Catechism要理問答

General Information 一般資料

A Catechism is a manual of Christian doctrine drawn up in the form of questions and answers, especially one for religious instruction.要理是基督教的教義的問題和答案,尤其是宗教指令的形式制定了一本手冊。 The first such manual was compiled by the English scholar Alcuin in the 8th century and was followed in the next 100 years by many others, among them those of Notker Labeo, monk of the Abbey of Saint Gall, in Switzerland, and of the German monk Otfried of Weissenburg in Alsace.第一個這樣的手冊,編制了英國學者阿爾昆在公元8世紀,並在接下來的100年裡,其中許多人之後Notker南亞野,僧侶的修道院的聖膽,在瑞士和德國的和尚Otfried的魏森堡阿爾薩斯。 At an early period in the history of the Reformation, catechisms became important because of Martin Luther's insistence on the religious instruction of children.在較早的時期在歷史上的改革,要理問答成為很重要的,因為馬丁·路德的堅持兒童的宗教指令。 After Luther published his primer of religion, A Brief Explanation of the Ten Commandments, the Creed, and the Lord's Prayer (1520), several catechisms were prepared by leading Protestant theologians.在路德發表了他的宗教引物, 簡要介紹十誡的信條,主禱文 (1520),數理問答領先的新教神學家。 Luther's visitation of the Saxon churches in 1528 led to preparation of his Larger and Smaller Catechisms (1529).路德探視的撒克遜教會在1528年導致的他更大和更小的要理問答“(1529年)做準備。 The Reformed churches also published catechisms.歸正教會教義問答。 The most noteworthy are the Geneva and Heidelberg catechisms, and those of the German theologian Johannes Oecolampadius, in Basel in 1526, and of the Swiss reformer Heinrich Bullinger, in Zürich in 1555.最值得一提的是日內瓦和海德堡要理問答,德國神學家約翰厄科蘭帕迪烏斯,於1526年在巴塞爾,和的瑞士改革者海因里希布凌格的,於1555年在蘇黎世。 The Geneva Catechisms, Larger and Smaller, were the work of the French Protestant theologian John Calvin. 日內瓦要理問答“,更大和更小,分別為法國新教神學家約翰·卡爾文的工作。 The Smaller was published in French in 1536; the Larger appeared in French in 1541 or 1542, was translated into various languages, and became an acknowledged standard of the Reformed churches.較小的是於1536年在法國出版較大出現在1541年或1542年在法國被翻譯成各種語言,並成為公認的標準的歸正教會。

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The Heidelberg, or Palatinate, Catechism was compiled in Heidelberg by the German theologians Caspar Olevianus and Zacharias Ursinus, at the request of the Elector Frederick III of the Palatinate. 海德堡,或普法爾茨州,要理問答編譯在海德堡的德國神學家卡斯帕Olevianus和撒迦利亞烏爾西努的選帝侯腓特烈三世的皇帝行宮遺址的要求。 It was published in 1563 and has been translated into all the languages of Europe. It is the standard of the Dutch and German Reformed churches of America. The Protestant religious doctrines of the Socinians are embodied in the greater and smaller Racovian Catechisms (Raków, Poland, 1605).它是在1563年出版,並已被翻譯成所有的歐洲語言, 它是標準的荷蘭和德國的美國歸正教會的新教教義的蘇西尼體現在較大和較小Racovian的要理問答“(Raków,波蘭,1605)。 Besides a catechism of 1660, in the form of a conversation between father and son, said to have been written by the English founder of the Society of Friends, George Fox, the Quakers have that of the Scottish writer Robert Barclay, which appeared in 1673.除了理1660年,在父親和兒子之間的對話的形式,據說已經寫的英語之友協會的創始人,喬治福克斯,公誼會,蘇格蘭作家羅伯特·巴克利,出現在1673年。

