今已期待建立一個猶太王國的耶穌(一6 ) ,他們的工作。 The growth of the Church is given in round numbers.增長的教會是在一輪號碼。 Beginning with 120 members under the leadership of Peter, chief of the Twelve Apostles (i. 15-26)-Matthew having taken the place of Judas, the relation of whose end here differs from that in Matt.從120名成員的領導下,彼得,長十二門徒(一15-26 ) ,馬修已經取代了猶大,他們的關係不同於在這裡結束,在馬特。 xxvii.二十七。 3-10-the new sect is said to have increased to 3,000, as a result of the miracle of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon the multitude at Pentecost, which won converts from all the nations represented in Jerusalem (ii. 1-2; comp. I Cor. xv. 6, where "five hundred brethren" are referred to). 3 - 10 -新節據說已增加至3000 ,由於奇蹟的湧出時,聖靈在五旬節的眾多,其中韓元轉換來自所有國家的代表在耶路撒冷(白介素1 - 2 ;補償。我心病。十五。 6 ,其中“ 500兄弟”提到的) 。 This undoubtedly echoes the rabbinical Pentecost legend of the flashing forth of the Sinaitic word in seventy languages to reach the seventy nations of the world (Shab. 88b; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxviii. 12; Philo, "De Decalogo," §§ 9-11; Spitta, "Apostelgeschichte," 1891, pp. 28 et seq.).這無疑呼應了猶太教五旬節的傳說閃動提出的Sinaitic的70種語言文字達到70世界各國( Shab. 88b ; Midr 。的。到PS 。 lxviii 。 12 ;斐羅“者Decalogo , ” § § 9月11日;施皮塔, “ Apostelgeschichte , ” 1891年,頁。 28起。 ) 。

The description of the communistic life of the early Christians, their regular gathering in the Temple hall to spend the time in prayer and in works of charity, after the manner of the Essenes (ii. 42, iii. 2, iv. 32-37, v. 12, 25), seems to rest on facts.描述的共產生活的早期基督徒,他們經常聚集在大殿的時間花費在祈禱和慈善工作,在地的愛色尼(白介素42 ,三。二,四。 32-37 ,五, 12 , 25 ) ,似乎其餘的事實。 The institution of seven deacons who were elected by the laying on of hands and under the power of the Holy Spirit (vi. 3, 5) has its parallel in the Jewish community (Josephus, "Ant." iv. 8, § 14; idem, "BJ" ii. 20, § 5; Meg. 7a).制度的七個執事誰選出了倒在了手中的權力下聖靈( vi. 3日, 5日)有其並行的猶太社區(約瑟夫, “螞蟻” 。四。 8日,第14條;同上, “北京”二。 20日,第5條;梅格。 7A條) 。 It is interesting to note that the enemies of Jesus are correctly represented as the Sadducees (iv. 1, v. 17) and not, as in the gospels, the Pharisees, who are rather on his side (v. 17, xv. 5, xxiii. 6), though in the fictitious speeches of Peter, Stephen, and others, the Jews and not Pontius Pilate are spoken of as his crucifiers (iii. 13-15, vii. 52).但值得注意的是,耶穌的敵人都是正確的代表作為撒都該人( iv. 1 ,五, 17 ) ,而不是在福音中,法利賽,誰是他的球隊,而上(五17 ,十五。 5 ,二十三。 6 ) ,但在虛構的講話彼得,斯蒂芬和其他人,猶太人,而不是本丟彼拉多是談到他crucifiers ( iii. 13日至15日,七。 52 ) 。 Like the gospel according to Luke, the Acts of the Apostles is a compilation.如同福音路加的使徒行傳彙編。 The story of the death of Stephen (vi. 8-vii. 59) is, like the crucifixion story in the gospels, written in a spirit of hatred toward Jews; reference to the Romans is omitted when persecution of the new sect is mentioned (viii. 1).這個故事的死亡澍( vi. 8七。 59 )一樣,是釘在福音中的故事,寫的精神仇恨猶太人;提到羅馬迫害時省略的新節提到的(八。 1 ) 。

