The Roman Breviary, Roman Catholic Breviary羅馬天主教羅馬祈禱,祈禱

General Information 一般資料

Prayer before Divine Service禮拜前的禱告

Open thou, O Lord, my mouth to bless thy holy Name; cleanse also my heart from all vain, evil, and wandering thoughts; enlighten my understanding; enkindle my affections; that I may say this Office worthily, with attention and devotion, and so be meet to be heard in the presence of thy divine Majesty.打開你,主啊,我的嘴保佑你的聖名;徒勞的,邪惡的,紛亂的思緒,淨化也是我的心,開導我的理解,使燃燒我的感情,我可以說,這個辦公室的抱負,重視和奉獻精神,並所以要滿足聽到你的神聖威嚴的存在。 Through Christ our Lord.通過我們的主耶穌。 Amen.阿門。

O Lord, in union with that divine intention wherewith thou thyself on earth didst render thy praises to God, I desire to offer this my Office of prayer unto thee工會與神聖的意圖,當用你自己在地球上復活,呈現你的讚美神,主啊,我希望這是我對你的祈禱廳提供


The Roman Breviary, Roman Catholic Breviary羅馬天主教羅馬祈禱,祈禱

Catholic Information 天主教信息

This subject may be divided, for convenience of treatment, as follows:這個題目可以分為,為了便於治療,如下所示:

I. DEFINITION;一,定義;
II. II。 CONTENTS;內容;
III. III。 THE HOURS;小時;
IV. IV。 COMPONENT PARTS OF THE OFFICE;辦公室的組成部分;
V. HISTORY OF THE BREVIARY;五,歷史的祈禱;
VI. VI。 REFORMS.改革。

I. DEFINITION一,定義

This word breviary (Lat. Breviarium ), signifies in its primary acceptation an abridgment, or a compendium.這個詞的祈禱書 (北緯Breviarium),標誌著其主要驗收節錄,或簡編。 It is often employed in this sense by Christian authors, eg Breviarium fidei, Breviarium in psalmos, Breviarium canonum, Breviarium regularum. In litugical language Breviary has a special meaning, indicating a book furnishing the regulations for the celebration of Mass or the canonical Office, and may be met with under the titles Breviarium Ecclesiastici Ordinis , or Breviarium Ecclesiæ Rominsæ (Romanæ). In the ninth century Alcuin uses the word to designate an office abridged or simplified for the use of the laity.它往往是在這個意義上說,基督教作家,如Breviarium信,在psalmos Breviarium,Breviarium canonum,Breviarium regularum。在litugical語言祈禱有著特殊的意義,表示一本書家具為慶祝彌撒或典型辦公室的規定,並可能會碰到的標題下Breviarium Ecclesiastici的Ordinis,Breviarium的EcclesiæRominsæ(Romanæ)。在第九世紀阿爾昆用這個詞來指定一個辦公室刪節或簡化使用的俗人。 Prudentius of Troyes, about the same period, composed a Breviarium Psalterii (v. inf. V. HISTORY).普頓的特魯瓦,大約在同一時期,組成一個Breviarium的Psalterii(五inf文件。五,歷史)。 In an ancient inventory occurs Breviarium Antiphonarii , meaning "Extracts from the Antiphonary".在一個古老的庫存發生Breviarium Antiphonarii的 ,意思是“提取從Antiphonary”。 In the "Vita Aldrici" occurs "sicut in plenariis et breviariis Ecclesi æ ejusdem continentur".在在plenariis等breviariis Ecclesiæ一項屬同一continentur“的”維他Aldrici“的發生”sicut。 Again, in the inventories in the catalogues, such notes as these may be met with: "Sunt et duo cursinarii et tres benedictionales Libri; ex his unus habet obsequium mortuorum et unus Breviarius", or, "Præter Breviarium quoddam quod usque ad festivitatem S. Joannis Baptistæ retinebunt", etc. Monte Cassino about AD 1100 obtained a book entitled "Incipit Breviarium sive Ordo Officiorum per totam anni decursionem"同樣,在目錄中,這樣的票據,存貨可能得到滿足:“必須遵守二人cursinarii等特雷斯benedictionales利布里,當然他的聯合國大學管轄權obsequium mortuorum等聯合國大學Breviarius”,或的“PræterBreviarium quoddam狴usque廣告festivitatem小號若阿尼斯Baptistæretinebunt“等蒙特卡西諾約公元1100年獲得了一本書,題為”Incipit Breviarium西伯奧Officiorum每totam安妮decursionem“

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From such references, and from others of a like nature, Quesnel gathers that by the word Breviarium was at first designated a book furnishing the rubrics, a sort of Ordo. The title Breviary , as we employ it -- that is, a book containing the entire canonical office -- appears to date from the eleventh century.從這樣的引用,從其他類似性質的,克內爾收集,字Breviarium,在第一個指定的一本書,提供量規,一種秩序。的標題祈禱 ,我們採用它-這是一本書,載整個規範的辦公室 - 從11世紀至今。

St. Gregory VII having, indeed, abridged the order of prayers, and having simplified the Liturgy as performed at the Roman Court, this abridgment received the name of Breviary , which was suitable, since, according to the etymology of the word, it was an abridgment.聖格列高利七世,的確,刪節的順序祈禱,並簡化了禮儀中,因為在羅馬法院執行,這刪節的名字祈禱 ,這是合適的,因為,根據這個詞的詞源,節錄。 The name has been extended to books which contain in one volume, or at least in one work, liturgical books of different kinds, such as the Psalter, the Antiphonary, the Responsoriary, the Lectionary, etc. In this connection it may be pointed out that in this sense the word, as it is used nowadays, is illogical; it should be named a Plenarium rather than a Breviarium , since, liturgically speaking, the word Plenarium exactly designates such books as contain several different compilations united under one cover.的名字已被擴展到書籍,其中包含在一個體積,或在至少一個工作,禮儀書籍,如不同種的Psalter,Antiphonary的Responsoriary,的Lectionary,等在這方面,它可以指出,在這個意義上,這個詞,因為它採用了時下,是不合邏輯應該命名為Plenarium而不是一個Breviarium的 ,因為,liturgically說,完全相同的字Plenarium,指定的書籍,包含幾個不同的編譯團結在一個封面。 This is pointed out, however, simply to make still clearer the meaning and origin of the word; and section V will furnish a more detailed explanation of the formation of the Breviary.這是指出,然而,簡單地作出更清晰的字的含義和起源,以及部分形成的breviary V將提供更詳細的解釋。

II. II。 CONTENTS目錄

The Roman Breviary, which with rare exceptions (certain religious orders, the Ambrosian and Mozarabic Rites, etc.) is used at this day throughout the Latin Church, is divided into four parts according to the seasons of the year: Winter, Spring, Summer, and Autumn.羅馬breviary,除了極少數例外(某些宗教命令,安布羅西安和莫札拉布的儀式,等等)是用在整個拉丁美洲教會的這一天,被分為四個部分根據今年的季節:冬,春,夏春秋。 It is constructed of the following elements: (a) the Psalter; (b) the Proper of the Season; (c) Proper of the Saints; (d) the Common; (e) certain special Offices.這是構建以下要素:(一)詩篇;(b)在適當的季節;(三)適當的聖徒(四)通用(e)某些特殊的辦事處。

(a) The Psalter (一)該psalter

The Psalter is the most ancient and the most venerable portion of the Breviary. Psalter是最古老和最古老的部分的breviary。 It consists of 150 psalms, divided in a particular way, to be described later.它由150詩篇,除以在一個特定的方法,後面將要描述的。 These psalms formed the groundwork of the Liturgy of the Jews for twelve centuries before Christ, and He certainly made use of these formularies for His prayers, and quoted them on several occasions.這些詩篇,形成了12世紀前基督的猶太人的禮儀基礎,並為他祈禱,他肯定使用這些處方,並在多個場合引述他們。 The Apostles followed His example, and handed down to the Christian Churches the inheritance of the Psalter as the chief form of Christian prayer.使徒們遵循他的榜樣,並流傳下來的基​​督教教會繼承的psalter為主要形式的基督教祈禱。 The Church has carefully preserved them during the lapse of centuries and has never sought to replace them by any other formularies.教會小心翼翼地保存在時隔百年,從來沒有試圖取代任何其他處方。 Attempts have been made from time to time to compose Christian psalms, such as the Gloria in excelsis , the Te Deum , the Lumen Hilare , the Te Decet Laus , and a few others; but those which the Church has retained and adopted are singularly few in number.人們曾試圖從時間,以時間撰寫基督教詩篇,如凱萊在excelsis,特Deum,流明Hilare,特Decet的勞什 ,和其他幾個人,但該教會的保留,並通過奇少數在數量上。 The rhythmic hymns date from a period later than the fourth and fifth centuries, and at best hold a purely secondary place in the scheme of the Office.有節奏的讚美詩最新的一個時期不遲於第四和第五世紀,最好保持一個純粹的中學發生在辦公室的計劃。 Thus the Book of Psalms forms the groundwork of Catholic prayer; the lessons which fill so important a place in this prayer are not, after all, prayer properly so called; and the antiphons, responsories, versicles, etc., are but psalms utilized in a particular manner.因此,這本書的詩篇形成的基礎天主教的祈禱,不填寫的教訓,這麼重要的地方,在此祈禱,畢竟,所謂正確的禱告;和輪唱,的responsories,versicles等,但詩篇中使用以特定的方式。

In the Breviary, however, the Psalter is divided according to a special plan.然而,在breviary的Psalter被劃分根據一個特殊的計劃。 In the earliest period the use of the Book of Psalms in the Office was doubtless exactly similar to that which prevailed amongst the Jews.在最早的時間內,在辦公室使用這本書的詩篇無疑是完全相同的猶太人之中的盛行。 The president of the choir chose a particular psalm at his own will.總裁的合唱團在他自己的意志選擇了一個特別的詩篇。 Some psalms, such as xxi, seem specially appropriate to the Passion.一些詩篇,如二十一世紀,似乎特別適合於激情。 Another was adapted to the Resurrection, a third suited the Ascension, while others again are specially referable to the Office of the Dead.另一個問題是適應的復活,第三個適合的阿森松島,而另一些又是特別的辦公室,死者一定的參考價值。 Some psalms provide morning prayers, others those for night.一些詩篇早晨祈禱,其他的晚上。 But the choice was left in the hands of the bishop or president of the choir.但選擇留在手中的合唱團的主教或總裁。 Later, probably from the fourth century, certain psalms began to be grouped together, to respond to the divers requirements of the Liturgy.後來,可能是從第四世紀,某些詩篇開始組合到一起,以應對潛水員的禮儀要求。

Another cause led to these groupings and arrangements of the Psalter. Some monks were in the habit of reciting daily the whole of the 150 psalms.另一個原因導致這些組合和安排的psalter。 一些僧侶的習慣,每天背誦整個150詩篇。 But this form of devotion, apart from lessons and other formularies, occupied so much time that they began to spread the recitation of the entire Psalter over a whole week. 但這種形式的投入,除了經驗教訓和其他處方,佔用了這麼多時間,他們開始蔓延整個psalter背誦了整整一個星期。 By this method each day was divided into hours, and each hour had its own portion of the Psalter. From this arrangement arose the idea of dividing the Psalter according to specially devised rules. 通過這種方法,每一天分成小時,每個小時都有它自己的部的psalter。從這種安排產生的想法的Psalter除以根據專門設計的規則。 St. Benedict was one of the earliest to set himself to this task, in the sixth century.聖本篤是最早的為自己確定的這個任務之一,在第六世紀。 In his Rule he gives minute directions how, at that period, the psalms were to be distributed at the disposition of the abbot; and he himself drew up such an arangement.在他的統治,他給分鐘的方向,在此期間,詩篇分佈在處置的住持,他自己制定了這樣的arangement。 Certain psalms were set apart for the night offices, others for Lauds, others for Prime, Terce, Sext, and None, others for Vespers and Compline.某些詩篇被選派夜辦事處,讚揚別人,別人總理,泰爾塞,SEXT和“無”,“人的晚禱和Compline。