In the Roman Catholic church, the first official catechism, prepared by the Council of Trent and published in 1566, was known as the Roman Catechism, or the Catechism of Pius V. It was not a textbook, but a compendium of doctrine for the guidance of pastors and teachers.在羅馬天主教教堂,第一次正式教義,準備通過安理會的遄達,並於1566年出版,被稱為羅馬問答,問答的庇護五,這不是一本教科書,但一個簡主義為指導牧師和教師。 Catechisms for popular use were prepared by the German Jesuit Peter Canisius and published in 1555-58.普遍使用的要理問答“由的德國傳教士彼得西斯的準備,並發表在1555年至1558年。 In the United States, a committee of American bishops of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore, Maryland, published the Baltimore Catechism in 1885.在美國,一個委員會第三次全體會議,會議的巴爾的摩,馬里蘭州,美國主教發表於1885年的巴爾的摩教義問答

The catechism of the Church of England in the smaller form, published in the Book of Common Prayer, is in two parts.英格蘭教會在較小的形式,在公禱書出版是該問答兩部分。 The first contains and explains the Baptismal Covenant, the Creed, the Ten Commandments, and the Lord's Prayer; and the second explains the two sacraments, baptism and the Eucharist.第一個包含的內容,並解釋了洗禮公約“的信條,十誡和主禱文的第二個解釋了兩個聖禮,洗禮和聖餐。 The catechism was originally published in the reign of King Edward VI, was condemned as heretical in the reign of Queen Mary I and underwent several modifications from 1549 to 1661.該問答最初發表在愛德華六世國王統治時期,被譴責為異端邪說女王瑪麗一世統治時期在1549年至1661年,並進行了多次修改。 The first part of the catechism, once known as the Shorter Catechism, at the Hampton Court Conference (1604) was considered too short.第一部分的問答,一度被稱為小要理問答,在漢普頓法院會議(1604年)被認為是太短了。 Accordingly, at the suggestion of King James I, the explanation of the two sacraments that now form the second part of the church catechism was added.因此,在國王詹姆斯一世的解釋,這兩個聖禮,形成了現在的第二部分教會的教義問答的建議。

The Larger and Shorter Catechisms, which, with the Westminster Confession of Faith, are the standard catechisms of the Presbyterian churches throughout the countries of the former British Empire and the US, were compiled by the Assembly of Divines at Westminster (1645-52). 更大和更短的要理問答“,是標準的catechisms的前大英帝國和美國整個國家的長老會教堂, 威斯敏斯特信條,在威斯敏斯特大會divines(1645年至1652年),被編譯。 In July 1648, the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland adopted both the Larger and Shorter Catechisms.在1648年7月,蘇格蘭的教會大會通過了規模較大和更短的要理問答“。

Emphasis on the use of a catechism, particularly its memorization by rote, has diminished in recent years.強調使用的理,特別是它的死記硬背的記憶,在最近幾年有所減少。


Catechism要理問答

Advanced Information 先進的信息

A catechism is a popular manual of instruction (Gr. Katecheo, to instruct) in Christian beliefs, normally in question and answer form.要理是一種流行的指令手冊(希臘文Katecheo,指示)在基督教的信仰,通常在問答的形式。 The word is not used in this sense until the early sixteenth century.在這個意義上,直到十六世紀初,這個詞是不使用。

Catechesis originated very early as the teaching given to converts before baptism and developed into the formalized catechumenate (cf. Hippolytus, Apostolic Tradition).教理講授起源非常早的教學轉換之前的洗禮,發展成為正式的慕道(見西波呂,使徒的傳統)。 It reached its heyday in the fourth and fifth centuries, incorporating quasiliturgical ceremonies like the oral transmission (traditio) by the catechist and rendition (redditio) by the catechumen of the Creed and Lord's Prayer.它達到了它的鼎盛時期在第四和第五世紀,將quasiliturgical儀式,如口頭傳播(traditio)的信念和主禱文的初學者的的傳道和引渡(redditio)。 The system was designed to safeguard the integrity of the church and the secret discipline (disciplina arcani) of its inner life.該系統的目的是要維護完整的教會和保密紀律(紀律arcani),其內生活。 From the weeks of concentrated preparation prior to the baptism at Easter (the origin of Lent) there survive series of catechetical addresses by Cyril of Jerusalem, Ambrose, Chrysostom, and Theodore of Mopsuestia, Augustine wrote How to Catechize the Uninstructed and Gregory of Nyssa a summa for catechists, his Great Catechetical Oration.從之前的起源的大齋期(復活節)的洗禮生存系列的慕道地址由西里爾耶路撒冷,劉漢銓,金口,和西奧多的Mopsuestia星期的集中準備,奧古斯丁寫道:如何Catechize Uninstructed和格雷戈里的nyssa一個以最傳道員,他的大慕道致辭。

