Agrapha of Jesus Agrapha的耶穌

General Information 一般資料

The Agrapha of Jesus is a term coined by 18th-century German scholar JG Körner for sayings attributed to Jesus Christ that are not contained in the Gospels. Agrapha耶穌熟語歸功於耶穌基督的福音,不包含在18世紀的德國學者JG克爾納的一個術語。 In 1897 and 1903 valuable papyri containing such sayings were discovered at Oxyrhyncus, in what is now Egypt.在1897年和1903年的有價值的紙莎草紙這一說法在Oxyrhyncus發現,在現在的埃及。 A book of such sayings of Jesus was, in early traditions, attributed to Saint Matthew, one of the 12 apostles.一本書耶穌的說法是,在早期的傳統,歸因於聖馬太福音,耶穌的12門徒之一。 The designation agrapha (Greek, "unwritten things") reflects the view that these sayings represent the survival of an oral tradition that developed independently of the tradition embodied in the written Gospels.指定agrapha(希臘語,“不成文的東西”)體現了這一觀點,認為這些說法代表了生存的口頭傳統,獨立開發的傳統體現在書面福音。 Most of the sayings are preserved in the Talmud, in the apocryphal Gospel of Thomas, in the writings of the Fathers of the Church, and in various Muslim sources.大多數的說法被保留在猶太法典,在猜測福音的托馬斯,在父親教會的著作,並在各穆斯林來源。

In addition to sayings preserved in extracanonical sources, there are several that occur within the text of the New Testament but outside the Gospels.此外的說法保存在extracanonical來源,有幾個是發生在新約聖經的文本,但外面的福音。 A famous example is the saying "It is more blessed to give than to receive," attributed to Jesus by Saint Paul in a speech reported in Acts 20:35.一個著名的例子是說:“這是施比受更為有福,”耶穌的聖徒保羅在使徒行傳20:35報導在一次講話中。 Similarly, in 1 Corinthians 11:24-25, Paul purports to quote Christ's remarks before the Last Supper, using words that are similar but not identical to those of Luke 22:19-20.同樣,保羅在哥林多前書11:24-25,聲稱“最後的晚餐”之前,使用路加福音22:19-20相似但不完全相同的話,引用基督的話。 Paul's quotation in 1 Corinthians is itself quoted in the 4th-century Apostolic Constitutions (8.12), but in the latter work an explanatory comment by Paul ("You are proclaiming the Lord's death until he comes," 1 Corinthians 11:26) is recorded as the words of Jesus ("You are proclaiming my death until I come").保羅在哥林多前書的報價是報價在4世紀的使徒憲法(8.12),但在後者的工作由保羅·說明性註釋(“你所傳主的死,直等到他來,”哥林多前書11:26)記錄作為耶穌的話(“你是宣布我的死,直等到我來”)。 This development suggests one way in which the agrapha may have grown.這一發展表明以何種方式agrapha可能增長。

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A third body of agrapha occur as isolated additions to various gospel manuscripts.第三個機構agrapha發生分離出各種福音手稿。 In Luke 6:5, for example, a single manuscript records the following statement made by Jesus to a man found performing work on the Sabbath: "Friend, if you know what you are doing, you are blessed; but if you do not, you are accursed as a breaker of the Law."例如,一個單一的手稿在路加福音六時05分,記錄了下面的語句耶穌由一個人執行工作的安息日:“朋友,如果你知道你在做什麼,你是有福的,但如果你不這樣做,你是該死的作為一個斷路器的法律。“ Here the issue becomes one of textual criticism: Many sayings of Jesus that are generally printed in modern editions of the Bible can be shown on textual grounds to have the character of later additions.在這裡,問題就變得考證:許多一般都印在現代版本的“聖經”的說法,耶穌可以顯示文字的字符後增加的理由。 It is a matter of tradition that these sayings are printed in the text of the Bible and are not classified as agrapha.這是一個傳統的問題,這些說法都是印在“聖經”的文字,不列為agrapha。