It is a subject of discussion amongst liturgists whether this Benedictine division of the psalms is anterior or posterior to the Roman Psalter.這是一個主題的討論,其中包括liturgists本篤部門的詩篇是前或後的羅馬psalter。 Although it may not be possible to prove the point definitely, still it would seem that the Roman arrangement is the older of the two, because that drawn up by St. Benedict shows more skill, and would thus seem to be in the nature of a reform of the Roman division.雖然它可能無法明確地證明了這一點,但它似乎是羅馬的安排是兩個上了年紀的,因為制定了由聖本篤更多的技能,因此,似乎是在性質的改革的羅馬分裂。 In any case, the Roman arrangement of the Psalter reaches back to a hoary antiquity, at least to the seventh or eight century, since when it has not undergone any alteration.在任何情況下,羅馬安排的psalter可以追溯到遙遠的過去,至少在七,八世紀,因為當它沒有發生任何改變。 The following is its disposition.下面是它的配置。

Psalms i-cviii are recited at Matins, twelve a day; but Sunday Matins have six more psalms divided between the three nocturns.詩篇I-CVIII的背誦在晨禱,每天十二個;,但週日晨禱有六個詩篇分為三個nocturns的。 Thus:因此:

The psalms omitted in this series, namely, iv, v, xxi-xxv, xlii, l, liii, lxii, lxiv, lxvi, lxxix-xcii, and xciv, are, on account of their special aptitude, reserved for Lauds, Prime, and Compline.省略了這一系列的詩篇,即,四,五,二十一,二十五,四十二,L,l三,第六十二號,LXIV,LXVI,LXXIX XCII,並XCIV,是考慮他們的特殊才能,保留的讚美,總理,並Compline。

The series, from Ps.該系列產品,從PS。 cix to Ps. CIX的PS。 Cxlvii inclusively, are used at Vespers, five each day, except Psalms cxvii, cxviii, and cxlii, reserved for other hours. Cxlvii(含),被用來在晚禱,五年的每一天,除了的詩篇CXVII,CXVIII,並cxlii,保留的其他時間。 The last three, cxlviii, cxlix, and cl, which are specially called the psalms of praise (Laudes), because of the word Laudate which forms their leitmotiv, are always used in the morning Office, which thus gets its name of Lauds.過去三年,cxlviii,cxlix,和cl,這是專門的詩篇讚美(Laudes),因為構成其主旨這個詞Laudate的,總是在早上處,從而得到它的名字的讚揚。

A glance at the above tables will show that, broadly speaking, the Roman Church did not attempt to make any skilful selection of the psalms for daily recitation.看一眼上面的表顯示,從廣義上講,羅馬教會並沒有試圖作出任何嫻熟的選擇為每天背誦的詩篇。 She took them in order as they came, except a very few set apart for Lauds, Prime, and Compline, and selected Ps.她為了把他們上來之後,除了極少數,除了為讚揚總理和Compline的設置,選定PS。 cxviii for the day hours. CXVIII當天小時。 Other Liturgies, as the Ambrosian, the Mozarabic, and the Benedictine, or monastic, have Psalters drawn up on wholly different lines; but the respective merits of these systems need not be here discussed.其他的禮儀,安布羅西安,在莫扎拉布素歌,和本篤會,或寺院,有Psalters制定了完全不同的線條,但是這些系統各自的優點,不必在這裡討論。 The order of the ferial Psalter is not followed for the festivals of the year or for the feasts of saints; but the psalms are selected according to their suitableness to the various occasions.平日裡詩篇的順序是不遵循在今年的節日或聖人的節日,但詩篇的選擇是根據他們的各種場合的適宜性。

The history of the text of this Psalter is interesting.的歷史詩篇的文字,這是有趣的。 The most ancient Psalter used in Rome and in Italy was the "Psalterium Vetus", of the Itala version, which seems to have been introduced into the Liturgy by Pope St. Damasus (d. 384).在羅馬和意大利最古老的詩篇“Psalterium VETUS”,的伊泰萊版本,這似乎已被引入禮儀,教皇:聖達瑪蘇(卒於384年)。 He it was who first ordered the revision of the Itala by St. Jerome, in AD 383.他是誰下令修訂的伊泰萊圣杰羅姆,在公元383年。 On this account it has been called the "Psalterium Romanum", and it was used in Italy and elsewhere till the ninth century and later.在這個帳戶上,它被稱為“Psalterium Romanum”,它被用來在意大利和其他地方,直到第九世紀,後來。 It is still in use in St. Peter's at Rome, and many of the texts of our Breviary and Missal still show some variants (Invitatory an Ps. xciv, the antiphons of the Psalter and the responsories of the Proper of the Season, Introits, Graduals, Offertories, and Communions).它仍然是在聖彼得在羅馬,許多的文本,我們的祈禱和彌撒仍表現出一定的變種(Invitatory的詩。XCIV的,輪唱的詩篇和適當的季節,Introits的responsories,的Graduals,奉獻金,和聖餐)。 The Roman Psalter also influences the Mozarabic Liturgy, and was used in England in the eighth century.羅馬psalter也影響的莫札拉布的禮儀,並在英格蘭在第八世紀。 But in Gaul and in other countries north of the Alps, another recension entered into competition with the "Psalterium Romanum" under the somewhat misleading title of the "Psalterium Gallicanum"; for this text contained nothing distinctively Gallican, being simply a later correction of the Psalter made by St. Jerome in Palestine, in AD 392.但在高盧和其他國家的阿爾卑斯山以北,另一個校訂進入競爭的“Psalterium Romanum”下有所誤導性的標題的“Psalterium Gallicanum”,這個文本包含什麼獨特的高盧,只是一個後來的修正詩篇由圣杰羅姆在巴勒斯坦,在公元392。 This recension diverged more completely than the earlier one form the Itala; and in preparing it St. Jerome had laid Origen's Hexapla under contribution.這校訂分歧較前一個形式的伊泰萊完全,並準備圣杰羅姆奠定淵源的的hexapla貢獻。 It would seem that St. Gregory of Tours, in the sixth century, introduced this translation into Gaul, or at any rate he was specially instrumental in spreading its use; for it was this Psalter that was employed in the Divine psalmody celebrated at the much honoured and frequented tomb of St. Martin of Tours.這似乎,聖格雷戈里的旅遊,在六世紀時,介紹了本翻譯成高盧人,或在任何速度,特別是在推廣其使用,因為它是採用的詩篇,在神唱讚美詩慶祝的多榮幸,並經常墓聖馬丁旅遊。 From that time this text commenced its "triumphal march across Europe".從那個時候開始這個文本的“凱旋進行曲”整個歐洲。 Walafrid Starbo states that the churches of Germany were using it in the eighth century: -- "Galli et Germanorum aliqui secundum emendationem quam Hieronymus pater de LXX composuit Psalterium cantant". Walafrid Starbo國家,教會的德國人使用它在第八世紀: - :“加利等Germanorum aliqui繼發孔型emendationem華富嘉洛海歐納莫斯佩特的LXX composuit Psalterium cantant”。 About the same time England gave up the "Psalterium Romanum" for the "Gallicanum".大約在同一時間,,英國放棄的“Psalterium Romanum”為“Gallicanum”。 The Anglo-Saxon Psalter already referred to was corected and altered in the ninth and tenth century, to make it accord with the "Gallicanum".盎格魯 - 撒克遜人的詩篇已經提到了corected,並改變在第九和第十世紀,,使其符合“Gallicanum”的。 Ireland seems to have followed the Gallican version since the seventh century, as may be gathered from the famous Antiphonary of Bangor.愛爾蘭似乎已跟隨gallican版自公元七世紀,可能會收集到班戈的著名Antiphonary的。 It even penetrated into Italy after the ninth century, thanks to the Frankish influence, and there enjoyed a considerable vogue.它甚至滲透到了意大利後的第九世紀,由於法蘭克人的影響,並享有相當的時尚。 After the Council of Trent, St. Pius V extended the use of the "Psalterium Gallicanum" to the whole Church, St. Peter's in Rome alone still keeping to the ancient Roman Psalter.安理會的遄達後,聖庇護五世擴展到整個教會使用的“Psalterium Gallicanum”,獨自在羅馬的聖彼得仍然保持古老的羅馬psalter。 The Ambrosian Church of Milan has also its own recension of the Psalter, a version founded, in the middle of the fourth century, on the Greek.安布羅教會的米蘭也有自己的校訂的詩篇,成立一個版本,在中間的第四個世紀,在希臘。

(b) The Proper of Season (b)在適當的季節

This portion of the Breviary contains the Office of the different liturgical seasons.這部分的breviary包含不同的禮儀賽季的辦公室。 As is well known, these periods are now thus arranged: Advent, Christmastide, Septuagesima, Lent, Holy Week, paschal time, and the time after Pentecost.眾所周知,這期間現在如此安排:臨Christmastide,第三個週日,四旬期,聖週,復活節,五旬節之後的時間。 But ony by slow degrees did this division of the liturgical year develop its present form.但ONY緩慢的,這個師的禮儀年的發展其目前的形式。 It must be traced through its various stages.它必須被追查到的各個階段。 It may indeed be said that originally there was no such thing as a liturgical year.的確可以說,原本有沒有這樣的東西作為禮儀的一年。 Sunday, the day above all of the Eucharistic celebration, is at once the commemoration of the Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Jesus Christ; men spoke of the "Pasch of the Crucifixion", of the "Pasch of the Ressurection" -- pascha staurosimon; pascha anastasimon ; every Sunday was a renewal of the paschal festival.週日,天以上所有的聖體聖事的慶祝活動,是在一次紀念的激情,死亡和復活的耶穌基督,人都沒說過話的“PASCH被釘死在十字架上”,的的“PASCH的Ressurection” - 復活節staurosimon,復活節anastasimon,每個星期天是一個更新的逾越節節。 It was only natural that on the actual anniversary the feast shouldbe kept with peculiar solemnity, for it was the foremost Christian feast, and the centre of the liturgical year.這是很自然的,在實際的週年盛宴的應該是保持特有的嚴肅,因為這是最重要的基督教節日,該中心的禮儀。 Easter drew in it is train Pentecost, which was fixed as the fiftieth day after the Resurrection; it was the festival commemorating the Descent of the Holy Ghost on the Apostles.復活節吸引了,它是火車的50天復活後的聖靈降臨節,這是固定的,它是藝術節紀念後裔的聖靈的使徒。 These fifty days made up an unbroken festival, a Jubilee, a time of joy during which there was no fasting and when penitential exercises were suspended.這五十天銀禧,一個完整的節日,歡樂的時間,在此期間,有沒有空腹和悔罪練習時暫停。 These two feasts thus linked together are mentioned by ecclesiastical writers from the second century onwards.從第二世紀起,教會作家的這兩個節日提及這種聯繫在一起的。

Just as Easter was followed by fifty days of rejoicing, so it had its period of preparation by prayer and fasting, from which arose the season of Lent, which, after various changes, commenced finally forty days before Easter, whence its name of Quadragesima. The other rallying-point of the liturgical year is the feast of Christmas, the earliest observance of which is of very remote antiquity (the third century at least).正如復活節後50天的大喜,所以它有它的準備期,祈禱和禁食,從而產生的四旬期,中,後的各種變化,開始最後的40天前復活節,從那裡它的名字Quadragesima。拉力賽點的禮儀年的聖誕大餐,在最早的遵守,這是非常遠古(至少在三世紀)。 Like Easter, Christmas had its time of preparation, called Advent, lasting nowadays four weeks.像復活節,聖誕節有時間的籌備,稱為降臨,持續時下4週的。 The remainder of the year had to fit in between these two feasts.在今年剩下的必須適合在這兩個節日之間。 From Christmas to Lent two currents may be observed : into one fell the feasts of the Epiphany and the Purification, and six Sundays after the Epiphany, constituting Christmastide. The remaining weeks after these Sundays fall under the influence of Lent and, under the name of Septuagesima, create a sort of introduction to it, since these three weeks, Septuagesima, Sexagesima, and Quinquagesima, really belong to Lent by reason of their character of preparation and penance.從聖誕節到借給兩個電流可能會觀察到一個下跌了節日的頓悟淨化,6日主顯節,構成Christmastide。剩下的幾個星期後,這些日下跌的影響下,大齋期的名義下, 第三個週日,創建一個類的介紹,這三個星期以來, 第三個週日,Sexagesima,Quinquagesima的,真正屬於四旬期的準備和懺悔自己的性格的原因。

