Donatism, Donatists多納圖斯派

General Information 一般資料

Donatism was an heretical Christian movement of the 4th and 5th centuries, which claimed that the validity of the sacraments depends on the moral character of the minister.多納圖斯派是一個邪教的基督教運動的第4和第5世紀,它聲稱的聖禮的有效性取決於部長的品德。 It arose as a result of the consecration of a bishop of Carthage in AD311.它產生的迦太基主教在AD311的奉獻的結果。 One of the three consecrating bishops was believed to be a traditor, that is, one of the ecclesiastics who had been guilty of handing over their copies of the Bible to the oppressive forces of the Roman emperor Diocletian.其中的三個祝聖主教被認為是一個traditor,就是犯移交的“聖經”副本的羅馬皇帝戴克里先的壓迫力的神職人員之一。 An opposition group of 70 bishops, led by the primate of Numidia, formed itself into a synod at Carthage and declared the consecration of the bishop invalid.一個反對派組織70主教,努米底亞的靈長類動物的帶領下,形成了自己迦太基主教在祝聖的主教無效,並宣布。 They held that the church must exclude from its membership persons guilty of serious sin, and that therefore no sacrament could rightly be performed by a traditor.他們認為,教會必須排除其成員的人,犯了嚴重的罪,,並沒有聖禮,因此可以正確地被執行的traditor。

The synod excommunicated the Carthaginian bishop when he refused to appear before it.迦太基主教的主教逐出教會時,他拒絕出庭之前。 Four years later, upon the death of the new bishop, the theologian Donatus the Great became bishop of Carthage; the movement later took its name from him.四年後,新主教去世後,神學家那圖斯大成為迦太基主教,運動後採取它的名字從他。 As a result of the desire of the Roman emperor Constantine the Great to settle the dispute, it was submitted to various ecclesiastical bodies and in 316 to the emperor himself; in each case the consecration of the bishop elected originally, in 311, was upheld.羅馬帝國皇帝君士坦丁大帝解決爭端的願望,因此,它被提交給各教會機構和316皇帝本人,在每一種情況下,堅持奉獻的主教當選原來,在311。 Constantine the Great at first attempted to suppress the Donatists by force, but in 321 he adopted a policy of tolerance; the policy was reversed, however, by his youngest son, Constans I, who instituted a regime of persecution.君士坦丁大帝在第一次試圖以武力鎮壓多納徒,但在321,他採取了寬容的政策,政策發生了逆轉,但是,他的最小的兒子,CONSTANS我,他建立了一個政權的迫害。 In 411 a debate between the Donatist and Catholic bishops was held at Carthage to settle the dispute. 411之間的辯論多納和天主教的主教舉行了迦太基解決爭端。 The outcome was once again adverse to the Donatists.其結果是再一次的多納不利。 As a result, they were deprived of all civil rights in 414, and, in the following year, their assemblies were banned under penalty of death.因此,他們被剝奪了一切公民權利,在414,在接下來的一年中,他們的集會被禁止,被判處死刑。 The movement then began to decline, but it survived until the Moorish conquests of the 7th and 8th centuries.的運動,然後開始下降,但倖存下來,直到第7和第8世紀摩爾人征服的。

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Donatism多納圖斯派

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Donatism was a schismatic movement arising in the fourth century.多納圖斯派是一個分裂的運動,在第四世紀。 In its first stage it was a North African expression of a doctrine of the church.在第一階段,這是一個北非表達的學說的教會。 In its second stage it was a popular rebellion that pitted the Berber and landless against the landed Latin Catholic elite.在第二階段中,它是一個普遍的叛亂,挖坑了對土地的拉丁美洲天主教精英柏柏爾和失地。 Donatus, schismatic Bishop of Carthage (313-47), sometimes spoken of as Donatus the Great, directed the schismatic church with vigor and a shrewd use of ethnic and social factors until the Roman emperor exiled him to Gaul or Spain in 347; he died there ca.圖斯,分裂迦太基主教(313-47),有時口語的,那圖斯的大分裂教會與活力,聰明地運用了民族和社會因素,導演,直到羅馬帝國皇帝被流放他到高盧或西班牙在347,他就死了有CA。 350. 350。 Parmenian, also an able leader, succeeded him. Parmenian,也是一個有能力的領導者,繼他之後。

Donatism grew out of the teachings of Tertulian and Cyprian. “Donatism的泰爾圖利安和塞浦路斯的教導長大的。 Following these two, Donatists taught that a priest's part in sacraments was substantial (he had to be holy and in proper standing with the church for the sacrament to be valid) rather than simply instrumental.以下兩個多納教,祭司的聖禮大幅的(他是聖潔的,並在適當的站在教堂的聖餐是有效的),而不是簡單的工具。 The latter was the view of Rome and of Augustine, Bishop of Hippo and chief anti-Donatist spokesman.後者是羅馬和奧古斯丁的河馬,主教和反多納首席發言人。 To Donatus the church was a visible society of the elect separate from the world, whereas Augustine developed the Catholic concept of an invisible church within the visible.那圖斯的教會是一個明顯的社會,來自世界各地不同的選民,,而奧古斯丁開發的天主教觀念的一種無形的教會內可見。 Donatists also had a fierce reverence for every word of Scripture; therefore to pour a libation to the emperor or to surrender a Bible to Roman peersecutors to burn was to be a heretic or a traditore.多納的每一個字的經文,也展開了激烈的崇敬,因此倒了的奠皇帝或投降羅馬peersecutors燃燒是一個異教徒或一個traditore的是一本聖經。 Any who had done so were forever outside the visible church unless they were rebaptized (being saved all over again).任誰做了這樣永遠,外有形的教會,除非他們被rebaptized(保存一遍)。 Augustine and the Catholics accepted traditores as they did any other backsliders; they were welcomed back into communion upon proper penance prescribed by their bishop.奧古斯丁和天主教徒接受traditores,因為他們沒有任何其他倒退的,歡迎他們回交流後,他們的主教所規定的適當的苦修。 Donatists saw themselves as the only true church and Augustine and his Catholics as a mixed multitude.多納認為自己是唯一真正的教會和奧古斯丁和他的天主教徒,許多閒雜。