As infant baptism became the norm, the catechumenate declined.由於嬰兒洗禮成為常態,慕道下降。 During the medieval era no regular ecclesiastical catechesis was provided for children, but various forms of popular teaching materials, based chiefly on the Apostles' Creed, Decalogue, and Lord's Prayer, were produced, from Alcuin's question and answer explanation of the Creed and Lord's Prayer to John Gerson's ABC des simples gens.在中世紀時代,沒有正規教會的教理講授的兒童,但各種形式的流行的教學材料,根據主要的使徒們的信條,十誡,和主禱文,進行生產,從阿爾昆的問題和答案解釋的信條和主禱文約翰·格爾森的ABC DES簡單一族。 In the late Middle Ages confessional manuals multiplied, eg, The Mirror of a Sinner (ca. 1470), requiring of penitents responsive participation.在中世紀晚期的懺悔手冊成倍增加,如鏡的罪人(約公元1470年),需要的penitents響應參與。 In these the Decalogue was dominant, but other formulas were involved, such as the Hail Mary, lists of virtues and vices or capital sins, works of charity, and sacraments.在這些的十誡是佔主導地位,但其他公式,如萬福瑪利亞,列出的優點和缺點或資本罪,慈善工作,和聖禮。 Devotional dialogues, such as The Mirror of a Christian Man (Faith) of the 1480s, the first lay catechism in German, also used questions and answers.虔誠的對話,如鏡的一個基督教的男人(信仰)的15世紀80年代,第一奠定講授在德國,也使用的問題和答案。 The Waldensians had a cathechism in print by 1489, incorporating the traditional formulas but structured around faith, hope, and love (a pattern derived from Augustine's Enchiridion).的韋爾有cathechism,到1489年,將傳統的公式,而是圍繞著信仰,希望和愛(圖案來自奧古斯丁的便覽)在打印。 The Bohemian Brethren's Questions for Children (1522), which was known to Luther, was almost certainly based on the Waldensians' book.波希米亞弟兄的問題兒童(1522年),這是眾所周知的路德,幾乎可以肯定的基礎上,韋爾的書。

With the Reformation an explosion of catechism production took place, with many a Lutheran pastor compiling his own.隨著改革的教義問答生產發生爆炸,許多路德派牧師自己的編譯。 Thousands never got beyond manuscript form, and no listing has ever approached completeness.成千上萬手稿的形式之外,從來沒有,從來沒有上市接近完整性。 Most of them were detached from any precise connection with baptism or Communion.他們中的大多數是分離的,任何精確連接洗禮和聖餐。 By far the most influential was Luther's Small Catechism of 1529, published a month after his Great Catechism, which was based on a series of sermons of 1528.迄今為止最有影響力的是1529,路德的小問答發表了一個月後,他的大要理問答,這是基於在1528年的布道系列。 Both were intended as aids to pastors.兩人都打算艾滋病牧師。 The Small Catechism dealt with the Decalogue, Apostles' Creed, Lord's Prayer, and sacraments, the standard ingredients of subsequent Protestant catechisms.小問答處理的十誡,使徒信經,主禱文,和聖禮,隨後的新教教義問答的標準成分。 In gestation since his popular exposition of the Decalogue beginning in 1516 and anticipated especially by A Short Form of the Ten Commandments ...在妊娠,因為他的博覽會的十誡,在1516年開始流行,尤其是預期的簡短形式的十誡... the Creed ...的信條... and the Lord's Prayer of 1520, it was also a response to the lamentable ignorance exposed by visitations in Saxony in 1528.主禱文1520,這是一個可悲的無知暴露在1528年在薩克森州的探訪。 Espousing the principle of habituation by verbal repetition, it represented a partial shift of conviction in Luther from the freedom of word and spirit to discipline and regulation.擁護的習慣口頭重複原則,它代表了部分轉移,在路德的信念從單詞和精神的自由,紀律和規章。 He had no doubt of its significance: "I have brought about such a change that nowadays a girl or boy of fifteen knows more about Christian doctrine than all the theologians of the great universities used to know."他毫不懷疑它的意義:“我帶來了這樣的變化,現在的女孩或15歲的孩子知道更多關於基督教的教義上最好的大學知道不是所有的神學家。” He was happy to remain forever "a child and a disciple of the catechism."他很高興到永遠“一個孩子和一個徒弟的教義問答”。 Teaching children recalled the gospel summons to become like little children, and these catechisms inculcated the Lutheran gospel, reflecting in content its law-faith-prayer sequence.教孩子們回顧了福音傳票變得像小孩子一樣,這些教義問答灌輸路德福音,內容反映在其法律信仰祈禱序列。 They also stressed social behavior, especially on the fourth and seventh commandments, expanding the narrowly religious focus of late medieval manuals.他們還強調,社會行為,尤其是在第四和第七誡命,擴大了狹隘的宗教重點中世紀晚期手冊。