The long period between Pentecost and Advent, from May to December, still remains to be dealt with.五旬節降臨,5月至12之間的很長一段,仍然要處理。 A certain number of Sundays cluster round special great festivals, as those of St. John the Baptist (24 June), the holy Apostles Peter and Paul (29 June), St. Lawrence (10 August), and St. Michael (29 September).有一定數量的施洗者聖約翰(6月24日),聖使徒彼得和保羅(6月29日),聖勞倫斯(8月10日),和聖邁克爾(9月29日週日簇擁偉大的節日, )。 At later date these days, which did not fit very conveniently into the general scheme, tended to disappear, and were absorbed into the common time after Pentecost, made up of twenty-four Sundays, thereby uniting Pentecost with Advent; and thus the cycle of the liturgical year is completed.在稍後到目前為止,這些天,不適合很方便的總體方案,趨於消失,被吸收到共同五旬節之後,24日,五旬節來臨,從而團結和週期的禮儀年完成。

The Proper of the Season contains, therefore, the Office of all the Sundays and festivals belonging to it, with special lessons, extracts from the Gospels, and frequently also proper antiphons, responsories, and psalms, adapted to the peculiar character of these different periods.適當的季節,因此,包含辦公室所有屬於它的,特殊的經驗教訓,從福音書的提取物,也經常適當的輪唱,的responsories,和詩篇,適應這些不同時期的特殊性質的星期日和節日。 It is in the composition of this Liturgy that the Roman Church has displayed her gifts of critical judgment, liturgical taste, and theological acumen.這是在羅馬教會的禮儀,顯示她的禮物,關鍵的判斷,禮儀的味道,和神學的敏銳的組成。 The difference in the character of these periods may be studied in such works as Dom Guéranger's "Liturgical Year".在這期間的性格的差異,可以研究在作為DOM的guéranger的“禮儀”這樣的作品。

(c) Proper of the Saints (三)適當的聖徒

Following on the Proper of the Season comes in the Breviary the Proper of the Saints, that is to say, that part which contains the lessons, psalms, antiphons, and other liturgical formularies for the feasts of the saints.繼在適當的季節,在breviary適當的聖人,也就是說,該部分包含的經驗教訓,詩篇,antiphons,和其他的禮儀處方的聖人的節日。 In reality this Proper commemorates a very large number of saints who find mention in the ecclesiastical Calendar; this, however, meed not be given here, as it can easily be consulted.在現實中,正確的是紀念一個非常大的數字找到一提的教會日曆的聖人,然而,這是需要考慮在這裡,因為它可以很容易地進行諮詢。 But it may be noted that the greater number of the days of the year -- at least nine-tenths - are appropriated to special feasts; and the question has therefore been seriously debated, every time a movement for the reform of the Breviary has arisen, as to how to save the Divine Office from being overwhelmed by these feasts, and as to how to restore to the ferial Office its rightful ascendancy.但它可能會注意到,在今年的日子 - 至少十分之九 - 撥特殊的節日;的問題,因此受到了嚴重的辯論,每次出現的運動改革的breviary如何保存神聖的辦公室,從這些節日被淹沒,如何恢復到其應有的優勢平日辦公室。 This is not the place for the discussion of such a problem; but it may be said that this invasion of the Proper of the Season has reached such proportions imperceptilbly.這是不討論這樣的問題,但,入侵適當的季節,這可以說已經達到了這樣的程度imperceptilbly。 It was not always thus; in the beginning, up to the seventh, and even up to ninth, century, the feasts of saints observed in the Breviary were not numerous, as may be proved by comparing modern Calendars with such ancient ones as may be seen in "An Ancient Syrian Martyrology", "Le calendrier de Philocalus", "Martyrologium Hieronymianum", "Kalendarium Carthaginense".它並不總是這樣;開始,到第七,甚至到第九世紀,聖人觀察到,在breviary節日的並不多,可以證明這種古老的,可能是通過比較現代的日曆看到“古代敘利亞martyrology”,“樂calendrier的Philocalus”,“Martyrologium Hieronymianum”,“Kalendarium Carthaginense”。 These Calendars contain little more than the following list, beyond the great festivals of the Church:這些日曆包含多一點下面的列表中,的教會超出偉大的節日:

(d) The Common (四)共同

Under this designation come all the lessons, Gospels, antiphons, responsories, and versicles which are not reserved to a special occasion, but may be employed for a whole group of saints.在此指定來所有的經驗教訓,福音,輪唱的responsories,versicles不保留一個特殊的場合,但可能會為整個集團的聖徒。 These Commons are those of Apostles, Evangelists, Martyrs, Confessors Pontiffs, Confessors non-Pontiffs, Abbots, Virgins, and Holy Women.這些共享的使徒,傳福音,烈士陵園,懺悔教宗,非教宗懺悔,方丈,處女,和神聖的女性。 To these may be added the Offices of the Dedication of the Churches, and of the Blessed Virgin.這些可能會增加該辦事處的獻身精神,教會,和聖母。 The Office of the Dead occupies a place apart.除了辦事處的死亡佔據了一席之地。 It is most difficult to fix the origin of these Offices.這是最困難到解決這些辦事處的起源。 The most ancient seem to belong to the ninth, the eighth, and even the seventh century, and through special formularies may even date still further back.最古老的似乎屬於第九,第八和第七世紀,並通過特殊處方,甚至可能進一步迄今仍回。 To give one example, the antiphons of the Common of Martyrs in paschal time, "Sancti tui, Domine, florebunt sicut lilium, et sicut odor balsami erunt ante te", "Lux perpetua lucebit sanctis tuis, Domine et Aeternitas temporum", are taken from the Fourth Book of Esdras (apocryphal), which was rejected almost everywhere about the end of the fourth century; these verses, therefore, must probably have been borrowed at a period anterior to that date.舉一個例子,輪唱的共同烈士在逾越節的時候,“聖斯皮里圖斯TUI,Domine,florebunt sicut百合等sicut氣味balsami ERUNT事前TE”,“力士perpetua lucebit sanctis tuis,Domine等Aeternitas temporum”,採取被否決幾乎無處不在即將結束的第四個世紀的第四本書的埃斯德拉斯(未經證實),這些經文,因此,必須可能已在該日期前一段時間借。 Probably, also, in the very beginning, the most ancient of these Common Offices were Proper Offices, and in some of them special features supporting this supposition may be noticed.還可以,也許,在一開始,這些最古老的公共事務處合適的辦公室,並可能會注意到,在一些特殊的功能,支持這一假設。 Thus, the Common of Apostles is apparently referable to the Office of Sts.因此,共同的使徒辦公室的STS顯然是一定的參考價值。 Peter and Paul and must bave been adapted later for all the Apostles.彼得和保羅和,必須bave被改編為所有的使徒。 Such versicles as the following in the Common of Martyrs: "Volo, Pater, ut ubi ego sum, illic sit et minister meus", "Si quis mihi ministraverit, honorificabit illum Pater meus", seem to point to a martyr-deacon ( diakonos , minister), and may perhaps specially refer to St. Lawrence, on account of the allusion to the words of his Acts: "Quo, sacerdos sancte, sine ministro properas?"這樣的versicles以下共同的烈士:“瓦羅,佩特,UT UBI自我總結,illic靜坐等部長meus”,“四QUIS mihi ministraverit,honorificabit ILLUM佩特meus”,似乎指向到一個烈士執事( 注diakonos部長),也許特別聖勞倫斯帳戶的典故,他的行為的話:“利國,sacerdos sancte,正弦ministro properas?” Also, the numerous allusions to a crown or a palm in these same antiphons refer without doubt to the holy martyrs, Stephen, Lawrence, and Vincent, whose names are synonyms for the crown and laurel of victory.此外,眾多的典故,以一頂王冠或手掌在這些相同的輪唱參考毫無疑問神聖的烈士,:斯蒂芬勞倫斯,文森特,他們的名字是同義詞冠和勝利的桂冠。 The details necessary for the proof of this hypothesis could only be given in a fuller treatise than this; suffice it to say that from the literary standpoint, as from that of archæology or liturgy, these Offices of the Common contain gems of great artistic beauty, and are of very great interest.必要的細節,為證明這一假說只能比這個更全面的論述,可以肯定地說,從文學的角度來看,從考古或禮儀,這些辦事處的共同包含的偉大的藝術之美的寶石,是非常大的興趣。

(e) Special Offices (e)特別辦事處

The Office of the Blessed Virgin, also very ancient in some of its parts, is of great dogmatic importance; but students of this subject are referred to the Rev. EL Taunton's "The Little Office of Our Lady".辦公室的聖母,在它的一些部件也非常古老的,教條式的偉大意義,但學生對這個問題被稱為EL頓牧師的“小辦公室的聖母”。

The Office of Dead is, without a shadow of doubt, one of the most venerable and ancient portions of the Breviary, and deserves a lengthy study to itself.辦公室的死是沒有疑問的影子,其中一個最古老的和最古老的部分的breviary,值得長期研究的本身。 The Breviaries also contain Offices proper to each diocese, and certain special Offices of modern origin, which, consequently, need not here detain us.的Breviaries還包括寫字樓,適當的每個教區,和現代化的起源,某些特殊的辦事處,因此,這裡沒有必要扣留我們。

III. III。 THE HOURS “小時”

The prayer of the Breviary is meant to be used daily; each day has its own Office; in fact it would be correct to say that each hour of the day has its own office, for, liturgically, the day is divided into hours founded on the ancient Roman divisions of the day, of three hours apiece -- Prime, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers, and the night Vigils.祈禱的祈禱是每天使用,每一天都有它自己的辦公室,其實正確的說,每個小時的一天有自己的辦公室,為liturgically成立於小時,一天分為古羅馬部門的日子裡,三個小時,每人 - 總理,泰爾塞,SEXT,“無”,“晚禱,而晚上守夜。 In conformity with this arrangement, the Office is portioned out into the prayers of the night vigils, that is to say Matins and Lauds.按照這樣的安排,部份到辦公室的祈禱守夜晚會,也就是說晨禱和讚揚。 Matins itself is subdivided into three nocturns, to correspond with the three watches of the night: nine o'clock at night, midnight, and three o'clock in the morning. The office of Lauds was supposed to be recited at dawn. The day offices corresponded more or less to the following hours: Prime to 6 AM, Terce to 9 AM, Sext to midday, None to 3 PM, Vespers to 6 PM It is necessary to note the words more or less , for these hours were regulated by the solar system, and therefore the length of the periods varied with the season.晨禱本身劃分為三個nocturns,對應的三個手錶的晚上:晚上九點鐘,凌晨時分,在早上三點鐘, 辦公室的讚揚本來是要背誦在黎明的一天辦公室相對應更多或更少的時間如下: 總理到早上6點,泰爾塞上午9點,SEXT到中午到下午3點,無晚禱至下午6時,有必要注意的話越來越少 ,這幾個小時,受太陽能系統,因此與季節變化的期間的長度。

The office of Compline, which falls somewhat outside the above division, and whose origin dates later than the general arrangement, was recited at nightfall.在夜幕降臨的辦公室,屬於有些Compline上述部門外,其起源可追溯到後比一般安排,是吟誦。 Nor does this division of the hours go back to the first Christian period.這個師的工作時間也不回去的第一個基督教時期。 So far as can be ascertained, there was no other public or official prayer in the earliest days, outside the Eucharistic service, except the night watches, or vigils, which consisted of the chanting of psalms and of readings from Holy Scripture, the Law, and the Prophets, the Gospels and Epistles, and a homily.到目前為止能夠確定,有沒有其他公共或官方的祈禱在最早的日子裡,外的聖體聖事的服務,除夜手錶,或守夜,其中包括誦經的詩篇,從聖經的讀數,法律,和先知,福音書和書信,並講道。 The offices of Matins and Lauds thus represent, most probably, these watches.晨禱和讚揚,因此代表的辦公室,最有可能的是,這些手錶。 It would seem that beyond this there was nothing but private prayer; and at the dawn of Christianity the prayers were said in the Temple, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles.這似乎是超越這沒有什麼,但私人祈禱的曙光基督教的祈禱說,在寺廟中,因為我們在閱讀使徒行傳。 The hours equivalent to Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers were already known to the Jews as times of prayer and were merely adopted by the Christians.小時,相當於泰爾塞,SEXT,“無”,“晚禱已知的猶太人禱告的時間,僅僅通過的基督徒。 At first meant for private prayer, they became in time the hours of public prayer, especially when the Church was enriched with ascetics, virgins, and monks, by their vocation consecrated to prayer.起初是私人祈禱,他們成為了時間的公眾禱告的時間,尤其是當堂豐富的禁慾主義者,處女,和僧侶,他們的職業奉獻給祈禱。 From that time, ie from the end of the third century, the monastic idea exercised a preponderant influence on the arrangement and formation of the canonical Office.從那時起,即從去年底的第三個世紀,寺院的想法行使優勢的影響,形成了典型辦公室的安排。 It is possible to give a fairly exact account of the establishment of these Offices in the second half of th fourth century by means of a document of surpassing importance for the history we are now considering: the "Peregrinatio ad Loca Sancta", written about AD 388, by Etheria, a Spanish abbess.這有可能給這些辦事處在下半年日通過的文件超過了歷史的重要性,我們現正考慮“的Peregrinatio廣告洛卡SANCTA”,書面約公元第四世紀建立一個相當精確的帳戶388,的邑澤里阿,一個西班牙的女修道院院長。 This narrative is specifically a description of the Liturgy followed in the Church of Jerusalem at that date.這說明在該日期之後在耶路撒冷的教會的禮儀是具體的描述。