The actual schism followed Diocletian's persecution (303-5), which was particularly widespread in North Africa.實際的分裂戴克里先的迫害(303-5),這是特別普遍在北非。 There priests and bishops were often permitted to escape death by surrending Scriptures and regalia to authorities.有牧師和主教們通常允許通過將經文和王權surrending向當局難逃一死。 In 311 Caecillian was elected and consecrated as Bishop of Carthage. 311 Caecillian選舉和祝聖主教的迦太基。 Religiously the consecration was considered invalid because Caecilian himself may have handed over Scriptures for burning and because one of his three confirming bishops, Felix of Aptonga, was a traditore.宗教的奉獻被視為無效,因為蚓螈自己可能已經移交焚燒聖經,因為他的三個確認主教,菲利克斯Aptonga,是一個traditore。 Politically the consecration of Caecilian was suspect because the primate of Numidia, Secundus of Tigisi, was not involved, and for the previous forty years Numidia had claimed the right of ordaining the Bishop of Carthage.政治上的奉獻蚓螈是犯罪嫌疑人,因為靈長類動物的努米底亞,Tigisi Secundus的,並沒有參與,和以前的40年努米底亞聲稱有權任命迦太基主教。 Secundus arrived in Carthage with seventy Numidian bishops, declared Caecilian's election invalid, and elected Majorinus as rival Bishop of Carthage. Secundus 70努米底亞主教在迦太基,蚓螈的選舉無效,並宣布,作為對手迦太基主教當選Majorinus。 Majorinus died within two years, and Donatus was consecrated in his place in 313. Majorinus兩年內死亡,而在他的位置在313圖斯是神聖的。

Constantine, after trying councils and conciliation, turned to severe oppression in 317; but when that failed he granted Donatists liberty of worship in 321.康斯坦丁試圖議會和調解後,轉身嚴重的壓迫,在317,但時失敗,他給予多納自由的崇拜在321。 In 371 Donatists joined the anti-Roman revolt of Firmus.在371的多納加入反羅馬起義的Firmus。 In 388 the fanatical Donatist Bishop Optatus of Thamugadi and organized bands of Donatist terrorists, called Circumcellions, led a revolt under Geldon that lasted to the deaths of Optatus and Geldon in 398.在388狂熱的多納optatus的主教多納恐怖分子,稱為Circumcellions,Thamugadi和有組織的帶領導的反抗下格爾東,一直持續到Optatus和格爾東的死亡在398。 Donatism survived until the seventh century Muslim conquest of North Africa obliterated Catholics and Donatists alike.多納圖斯派活了下來,直到公元七世紀穆斯林征服北非抹殺天主教徒和多納的一致好評。

VL Walter VL沃爾特
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
WHC Frend, The Donatist Church; WJ Sparrow-Simpson, St. Augustine and African Church Divisions; RA Markus, "Donatism: The Last Phase," in Studies in Church History, I. ,WJ麻雀辛普森,聖奧古斯丁和非洲教會分部,RA馬庫斯,“多納圖斯派的最後階段,”研究在教會歷史上,一西隧弗洛伊德,多納教會;


Donatists多納

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The Donatist schism in Africa began in 311 and flourished just one hundred years, until the conference at Carthage in 411, after which its importance waned.多納在非洲的分裂開始在311和蓬勃發展只有百年,直到會議在迦太基在411之後,它的重要性減弱。