Peter and Paul.彼得和保羅。

Two mythical narratives are given of the conversion through Peter of the Samaritans and of Simon the magician (viii. 4-24; comp. "Ant." xx. 7, § 2, and Simon Magus), and of the eunuch of the Queen of Ethiopia through the apostle Philip (viii. 25-39).兩個神秘的說明,給出的轉換通過彼得的撒瑪利亞和西蒙魔術師( viii. 4月24日;補償。 “螞蟻” 。二十。 7條第2款,和西蒙空氣) ,以及太監女王埃塞俄比亞通過使徒菲利浦( viii. 25-39 ) 。 Very dramatic, but in conflict with his own account (Gal. i. 15 et seq.; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8), is the story of the conversion of Paul, which follows (ix. 1-30; comp. xxii. 6 et seq., 26).非常引人注目,但在衝突與自己的帳戶( Gal.一15起。我心病。九。 1 ,十五。 8 ) ,是故事的轉換保羅,其中如下( ix. 1月30日;壓縮機。二十二。 6起。 , 26 ) 。 By visions, and by the imparting of the Holy Spirit through Ananias, Saul, the persecutor of the Christians, is transformed into Paul, "the chosen vessel" to spread the new faith among both Jews and Gentiles.的看法,並傳授聖靈通過阿納尼亞斯,掃羅的迫害者的基督教徒,轉化為保“ ,所選擇的容器” ,以傳播新的信仰中,既有猶太人和外邦人。 First, however, Peter is represented as having converted the heathen by miraculous cures (ix. 31-42), the proselytes being in Jewish terms called "yere shamayim" (= "God-fearing ones"; x. 2, 7, 22, 28, 35; xiii. 16, 26-50; xvi. 14; xvii. 1, 17); he succeeded in having the Holy Spirit poured out also upon uncircumcised converts (x. 45).第一,但是,彼得是代表具有轉換異教徒的神奇治愈( ix. 31-42 )中, proselytes條款是在猶太人被稱為“ yere shamayim ” ( = “敬畏上帝的” ;十,第2 ,第7 ,第22 , 28 , 35 ;十三。 16 , 26-50 ;十六。 14 ;十七。 1 , 17 ) ;他成功了聖靈湧出也呼籲割包皮轉換(十45 ) 。

Finally, Peter is described as having been won over by a special vision to the Pauline view disregarding the dietary laws (xi. 1-18). The whole story is intended to reconcile the wide differences existing between Peter's and Paul's teachings and to bridge over the gulf between the Judæo-Christian sect under the leadership of James and the Pauline church.最後,彼得被描述為已贏得了一個特別理想的波利娜認為無視飲食法( xi. 1月18日) 。整個故事的目的是調和的分歧之間存在著廣泛的彼得和保羅的教導和橋樑之間的鴻溝Judæo基督教教派的領導下,詹姆斯和保羅教堂。 From this point of view the origin of the name of "Christian" in the community of Antioch can be explained, Barnabas being ranked above Paul, and the Antioch church being represented as an offshoot of the Jerusalem church.從這個角度看原產地的名稱, “基督教”在國際社會中的安提阿可以解釋,巴爾納巴斯排名上述保羅和安提阿教會的代表作為一個分支耶路撒冷教堂。 Peter is dismissed with a miraculous story describing his release from prison and the punishment of Herod by a sudden death (xii. 1-24); and the missionary travels of Paul are related in the latter part of the book (xiii.-xxviii.).彼得被駁回,以奇蹟般的故事講述了他從監獄中釋放和懲罰希律王的猝死( xii. 1月24日) ;和傳教士保羅旅行相關的後一部分書籍( xiii. -二十八。 ) 。