The Offices of Prime and Compline were devised later, Prime at the end of the fourth century, while Compline is usually attributed to St. Benedict in the sixth century; but it must be acknowledged that, although he may have given it its special form for the West, there existed before his time a prayer for the close of the day corresponding to it. ,辦事處的總理和Compline的設計後,總理在年底的第四個世紀,而Compline通常被認為是在第六世紀的聖本篤,但必須承認的是,雖然他可能是它的特殊形式為西方,在他的時間存在密切的一天,相應的它的禱告。

IV. IV。 COMPONENT PARTS OF THE OFFICE辦公室的組成部分

Each of the hours of the Office in the Roman Liturgy is composed of the same elements: psalms (and now and then canticles), antiphons, responsories, hymns, lessons, versicles, little chapters, and collects (prayers).每個小時的辦公室在羅馬禮儀是由相同的元素:詩篇(現在再canticles),輪唱,的responsories,讚美詩,教訓,versicles,小章,並收集(祈禱)。

A few words must be said about each of these elements from the particular point of view of the Breviary.這些元素的breviary從特定的角度,必須說幾句話。

(a) Psalms and Canticles (一)詩篇和canticles

Nothing need here be added to what has already been said in section II concerning the psalms, except that they are used in the Breviary sometimes in order of sequence, as in the ferial Offices of Matins and Vespers, sometimes by special selection, independently of the order of the Psalter, as in Lauds, Prime, Compline, and, in general, in the Offices of the Saints and other feasts.沒有需要在這裡補充什麼已經說的第二部分有關的詩篇,但他們在breviary有時被用來按次序,在平日辦事處的晨禱和晚禱,有時是特別的選擇,獨立的為了詩篇,讚美,總理,Compline,一般來說,在聖徒和其他節日的辦事處。 Another point of notice in the composition of the Roman Office is that it allows of the inclusion of a certain number of canticles, or songs, drawn from other portions of Holy Writ than the Psalter, but put on the same footing as the psalms.組成的羅馬辦公室的通知的另一點是,它允許一定數量​​的canticles,或歌曲,來自“聖經”的其他部分比詩篇列入,但同時又提出在同一基礎上的詩篇。 These are: the Canticle of Moses after the passage of the Red Sea (Exodus, xv); the Canticle of Moses before his death (Deut., xxxii); the Prayer of Anne the mother of Samuel (I Kings, ii); the Prayer of Jonas (Jon., ii); the Canticle of Habacuc (Habacuc, iii); the Canticle of Ezechias (Is., xxxviii); The Benedicite (Dan., iii, lii); lastly, the three canticles drawn from the New Testament: the Magnificat, the Benedictus, and the Nunc dimittis.它們是:通過後的紅海canticle的摩西(出埃及記“,XV); canticle的摩西在他的死亡之前(申三十二);禱告的安妮·撒母耳的母親(我的國王,II);約拿的禱告(Jon.,二);的頌歌,Habacuc(Habacuc,三);頌歌埃澤希亞甚(賽,三十八); Benedicite(但以理書,三,LII);最後,來自三個canticles新約聖經:尊,本尼迪塔斯,並的NUNC dimittis。

This list of canticles coincides more or less with those used in the Greek church.這個名單的canticles恰逢或多或少與希臘教會在使用。 St. Benedict admits these canticles into his Psalter, specifically stating that he borrows them from the Church of Rome, and thus providing a further argument for the priority of the Roman Office over the monastic.聖本篤承認這些的canticles到他的詩篇,特別指出,他借用他們從羅馬教會的,因而提供的優先級在寺院的羅馬辦公室的另一論點。

(b) Antiphons (二)輪唱

The antiphons which are read nowadays in the Breviary are abridged formularies which almost always serve to introduce a psalm or canticle.輪唱讀時下,在breviary的刪節的處方,幾乎總是為引入讚美詩或頌歌。 They consist sometimes of a verse taken from a psalm, sometimes of a sentence selected from the Gospels or Holy Scripture, eg "Euge, serve bone, in modico fidelis, intra in gaudium Domini tui"; occasionally they consist of phrases not culled from the Bible, but modelled on its style, ie they are the invention of a liturgical author, for example: "Veni, Sponsa Christi,accipe coronam, quam tibi Dominus præparavit in æternum".他們有時包括一首詩歌從詩篇,有時一個句子從福音書或聖經,例如“Euge選擇,服務於骨,在modico的FIDELIS,內gaudium多米尼TUI”,他們偶爾短語不包括精選自聖經,但模仿其風格,即他們的禮儀作者的發明,例如:“VENI,Sponsa斯蒂,accipe coronam,華富嘉洛蒂維的Dominuspræparavit在æternum”。 Originally, the meaning of the word, and the function fulfilled by the antiphon, was not what it is now.最初,這個詞的含義,以及由安提完成的功能,是不是它是現在。 Although it is difficult to determine precisely the origin and purport of the term, it seems that it is derived from antiphona ( antiphone ) or from the adjective antiphonos , and that it signified a chant by alternate choirs.雖然很難準確地確定原產地和旨趣的術語,它似乎它是派生的,從antiphona(antiphone)或由形容詞antiphonos的 ,它標誌著一個由候補合唱團歌聲。 The singers or the faithful were divided into two choirs; the first choir intoned the first verse of a psalm, the second continued with the second verse, the first followed with the third verse, and so on to the end of the psalm.歌手或教友們被分成兩個合唱團,唱詩班吟誦的詩篇第一首詩歌,繼續進行第二首詩的第二,第一次之後的第三首詩歌,所以到年底的詩篇。 The antiphoned chant is thus recitation by two choirs alternately.因此,antiphoned唄背誦由兩個合唱團交替。 This term has given rise to technical discussions which cannot here be entered into.這個詞已經引起了技術討論,不能在這裡進入。

(c) Responsory (三)唱和

Responsory, whose composition is almost the same as that of the antiphon -- verse of a psalm, sentence out of Holy Scripture or of ecclesiastical authorship -- nevertheless differs from it entirely as to the nature of its use in recitation or chant.唱和,其成分幾乎是一樣的安提 - 詩的詩篇,句子的聖經或教會著作權的 - 但完全不同於它的性質,其使用的朗誦或唄。 The precentor sang or recited a psalm; the choir or the faithful replied, or repeated either one of the verses or simply the last words of the precentor.領唱唱歌或背誦一首聖詩合唱團或忠實的回答,或反复的詩句或簡單的領唱的最後一句話。 This form, like the antiphon, had already been in use amongst the Jews, and appears even in the construction of certain psalms, as in cxxxv, "Laudate Dominum quoniam bonus", where the refrain, "Quoniam in æternum misericordia ejus", which recurs in each verse, certainly corresponds to a responsory.這種形式,像安提,已經在使用中的猶太人之中,並出現甚至在某些詩篇的建設,在cxxxv,“Laudate Dominum quoniam獎金”,不要“Quoniam在æternum任憑ejus”,這出現在每一節經文,當然對應於一個唱和。

(d) Hymns (四)讚美詩

The term hymn has a less definite meaning than those of antiphon or responsory , and in the primitive liturgies its use is somewhat uncertain.的術語讚美詩安提唱和 ,有一個不太確定的含義,並且其用途是,在原始的禮拜儀式有些不確定。 In the Roman Breviary, at each hour either of the day or of the night there is a little poem in verses of different measures, usually very short.在羅馬祈禱,無論是在白天或晚上每個小時有一首小詩中的詩句採取不同的措施,通常很短。 This is the hymn.這是讚歌。 These compositions were originally very numerous.這些組合物原本非常多。 Traces of hymns may be discerned in the New Testament, eg, in St. Paul's Epistles.在新約中,如讚美詩的痕跡可以看出端倪,在聖保羅的書信。 In the fourth and fifth centuries hymnology received a great impetus.在第四和第五世紀hymnology獲得了巨大的動力。 Prudentius, Synesius, St. Gregory of Nazianzus, St. Hilary, and St. Ambrose composed a great many. “普頓,Synesius,聖格雷戈里的nazianzus,聖希拉里和聖劉漢銓,組成一個偉大的多。 But it was above all in the Middle Ages that this style of composition most developed, and collections of them were made, filling several volumes.但它首先是在中世紀,這種風格的組合最發達的,和他們的集合,填補幾卷。 The Roman Breviary contains but a moderate number of hymns, forming a real anthology.羅馬breviary載,但有中等數量的讚美詩,形成一個真正的文集。 Some of them are masterpieces of art.他們有些是藝術的傑作。 It was at a comparatively late date (about the twelfth century) that the Roman Liturgy admitted hymns into its Breviary.這是在一個相對起步較晚(約十二世紀),羅馬禮儀承認讚美詩的祈禱。 In its primitive austerity it had hitherto rejected them, without, however, condemning their employment in other liturgies.在其原始緊縮,迄今一直拒絕他們,如果沒有,不過,在其他禮儀譴責他們的就業。

(e) Lessons (E)的經驗教訓

By this term is meant the choice of readings or of extracts in the Breviary, taken either from Holy Writ or from the Acts of the Saints, or from the Fathers of the Church.這個詞是指通過讀數或在breviary提取物的選擇,無論是從“聖經”,或從行為的聖人,或從父親的教會。 Their use is in accordance with the ancient Jewish custom, which, in the services of the Synagogues, enjoined that after the chanting of psalms, the Law and the Prophets should be read.它們的使用是按照古老的猶太習俗,在各會堂裡的服務,受命後的誦經的詩篇,應讀律法和先知的。 The primitive Church partly adopted this service of the Synagogue, and thus brought into being the service of the night watches.原始的教會部分採用了這種服務的猶太教堂,帶來的服務,晚手錶。 But the course of readings was altered; after a lesson from the Old Testament, the Epistles of the Apostles or their Acts or the Gospels were read.但讀數的過程中發生了改變,從舊約的教訓後,讀了教會的使徒們或他們的行為或福音。 Some Churches somewhat extended this usage; for it is certain that the letters of St. Clement of Rome, of St. Ignatius, and of Barnabas, and the "Pastor" of Hermas were read.一些教會有所擴大這種用法,可以肯定的是,這些信的聖克萊門特的羅馬,聖依納爵,和巴拿巴,和“牧師”的書,讀的。 Some Churches, indeed, less well instructed, allowed books not wholly orthodox, like the Gospel of Peter, to be read.事實上,一些教會較差的指示,允許書不能完全正統的,像彼得的福音,被讀取。 In time lists were made out to fixwhat books might be read.隨著時間的推移名單可能是只讀的fixwhat書。 Muratori's "Canon" and, still better, the "Decrees of Gelasius" may be studied from this point of view with profit.穆拉托裡的“佳能”,還好些,“法令蓋拉西厄斯”從這個角度來看,利潤可以研究。 Later on men were not content to confine themselves to the reading of the holy books; certain Churches wished to read the Acts of the Martyrs.後來人不把自己局限在讀的聖書的內容一定的教會希望閱讀的行為的烈士。 The Church of Africa, which possessed Acts of great value, signalized itself in this respect.教會本身在這方面的非洲,具有很大的價值的行為,燈號。 Others followed its example.其他跟隨的榜樣。 When the Divine Office was more developed, probably under monastic influence, it became customary to read, after Holy Writ, the commentaries of the Fathers and of other ecclesiastical writers on the passage of the Bible just previously heard.當神聖的辦公室,是較為發達,可能修道院影響下,它成了習慣,閱讀,“聖經”後,評注的父親和其他教會作家通過的“聖經”,只是以前聽說過。 This innovation, which probably began in the sixth, or even in the fifth, century, brought into the Divine Office the works of St. Augustine, St. Hilary, St. Athanasius, Origen, and others.這種創新,可能開始於第六位,甚至在第五世紀,帶入神聖的辦公室聖希拉里,聖奧古斯丁,聖亞他那修,俄,和其他人的作品。 To these, later, were added those of St. Isidore, St. Gregory the Great, the Venerable Bede, and so on.對這些,後來增加了的聖伊西多爾,聖格雷戈里偉大的,令人尊敬的Bede,等等。 This new developmentof the Office gave rise to the compilation of special books.這種新的發展歷程辦公室給人們帶來特殊的書的編制。 In primitive times the Book of Psalms and the books of the Old Testament sufficed for the Office.在原始時代的舊約詩篇和書籍的書就夠了辦公室。 Later, books were compiled giving extracts from the Old and New Testaments (Lectionary, Gospel, and Epistle Books) for each day and each feast.後來,書籍被編譯給提取物的舊約和新約(Lectionary,福音,書信,書籍)的每一天,每一個盛宴。 Then followed books of homilies (Homiliaries) -- collections of sermons or of commentaries of the Fathers for use in the Office.隨之而來的書籍的的頌歌(Homiliaries) - 收藏的父親在辦公室使用的說教或評論。 All these books should be studied, for they form the constituent elements which later combined into the Breviary.所有這些書應該研究,因為他們形成構成要素,後來合併成的祈禱。