CAUSES OF THE SCHISM分裂的原因

In order to trace the origin of the division we have to go back to the persecution under Diocletian.為了追本溯源的劃分,我們回去戴克里先的迫害下。 The first edict of that emperor against Christians (24 Feb., 303) commanded their churches to be destroyed, their Sacred Books to be delivered up and burnt, while they themselves were outlawed.對基督徒(2月24日,303)的第一個皇帝詔書吩咐他們的教堂被摧毀,他們的神聖的書籍,交付和燒毀,而他們自己也被禁止了。 Severer measures followed in 304, when the fourth edict ordered all to offer incense to the idols under pain of death.更嚴厲的措施,隨後在304,當第四法令,命令所有到上香的偶像,下痛苦的死亡。 After the abdication of Maximian in 305, the persecution seems to have abated in Africa. 305瑪西在退位後,的迫害似乎有所緩和,在非洲。 Until then it was terrible.在此之前,它是可怕的。 In Numidia the governor, Florus, was infamous for his cruelty, and, though many officials may have been, like the proconsul Anulinus, unwilling to go further than they were obliged, yet St. Optatus is able to say of the Christians of the whole country that some were confessors, some were martyrs, some fell, only those who were hidden escaped.努米底亞州長,Florus,是臭名昭著的為他的殘忍,,雖然很多官員可能是一樣的的方伯Anulinus,不願進一步去比,他們不得不,但聖Optatus是可以說整個的基督徒國家,有些人的懺悔,有些是烈士,有的倒下了,只有那些被隱藏逃脫。 The exaggerations of the highly strung African character showed themselves.高度緊張的非洲特色的誇張的表現出來。 A hundred years earlier Tertullian had taught that flight from persecution was not permissible.一百年前德爾圖良教過,,從迫害是不允許的飛行。 Some now went beyond this, and voluntarily gave themselves up to martyrdom as Christians.現在有些超越了這一點,並自願放棄自己作為基督徒殉道。 Their motives were, however, not always above suspicion.他們的動機,然而,上述懷疑並非總是如此。 Mensurius, the Bishop of Carthage, in a letter to Secundus, Bishop of Tigisi, then the senior bishop (primate) of Numidia, declares that he had forbidden any to be honoured as martyrs who had given themselves up of their own accord, or who had boasted that they possessed copies of the Scriptures which they would not relinquish; some of these, he says, were criminals and debtors to the State, who thought they might by this means rid themselves of a burdensome life, or else wipe away the remembrance of their misdeeds, or at least gain money and enjoy in prison the luxuries supplied by the kindness of Christians.迦太基的主教,在信Secundus的,Mensurius,主教Tigisi,然後的高級主教(靈長類動物)的努米底亞,宣稱他曾禁止任何被評為烈士誰給了自己,自己的,或誰曾誇口說,他們擁有的“聖經”,他們不會放棄的副本,其中一些,他說,罪犯和國家的債務人,誰想到他們可能通過這種方式擺脫了沉重的負擔的生活,否則擦去紀念他們的不良行為,或至少賺到錢,享受在監獄裡的奢侈品善良的基督徒提供。 The later excesses of the Circumcellions show that Mensurius had some ground for the severe line he took.後來的過激行為circumcellions顯示,Mensurius有一些嚴重的路線,他的理由。 He explains that he had himself taken the Sacred Books of the Church to his own house, and had substituted a number of heretical writings, which the prosecutors had seized without asking for more; the proconsul, when informed of the deception refused to search the bishop's private house.他解釋說,他有自己採取的神聖的書籍,教會他自己的房子,並已取代一些異端著作,其中檢察機關已查獲不要求更多的;的地方總督,時獲悉的欺騙拒絕向搜索主教的私人住宅。 Secundus, in his reply, without blaming Mensurius, somewhat pointedly praised the martyrs who in his own province had been tortured and put to death for refusing to deliver up the Scriptures; he himself had replied to the officials who came to search: "I am a Christian and a bishop, not a traditor."在他的答复,Secundus,不責怪Mensurius,有些尖銳地稱讚烈士在自己的省份,被折磨並處死拒絕提供“聖經”,他自己已經回答了官員來搜索:“我一個基督教和主教,而不是一個traditor。“ This word traditor became a technical expression to designate those who had given up the Sacred Books, and also those who had committed the worse crimes of delivering up the sacred vessels and even their own brethren.這的字traditor成為一個技術性的表達指定那些已經放棄了神聖的書籍,以及那些誰犯了更壞的罪行提供了神聖的船隻和自己的弟兄們。

It is certain that relations were strained between the confessors in prison at Carthage and their bishop.可以肯定的是,在監獄中,迦太基和他們的主教之間的師關係緊張。 If we may credit the Donatist Acts of the forty-nine martyrs of Abitene, they broke off communion with Mensurius.如果我們可以存入多納的49烈士Abitene,行為,他們斷絕了交流與Mensurius。 We are informed in these Acts that Mensurius was a traditor by his own confession, and that his deacon, Caecilian, raged more furiously against the martyrs than did the persecutors themselves; he set armed men with whips before the door of the prison to prevent their receiving any succor; the food brought by the piety of the Christians was thrown to the dogs by these ruffians, and the drink provided was spilled in the street, so that the martyrs, whose condemnation the mild proconsul had deferred, died in prison of hunger and thirst.我們被告知這些行為,Mensurius是一個traditor,由他自己的坦白,和炸開了鍋,他的執事,蚓螈,情比迫害者本身的烈士,他的武裝人員用鞭子之前在監獄的門,以防止其接受任何救助的虔誠的基督徒所帶來的食品被拋出的狗,這些歹徒,並提供飲料灑在街上,這樣的烈士,他們的譴責溫和的方伯推遲了,死在監獄裡的飢餓和乾渴。 The story is recognized by Duchesne and others as exaggerated.杜申和其他誇張的故事是公認的。 It would be better to say that the main point is incredible; the prisoners would not have been allowed by the Roman officials to starve; the details -- that Mensurius confessed himself a traditor, that he prevented the succoring of the imprisoned confessors -- are simply founded on the letter of Mensurius to Secundus.說,主要的一點是令人難以置信的,這將是更好的囚犯不會被允許餓死的羅馬官員的細節 - Mensurius承認自己一個traditor,是他阻止了succoring,被監禁的懺悔 - 簡單地成立的信Mensurius Secundus的。 Thus we may safely reject all the latter part of the Acts as fictitious.因此,我們可以安全地拒絕後者的一部分,作為虛構的。 The earlier part is authentic: it relates how certain of the faithful of Abitene met and celebrated their usual Sunday service, in defiance of the emperor's edict, under the leadership of the priest Saturninus, for their bishop was a traditor and they disowned him; they were sent to Carthage, made bold replies when interrogated, and were imprisoned by Anulinus, who might have condemned them to death forthwith.前面部分是真實的:它涉及如何確定的忠實的Abitene滿足和慶祝他們的平常週日的服務,蔑視皇帝的詔書的祭司撒端黎納的領導下,為他們的主教是一個traditor和他們否認了他,他們被送往迦太基,進行了大膽的答复詢問後,被監禁的Anulinus,可能會譴責他們立即死亡。 The whole account is characteristic of the fervid African temperament.整個帳戶是熾熱的非洲氣質的特點。 We can well imagine how the prudent Mensurius and his lieutenant, the deacon Caecilian, were disliked by some of the more excitable among their flock.我們可以想像的的謹慎Mensurius和他的副手,執事蚓螈,不喜歡的一些容易激動的在他們的羊群。