Spirit of Jewish Proselytism in Christianity.精神強迫猶太人在基督教。

However much these reports differ from Paul's own writings (see Gal. i. 21, ii. 1, et al.), they interest the Jewish investigator, inasmuch as they describe the progress of the Church along the lines of the synagogue and of Jewish proselytism.然而許多這些報告不同於保羅自己的著作(見半乳糖。一21二。 1 ,等。 ) ,他們的興趣猶太調查,因為他們所描述的進展情況大致教會的猶太教堂和猶太宗教信仰。 The apostles Barnabas and Paul engaged in the work of collecting gifts for the holy church at Jerusalem (xii. 25, xvii. 1, 10), traveled as prophets and teachers wheresoever the Holy Spirit of the Church, invoked through prayer and fasting, bade them go (xiii. 1-4), and preached the Gospel in the Jewish synagogue (xiii. 5, 14; xiv. 1; xviii. 4, 19; xix. 8), addressing Jews and proselytes (xiii. 16, 26, 43; xviii. 7).使徒保羅巴拿巴和從事的工作,收集禮物羅馬教會在耶路撒冷( xii. 25日,十七。 1 , 10 ) ,旅行的先知和教師地點聖靈教會,援引通過祈禱和禁食,八德他們走( xiii. 1-4 ) ,並宣揚福音的猶太教會堂( xiii. 5 , 14 ;十四。 1 ;十八。 4 , 19 ;十九。 8 ) ,解決猶太人和proselytes ( xiii. 16日, 26日, 43 ;十八。 7 ) 。 They won the heathen chiefly by miraculous cures, which even caused their own deification (xiv. 8-13; xxviii. 6), but encountered fierce opposition from the Jews (xiii., xiv.-xvii., et al.). Three great journeys by Paul are reported.他們贏得了異教徒主要由神奇治愈,甚至造成自己的神化( xiv. 8月13日;二十八。 6 ) ,但遇到激烈反對猶太人( xiii. , xiv. - 17 。 ,等。 ) 。三偉大的旅行保羅報告。 The first, through Cyprus and Asia Minor, culminated, according to Acts xv.第一,通過塞浦路斯和小亞細亞,最終,根據行為的十五。 1-31, in the establishment of the fundamental rule laid down by the church of Jerusalem for the admission of proselytes. 1月31日,在建立基本規則所規定的耶路撒冷教會的接納proselytes 。 For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, and of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws-namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry, fornication, and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal-should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church.這是對偉大的成功,巴拿巴和保羅在異教徒的世界中,當局在耶路撒冷堅持割禮作為錄取條件的成員到會,到倡議下,彼得和詹姆斯,頭部的耶路撒冷教會,與會者一致認為,接受Noachian法律,即關於避免盲目崇拜,私通,並減少食用肉從一個活生生的動物,應當要求的異教徒希望進入教堂。