Luther's productions had been preceded by some thirty Lutheran catechisms, notably by Johann Brenz, Melanchthon, Wolfgang Capito, Urbanus Rhegius, and Johann Agricola.之前已經有大約30路德catechisms,特別是約翰Brenz的,梅蘭希頓,沃爾夫岡·卡皮托,都市實踐Rhegius,和約翰·阿格里科拉路德的作品。 The first to be entitled "Catechism" was by Andreas Althamer of Brandenburg-Ansbach in 1528.第一,題為“問答”是在1528年由安德烈亞斯Althamer的勃蘭登堡 - 安斯巴赫。 An extraordinary profusion followed Luther's example of 1529, until in the later sixteenth century his Small Catechism became the norm virtually everywhere in Lutheranism.一個非凡的豐富路德的例子,1529在以後的十六世紀,直到他的小問答幾乎無處不在路德教成為常態。 Church ordinances normally legislated for the use of catechisms in church, especially compulsory Sunday afternoon classes for children, and in home and school.通常教會條例立法,在教會的教義問答的使用,特別是義務教育的週日下午班的兒童,在家庭和學校。 They were turned into primers, dialogues, hymns, and pictures for use with children.兒童使用的引物,對話,詩歌和圖片,他們變成。 Other major target audiences were the rural populance and the urban hired laboring class.其他主要的目標受眾是的農村populance和城市聘請了勞動階級。