We know in detail how the inquiries for sacred books were carried out, for the official minutes of an investigation at Cirta (afterwards Constantine) in Numidia are preserved.我們知道如何查詢神聖的書籍進行了詳細的調查,在西爾塔(後來君士坦丁)在努米底亞的官方分鐘被保留。 The bishop and his clergy showed themselves ready to give up all they had, but drew the line at betraying their brethren; even here their generosity was not remarkable, for they added that the names and addresses were well known to the officials.主教和他的神職人員表明自己準備放棄他們所有的,但在出賣自己的弟兄們畫的線,即使在這裡,他們的慷慨不顯著,為他們的名稱和地址,眾所周知的官員。 The examination was conducted by Munatius Felix, perpetual flamen, curator of the colony of Cirta.這次考試進行的,永久的flamen Munatius費利克斯,的殖民地西爾塔的策劃人。 Having arrived with his satellites at the bishop's house -- in Numidia the searching was more severe than in Proconsular Africa -- the bishop was found with four priests, three deacons, four subdeacons, and several fossores (diggers).主教的房子抵用他的衛星 - 努米底亞的搜索是更嚴重的比地方總督非洲的4個牧師,三個執事,四耶穌,幾個fossores(挖掘機) - 主教被發現。 These declared that the Scriptures were not there, but in the hands of the lectors; an in fact the bookcase was found to be empty.這些宣稱,“聖經”是不存在的,但在手中的講師,其實書櫃被發現是空的。 The clergy present refused to give the names of the lectors, saying they were known to the notaries; but, with the exception of the books, they gave in an inventory of all possessions of the church: two golden chalices, six of silver, six silver cruets, a silver bowl, seven silver lamps, two candlesticks, seven short bronze lamp-stands with lamps, eleven bronze lamps with chains, eighty-two women's tunics, twenty-eight veils, sixteen men's tunics, thirteen pairs of men's boots, forty-seven pairs of women's boots, nineteen countrymen's smocks.拒絕給在場的神職人員的講師的名字,說他們被稱為公證,但是,例外的書籍,他們給所有的教會的財產的清單:兩個金色的酒杯,6銀,6的的銀cruets,一個銀碗,7銀燈,兩個燈檯,7短的青銅燈,代表燈,11青銅燈用鐵鍊,82婦女的長袍,28帷幕,16男人的長袍,十三個成對的男靴, 47對女靴,19國人的工作服。 Presently the subdeacon Silvanus brought forth a silver box and another silver lamp, which he had found behind a jug.目前,副執事西拉帶來了一個銀色的框,另一個銀盞,這是他發現身後一個水壺。 In the dining-room were four casks and seven jugs.在飯廳4桶和7個水壺。 A subdeacon produced a thick book.一個subdeacon製作一本厚厚的書。 Then the houses of the lectors were visited: Eugenius gave up four volumes, Felix, the mosaic worker gave up five, Victorinus eight, Projectus five large volumes and two small ones, the grammarian Victor two codices and five quinions, or gatherings of five leaves; Euticius of Caesarea declared that he had no books; the wife of Coddeo produced six volumes, and said that she had no more; and a search was made without further result.房屋的講師進行了走訪:葉夫根尼放棄了四卷,費利克斯,鑲嵌工人放棄了五,八,Projectus 5 Victorinus大容量和兩個小的,語法學家維克多2抄本和5 quinions的,或聚會的五葉; Euticius該撒利亞宣布,他沒有書,Coddeo的妻子六卷,並說,她沒有更多的搜索沒有進一步的結果。 It is interesting to note that the books were all codices (in book form), not rolls, which had gone out of fashion in the course of the preceding century.有趣的是要注意,這些書抄本(以書的形式),而不是卷在前面世紀的過程中,這已經過時了。

It is to be hoped that such disgraceful scenes were infrequent.這是希望,這種不光彩的場景是罕見的。 A contrasting instance of heroism is found in the story of Felix, Bishop of Tibiuca, who was hauled before the magistrate on the very day, 5 June 303, when the decree was posted up in that city.實例英雄主義的對比發現在菲利克斯的Tibiuca的主教,誰被拖拉裁判官席前的那一天,6月5日303時,該法令被張貼在這個城市​​的故事。 He refused to give up any books, and was sent to Carthage.他拒絕放棄任何書籍,被送往迦太基。 The proconsul Anulinus, unable by close confinement to weaken his determination, sent him on to Rome to Maximian Hercules.的的方伯Anulinus,無法禁閉,以削弱他的決心,送他到羅馬到瑪西大力士。