Further, as regards these lessons, it is well to notice that, as in the case of the psalmody, two lines of selection were followed.此外,對於這些經驗教訓,這是非常需要注意的是,在唱讚美詩的情況下,兩行選擇隨訪。 The first, that of the order of ferial Offices, ensures the reading of the Scripture, from Genesis to the Apocalypse, in sequence; the second, that of the order for feasts of the saints and festivals, breaks in upon this orderly series of readings and substitutes for them a chapter or a portion of a chapter specially applicable to the feast which is being celebrated.第一,平日辦事處的順序,保證了閱讀的聖經,從創世紀到啟示錄,序列;第二,為了節日的聖人和節日,休息後,這種有序的一系列讀數和他們的替代品的一章或一章的部分,特別適用於正在慶祝的節日。

The following is the table of lessons from the Bible.以下是表中的“聖經”的教訓。 In its essential features, it goes back to a very venerable antiquity:它的本質特徵,它可以追溯到一個非常古老的古代:

(f) Versicles and Little Chapters (F)Versicles的和小章

The Capitulum , or Little Chapter, is really a very short lesson which takes the place of lessons in those hours which have no special ones assigned to them. 頭狀花序 ,或小章,確實是一個很短的教訓小時,有沒有特殊的分配給他們的教訓的地方。 These are: Lauds, Prime, Terce, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline. ::讚美,總理,泰爾塞,SEXT,“無”,“晚禱,並Compline。 By reason of their brevity and of their unimportance, they are much less complicated than the longer ones, and no more need here be said about them.由於其簡潔和他們並不重要,他們是那麼複雜都比較長,就不再需要他們在這裡說。 The Versicles belong to the psalmody, like responsories and antiphons; usually they are taken from a psalm, and belong to the category of liturgical acclamations or shouts of joy.的唱讚美詩的Versicles屬於,,喜歡的responsories和輪唱,通常他們是從詩篇,和屬於禮儀歡呼或歡呼類的。 They are usually employed after lessons and little chapters, and often take the place of responsories; they are, in fact, brief responsories.教訓和小章後,他們通常採用經常採取的responsories的;他們,其實,短暫的responsories。 The ferial Preces and the Litanies probably belong to the category of versicles.的的平日Preces和禱可能屬於的類別versicles。

(g) Collects (七)收集

Collects, also called prayers, are not psalmodic prayers; they are of a completely different character.收集,也被稱為祈禱,不是psalmodic祈禱,他們是一個完全不同的性格。 Their place in the Breviary changes little; they come towards the end of the Office, after the psalmody, the lessons, little chapters, and versicles, but preceded by the Dominus vobiscum , and they gather up in a compendious form the supplications of the faithful.在breviary變化不大;他們來走向辦公室的結束,後唱讚美詩,教訓,小章,並versicles,但之前,在Dominus vobiscum,和他們自己的位置,在一個簡明的形式收集起來的忠實的懇求。 Their historical origin is as follows: During the earliest period, the president of the assembly, usually the bishop, was entrusted with the task of pronouncing, after the psalmody, chants, and litanies, a prayer in the name of all the faithful; he therefore addressed himself directly to God.他們的歷史淵源如下:在最早的時間內,大會主席,通常是主教,受委託的任務的發音,唱讚美詩,聖歌,和禱後,名稱中的所有信徒的祈禱;因此,直接給自己給神。 At first this prayer was an improvisation.起初,這個禱告是即興創作。 The oldest examples are to be found in the Didache ton Apostolon and in the Epistle of St. Clement of Rome, and in certain Epistles of St. Cyprian.被發現的最古老的例子,在didache 的噸為apostolon和書信的聖克萊門特的羅馬,在某些書信的聖塞浦路斯。 In time, towards the fourth century, collections of prayers were made for those who were not adepts in the art of improvisation; these were the earliest forerunners of Sacramentaries and Orationals, which later occupied so important a place in the history of the Liturgy.對第四世紀,隨著時間的推移,集合祈禱這些誰沒有行家在藝術的即興創作;這些人的最早的先驅Sacramentaries和Orationals的,,後來佔據這麼重要的地方,在歷史的禮儀。 The Leonine, Gelasian, and Gregorian Sacramentaries form the chief sources whence are drawn the collects of our Breviary.在Leonine,Gelasian,和陽曆sacramentaries的形成的主要來源何處,,收集引起了我們的祈禱。 It may be observed that they are of great theological importance, and usually sum up the main idea dominating a feast; hence, in them the significance of a festival is to be sought.它可以觀察到的是,他們是偉大的神學思想建設的重要性,並且通常是總結的主要思想支配的盛宴,因此,他們是要尋求意義的節日。

V. HISTORY OF THE BREVIARY五,歷史的祈禱

In the preceding paragraphs, a certain portion of the history of the Breviary, as a choir book at least, has been given.在前面的段落,至少在歷史的breviary,作為合唱團預訂的某一部分,已經給出。 At first, there was no choir book, properly so called; the Bible alone sufficed for all needs, for therein were the psalms for recitation and the books which furnished the various lessons.首先,有沒有合唱團預訂,妥善所謂的“聖經”,便足以為所有的需求,其中的詩篇朗誦提供的各種課程和書籍。 It is of course most probable that the Psalter is the most ancient choir book; it was published apart to fulfil this special function, but with divisions -- marks to indicate the portions to be read; and at the end were copied out the canticles recited in the Office like the psalms, and sometimes, following each psalm, came one or more prayers.這當然是最有可能的psalter是最古老的合唱團預訂,出版除了滿足這個特殊的功能,但與各部門 - 標誌指示要讀取的部分,並在年底被複製的canticles背誦在類似Office的詩篇,有時,每一個詩篇,來到一個或多個祈禱。 A study of manuscript Psalters, which has not as yet been methodically undertaken, would be extremely useful for the Liturgy.研究的手稿Psalters,沒有尚未有條不紊地進行,將是非常有益的禮儀。 Then, little by little, as the canonical Office was evolved, books were drawn up to meet the wants of the day -- Antiphonaries, Collectaria, etc. In the twelfth century John Beleth, a liturgical author, enumerates the books needed for the due performance of the canonical Office, namely: -- the Antiphonary, the Old and New Testaments, the Passionary (Acts of the Martyrs), the Legendary (Legends of the Saints), the Homiliary, or collection of homilies on the Gospels, the Sermologus , or collection of sermons, and the treatises of the Fathers.然後,一點一點的,是在進化的典型辦公室,書是畫,以滿足希望的一天 - Antiphonaries,Collectaria,在12世紀的約翰·巴列斯,禮儀作者列舉了所需要的書籍到期性能典型辦公室,即: - Antiphonary,舊約和新約,Passionary(使徒行傳的烈士),傳說(傳說中的聖人),Homiliary,或收集的福音頌歌,Sermologus ,或收集的說教,論文的父親。 In addition to these should be mentioned the Psalterium, Collectarium for the prayers, the Martyrology, etc. Thus, for the recitation of the canonical Office, quite a library was required.除了這些,應該提到的Psalterium,Collectarium的祈禱,Martyrology等,因此,為背誦的典型辦公室,相當圖書館是必要的。 Some simplification became imperative, and the pressure of circumstances brought about a condensation of these various books into one.一些簡化成為當務之急,並成一個的情況下的壓力帶來的這些不同的書籍的縮合。 This is the origin of the Breviary.這是原產地的breviary。 The word and the thing it represents appeared -- confusedly, it might be -- at the end of the eighth century.這個詞和它所代表的東西出現了 - 稀里糊塗的,它可能是 - 在第八世紀。 Alcuin is the author of an abridgment of the Office for the laity -- a few psalms for each day with a prayer after each psalm, on an ancient plan, and some other prayers; but without including lessons or homilies.阿爾昆是筆者節錄辦公室的俗人 - 一些詩篇,為每一天,每一個詩篇的祈禱後,在一個古老的計劃,和一些其他的祈禱,但不包括課程或講道。 It might rather be called a Euchology than a Breviary.它可能不是一個祈禱而被稱為Euchology的。 About the same time Prudentius, Bishop of Troyes, inspired by a similar motive, drew up a Breviarium Psalterii. But we must come down to the eleventh century to meet with a Breviary properly so called.大約在同一時間普頓,特魯瓦主教,靈感來自於同樣的動機,制定了一個Breviarium Psalterii。但我們必須下降到十一世紀,以滿足與breviary妥善所謂。 The most ancient manuscript known as containing within one volume the whole of the canonical Office dates from the year 1099; it comes from Monte Cassino, and at the present time belongs to the Mazarin Library.最古老的手稿被稱為一個卷內含有典型辦公室的日期從1099年度的整體,它來自蒙特卡西諾,在目前的時間屬於馬薩林圖書館。 It contains, in addition to other matter which does not concern the present inquiry, the Psalter, canticles, litanies, hymnary, collects, blessings for the lessons, little chapters, antiphons, responsories, and lessons for certain Offices.它包含在除了向其他事項不涉及本次調查中,詩篇,canticles,連禱,hymnary,收集,祝福的教訓,小章,輪唱的responsories,一定辦事處的經驗教訓。 Another manuscript, contemporary with the preceding, and also coming from Monte Cassino, contains Propers of the Season and of the Saints, thus serving to complete the first-mentioned one.另一手稿,與前面的當代,也來自蒙特卡西諾,並附加本賽季的聖徒,從而成為第一完成。 Other examples of the Breviary exist dating from the twelfth century, still rare and all Benedictine.其他的breviary存在的歷史可以追溯到十二世紀,仍然是罕見的,所有的本篤會。 The history of these origins of the Breviary is still somewhat obscure; and the efforts at research must continue tentatively till a critical study of these manuscript Breviaries has been made on the lines of such workers as Delisle, Ebner, or Ehrensperger, on the Sacramentaries and Missals.這些來源的breviary還是有點晦澀的歷史和研究的努力必須繼續試探性,直到一個關鍵的這些手稿Breviaries的研究已經取得了這些工人的線條上迪萊爾,埃布,Ehrensperger的的,的Sacramentaries, Missals。