Agrapha Agrapha

Catholic Information 天主教信息

A name first used, in 1776, by JG Körner, for the Sayings of Jesus that have come down to us outside the canonical Gospels.第一次使用的名稱,在1776年,JG克爾納,已回落到我們的典型福​​音外熟語的耶穌。 After Alfred Resch had chosen the expression, as the title for his learned work on these Sayings (1889), its technical meaning was generally accepted.阿爾弗雷德·瑞奇選擇的表情,他的這些話的學習工作(1889年)的標題,其技術含義是普遍接受的。 We shall consider, first, the limits of the Agrapha; secondly, the criteria of their genuineness; thirdly, the list of those that are probably authentic.首先,我們應考慮,的限制的Agrapha;其次,的標準對其真實性;第三,可能是正宗的列表。

LIMITS LIMITS

The Agrapha must satisfy three conditions: Agrapha必須滿足三個條件:

they must be Sayings, not discourses;他們必須熟語,而不是話語;

they must be Sayings of Jesus;他們必須熟語的耶穌;

they must not be contained in the canonical Gospels.他們必須不包含在典型福音。

(a) Being mere Sayings, and not discourses, the Agrapha do not embrace the lengthy sections ascribed to Jesus in the "Didascalia" and the "Pistis Sophia." (a)作為單純的熟語,而不是話語,Agrapha不指耶穌在“Didascalia”和“Pistis索菲亞擁抱冗長的部分。” These works contain also some brief quotations of alleged words of Jesus, though they may have to be excluded from the Sayings for other reasons.這些作品也包含了一些簡單的報價被指控耶穌的話,儘管他們可能有其他原因被排除在熟語。 Such seems to be the Saying in "Didasc. Syr."似乎是在“Didasc。錫爾河的說法。” II, 8 (ed. Lagarde, p. 14); "A man is unapproved, if he be untempted." II,8(編輯拉嘉德,第14頁),“一個人是未經批准的,如果他被untempted的。”

(b) Being Sayings of Jesus, the Agrapha do not embrace: (1) The Sayings contained in religious romances, such as we find in the apocryphal Gospels, the apocryphal Acts, or the Letter of Christ to Abgar (Eus. Hist. Eccl., I, 13). (二),熟語的耶穌,Agrapha不接受:(1)的說法包含在宗教戀情,如我們發現在猜測福音,猜測的行為,或信基督阿布加爾(Eus.歷史。傳道書,I,13)。 (2) Scripture passages ascribed to Jesus by a mere oversight. (2)歸因於耶穌的經文,由一個單純的監督。 Thus "Didasc. Apost. Syr."因此,“Didasc。Apost。錫爾河。” (ed. Lagarde, p. 11, line 12) assigns to the Lord the words of Prov., xv, 1 (Sept.), "Wrath destroyeth even wise men". (編輯拉加德,第11,第12行)分配給主的話省,15,1(9月),“巫妖王之怒敗壞甚至智者”。 (3) The expressions attributed to Jesus by the mistake of transcribers. (3)耶穌的錯誤的謄寫。 The Epistle of Barnabas, iv, 9, reads: "As the son of God says, Let us resist all iniquity, and hold it in hatred."巴拿巴書信,四,九,寫著:“神的兒子說,讓我們抵制一切罪惡,又保持仇恨。” But this is merely a rendering of a mistake of the Latin scribe who wrote "sicut dicit filius Dei", instead of "sicut decet filios Dei", the true rendering of the Greek òs prépei uìoîs Theoû.但是,這僅僅是一個錯誤的拉丁抄寫員是誰寫的“sicut dicit filius DEI”,而不是“sicut decet filios DEI”的渲染,真實的呈現希臘OSprépeiuìoîs的Theoû。 (4) The Sayings attributed to Jesus by mere conjecture. (4)熟語歸功於耶穌僅僅是猜想。 Resch has put forth the conjecture that the words of Clem.瑞奇提出的猜想的話,克萊姆。 Alex.亞歷克斯。 Strom.斯特羅姆。 I, 8, 41, "These are they who ply their looms and weave nothing, saith the Scripture", refer to a Saying of Jesus, though there is no solid foundation for this belief. I,8,41,“這是他們的織機和織造什麼都沒有,說:”聖經“,是指一種說法,耶穌,雖然沒有堅實的基礎,這樣的信念。