In 305, the persecution had relaxed, and it was possible to unite fourteen or more bishops at Cirta in order to give a successor to Paul.在305,迫害放鬆,並有可能團結起來為了給保羅的繼任者,在西爾塔在14或以上的主教。 Secundus presided as primate, and in his zeal he attempted to examine the conduct of his colleagues. Secundus主持的靈長類動物,在他的熱情,他試圖檢查他的同事們的行為。 They met in a private house, for the Church had not yet been restored to the Christians.他們會見了在一所私人住宅,為教會尚未恢復的基督徒。 "We must first try ourselves", said the primate, "before we can venture to ordain a bishop". “首先,我們必須嘗試自己”,說的靈長類動物,“以前我們可以大膽任命的主教”。 To Donatus of Mascula he said: "You are said to have been a traditor."那圖斯的Mascula,他說:“你是說一直是一個traditor。” "You know", replied the bishop, "how Florus searched for me that I might offer incense, but God did not deliver me into his hands, brother. As God forgave me, do you reserve me to His judgment." “你知道”,主教說,“如何Florus的找我,我可能會上香,但神並沒有提供我在他手裡,兄弟。上帝原諒我,請你保留我對他的判斷。” "What then", said Secundus, "shall we say of the martyrs? It is because they did not give up anything that they were crowned." “那麼,”時說,Secundus,“我們說的烈士嗎?這是因為他們並沒有放棄什麼,他們是被加冠”。 "Send me to God," said Donatus, "to Him will I give an account." “送我到神,”圖斯說,“他將我交代。” (In fact, a bishop was not amenable to penance and was properly "reserved to God" in this sense.) "Stand on one side", said the president, and to Marinus of Aquae Tibilitanae he said: "You also are said to be a traditor." (事實上,主教是不適合懺悔,是適當的“保留給上帝”在這個意義上說)。“站在一邊”說,布什總統和他的Aquae Tibilitanae馬里努斯的說:“你也說是一個traditor。“ Marinus said: "I gave papers to Pollux; my books are safe." “馬里努斯說:”我給了文件,波呂克斯,我的本本是安全的。“ This was not satisfactory, and Secundus said: "Go over to that side"; then to Donatus of Calama: "You are said to be a traditor."這是不令人滿意的,和Secundus說:“去那一邊”,然後那圖斯的卡拉馬:“你說是一個traditor。” "I gave up books on medicine." “我放棄了醫學上的書籍。” Secundus seems to have been incredulous, or at least he thought a trial was needed, for again he said: "Stand on one side." Secundus似乎一直懷疑,或者至少他認為審判是必要的,他又說:“站在一邊。” After a gap in the Acts, we read that Secundus turned to Victor, Bishop of Russicade: "You are said to have given up the Four Gospels."後間隙中的行為,,我們讀到Secundus打開維克多,主教Russicade:“你是說給了四福音書”。 Victor replied: "It was the curator, Valentinus; he forced me to throw them into the fire. Forgive me this fault, and God will also forgive it."維克多說:“這是館長,瓦倫廷,他逼我扔在火裡。原諒我這次故障,和上帝也會原諒。” Secundus said: "Stand on one side." Secundus說:“站在一邊。” Secundus (after another gap) said to Purpurius of Limata: "You are said to have killed the two sons of your sister at Mileum" (Milevis). Secundus後的另一個差距到Purpurius的Limata說:“你說你姐姐殺了兩個兒子在Mileum”(Milevis)。 Purpurius answered with vehemence: "Do you think I am frightened by you as the others are? What did you do yourself when the curator and his officials tried to make you give up the Scriptures? How did you manage to get off scot-free, unless you gave them something, or ordered something to be given? They certainly did not let you go for nothing! As for me I have killed and I kill those who are against me; do not provoke me to say anymore. You know that I do not interfere where I have no business." Purpurius與激烈回答:“你以為我害怕你的人是你做了什麼你自己當館長和他的官員試圖讓你放棄”聖經“嗎?你是怎麼得到逍遙法外, ,除非你給他們的東西,或者責令給予的東西,他們當然沒有讓你去什麼!至於我,我殺了,我殺了那些反對我,不要惹我說了,你知道,我不干擾,在那裡我有沒有生意。“ At this outburst, a nephew of Secundus said to the primate: "You hear what they say of you? He is ready to withdraw and make a schism; and the same is true of all those whom you accuse; and I know they are capable of turning you out and condemning you, and you alone will then be the heretic. What is it to you what they have done? Each must give his account to God."這話一出口,Secundus的侄子的靈長類動物說:“你聽到他們在說什麼,你呢?他是準備撤出,使分裂,以及所有那些攻擊也是如此;,我知道他們有能力把你譴責你,和你獨自一人將是邪教,這是什麼,他們做了什麼?每個人都必須向上帝給他的帳戶。“ Secundus (as St. Augustine points out) had apparently no reply against the accusation of Purpurius, so he turned to the two or three bishops who remained unaccused: "What do you think?"聖奧古斯丁點Secundus(出)顯然沒有人的指控Purpurius的答复,於是,他轉身對兩個或三個主教誰留unaccused:“你怎麼想?” These answered: "They have God to whom they must give an account."這些回答說:“他們有上帝的人,他們必須交代。” Secundus said: "You know and God knows. Sit down." Secundus說:“你知道,上帝知道,坐下。” And all replied: Deo gratis.和所有回答::止汗免費。