Catechisms were anti-Roman from the outset.要理問答“從一開始就反羅馬。 From around 1530 a catechism for the young was regarded as a salient mark of the reform movement's break with the past, and was regularly one of the first innovations of reformed states and cities.大約從1530的年輕人要理被認為是與過去決裂的改革運動的一個顯著標誌,並定期改革的州和城市的創新之一。 All this is observable in the Genevan Reformation.所有這一切都觀察到在日內瓦人改革。 Calvin produced a French catechism in 1537 (Latin 1538), but far more significant was its simpler 1541 successor (Latinized in 1545).卡爾文教義問答中產生了法國1537(拉丁語1538年),但更為重要的是它的簡單的1541的繼任者(拉丁化於1545年)。 He claimed to be recovering ancient practice long corrupted.他聲稱要長的損壞,恢復古老的做法。 He reordered the four sections so that Decalogue followed Creed, indicating his understanding of the law as a guide for Christian life.他重新排列的四個部分,使十誡遵循的信條,表明他對法律的理解,作為一個基督徒的生活指南。 Despite the tendency to verbosity which became typical of Reformed catechisms, his catechism served as prototype of numerous others, such as John a Lasco's 1554 Emden Catechism, used in East Friesland until superseded by the Heidelberg Catechism of 1563, which has had the widest appeal of all Reformation catechisms.儘管的傾向,以冗長這成為改革要理問答的典型,他的教義問答服務為原型的許多人,如約翰拉斯科的1554埃姆登要理問答,用於在東弗里斯蘭,直到取代的海德堡教理問答的1563,這已經過了最廣泛的吸引力,改革要理問答。 Produced at the order of Elector Frederick III by Zacharias Ursinus and Casper Olevianus, professors at Heidelberg University, for use in the churches and schools of the Palatinate, it is predominantly Calvinist but has enough of Luther in it to constitute a mediating document, "a happy blend of Calvinist precision and comprehensiveness with Lutheran warmth and humanity" (WA Curtis).產生的順序選帝侯腓特烈三世撒迦利亞烏爾西努和卡斯帕Olevianus,教授在海德堡大學,在教堂和學校的皇帝行宮遺址,它主要是加爾文主義者,但有足夠的馬丁·路德構成的調解文件,“快樂融合的加爾文主義的精度和全面性與路德的溫暖和人性化“(WA柯蒂斯)。 It has three parts: misery (brief), redemption (the Creed, including word and sacraments), and gratitude (including Decalogue and Lord's Prayer).它由三部分組成:痛苦(短暫的),贖回(信條,包括Word和聖禮),感謝(包括十誡和主禱文)。 It was approved unrevised by the Synod of Dort (1618), and has been widely used in numerous languages.長期不變,由主教的多特(1618)批准,並已被廣泛應用在許多語言。

In Reformed Protestantism catechizing was often viewed as leading to an evangelically reformed confirmation (cf. Calvin, Institutes 4.19.4, 13).在改革新教catechizing被通常被看作是一個福音改革的確認(參見4.19.4,卡爾文學院13)。 This issued in part from a response, especially by Bucer, to Anabaptist criticisms of infant baptism.這部分發出的回應,尤其是布策爾,嬰兒的洗禮再洗禮派的批評。 The reformed Anglican Catechism appeared simply as part of the confirmation service in the first Prayer Book of 1549.改革後的英國聖公會教義問答的出現根本的1549年的第一次祈禱書的確認服務的一部分。 It was probably largely Cranmer's work, drawn partly from popular manuals such as the Bishops' Book (1537) and the King's Book (1543), and William Marshall's A Goodly Primer in English (1534), which contained material from Luther's Small Catechism.它是可能在很大程度上克蘭默的工作,制定部分從流行的手冊,如主教的書(1537)和國王的書(1543),和威廉·馬歇爾的一個優美的引物在英語(1534年),其中包含材料從路德的小教理問答。 It had a shortened version of the commandments and, exceptionally, nothing on the sacraments.它有一個縮短版的誡命,特殊情況下,任何的聖禮。 The full Decalogue appeared in 1552, a section of the sacraments was added after the Hampton Court Conference of 1604, and further minor changes took place by 1662.完整的十誡出現在1552年,1604年的漢普頓法院會議後加入一節的聖禮,再細微的變化發生1662。 It retained a commendable brevity and a much less confessional tone than most sixteenth century catechisms and was well suited for worldwide use in the spread of Anglicanism.它保留了值得稱道的簡潔和少得多懺悔的語氣比大多數16世紀教義問答,非常適合在世界範圍內使用的英國國教的傳播。

Continental productions such as Oecolampadius's and Bullinger's also circulated in England.歐洲大陸的作品,如厄科蘭帕迪烏斯和布凌格在英國還流傳著。 Cranmer translated in 1548 Justus Jonas's catechism for Brandenburg-Nuremberg, in successive editions diluting its Lutheranism and revealing his transition to Swiss Reformed theology.克蘭默翻譯在1548賈斯特斯Jonas的問答勃蘭登堡紐倫堡,在後續的版本稀釋路德教和暴露了他的瑞士改革宗神學的過渡。

A Short Catechism...一個短暫的問答... for All Schoolmasters to Teach by John Ponet, Bishop of Winchester, was printed with versions of the Articles from 1553, and Alexander Nowell's two forms of 1570 and 1572 likewise met the need for a longer catechism than the Prayer Book provided.所有中小學校長由約翰Ponet溫徹斯特的主教教,印有文章從1553版本的,和亞歷山大·諾埃爾的兩種形式,1570年和1572同樣遇到需要一個較長的問答比祈禱書。 The Church of England approved a Revised Catechism in 1962.在1962年,英格蘭教會批准經修訂的要理問答。