(c) Coming down to us through channels outside the canonical Gospels, the Agrapha do not comprise: (1) Mere parallel forms, or amplifications, or, again, combinations of Sayings contained in the canonical Gospels. (三)我們通過典型福音以外的渠道,Agrapha不包括:(1)僅僅並行的形式,或擴增,或者,再組合熟語中包含的典型福音。 Thus we find a combination of Matt., vi, 19; x, 9; Luke, xii, 33, in Ephr.因此,我們發現相結合的馬特。,六,19,X,9盧克,十二,33,的EPHR。 Syr.錫爾河。 Test.測試。 (opp. Græce, ed. Assemani, II, 232): "For I heard the Good Teacher in the divine gospels saying to his disciples, Get you nothing on earth." (普通貨運Græce,編輯。Assemani,II,232):“我聽見了好老師對他的門徒說:神的福音,你不過在地球上。” (2) Homiletical paragraphs of Jesus, thoughts given by ancient writers. (2)耶穌講道段落,思想古代作家。 Thus Hippolytus (Demonstr. adv. Judæos, VII) paraphrases Ps.西波呂(Demonstr.地。Judæos,VII)釋義詩。 lxviii (lxix), 26: "Whence he saith, Let their temple, Father, be desolate." LXVIII(LXIX),26:“從哪裡來,他說,讓他們的寺廟,父親,是荒涼的。”

CRITERIA OF GENUINENESS準則的真實性,

The genuineness of the Agrapha may be inferred partly from external and partly from internal evidence.可以推斷的Agrapha的真實性,部分部分來自外部和內部證據。

(a) External Evidence.–First determine the independent source or sources by which any Saying in question has been preserved, and then see whether the earliest authority for the Saying is of such date and character than it might reasonably have had access to extra-canonical tradition. (a)外部Evidence.首先確定獨立的消息來源或來源的任何言說的問題一直保存,然後看看是否日期和品格,比最早的權威的說法是合理的,它可能已經獲得額外的典型的傳統。 For Papias and Justin Martyr such access may be admitted, but hardly for a writer of the fourth century.帕皮亞和賈斯汀烈士的訪問可能被錄取,但幾乎沒有一個作家的第四個世紀。 These are extreme cases; the main difficulty is concerned with the intermediate writers.這些都是極端的情況下,主要的困難是關注與中間的作家。

(b) Internal Evidence.–The next question is, whether the Saying under consideration is consistent with the thought and spirit of Jesus as manifested in the canonical gospels. (b)內部Evidence.接下來的問題是,是否說正在考慮是一致的思想和精神表現在典型福音的耶穌。 If a negative conclusion be reached in this investigation, the proof must be completed by finding a fair explanation of the rise of the Saying.如果達成一個否定的結論,在本次調查中,找到一個公平的說法解釋的崛起,證明必須完成的。

LIST OF AUTHENTIC AGRAPHA AUTHENTIC AGRAPHA列表

The sources from which the authentic Agrapha may be gathered are: (a) the New Testament and the New Testament manuscripts; (b) the Apocryphal tradition; (c) the patristic citations; and (d) the so-called "Oxyrhynchus Logia" of Jesus.可從正宗的Agrapha的收集來源是:(一)新約全書和新約聖經手稿(二)未經證實的傳統;(三)教父引用;及(d)所謂的“Oxyrhynchus的總互濟會”耶穌。 Agrapha contained in Jewish or Mohammedan sources may be curious, but they are hardly authentic. Agrapha包含在猶太教或伊斯蘭教的來源可能是好奇,但他們幾乎沒有正宗的。 Since the criticism of the Agrapha is in most cases difficult, and often unsatisfactory, frequent disagreement in the critical results must be expected as a matter of course.由於的Agrapha的批評是困難的,往往不盡如人意,頻繁的分歧,關鍵的結果在大多數情況下,必須預期作為理所當然的事。 The following Agrapha are probably genuine sayings of Jesus.以下Agrapha可能是真正的熟語的耶穌。