These minutes have been preserved for us by St. Augustine.此份會議紀要保存了我們的聖奧古斯丁。 The later Donatists declared them forged, but not only could St. Optatus refer to the age of the parchment on which they were written, but they are made easily credible by the testimonies given before Zenophilus in 320.後來多納宣布他們偽造的,但不僅可以的聖Optatus參考他們寫在羊皮紙上的年齡,但他們很容易給定的在320之前Zenophilus的的證詞可信。 Seeck, as well as Duchesne (see below), upholds their genuineness. Seeck,以及杜申(見下文),堅持自己的真實性。 We hear from St. Optatus of another fallen Numidian bishop, who refused to come to the council on the pretext of bad eyes, but in reality for fear his fellow-citizens should prove that he had offered incense, a crime of which the other bishops were not guilty.我們聽到從聖optatus的另一個墮落的的努米底亞主教,誰不來該局對眼睛不好的藉口,但在現實的恐懼,他的同胞證明他已獻香,構成犯罪的,其他主教無罪。 The bishops proceeded to ordain a bishop, and they chose Silvanus, who, as a subdeacon, assisted in the search for sacred vessels.主教進行祝聖主教,他們選擇了西拉,誰,作為一個subdeacon,協助尋找神聖的船隻。 The people of Cirta rose up against him, crying that he was a traditor, and demanded the appointment of a certain Donatus.人民西爾塔起來,他哭了,他是一個traditor,並要求一定圖斯任命。 But country people and gladiators were engaged to set him in the episcopal chair, to which he was carried on the back of a man named Mutus.但是,全國人民和角鬥士從事他的主教的椅子上,他進行的背面的一個叫野耗。

CAECILIAN AND MAJORINUS蚓螈和MAJORINUS

A certain Donatus of Casae Nigrae is said to have caused a schism in Carthage during the lifetime of Mensurius.有一定的圖斯的Casae Nigrae的說,在迦太基在Mensurius的壽命造成了分裂。 In 311 Maxentius obtained dominion over Africa, and a deacon of Carthage, Felix, was accused of writing a defamatory letter against the tyrant.在311馬克森提統治非洲,和執事的迦太基,菲利克斯,被指控對暴君寫一封誹謗信。 Mensurius was said to have concealed his deacon in his house and was summoned to Rome. Mensurius據說在他的房子裡,隱瞞了他的執事,被傳喚到羅馬。 He was acquitted, but died on his return journey.他被無罪釋放,但死在他的回歸之旅。 Before his departure from Africa, he had given the gold and silver ornaments of the church to the care of certain old men, and had also consigned an inventory of these effects to an aged woman, who was to deliver it to the next bishop.從非洲臨行前,他給了金銀飾品的教會某些老男人的關懷,也委託這些影響庫存的中年婦女,將它交付給未來的主教。 Maxentius gave liberty to the Christians, so that it was possible for an election to be held at Carthage.馬克森提自由的基督徒,因此,它有可能在迦太基舉行的選舉。 The bishop of Carthage, like the pope, was commonly consecrated by a neighbouring bishop, assisted by a number of others form the vicinity.像教皇,主教的迦太基,通常鄰近的主教奉獻,協助其他一些形式的附近。 He was primate not only of the proconsular province, but of the other provinces of North Africa, including Numidian, Byzacene, Tripolitana, and the two Mauretanias, which were all governed by the vicar of prefects.他是靈長類動物不僅是地方總督省,但其他省份的,包括北非努米底亞,Byzacene,Tripolitana,和兩個Mauretanias的,這是所有受省長的教區牧師。 In each of these provinces the local primacy was attached to no town, but was held by the senior bishop, until St. Gregory the Great made the office elective.在這些省份中,當地的首要地位沒有城鎮,但舉行的高級主教,,直到聖格列高利大,使辦公室選修。 St. Optatus implies that the bishops of Numidia, many of whom were at no great distance from Carthage, had expected that they would have a voice in the election; but two priests, Botrus and Caelestius, who each expected to be elected, had managed that only a small number of bishops should be present.聖Optatus意味著努米底亞,其中許多人是在沒有很大的距離迦太基主教的預期,他們將在選舉中有自己的聲音,但兩個牧師,Botrus,Caelestius,誰預計將當選,管理只有少數的主教應該存在。 Caecilian, the deacon who had been so obnoxious to the martyrs, was duly chosen by the whole people, placed in the chair of Mensurius, and consecrated by Felix, Bishop of Aptonga or Abtughi.蚓螈,主祭人討厭的烈士,正式的全民選擇,放置在椅子上的Mensurius,和費利克斯,Aptonga或Abtughi主教祝聖的。 The old men who had charge of the treasure of the church were obliged to give it up; they joined with Botrus and Caelestius in refusing to acknowledge the new bishop.老男人誰負責的寶藏的教會被迫放棄;他們加入與Botrus和Caelestius,拒絕承認新主教。 They were assisted by a rich lady named Lucilla, who had a grudge against Caecilian because he had rebuked her habit of kissing the bone of an uncanonized (non vindicatus) martyr immediately before receiving Holy Communion.他們的協助下豐富的夫人命名的奧古斯塔魯西拉,誰懷恨蚓螈的,因為他斥責她的親吻骨前接受聖餐的uncanonized(非vindicatus)烈士的習慣。 Probably we have here again a martyr whose death was due to his own ill-regulated fervour.也許我們在這裡又是一個烈士的死亡是由於自己的病調節的熱情。