Catechisms came thick and fast in Scotland.要理問答“來厚,快速在蘇格蘭。 Archbishop Hamilton's Catechism (1552) was a reforming Catholic document, giving too little too late.大主教漢密爾頓的問答(1552年)是一個改革的天主教文件,太晚了。 Already circulating were the metrical catechism sections of largely Lutheran origin published in The Gude and Godlie Ballatis, probably largely the work of John Wedderburn and his brothers.已經循環的韻律教理問答部分主要路德原產地發表在古德和Godlie Ballatis的,大概主要的工作,約翰·韋德伯恩和他的兄弟。 The 1541 Genevan Catechism was replaced by the Catechism of the Scottish Reformer John Craig (1581). 1541日內瓦人要理問答取代的講授的蘇格蘭宗教改革家約翰·克雷格(1581年)。 This first successful Scottish production was superseded partly by the Heidelberg Catechism and conclusively by the Westminster Shorter Catechism.這第一次成功的蘇格蘭生產所取代部分由海德堡教理問答和決定性的威斯敏斯特小要理問答。 Through lengthy, it is distinctive in presenting only oneline answers.通過冗長的,它是獨特的在以ONELINE答案。 Answers had tended to become either longer and longer or simply affirmatives responding to statements masquerading as questions.答案已趨於長,或長或根本affirmatives偽裝成問題的聲明作出反應。 Craig's Short Catechism of 1592 was explicitly "A Form of Examination before Communion," indicating a distinctive role in a kirk which had no equivalent to confirmation.克雷格1592年的短暫的問答,明確考試前共融“的一種形式,”相當於沒有確認柯克表示獨特的作用。

The Shorter and Larger Catechisms of the Westminster Assembly (1647) largely displaced all others in Reformed/Presbyterian churches.越短,大要理問答“的西敏寺議會(1647)在很大程度上取代了所有其他的改革/長老教會。 They abandon the Creed but incorporate other traditional ingredients, while purveying the Calvinists' distinctive Calvinism in matters such as God's decrees and the Christian Sabbath.他們放棄的信條,但包括其他傳統的成分,而大肆兜售的加爾文主義鮮明的加爾文主義問題,如上帝的法令和基督教的安息日。 The Shorter Catechism is a work of great dignity, and has exercised unparalleled influence in Scotland.小要理問答是一個偉大的尊嚴的工作,並已行使無與倫比的影響力在蘇格蘭。

The Catholic Counter-Reformation also stimulated the production of catechisms, although the Catechism of the Council of Trent (1566), while based on traditional formulas, is a polemical confession and manual for clerical use.天主教的反宗教改革的教義問答也刺激了生產,,雖然問答理事會的遄達(1566),而傳統配方的基礎上,是一個爭論的懺悔和文書使用手冊。 Among popular catechisms the most serviceable proved to be The Sum of Christian Doctrine (1555) of the Jesuit Peter Canisius.在流行的教義問答的大部分維修證明是基督教的教義(1555)的耶穌會彼得西斯的總和。 The Roman Church has produced normally local catechisms, with none attaining general use.通常當地的羅馬教會的教義問答,沒有達成普遍使用。 In the wake of Vatican Council II the General Catechetical Directory issued by Paul VI in 1971 laid down guidelines for local hierarchies to follow.在梵二之後,慕道指南發行的保祿六世於1971年制訂指引,為當地的層次結構,以便。 The controversial Dutch volume of 1968, A New Catechism, is not a catechism in the normal sense. 1968年荷蘭備受爭議的體積,一個新的教義問答,是不是通常意義上的要理。