After the separation of Paul from Barnabas, owing to differences regarding the fitness of Mark as their companion (xv. 35-41), and after the Abrahamicrite had been performed upon his companion Timothy (xvi. 1-3; comp. Gal. ii. 3-18), Paul is represented as having undertaken his second journey at the bidding of the Holy Spirit.分離後的保羅從巴拿巴,由於分歧的健身馬克作為自己的伴侶( xv. 35-41段) ,並在Abrahamicrite已完成對他的同伴蒂莫( xvi. 1-3 ;補償。加爾。 ㈡ 。 3月18日) ,保羅派進行了第二次旅程的投標聖靈。 He went to Phrygia, Galatia, and Macedonia to preach the Gospel, but avoided Asia and Mysia (xvi. 6-xxii. 14).他走到Phrygia ,加拉提亞,和馬其頓傳福音,但避免了亞洲和Mysia ( xvi. 6 - 22 。 14 ) 。 In Philippi he founded the first church in Europe, owing his success (according to xvi. 14-40) chiefly to miracles and winning especially women for the Gospel (xvii. 4, 12).在立他創立的第一個教會在歐洲,由於他的成功(按十六。 14-40 )主要是奇蹟,贏得特別是婦女的福音( xvii. 4日, 12日) 。 The climax of his second trip was his address, delivered at the Areopagus, to the men of Athens.的高潮是他第二次訪問的講話,發表時Areopagus ,到雅典奧運會男子。 With a witty reference to the insciption, "To an unknown god" (that is, to undiscovered deities), found upon some of the Greek altars, he admonished the idolatrous people to turn to the God of heaven and earth, the Father of all men, in whom they all lived and moved and had their being, but whom they knew not; to cast aside their gods of gold and silver and stone, and prepare themselves in repentance for the great Day of Judgment, on which the crucified and arisen Christ will judge the world (xvii. 16-34).以詼諧的參考insciption , “一個不知名的神” (即未被發現神) ,發現的一些希臘祭壇,他告誡盲目崇拜的人求助於上帝的天地,父親的一切男子,在他們所有的生活和感動,他們的福利,但他們不知道;拋棄他們的神的黃金,白銀和石頭,並準備在懺悔自己的偉大的一天的判決,而被釘十字架,並出現基督將判斷世界( xvii. 16-34 ) 。 The tenor of this discourse is so thoroughly monotheistic and un-Pauline that the presumption is that, with the exception of the closing sentence, which refers to Jesus as judge of souls, it is copied from one of the many Jewish propagandist writings which circulated in Alexandria.的要旨這個話語是如此徹底的一神教和聯合國波琳的假設是,除了最後一句,這是指耶穌法官的靈魂,是一個複製的許多猶太人的宣傳著作中分發亞歷山大。

Paul the Miracle-Worker.保羅的奇蹟工作者。

In Corinth, where he stayed for a year and a half, Paul won, notwithstanding the opposition of the Jews, many adherents, especially among the proselytes, Aquila of Pontus and his wife Priscilla also having been engaged there in the work of proselytism (xviii. 1-17).在科林斯,他在那裡呆了一年半,保羅韓元,儘管反對猶太人,許多信徒,尤其是在proselytes ,雕的龐和他的妻子普里西拉還沒有在那裡從事的工作,改(十八。 1月17日) 。 In Ephesus he met Apollos of Alexandria, a follower of John the Baptist, and he succeeded-so the story goes-in persuading him and his eleven disciples to identify their "Way of God" with his own.以弗所他會見了阿波羅亞歷山大,跟隨施洗約翰的,他成功,所以傳說中說服他和他的11門徒,以確定他們的“上帝之路”與自己。 By the laying on of his hands he communicated the Holy Spirit to them, so that, like the converts at the Pentecost miracle, they "spake with tongues and prophesied" (xviii. 18-xix. 7.).是埋設在他手中,他傳達聖靈給他們,因此,像轉換奇蹟在聖靈降臨節,他們“用舌頭和spake預言” ( xviii. 18 - 19 。 7 。 ) 。 His two years' stay in Ephesus was especially productive of miraculous cures, which so eclipsed the works of the magicians who made the Ephesian scrolls famous throughout the world, that, "in the sight of all, they burned these scrolls, which were valued at 50,000 pieces of silver."他兩年留在以弗所,尤其生產的奇蹟般的治療,這使本年度工作的魔術師誰了以弗所春聯聞名世界,說: “在所有的視線,他們燒毀這些春聯,這是價值50000塊銀牌。 “ The idol-traders of Diana of the Ephesians created a riot because idols were no longer bought by the people, owing to Paul's preaching, and the consequence was that he was compelled to leave the city with his companions (xix. 8-41).偶像經商的戴安娜的以弗所創造了防暴因為偶像不再購買的人,由於保羅的說教,而後果是,他是被迫離開的城市,他的同伴( xix. 8-41 ) 。