Secundus, as the nearest primate, came with his suffragans to Carthage to judge the affair, and in a great council of seventy bishops declared the ordination of Caecilian to be invalid, as having been performed by a traditor.最近的靈長類動物,Secundus,帶著他suffragans迦太基來判斷這件事,在一個偉大的七十主教理事會宣布統籌的蚓螈是無效的,已經執行的traditor。 A new bishop was consecrated.一個新的主教是神聖的。 Majorinus, who belonged to the household of Lucilla and had been a lector in the deaconry of Caecilian. Majorinus,屬於家庭的奧古斯塔魯西拉和一個講師在執事的蚓螈。 That lady provided the sum of 400 folles (more than 11,000 dollars), nominally for the poor; but all of it went into the pockets of the bishops, one-quarter of the sum being seized by Purpurius of Limata.那位女士提供400 Folles酒店(超過11,000美元)的總和,名義上是為窮人,但都進了口袋裡的主教,一季度被檢Purpurius的Limata的總和。 Caecilian had possession of the basilica and the cathedra of Cyprian, and the people were with him, so that he refused to appear before the council.蚓螈擁有的塞浦路斯的大教堂和cathedra的,人是他,讓他拒絕出席安理會面前的。 "If I am not properly consecrated", he said ironically, "let them treat me as a deacon, and lay hands on me afresh, and not on another." “如果我沒有正確神聖的”,他說,具有諷刺意味的是,“讓他們把我作為一個執事,按手在我重新,而不是另一個。” On this reply being brought, Purpurius cried: "Let him come here, and instead of laying on him, we will break his head in penance."在被帶到答复,Purpurius叫道:“讓他來這裡,而不是鋪設在他身上,我們會打破他的頭在懺悔。” No wonder that the action of this council, which sent letters throughout Africa, had a great influence.難怪本會致函非洲各地,他們的行動有很大的影響。 But at Carthage it was well known that Caecilian was the choice of the people, and it was not believed that Felix of Aptonga had given up the Sacred Books.但在迦太基,這是眾所周知的蚓螈是選擇的人,和不相信,菲利克斯的Aptonga已經放棄了神聖的書籍。 Rome and Italy had given Caecilian their communion.羅馬和意大利的蚓螈他們的共融。 The Church of the moderate Mensurius did not hold that consecration by a traditor was invalid, or even that it was illicit, if the traditor was still in lawful possession of his see.的教會的溫和Mensurius的沒有持有,奉獻的traditor的是無效的,甚至認為它是非法的,,如果traditor仍然是合法擁有,他看到。 The council of Secundus, on the contrary, declared that a traditor could not act as a bishop, and that any who were in communion with traditors were cut off from the Church.相反,理事會Secundus,宣布一個traditor不能作為一個主教,和任何的共融與的traditors被切斷,從教堂。 They called themselves the Church of the martyrs, and declared that all who were in communion with public sinners like Caecilian and Felix were necessarily excommunicate.他們稱自己為教會的烈士,並宣布所有的蚓螈等公共罪人和Felix的共融與一定破門。