(a) In the New Testament and the New Testament manuscripts: In Codices D and Phi, and in some versions of Matt., xx, 28, "But ye seek from the small to increase, and from the greater to be less." (a)在新舊約和新約聖經手稿:在codices D和披,馬特。28,XX,在某些版本中,“你們卻從小到提高,並從更大的要少一些。” In Codex D of Luke, vi, 4: "On the same day, seeing one working on the Sabbath, he said to him: Man, if thou knowest what thou doest, blessed art thou; but if thou knowest not, thou art accursed and a transgressor of the Law."在法典D的盧克,六,4:“就在同一天,看見一個在安息日工作,他對他說:男性,如果你知什麼你的旨意,是有福的你,但如果你不曉得,你是被詛咒和犯律法的。“ In Acts, xx, 35, "Remember the word of the Lord Jesus, how he said: It is a more blessed thing to give, rather than to receive."在使徒行傳,XX,35歲,“記住主耶穌的話,他怎麼說:這是一個更為有福的事,而不是給接受。”

(b) In apocryphal tradition: In the Gospel according to the Hebrews (Jerome, Ezech., xviii, 7): "In the Gospel which the Nazarenes are accustomed to read, that according to the Hebrews, there is put among the greatest crimes he who shall have grieved the spirit of his brother." (b)在未經證實的傳統:在福音根據希伯來書(杰羅姆於Ezech。,XVIII,7):“拿撒勒福音,習慣於閱讀,即根據希伯來人,是最偉大的犯罪他已悲痛的精神,他的兄弟。“ In the same Gospel (Jerome, Eph., v, 3 sq.): "In the Hebrew Gospel too we read of the Lord saying to the disciples: And never, said he, rejoice, except when you have looked upon your brother in love."在相同的福音(杰羅姆,以弗所書,V,3平方米):“在希伯來文的福音,我們也讀出的主對門徒說:從來沒有,他說,喜樂,除非你看過後,你的兄弟在愛。“ In Apostolic Church-Order, 26: "For he said to us before, when he was teaching: That which is weak shall be saved through that which is strong."使徒教會階,26:“因為他之前對我們說,當他教:這是弱的,應當被保存,這是強大的。” In "Acta Philippi", 34: "For the Lord said to me: Except ye make the lower into the upper and the left into the right, ye shall not enter into my kingdom."在“文獻腓立比”,34:“因為耶和華對我說:”你們若不使下到上,左到右,你們不得進入我的王國“。

(c) In patristic citations: Justin Martyr, Dial. (c)在教父引文:賈斯汀烈士,撥號。 47: "Wherefore also our Lord Jesus Christ said, In whatsoever things I apprehend you, in those I shall judge you." 47:“因此,我們的主耶穌基督說,任何事情,我逮捕你,我會判斷你。” Clement of Alexandria, Strom.克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,斯特羅姆。 I, 24, 158: "For ask, he says for the great things, and the small shall be added to you."我,24,158:“對於問,他說,偉大的事情,和小應加給你們了。” Clement of Alexandria, Strom.克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,斯特羅姆。 I, 28, 177: "Rightly therefore the Scripture also in its desire to make us such dialecticians, exhorts us: Be approved moneychangers, disapproving some things, but holding fast that which is good."我,28,177:“正確”聖經“的願望,使我們這樣的辯證法,告誡我們:批准的找換店,不贊成一些事情,但堅守,這是很好的。” Clement of Alexandria, Strom.克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,斯特羅姆。 V, 10, 64: "For not grudgingly, he saith, did the Lord declare in a certain gospel: My mystery is for me and for the sons of my house." V,10,64:“不勉強,他說,主是在一定的福音聲明:我的神秘是對我和我家的兒子。” Origen, Homil.淵源,Homil。 in Jer., XX, 3: "But the Saviour himself saith: He who is near me is near the fire; he who is far from me, is far from the kingdom."在哲。,XX,3:“但是救主自己說:他是誰靠近我的是近火,他離我好遠,遠的王國。”