Paul's third journey had Rome for its goal.保羅的第三次旅程了羅馬的目標。 He first traveled through Asia Minor and Greece, again warning the people against the Gnostic heresies; there were "wolves in sheep's clothing" that would do great harm to the faith.他首先穿過小亞細亞和希臘,再次警告說,人們對諾斯底異端;有“狼披著羊皮的” ,將做重大危害的信念。 Then he went to Judea, and, in spite of the warnings he received through the Holy Ghost and the seven daughters of the evangelist Philip, who were prophetesses, and a Jewish prophet by the name of Agabas, he went to Jerusalem and appeared before James and the other authorities of the Church. Reproached for not having observed the rules regarding the admission of converts, he purified himself, went with his companions to the Temple, and offered a Nazarite's sacrifice; but when pointed out as the one who wandered through the lands preaching against the Law and the Temple, he was cast out of the Temple and almost killed by the enraged people.然後他又到朱迪亞,和,儘管他收到的警告通過聖靈和七個女兒的傳播者菲利普,誰是prophetesses ,和一個猶太先知的名字叫Agabas ,他前往耶路撒冷,並出現在詹姆斯和其他當局的教會。責備對沒有遵守的規則接納轉換,他淨化自己,去與他的同伴的廟,並提供了一個Nazarite的犧牲;但是,當指出,作為一個誰徘徊通過土地鼓吹違反法律和寺,他投出廟,幾乎激怒殺害的人。 Summoned before the Roman captain, he related the history of his life, so stating his belief in the resurrection as to please the Pharisees but provoke the Sadducees (xxi.-xxiii. 9).傳喚前羅馬隊隊長,他的歷史,有關他的生活,因此他表示相信復活,以請法利但挑起撒都該人( xxi. -二十三。 9 ) 。

Paul before Felix.保羅在費利克斯。

Before the prefect Felix in Cæsarea, Paul was charged with having made insurrectionary speeches in various countries and with having profaned the Temple (xxiii. 10-xxiv. 6).之前,費利克斯在凱撒利亞行政區,保羅被指控犯有叛亂的講話作出了在各個國家和有褻瀆聖殿( xxiii. 10 - 24 。 6 ) 。 In answer to this charge he points out that he had all along been collecting money for the Temple treasury and had himself brought sacrifices there, and that he is only being arraigned for his belief in the resurrection (xxiv. 10-21).在回答這一指控,他指出,他一直收集資金用於寺財政部和本人帶來的犧牲,並說,他只是被傳訊,他的信念,復活( xxiv. 10月21日) 。 The prefect, known as a Jew-hater of the worst type, is deeply impressed by Paul's plea for the Christian faith; but his greed induces him to hand Paul over as prisoner to his successor Festus (xxiv. 24-27).行政長官,稱為猶太人-厭惡最嚴重的類型,是留下了深刻的印象保羅的請求的基督教信仰,但他的貪婪誘使他手保羅成為他的繼任者囚犯費( xxiv. 24日至27日) 。 Paul recounts the history of his life before Agrippa, the King of Judea, who is so impressed as to exclaim, "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian" (xxvi. 1-28).保羅敘述的歷史,他的生命在阿格里帕,國王的朱迪亞,誰是如此深刻的印象,以驚呼: “幾乎你persuadest我是一個基督徒” ( xxvi. 1月28日) 。 But because Paul desired, as a Roman citizen, to be judged by the emperor himself, he was sent to Rome (xxv. 11, xxvi. 32).但由於保羅理想,作為一個羅馬公民,來評判的皇帝,他被送往羅馬( xxv. 11 , 26 。 32 ) 。 The voyage was the occasion of new proof of the miraculous powers of Paul; he predicted the storm that, but for him, would have wrecked the ship, was recognized as a benefactor and savior by the captain, and was treated with great consideration (xxvii.).這次航行是一次新的證明神奇力量的保羅;他預測的風暴,但是,他會破壞了船,被確認為恩人和救星的隊長,並懷著極大的治療審議(二十七。 ) 。 Other miracles performed by him on the ship caused the people to regard him as a god.其他由他創造奇蹟的船舶造成了人們把他當作神。 As in Asia Minor, he won the people of Italy by his wonderful cures.正如在小亞細亞,他贏得了人民的意大利治愈他的精彩。 The book closes with the story of his arrival at Rome, where for the first time he met Jews without being able to win them for the new faith, though during a two years' stay he succeeded in making converts among the heathen (xxviii. 1-31).這本書結束的故事,他在抵達羅馬,在那裡他第一次會見了猶太人沒有能夠贏得他們為新的信仰,但在兩年的住宿,他成功地使轉換的異教徒( xxviii. 1 -31 ) 。