It was under Innocent III (1198-1216) that the use of Breviaries began to spread outside Benedictine circles.這是英諾森三世(1198年至1216年)下,使用的Breviaries開始傳播本篤界外。 At Rome, no longer solely for the Roman Basilicas, but still for the Roman Court alone, Breviaria were drawn up, which, from their source, are called Breviaria de Camerâ , or Breviaria secundum usum Romanæ Curiæ. Texts of this period (beginning of thirteenth century) speak of "Missalia, Breviaria, cæterosque libros in quibus Officium Ecclesiasticum continetur", and Raoul de Tongres specifically refers to this Roman Breviary.在羅馬,不再僅僅為羅馬大教堂,但仍對羅馬法院,Breviaria制定,其中,從他們的來源,被稱為Breviaria的相機 ,或Breviaria繼發孔型usumRomanæ友。這一時期的文本(開始十三世紀)說“Missalia,Breviaria,”cæterosqueLIBROS在quibus Officium Ecclesiasticum continetur,和拉烏爾·格爾專指這羅馬的祈禱。 But this use of the Breviary was still limited, and wa a kind of privilege reserved for the Roman Court.但這種使用的breviary仍然有限,和華盛頓州的羅馬法院保留的一種特權。 A special cause was needed to give the use of this Breviary a greater extension.還需要一個特殊的原因,得到使用的breviary更大的擴展。 The Order of Friars Minor, or Franciscans, lately founded, undertook the task of popularizing it.訂單,最近成立的天主教方濟會,或方濟各會,進行推廣它的任務。 It was not a sedentary order vowed to stability, like those of the Benedictines or Cistercians,or like the Regular Canons, but was an active, missionary, preaching order.這不是一個久坐不動的順序發誓要穩定,像那些本篤會或熙,或類似的定期大砲,但是是一個積極的,傳教,講道秩序。 It therefore needed an abridged Office, convenient to handle and contained in a single volume small enough to be carried about by the Friars on their journeys.因此,它需要一個簡化的辦公室,方便的處理和包含在一個單一的體積足夠小,可以隨身攜帶的方濟各會士,在他們的旅途中。 This order adopted the Breviarium Curiæ with certain modifications which really constitute, as it were, a second edition of this Breviary.此順序採取的Breviarium的的友,因為它是真正構成一定的修改,這祈禱的第二版。 It is sometimes called the Breviary of Gregory IX because it was authorized by that pontiff.它有時也被稱為祈禱 ,因為它是授權的,教皇格列高利九 One of the chief modifications effected by the Friars Minor was the substitution of the Gallican version of the Psalter for the Roman.其中一個主要的修改影響的天主教方濟會是替代的gallican版的psalter為羅馬。 The cause was won; this eminently popular and active order spread the use of this Breviary everywhere. Antiphonaries, Psalters, Legendaries, and Responsoraries disappeared by degrees before the advance of the single book which replaced them all. Still more, by a kind of jus postliminii -- a right of resumption -- the Church of Rome, under Nicholas III (1277-80), adopted the Breviary of the Friars not merely for the Curia, but also for the Basilicas; and, as an inevitable consequence, this Breviary was bound, sooner or later, to become that of the Universal Church.其原因是贏得了祈禱這個非常受歡迎的和積極的為了推廣使用這種無處不在。的Antiphonaries,Psalters,傳說故事,和Responsoraries消失了單書取代他們的推進度,然後。還有更多的,一種絕對postliminii -權利的恢復-羅馬的教會,在尼古拉斯三世(1277年至1280年),通過了祈禱的方濟各會士,不僅教廷,同時也為大教堂,以及作為一個必然的結果,這個祈禱被捆綁,遲早,成為普世教會。

VI. VI。 REFORMS OF THE BREVIARY改革的祈禱

In the preceding sections, the history of the ecclesiatical Office has been unfolded from its inception.在前面的章節中,從成立之初的歷史的ecclesiatical辦公室已經展開。 If this history could be put into few words, though neccesarily forming an incomplete statement, it might be said that from the first to the fifth century it was in formation; from the fifth to the eleventh century it was in process of development and expansion; and during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries the Breviary properly so called was emerging into being.如果歷史可以投入幾句話,雖然neccesarily形成一個不完整的陳述,它可能會說,從第一到第五世紀,它的形成,從第五至十一世紀,它的發展和壯大的過程中;在第十二和第十三世紀breviary妥善所謂的新興應運而生。 From then till now (that is, from the fourteenth century onwards) might be termed the period of reform.從那時候到現在(即是,從14世紀起),被稱為改革時期。 The fourteenth and fifteenth centuries represent for the Liturgy, as for the greater number of other ecclesiastical institutions, a period of decline, for it is the time of schisms, and in that one word everything harmful is summed up.第十四和第十五世紀的禮儀,代表其他教會機構數量較多,一段時間的下降,因為它是時間的分裂,並在總結了一個詞一切有害。 The few documents that are available for the liturgical history of that time attest this, as, for example, the "Gesta Benedicti XIII" and the "XV Ordo Romanus".禮儀歷史的當時可用的幾個文件證明了這一點,如,例如,“蓋斯塔Benedicti XIII”和“第XV奧羅馬努斯”。 Disorder and abuses crept into the Liturgy as into everything else.躡手躡腳地進入到禮儀一切障礙和濫用。

Dom Bäumer, in his "Histoire du bréviaire", repeatedly points out that it is impossible to separate the history of the Liturgy from the occurrences that make up the general history of the Church, and that the phases through which the general history takes us are reflected in the evolution of the Liturgy. DOM BAUMER,在他的“HISTOIRE DUbréviaire”的,一再指出,這是不可能分開的發生,使一般的歷史的教會歷史的禮儀,和一般的歷史階段,通過它需要我們反映發展過程中的禮儀。 It is not surprising, therefore, that the sojourn of the popes at Avignon and the Great Schism have exerted their baneful influence on the history of the Liturgy.因此,這並不奇怪,教皇在阿維尼翁的逗留和大分裂產生了惡劣影響,歷史上的禮儀。 And the reaction is still being felt.並且該反應仍然被感覺到。 Raoul de Tongres, who died early in the fifteenth century, was even at that early period a critic and a reformer; in his famous work "De observantiâ Canonum" he agitated for some settlement of liturgical rules.拉烏爾·格爾,誰死在15世紀初,早期的評論家和改革者,甚至在他的著名作品“observantiâCanonum”他激動一些解決的禮儀規則。 The "XV Ordo Romanus" already referred to, the work of Amelius, sacristan to Urban V and librarian to Gregory XI, breathes the same idea. “XV奧羅馬努斯”已經提到,聖器保管員Amelius,城市V和圖書管理員的工作格雷戈里十一,呼吸同樣的想法。 The abuses pointed out by the different authors of the time may be reduced to the following:的時間由不同的作者指出的濫用,可以歸納為以下的:

The Humanism of the Renaissance, which had its ardent champions even in the Church -- as Bembo, Sadoletus, etc., to say nothing of certain popes -- caused the idea of a special reform of the Breviary, in the direction of greater literary purity and prefection, to be entertained in certain quarters.文藝復興時期的人文主義,它有它的殷切冠軍,甚至在教會中 - 作為本博,Sadoletus等,更不要說某些教皇 - 造成一個特殊的breviary改革的想法,在更大的文學方向的純度和prefection,在某些方面被受理。 Strange schemes were propounded, little in consonance with the spirit of the Church.奇怪的計劃,會否,小的教會的精神相一致。 A Florentine canon, Marsiglio Ficino, and Peter Pomponatius, for instance, suggested that the clergy should read the classical authors instead of the Breviary.例如,A佛羅倫薩佳能,馬爾西利奧菲奇諾,和彼得Pomponatius,建議神職人員應該閱讀的經典作家,而不是祈禱。 Others, though not going so far as this, thought the diction of the Breviary barbaric, and wanted to translate it into Ciceronian Latin.其他人,雖然不會這麼遠,因為這,想文辭的breviary野蠻,並希望把它翻譯成西塞羅拉丁。 The corrections suggested included such astounding phrases as the following: the forgiveness of sins becomes "superosque manesque placare"; the Begetting of the Word was to be "Minerva Jovis capite orta"; the Holy Ghost was "Aura Zephyri coelestis", etc. These attempts failed; nevertheless, at a later date, under Urban VIII, similar Humanist tendencies came again to the surface and this time asserted their power by an emendation of the hymns.更正建議包括驚人的短語,如下所示:使罪得赦成為的“superosque manesque placare”的字,是的密涅瓦Jovis capite奧爾塔“的孕育,聖靈是的”靈氣Zephyri coelestis“,等等,這些嘗試都失敗了,但是,在稍後的日期,根據市區八,類似的人文主義傾向又來了表面校正的聖歌,這個時候宣稱他們的權力。 Amongst such attempts may be mentioned that of Ferreri.這樣的嘗試當中,可能會提到的費雷。 He was the Bishop of Guarda Alfieri in the Kingdom of Naples, a Humanist, and wrote under the auspices and patronage of Leo X. He began with the hymns.他是主教在那不勒斯王國,以人為本,瓜爾達阿爾菲裡寫的主持下和乘客的利奧十,他開始與讚美詩。 His work, which has been preserved, is interesting and contains some very beautiful pieces, polished in style.他的作品已被保存下來,有趣的是,包含了一些非常美麗的作品的風格,拋光。 A good number of them have, unfortunately, nothing more of the spirit of poetry in them than harmony and rhythm; they are wanting in inspiration and above all in the warmth of piety; nearly all are strewn with Pagan names and allusions, representing Christian verities, as "Triforme Numen Olympi" for the Trinity, "Natus Eumolpho Lyricenque Sappho . . . Thracius Orpheus", referring to the Blessed Virgin, etc. Ferreri also busied himself with a revision of the Breviary, but nothing was published, and now no trace of the materials he collected is forthcoming.不幸的是,有相當數量的,沒有更多的和諧和節奏的詩歌精神在他們比他們想要的靈感及以上的所有在溫暖的虔誠,幾乎所有散落著異教的名稱和典故,代表基督教的真理,為三位一體“Triforme紐曼Olympi”,“垂穗Eumolpho Lyricenque薩福... Thracius俄耳甫斯”,指的聖母,等費雷裡也忙著自己的breviary的修訂,但沒有公佈,現在還沒​​有他收集的材料是即將到來的跟踪。

Another attempt at reform, much better known, and having results of far-reaching importance, was that of Quignonez, Cardinal of Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, who was entrusted by Clement VII with the task of completing the work begun by Ferreri.另一種嘗試改革,更好地和結果具有深遠的意義,是的Quignonez,樞機主教的聖十字大殿,克萊門特七世委託的任務完成已經開始的工作的費雷。 He was a Franciscan, and had been successfully employed on various commissions.他是一個方濟,並已成功地在不同的佣金。 His revision was the most original that has ever been attempted, and liturgical experts, like Guéranger, Edmund Bishop, and Bäumer, have studied his labours in detail.他的修訂是最原始的,曾經嘗試過,和禮儀專家,像Guéranger,埃德蒙·畢曉普,堡盟,詳細研究了他的勞動力的。 Only the principal points of his scheme can be mentioned here.只有他的計劃的要點,可以在這裡提及。 Considered theoretically, it cannot be denied that his Breviary is drawn up on easy, convenient, and logical lines, and, on the whole is felicitously arranged.從理論上說,它不能否認他的祈禱是簡單,方便,邏輯行,而且,整體上被巧妙地安排。 But in the light of tradition and of liturgical principles the only possible verdict in that Quignonez' Breviary, being constructed on a priori principles, violating most of the liturgical rules, must be codemned.但在光的傳統和禮儀原則的唯一可能的判決,quignonez的祈禱,正在建設中的先驗原則,違反了大多數的禮儀規則,必須codemned。 The author starts with the theory, contrary to all tradition, that an essential difference exists between the public celebration of the Office and its private recitation.筆者從理論,相反的所有傳統,即存在一個本質的區別,之間的公共慶祝辦事處及其私人背誦。 For private recitation, therfore, all such portions as antiphons, responsories, versicles, little chapters, even hymns may be eliminated, as, according to Quignonez, these are meant solely for choir use.私人背誦,可能會被淘汰,因此,所有這些部分輪唱,的responsories,versicles,小章,甚至聖歌一樣,根據Quignonez,這是專為合唱團使用。 According to his arrangement, the entire Psalter was to be recited once a week -- an excellent idea, in consonance with primitive practice; but it was applied too rigidly and narrowly, for no attention was paid to the suitability of certain psalms to special feasts.根據他的安排下,整個psalter背誦,每週一次 - 一個很好的想法,與原始的做法相一致,但它過於僵化和狹隘,沒有注意適合某些詩篇的特殊節日。 Feasts were never to change the order of the psalms, which were to be recited successively from i to cl.的節氣從來沒有改變順序的詩篇,這是從我背誦,先後與cl。