(d) In the Oxyrhynchus Logia: The first Logion is part of Luke, vi, 42; of the fourth, only the word "poverty" is left; the eighth, too, is badly mutilated. (四)在Oxyrhynchus總互濟會的第一個名言是六,42歲的盧克,第四,只有“貧窮”是左,第八,血肉模糊。 The text of the other Logia is in a more satisfactory condition.其他總互濟會的文字是在較為理想的條件。 Second Logion: "Jesus saith, Except you fast to the world, you shall in no wise find the kingdom of God."第二名言:“耶穌說,除非你快速的世界,你不得以任何明智找到神的國。” Third Logion: "Jesus saith, I stood in the midst of the world, and in the flesh was I seen of them, and I found all men drunken, and none found I athirst among them, and my soul grieved over the sons of men, because they are blind in their heart, and see not."三名言:“耶穌說,我站在在複雜多變的世界,在肉體中我看到他們,我發現所有的男人喝醉酒,和沒有發現我渴其中,憂傷的男人的兒子,我的靈魂,因為他們是盲人在他們的心中,看到的不是。“ Fifth Logion: "Jesus saith, Wherever there are two, they are not without God; and wherever there is one alone, I say I am with him. Raise the stone and there thou shalt find me; cleave the wood, and there am I."第五名言:“耶穌說,凡有兩個,他們是不是沒有神;只要有一個單獨的,我說我和他在一起。抬起石頭那邊,你要找到我;切割的木材,並有我“。 Sixth Logion: "Jesus saith, A prophet is not acceptable in his own country, neither doth a physician work cures upon them that know him."第六名言:“耶穌說,先知在自己的國家是不能接受的,也不醫生工作治療後,他們認識他的人。” Seventh Logion: "Jesus saith, A city built upon the top of a hill and stablished can neither fall nor be hid."第七名言:“耶穌說,一個城市建在一座小山的頂部和堅定既不能下降,也不是隱藏的。” Eighth Logion: "Jesus saith, Thou hearest with one ear . . ."第八名言:“耶穌說,你聽見一隻耳朵......” Resch's contention that seventy-five Agrapha are probably genuine Sayings of Jesus harmonizes with the assumption that all spring from the same source, but does not commend itself to the judgment of other scholars.瑞奇的論點,即75 Agrapha可能是真正的熟語耶穌的協調與假設所有彈簧來自同一來源,但不讚賞自己的判斷,其他學者。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的書面AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.感謝聖瑪麗教堂,俄亥俄州阿克倫的天主教百科全書,體積一發布1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

ROPES in HAST., Dict.繩索,在HAST,快譯通。 of the Bible (New York, 1905); Sprüche Jesu, Texte und Untersuch., XIV, 2 (Leipzig, 1896); RESCH, Agrapha, Texte und Untersuch., VI (Leipzig, 1889); GRENFELL and HUNT, LOGIA IESOU, (Egypt Expl. Fund, London, 1897); LOCK AND S ANDAY, Sayings of Jesus (Oxford, 1897); NESTLER, NT supplementum (Leipzig, 1896). “聖經”(紐約,1905年);SprücheJESU,文本和Untersuch的,XIV,2(萊比錫,1896年);雷施,Agrapha,:Texte和Untersuch。,VI(萊比錫,1889年);格蘭費爾和亨特,總互濟會的IESOU, (埃及勘探基金,倫敦,1897年);鎖定和S ANDAY,熟語的耶穌(牛津,1897年);內斯特勒,:NT supplementum(萊比錫,1896年)。 Complete bibliographies will be found in most of the foregoing works.完整的書目將被發現在大多數上述工程。



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