The whole work, like the Gospel of Luke, is a compilation from several sources, among which one is a historical document written by a companion of Paul who had kept a journal of his travels, the so-called "We" source (xvi. 10-17; xx. 5-6, 13-15; xxi. 1-18; xxvii. 1-xxviii. 16).整個工作,如福音路加,彙編從幾個來源,其中之一是一份歷史性文件撰寫的同伴保羅誰保持了他的旅行雜誌,所謂的“我們”來源( xvi. 10月17日;二十。 5月6日, 13日至15日;二十一。 1月18日;二十七。 1 -二十八。 16 ) 。 The greater part is written with the ostensible purpose of reconciling Paul's acts with the views of the Judæo-Christian Church.大部份是書面的表面目的是調和保羅的行為的意見Judæo基督教教會。 The miracle tales, however, appear to be drawn from popular tradition and to have been committed to writing, possibly at an early date.奇蹟的故事,然而,似乎是來自民間傳統,並一直致力於寫作,可能早日實現。

For the Jewish investigator the Acts of the Apostles is of twofold interest.為猶太調查的使徒行傳是雙重利益。 It shows how the propagandic work of the Jews extended over the entire Greek and Roman world, Jewish proselytism having paved the way for Paul as well as his followers to win the pagan world.這表明如何propagandic工作猶太人延長整個希臘和羅馬的世界,而猶太人改鋪平了道路保羅以及他的追隨者贏得異教世界。 In all the cities where Greek was spoken the synagogues formed the centers of instruction for Jews and the "God-fearing" proselytes, and their mention in connection with all the places visited by Paul shows how the Jewish settlements extended over the highroads of commerce under the Roman empire.在所有的城市裡,希臘的猶太教堂講形成了中心的教學為猶太人和“敬畏上帝” proselytes ,他們提到與所有地方訪問的保羅表明如何擴大猶太人定居點的highroads下的商業羅馬帝國。 The story of the Acts also indicates that the progress of Christianity in its earlieststages was due not to the learned arguments of Paul and his dogmatic views, however potent a factor they afterward became in the formation of the creed, but to the miracles thought to have been wrought by him and the rest of the apostles and other leaders of the Church.這個故事的行為也表明,所取得的進展基督教在其earlieststages不是因為論據的教訓保羅和他的教條式的看法,但是強大的一個因素,他們後來成為中形成的信仰,而是認為有奇蹟已造成他和其餘的使徒和其他領導人的教會。 These appealed to the masses and made converts in large numbers.這些呼籲和群眾中取得了大量轉換。 In this respect the Acts of the Apostles is the logical sequence of the gospels.在這方面,使徒行傳是邏輯順序的福音。

See, for the Pauline epistles, Saul of Tarsus; for the Petrine epistles, Simon Cephas; for the Apocalypse of John and the epistles ascribed to John, Revelation; for the gospels in the Talmud, Gilyonim.見的波利娜書信,掃羅的塔爾蘇斯;為伯多祿書信,西蒙Cephas ;的啟示約翰和書信歸功於約翰啟示;的福音在塔木德, Gilyonim 。 See also James, General Epistle of.ECK又見詹姆斯,一般書信of.ECK

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, Kaufmann Kohler執行委員會的編委會,考夫曼科勒
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

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