Other traditions have had their own catechisms.其他傳統有自己的教義問答。 Robert Browne's pioneer Statement of Congregational Principles (1582) consists of 185 questions and answers.羅伯特·布朗的先驅聲明的的公理原則“(1582年)的185個問題和答案。 Robert Barclay's Catechism of 1673 reflects the convictions of the first Quakers, while William Collins and Benjamin Keach were responsible for the Baptist Catechism of 1693, often known as Keach's Catechism. 1673羅伯特·巴克利的問答反映的第一個貴格會的信念,而威廉·柯林斯和便雅憫Keach負責浸會講授的1693年,通常被稱為Keach的教理問答。 William Nast complied two popular nineteenth century Methodist catechisms.威廉·納斯特遵守兩個流行的十九世紀的循道衛理問答。

In the Orthodox world Peter Mogilas, the metropolitan of Kiev, produced around 1640 in the form of a catechism the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church, which from the Synod of Jerusalem (1672) became standard throughout the Greek and Russian churches.在東正教世界彼得Mogilas,大城市的基輔,1640年左右的理東歐的天主教和使徒教會,從希臘和俄羅斯教會主教的耶路撒冷(1672年)成為標準的正統信條的形式。 Directed against both Jesuit Romanism and Cyril Lucar's Calvinism, its three heads are faith (Nicene Creed), hope (Lord's Prayer and Beatitudes), and love (including the Decalogue).導演對耶穌會羅馬和西里爾盧卡爾的加爾文主義,其三個頭的信仰(尼西亞信經),希望(主禱文和八福),和愛情(包括十誡“)。 It was eventually superseded in the nineteenth century by the Christian Catechism of the Orthodox Catholic Eastern Greco-Russian Church complied in 1823 by Philaret, the scholarly and saintly metropolitan of Kiev.它最終取代在十九世紀的俄羅斯東正教,天主教東希臘教會在1823年遵守學術和聖潔的大都市基輔Philaret,由基督教教義問答。 After revisions it was finally approved in 1839.經修改後,終於在1839年批准。 It follows the pattern of Mogilas's work.如下的圖案Mogilas工作。 Philaret produced a shorter catechism in 1840.在1840年,Philaret產生更短的教義問答。

The formality of catechetical dialogue has scarcely survived the diversification of teaching methods in recent years.正式的教義問答式對話在最近幾年幾乎沒有倖存下來的多元化的教學方法。 So far as their use persists, catechisms are more aids for teachers than precise patterns for learning.到目前為止,其使用仍然存在,較精確的模式,為教師的學習要理問答是艾滋病。

DF Wright DF萊特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
J. Danielou and R. du Charlat, La Catechese aux premiers siecles; EW Kohls, Evangelische Katechismen der Reformationszeit vor Luthers kleinem Katechismus; S. Ozment, The Reformation in the Cities; G. Strauss, Luther's House of Learning; TF Torrance, The School of Faith; H. Bonar, Catechisms of the Scottish Reformation; AF Mitchell, Catechisms of the Second Reformation; P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, 3 vols.; J. Geffcken, Bilderkatechismus des funfzehnten Jahrhunderts; FE Brightman, The English Rite, I, 35-36, 120ff., 177ff., II, 779-91; JM Reu, Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism: A History of Its Origin, Its Distribution and Its Use and Quellen zur Geschichte des kirchlichen Unterrichts in der evangelischen Kirche Deutschlands zwischen 1530 und 1600, I. J. Danielou和R.,杜Charlat,拉Catechese輔助總理siecles; EW KOHLS,Evangelische Katechismen DER Reformationszeit渦Luthers kleinem Katechismus S. Ozment,在城市的改革;·施特勞斯,路德的學習之家,TF托蘭斯, ·博納,catechisms的蘇格蘭宗教改革,AF米切爾,catechisms的第二次改革; P.沙夫,信仰的基督教,第3卷。J.格夫肯,Bilderkatechismus德funfzehnten Jahrhunderts FE布萊曼,英語成年禮學校的信念; ,我,35-36,120ff。,177ff。,II,779-91; JM拉吳,馬丁·路德的小問答:它的起源,它的分佈及其使用的歷史和Quellen楚史德kirchlichen Unterrichts在der evangelischen KIRCHE Deutschlands zwischen 1530和1600年,一



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