Every hour had three psalms; and in consequence of this severe regularity, there disappeared the deep and historical motive which gave to each hour its own characteristics.每隔一小時有三個詩篇,由於這種嚴重的規律性,時隱時現深,歷史給每一個小時的動機,其自身的特點。 The legends of the saints and the hymns underwent drastic, but designed, revision.傳說中的聖人和讚美詩進行了激烈的,但設計修改。 Another principle, which would be deserving of all praise had it not been applied too rigorously, was that the entire Scriptures should be read through every year.另外一個原則,這將是值得所有的讚美,如果不是過於嚴格,應每年通過讀取整個聖經。 Quignonez' Breviary, as might be expected, met both with enthusiastic approval and with determined opposition. quignonez的祈禱,可以預料,見了都報以熱烈的批准和堅決反對。 Its success may be judged from the number of editions through which it passed.它的成功可以判斷的版本,通過它傳遞。 The Sorbonne criticized it severely, and other experts declared against Quignonez and attacked his work mercilessly.索邦大學批評嚴厲,和其他專家對Quignonez宣布,並襲擊他的工作毫不留情地。 In the end, opposition proved the stronger, and even popes rejected it.最後,反對證明了更強的,甚至教皇拒絕了。 Moreover, it was supplanted by other revisions made on more orthodox liturgical lines, less ambitious in scope, and more in accordance with tradition.此外,它更正統的禮儀線,不那麼雄心勃勃的範圍,並按照傳統的其他版本取代。 The newly founded Congregation of Theatines applied itself to this task with energy and enthusiasm.新成立的眾Theatines這個任務的精力和熱情。 Caraffa, one of its founders, took a share in the work, and when he became pope under the name of Paul IV (1555-59), he continued his labours, but died before seeing their completion, and it was thus reserved to others to bring them to a successful issue. Caraffa,它的創始人之一,在工作中採取了份額,當他成為教皇保羅四世(1555年至1559年)的名稱下,他繼續他的工作,但死之前看到他們完成,因此,它是保留給他人把他們帶到一個成功的問題。

The Council of Trent, which effected reforms in so many directions, also took up the idea of revising the Breviary; a commission was appointed concerning whose deliberations we have not much information, but it began to make definite inquiries about the subject entrusted to it.安理會的遄達的影響,其中的改革在很多的發展方向,也拿起了主意修訂的祈禱,委員會被任命為有關,其商議時,我們沒有太多的信息,但它開始的主題賦予它明確的查詢。 The council separated before these preliminaries could be concluded; so it was decided to leave the task of editing a new Breviary in the pope's own hands.立法會分開之前,可以得出結論:這些預賽,因此它被決定留下的任務編輯一個新教宗的祈禱在自己的手中。 The commission appointed by the council was not dissolved, and continued its investigations.由理事會任命的委員會被解散,並繼續進行調查。 St. Pius V, at the beginning of his pontificate (1566), appointed new members to it and otherwise stimulated its activity, with the result that a Breviary appeared in 1568, prefaced by the famous Bull, "Quod a nobis".聖庇護五世,在他任職的開始(1566年),任命了新的成員,否則刺激其活性,結果,祈禱出現在1568年,由著名的鬥牛開頭,“狴一個諾比斯”。 The commission had adopted wise and reasonable principles: not to invent a new Breviary and a new Liturgy; to stand by tradition; to keep all that was worth keeping, but at the same time to correct the multitude of errors which had crept into the Breviaries and to weigh just demands and complaints.委員會通過了明智和合理的原則:不發明一種新的breviary和一個新的禮儀,站在傳統保持,值得被保留下來,但同時糾正了大量的錯誤,躡手躡腳到Breviaries重量只有要求和投訴。 Following these lines, they corrected the lessons, or legends, of the saints and revised the Calendar; and while respecting ancient liturgical formularies such as the collects, they introduced needful changes in certain details.這些行之後,他們的經驗教訓,糾正或傳說中的聖人,並修訂“日曆”,並同時尊重古代禮儀處方,如收集,他們介紹要緊的變化,在某些細節。 More intimate accounts of this revision should be studied at length in the approved authorities on the history of the Breviary.更貼心的賬戶,應該研究在本次修訂的批准當局對歷史的breviary長度。 Here it will be enough to give a short sketch of the chief points affecting this Breviary, as it is substantially the same as that used at this date.在這裡,這將是足以讓一個小品的首席影響該祈禱,因為它是在此日期所用的大致相同。 The celebrated Bull of approval, "Quod a nobis" (9 July, 1568), which prefaced it, explains the reasons which had weighed with Rome in putting forth an official text of public prayer, and gives an account of the labours which had been undertaken to ensure its correction; it withdrew the papal approbation from all Breviaries which could not show a prescriptive right of at least two centuries of existence.著名的公牛批准,“狴一NOBIS的”(1568年7月9日),這在前面的原因,解釋了與羅馬的權衡中提出的正式文本公開祈禱,並給出了一個帳戶的勞動力已承諾確保其改正;退出教皇的讚許,,從所有Breviaries不能證明存在一個法定的權力的至少兩個世紀的。 Any Church which had not such an ancient Breviary was bound to adopt that of Rome.任何教會沒有這樣一個古老的祈禱是必然要採用羅馬。 The new Calendar was freed from a large number of feasts, so that the ferial Office was once more accorded a chance of occupying a less obscure position than of late it had.新的日曆被釋放了大量的節日,讓平日裡辦公室再次給予機會佔據了較不起眼的位置比晚。 At the same time the real foundation of the Breviary -- the Psalter -- was respected, the principal alterations made being in the lessons.在同一時間的breviary的真正基礎 - 詩篇 - 受到尊重,主要改動的教訓。 The legnends of the saints were carefully revised, as also the homilies.的聖人legnends進行了認真修改,也講道。 The work was one not only of critical revision, but also of discriminating conservatism, and was received with general approval.工作不僅是重要的修訂,但也保守的歧視,並收到了普遍的認可。 The greater number of the Churches of Italy, France, Spain, Germany, England, and, generally, all the Catholic States, accepted this Breviary, saving only certain districts, as Milan and Toledo, where ancient Rites were retained.意大利,法國,西班牙,德國,英國,一般而言,所有的天主教國家,教會的更大數量的接受了這個祈禱,只保存某些地區,米蘭和托萊多,古老的儀式被保留。

This Pian Breviary (Breviarium Pianum), while still remaining the official prayer book of the Universal Church, has undergone certain slight alterations in the course of time, and these must here be noted, but without reference to the new feasts of saints which have been added to the Calendar century by century, even though they occupy a not inconsiderable space in the ecclesiastical disposition of the year.片,祈禱 (Breviarium Pianum),同時,仍保持官方普世教會的祈禱書,已經發生了一些輕微的改變,隨著時間的推移,這些必須在這裡指出,但沒有新的節日聖徒添加到“日曆”世紀世紀,儘管他們在教會的配置在今年佔據了不可小視的空間。 The chiefest and most important changes were made under Sixtus V. At first the text of the versions of the Bible used in the Liturgy was altered.作,最重要的變化Sixtus的五,在根據第一個版本的聖經,在禮儀中使用的文本被改變。 As soon as the revision of the Vulgate undertaken during this pontificate was completed, the new text replaced the old one in all official books, particularly in the Breviary and the Missal.只要在此武斷地完成了拉丁文進行修訂,新的文本替換舊的在所有正式的書籍,特別是在祈禱和彌撒。 Sixtus V instituted a new Congregation -- that of Rites -- 1588, charging it with a study of the reforms contemplated in the Pian Breviary, which had then been in use more than twenty years.西斯五設立了一個新的教會 - 禮記 - 1588年,充電擬在片breviary,這在當時已使用超過二十年的改革與研究。 To him is due the honour of this revision of the Breviary, although till lately it had been ascribed to Clement VIII (1592-1605).在他看來,這是因為本次修訂的breviary,雖然直到最近它已被賦予克萊門特八世(1592年至1605年)的榮譽。 Although the first suggestion came from Sixtus V, nevertheless it was only under Clement VIII that the work was really vigorously pushed forward and brought to a conclusion.雖然第一個建議是西斯五,但它只有在克萊門特八的工作真的很大力向前推進並帶來了一個結論。 The revising committee had as its members such men as Baronius, Bellarmine, and Gavanti.的修改委員會作為其成員,這樣的男人,巴若尼,貝拉明,Gavanti的。 The first-named especially played a most important part in this revision, and the report which he drew up has recently been published.特別是起到了最重要的部分,在本次​​修訂,並已出版的報告,他制定了排名首位的。 The emendations bore especially on the rubrics: to the Common of Saints was added that of Holy Women not Virgins; the rite of certain feasts was altered; and some new feasts were added.特別是在量規的emendations孔共同的聖徒,神聖的女性不是處女的某些節日的儀式發生了改變;並增加了一些新的節日。 The Bull of Clement VIII, "Cum in Ecclesiâ", enjoining the observance of these alterations, is dated 10 May, 1602.公牛的克萊門特八“暨教會”,責令遵守這些改變,日期是1602年5月10日。

Further changes were made by Urban VIII (1623-44).進一步的修改,由烏爾班八世(1623年至1644年)。 The commission appointed by him was content to correct the lessons and some of the homilies, in the sense of making the text correspond more closely with the oldest manuscripts.由他委任的委員會為糾正的經驗和一些講道,在這個意義上對應的文字更緊密地與最古老的手稿的內容。 There would therefore be no call to treat of this revision under Urban VIII at greater length but for the fact that, outside the work of this commission, he effected a still more important reform, over which even now discussion has not ceased to make itself heard.因此有治療根據市區八,本次修訂在更大的長度,但沒有呼叫,這個委員會的工作之外,他的一個更重要的改革,即使是現在討論一直沒有停止,使自己聽到的事實。 It affected the hymns.它影響的讚美詩。 Urban VIII, being himself Humanist, and no mean poet, as witness the hymns of St. Martin and of St. Elizabeth of Portugal, which are of his own composition, desired that the Breviary hymns which it must be admitted are sometimes trivial in style and irregular in their prosody, should be corrected according to grammatical rules and put into true metre.城市第八,是他自己以人為本,沒有平均詩人,作為見證聖歌的聖馬丁和的聖伊麗莎白葡萄牙,這是他自己的成分,希望,祈禱的讚美詩,它必須承認,有時微不足道的風格他們的韻律和不規則的,應予以糾正語法規則和投入真實米。 To this end he called in the aid of certain Jesuits of distinguished literary attainments.為此,他呼籲在一定的耶穌會士的傑出的文學造詣的援助。 The corrections made by these purists were so numerous -- 952 in all -- as to make a profound alteration in the character of some of the hymns.這些純粹主義者所作的更正是如此眾多的在所有 - 952 - 作出深刻改變的性格的讚美詩。 Although some of them without doubt gained in literary style, nevertheless, to the regret of many, they also lost something of their old charm of simplicity and fervour.雖然有些毫無疑問地獲得了新的文體,但是,許多的遺憾,他們也失去了他們的老魅力的簡單性和熱情的東西。

At the present date [1907], this revision is condemned, out of respect for ancient texts; and surprise may be expressed at the temerity that dared to meddle with the Latinity of a Prudentius, a Sedulius, a Sidonius Apollinaris, a Venantius Fortunatus, an Ambrose, a Paulinus of Aquileia, which, though perhaps lacking the purity of the Golden Age, has, nevertheless, its own peculiar charm.在當前日期[1907],本次修訂的譴責,尊重古代典籍,以及可以表達的冒然,敢插手的普頓Latinity,Sedulius中,一個Sidonius亞坡理納中,一個Venantius Fortunatus的驚喜,劉漢銓,paulinus的阿奎拉,這雖然可能缺乏純度的黃金時代,已經儘管如此,其獨特的魅力。 Even the more barbarous Latinity of a Rhabanus Maurus is not without its archaic interest and value.即使的更野蠻的Rhabanus魯斯Latinity,是不是沒有過時的利益和價值。 Moreover, the revisers were ill-advised inasmuch as they adopted a via media; they stopped half-way.此外,審校是不明智的,因為他們採取了通過媒體,他們停止了中途。 If, as it is freely admitted, the Roman Breviary contains many hymns of inferior poetic worth, and whose sentiment is perhaps commonplace, then there is no reason why they should not be eliminated altogether, and replaced by new ones.如果坦率地承認,因為它是,羅馬breviary包含許多讚美詩,劣質詩的價值,而其情緒也許是司空見慣的,那麼有沒有理由,為什麼他們不應該被完全消除,並更換新的。 Many of the older ones, however, were worthy of being preserved just as they stood; and, in the light of the progress made in philology, it is certain that some of the corrections in prosody made under Urban VIII convict their authors of ignorance of certain rhythmic rules, whose existence, it is only right to say, came to be known later.然而,許多上了年紀的人,都值得被保存下來,就像他們站在;,光在哲學方面取得的進展,可以肯定的是,一些在韻律的修正,根據市區八定罪其作者的無知一定有節奏的規則,它的存在,它是唯一正確的說,後來被稱為後。 However it may be, these corrections have been retained till the present time.然而,它可能是一直保留,直到目前,這些修正。 A comparison of the older with the modern text of the hymns may be consulted in Daniel, "Thesaurus Hymnologicus", (Halle, 1841).一個比較舊的聖歌與現代文本可查閱丹尼爾,的“詞庫Hymnologicus”(哈雷,1841年)。

Nothing further was done under the successors of Urban VIII, except that new Offices were added from time to time, and that thus the ferial Office began again to lose ground.沒有進一步做下烏爾班八世的接班人,但增加了新的辦事處時,因此平日辦公室又開始攻城略地。 We must come down to the pontificate of Benedict XIV, in the second half of the eighteenth century, to meet with another attempt at reform; but before doing so, reference must be made to efforts inaugurated in France during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, whose history has been learnedly elucidated in detail by Dom Guéranger in vol.我們必須認識到教宗本篤十四,在下半年的18世紀,在改革的另一種嘗試,以滿足,但在這樣做之前,必須作出努力在十七和十八世紀在法國成立,其歷史已博學詳細闡述的大教堂Guéranger的體積。 II of his "Institutions liturgiques", devoted in great part to an account of this struggle.二,他的“的機構liturgiques”,專門在很大程度上是這場鬥爭的帳戶。 The Roman Breviary, revised by Pius IV, had been received in France without opposition.羅馬breviary,修訂約四,已在法國沒有收到反對。 Under Louis XIV, however, attempts at revision were made, inspired by a spirit of resistance and antagonism to the Roman Court.然而,在路易十四,在修訂的嘗試,啟發性和對抗的精神,向羅馬法院。 They took form amongst the two parties which made open profession of Gallicanism and Jansenism.他們採取了形式,其中包括雙方的gallicanism和詹森開放的行業。 The supporters of this reform, several of whom were men of learning and culture, were aided by the historical and critical works which at that time were being poured forth in France, so that in these projects for the reform of the Breviary, side by side with rash suggestions, there were many which were both useful and well judged.這項改革的支持者,其中一些人是男子的學習和文化援助,這在當時被澆了,在法國的歷史和批判的作品,所以,在這些項目改革的breviary,並排伴皮疹的建議,有很多都是有用的和判斷。 One of the first schemes was that of the Paris Breviary, mooted in 1670 and pursued under the patronage of Archbishops Hardouin de Péréfixe and de Harlay.其中的第一個計劃是在巴黎祈禱,醞釀在1670年和追求的贊助下的的大主教Hardouin的Péréfixede Harlay旅遊。 The Breviary called after de Harlay appeared in 1680.祈禱後調用de Harlay旅遊出現於1680年。 The corrections it embodied affected in particular the legends of the saints and the homilies, but numerous other parts were also touched.改正的,它體現了影響,特別是傳說中的聖人和頌歌,但許多其他地區也被感動了。 The details and the examination of them may best be studied in Dom Guéranger's pages.最好的研究在DOM的guéranger的網頁的詳細資料和審查。 Although it might have seemed that the Breviary had by then been sufficiently emended, in the following century another Archbishop of Paris, Monseigneur de Vintimille, had another Breviary drawn up, which was published in 1736, and remained in use till the middle of last century.雖然它可能似乎是在祈禱當時已經得到充分的修訂後,在接下來的一個世紀另一個巴黎大主教,主教大人Vintimille,另一個祈禱,這是發表在1736年制定,並仍然在使用,直到上個世紀中葉。 It partly embodied what is called the "liturgical Utopia of Quignonez".部分,它體現了什麼是所謂的“禮儀的Quignonez的烏托邦”。 Its source, however, was not above suspicion, for some of those who had laboured at its production were Jansenists.它的源代碼,但是,沒有人懷疑,那些辛苦在其生產的詹森主義者。 This reform, while not wanting in sound ideals, was carried out, however, regardless of liturgical traditions.這項改革,而不想在完整的施政理念,開展,然而,不管禮儀傳統。

What had been going on in Paris had its counterpart in other dioceses of France, where new Breviaries were were introduced, for the most part inspired by the ideas which had dominated those of de Harlay and of Vintimille.已在巴黎,其對應的其他教區的法國,在那裡新的Breviaries被相繼出台,de Harlay旅遊和Vintimille佔主導地位的的想法,靈感來自大部分。 A reaction against these broke out in France between 1830 and 1840, having for its leader a Benedictine monk, Dom Guéranger, Abbot of Solesmes and an eminent liturgist, who, in his "Institutions liturgiques", arraigned the new Breviaries, exposed the mistakes underlying their construction, and proved that their authors had acted without warrant.這些反應對在法國發生在1830年和1840年之間,其領導人本篤會修士,DOM的guéranger,住持的索雷姆和著名的禮拜儀式的人,在他的“機構liturgiques”,提審新Breviaries,暴露的錯誤相關他們的建設,並證明了它們的作者沒有手令的情況下採取行動。 His onslaught met with immediate success for in twenty years the greater number of the dioceses gave up their Gallican Breviaries and adopted once more the Roman Liturgy.他的衝擊會見了立即在20年的成功,更多的教區放棄的高盧breviaries和採用一次在羅馬的儀式。 The exact figures are as follows: in 1791 eighty dioceses had rejected the Roman Liturgy and had fashioned special liturgies for themselves; in 1875 Orléans, the last French diocese which had retained its ownliturgy re-entered Roman liturgical unity.確切的數字如下:於1791年80教區拒絕了羅馬禮儀和自己塑造為自己的特殊禮儀; 1875年,奧爾良,法國的最後保留了其ownliturgy重新進入羅馬禮儀團結的教區。

While France, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, was letting herself be carried away in the reform of her Breviaries by Gallican and Jansenist leanings, other countries were following in her wake.雖然,在十七和十八世紀的法國,讓自己被帶走,她的Breviaries gallican和詹森主義傾向的改革,其他國家跟隨在她的身後。 In Italy, Scipio Ricci, Bishop of Pistoia, an ardent Jansenist, drew up a new Breviary, and certain districts of Germany adopted the same course, with the result that Breviaries modelled on those of France appeared at Trier, Cologne, Aachen, Mnnster, and Mainz; and it was long before Germany returned to liturgical unity.在意大利皮斯托亞,熱心簡森,主教西庇阿利瑪竇,制定了一個新的breviary,和德國的某些地區採取了同樣的過程,其結果為藍本,法國的Breviaries出現在特里爾,科隆,亞琛,Mnnster,美因茨,它是在很久以前,德國返回禮儀團結。

While the Jansenists and Gallicans were creating a new Liturgy, Prosper Lambertini, one of the most learned men in Rome, who became pope under the name of Benedict XIV, determined to copy the example of some of his predecessors, and to carry out a further reform of the Breviary.雖然詹森主義和Gallicans的創建一個新的禮儀,盈藍波提尼,在羅馬最有學問的人,誰成為教皇本篤十四世的名稱下,確定複製的例子,他的前任之一,並進行了進一步的改革的breviary。 A congregation was instituted for the special purpose; its papers, for long unedited, have of late years been gone through by MM.一眾被設立為特殊的目的,其論文,長期未經編輯的晚年經歷的MM。 Roskovány and Chaillot, each of whom has published considerable portions of them. Roskovány和夏樂,每個人都發表了相當大的部分。 The first meeting of the congregation was in 1741, and the discussions which took place then and later are of interest from the liturgist's point of view, but need not detain us.眾的第一次會議是在1741年,當時和以後的討論中發生興趣的禮拜儀式的觀點,但不必扣留我們。 Although this project of reform came to nothing, nevertheless the work accomplished by the congregation was of real value and reflects credit on its members, some of whom, like Giorgi, were eminent liturgists.雖然這個項目的改革石沉大海,但眾所完成的工作,是真正的價值反映了其成員的信貸,其中一些人,像GIORGI,是著名的liturgists。 Future workers in this department of learning will have to take account of their collections.未來的勞動者在本部門的學習,必須考慮到他們的收藏品。 After the death of Benedict XIV (4 May, 1758) the labours of this congregation were suspended and were never again seriously resumed.去世後,本篤十四(1758年5月4日),這個教會的勞動力被停職,從來沒有再次認真地恢復。 Since Benedict XIV's time changes in the Breviary have been very few, and of minor importance, and can be outlined in a few words.由於本篤十四的時間變化,在breviary已經很少,輕微的重要性,並可以用幾句話概括。 Under Pius VI the question of a reform of the Breviary was brought up once more.根據庇護六世的改革的breviary的問題再一次被帶到了。 By that pontiff's orders a scheme was drawn up and presented to the Congregation of Rites, but it was found impossible to overcome the difficulties which surrounded an undertaking of this kind.制定了計劃,教皇的命令呈現給眾禮記“,但它被發現是不可能克服的困難包圍這種承諾。 In 1856 Pius IX appointed a commission to examine the question: is the reform of the Breviary opportune? 1856年,庇護九世任命了一個委員會來研究這個問題:改革的breviary時機? But again only preliminary matters engaged their attention.但同樣只是初步的事項從事他們的注意。 Amongst the Acts of the Vatican Council a series of propositions are to be found, whose object was the simplification or correction of the Breviary, but the inquiry never got beyond that stage.的行為,梵蒂岡會當中都可以找到一系列的主張,其目的是簡化或更正的breviary,但從來沒有超越這個階段的調查。 Finally, under Leo XIII, a commission was appointed, at the close of 1902, whose duties were a study of historico-liturgical questions.最後,在利奧十三世,被任命了一個委員會,在1902年結束,其職責是禮儀問題的研究歷史。 Its province is a wider one, comprising not only the Breviary, but also the Missal, the Pontifical, and the Ritual.它的省是一個更廣泛的,不僅包括了祈禱,但也彌撒,教皇,和儀式。 It has, further, to supervise future liturgical edittions, and thus to see that they conform as closely as possible with historical data. ,進一步,監督未來禮儀edittions的,從而看到他們盡可能地符合歷史數據。 This commission, though attached to the Congregation of Rites, is nevertheless autonomous.這個委員會,但連接到眾禮記“,仍然是獨立的。 It consisted at first of five members under the presidency of Monsignor Duchesne, namely: Mgr.在第一五名成員組成的主持下主教的杜申,即:經理。 Wilpert, Father Ehrle, SJ, Father Roberti, Mgr.維爾珀特,父親埃爾勒,SJ,父親羅伯蒂,經理。 Umberto Benigni, Mgr.翁貝托·貝尼尼,經理。 Mercati, and a few consultors. mercati,和幾個諮。 What the results of their labours may be is not yet known.他們的辛勤勞動的結果可能還不知道。

This sketch of the reforms of the Breviary proves, however, the desire of the Church to eliminate the blemishes which disfigure this book.本草圖改革的breviary證明,然而,慾望的教會,以消除變醜這本書的瑕疵。 All these efforts have not been sterile; some of these revisions mark real progress; and it may be hoped that the present commission will effect certain improvements which the progress of historical studies and criticism have made the more needful.所有這些努力不育;這些修訂標記一些真正的進展,以及它可能是希望現有的佣金會影響一定的改善,進步的歷史研究和批評,更要緊的。


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FERNAND CABROL FERNAND卡布羅爾
Transcribed by Marcial David轉錄由大衛·馬歇爾

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II (1907)天主教百科全書,第二卷(1907年)
Imprimatur.的認可。 John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York約翰M法利,大主教紐約



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