THE CONDEMNATION BY POPE MELCHIADES POPE梅爾希亞德斯的譴責

Very soon there were many cities having two bishops, the one in communion with Caecilian, the other with Majorinus.很快,有很多城市有兩位主教,交流與蚓螈,其他Majorinus中的一個。 Constantine, after defeating Maxentius (28 October, 312) and becoming master of Rome, showed himself a Christian in his acts.康斯坦丁擊敗馬克森提(10月28日,312)後,成為主的羅馬,顯示自己是一個基督徒在他的行為。 He wrote to Anulinus, proconsul of Africa (was he same as the mild proconsul of 303?), restoring the churches to Catholics, and exempting clerics of the "Catholic Church of which Caecilian is president" from civil functions (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl. X, v 15, and vii, 2).他寫信給非洲Anulinus,方伯(他一樣溫和的方伯的303?),恢復教會天主教徒,豁免教士“天主教教會的蚓螈是總裁”來自民間的功能(尤西比烏斯,歷史。傳道書X,15節,和vii,2)。 he also wrote to Caecilian (ibid., X, vi, 1) sending him an order for 3000 folles to be distributed in Africa, Numidia, and Mauretania; if more was needed, the bishop must apply for more.他還寫了蚓螈(同上,X,六,1)送他為了3000 folles到分佈在非洲,努米底亞,毛里塔尼亞,如果有更多的需要,主教必須申請更多的。 He added that he had heard of turbulent persons who sought to corrupt the Church; he had ordered the proconsul Anulinus, and the vicar of prefects to restrain them, and Caecilian was to appeal to these officials if necessary.他補充說,他聽說過動盪的人誰試圖破壞教會,他已下令的方伯Anulinus,和牧師的省長來約束他們,和蚓螈是呼籲如有必要,這些官員。 The opposing party lost no time.的對方當事人不失時機。 A few days after the publication of these letters, their delegates, accompanied by a mob, brought to Anulinus two bundles of documents, containing the complaints of their party against Caecilian, to be forwarded to the emperor.幾天後公佈這些信件裡,他們的代表,被暴徒帶來的Anulinus兩捆文件,其中包含對蚓螈,被轉發到皇帝的投訴,他們的黨。 St. Optatus has preserved a few words from their petition, in which Constantine is begged to grant judges from Gaul, where under his father's rule there had been no persecution, and therefore no traditors. ,聖Optatus保留了幾句話,從他們的請願書,其中康斯坦丁求給予法官從高盧人,他的父親的統治下,一直沒有迫害,,因此沒有traditors的。 Constantine knew the Church's constitution too well to comply and thereby make Gallic bishops judges of the primates of Africa.康斯坦丁知道教會的遵守憲法,從而使非洲的靈長類動物的高盧主教法官。 He at once referred the matter to the pope, expressing his intention, laudable, if too sanguine, of allowing no schisms in the Catholic Church.他立即將此事轉交的教宗,表達自己的意圖,值得稱道的,如果過於樂觀,讓沒有在天主教教會的分裂。 That the African schismatics might have no ground of complaint, he ordered three of the chief bishops of Gaul, Reticius of Autun, Maternus of Cologne, and Marinus of Arles, to repair to Rome, to assist at the trial.非洲schismatics可能沒有申訴的理由,他下令三個高盧的首席主教,Reticius歐坦,Maternus的科隆,馬里努斯的阿爾勒,,修到羅馬,以協助在審判。 He ordered Caecilian to come thither with ten bishops of his accusers and ten of his own communion.他下令Caecilian的那裡去,與10主教對他的控告和10個自己的交流。 The memorials against Caecilian he sent to the pope, who would know, he says, what procedure to employ in order to conclude the whole matter with justice.紀念他對蚓螈發送給教宗,誰知道,他說,聘請什麼樣的程序,以完成與正義事情的來龍去脈。 (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., X, v, 18). (優西比烏,組織胺。傳道書。,X,V,18)。 Pope Melchiades summoned fifteen Italian bishops to sit with him.梅爾希亞德斯教皇召集15個意大利主教團和他坐在一起。 From this time forward we find that in all important matters the popes issue their decretal letters from a small council of bishops, and there are traces of this custom even before this.從這個時候提出,我們發現,在所有重要事項,教皇發出的法令的信件從一個小的主教理事會,甚至在此之前,這個自定義的痕跡。 The ten Donatist bishops (for we may now give the party its eventual name) were headed by a Bishop Donatus of Casae Nigrae. 10多納主教(我們現在可以給黨的最終名稱)為首的主教圖斯的Casae Nigrae。 It was assumed by Optatus, Augustine, and the other Catholic apologists that this was "Donatus the Great", the successor of Majorinus as schismatic Bishop of Carthage.這是假設的Optatus,奧古斯丁,其他的天主教辯護士,這是“那圖斯大”,的繼任者Majorinus,分裂迦太基主教。 But the Donatists of St. Augustine's time were anxious to deny this, as they did not wish to admit that their protagonist had been condemned, and the Catholics at the conference of 411 granted them the existence of a Donatus, Bishop of Casae Nigrae, who had distinguished himself by active hostility to Caecilian.但多納的聖奧古斯丁的時間是急於否認這一點,因為他們不想承認,譴責了他們的主角,和會議的411天主教徒在給予他們一個圖斯的存在,主教Cas​​ae Nigrae,自己積極的敵意蚓螈。 Modern authorities agree in accepting this view.現代當局同意接受這一觀點。 But it seems inconceivable that, if Majorinus was still alive, he should not have been obliged to go to Rome.但它似乎是不可思議的,如果Majorinus還活著,他沒有被迫去羅馬。 It would be very strange, further, that a Donatus of Casae Nigrae should appear as the leader of the party, without any explanation, unless Casae Nigrae was simply the birthplace of Donatus the Great.這將是非常奇怪的,進一步的,應該會出現一個圖斯的Casae Nigrae的黨的領導,沒有任何解釋,,除非Casae Nigrae只是圖斯大的發祥地。 If we assume that Majorinus had died and had been succeeded by Donatus the Great just before the trial at Rome, we shall understand why Majorinus is never again mentioned.如果我們假設Majorinus,已經死亡,並已成功那圖斯大,只是在審判之前在羅馬,我們應明白為什麼Majorinus是永遠不會再被提及。 The accusations against Caecilian in the memorial were disregarded, as being anonymous and unproved.在紀念蚓螈的指控被忽視,因為是匿名的,未經證實的。 The witnesses brought from Africa acknowledged that they had nothing against him.從非洲帶來的證人承認,他們並不反對他。 Donatus, on the other hand, was convicted by his own confession of having rebaptized and of having laid his hands in penance on bishops -- this was forbidden by ecclesiastical law.圖斯,另一方面,被定罪,他自己的坦白後重新洗禮,奠定了他的手,懺悔的主教 - 這是被禁止的教會法。 On the third day the unanimous sentence was pronounced by Melchiades: Caecilian was to be maintained in ecclestiastical communion.在第三天的一致判決被宣布由梅爾希亞德斯:,蚓螈要維持ecclestiastical交流。 If Donatist bishops returned to the Church, in a place where there were two rival bishops, the junior was to retire and be provided with another see. ,如果多納主教返回教會,在一個地方有兩個對立的主教,初中是退休,並提供與其他見。 The Donatists were furious.多納群情激憤。 A hundred years later their successor declared that Pope Melchiades was himself a traditor, and that on this account they had not accepted his decision; though there is no trace of this having been alleged at the time.一百年後,他們的繼任者宣布,教皇梅爾希亞德斯自己是一個traditor,並且,這個帳戶上,他們沒有接受他的決定,雖然這種做法已經被指控的時候沒有一絲。 But the nineteen bishops at Rome were contrasted with the seventy bishops of the Cathaginian Council, and a fresh judgment was demanded.但主教在羅馬的19對比七十主教的Cathaginian委員會,要求一個新的判斷。

THE COUNCIL OF ARLES理事會阿爾勒

Constantine was angry, but he saw that the party was powerful in Africa, and he summoned a council of the whole West (that is, of the whole of his actual dominions) to meet at Arles on 1 August, 314.康斯坦丁很生氣,但是他看到了在非洲,黨是強大的,他召見了整個西方的議會(即,他的實際掌權的整個在Arles),以滿足於8月1日,314。 Melchiades was dead, and his successor, St. Sylvester, thought it unbecoming to leave Rome, thus setting an example which he repeated in the case of Nicaea, and which his successors followed in the cases of Sardica, Rimini, and the Eastern oecumenical councils.梅爾希亞德斯已經死了,和他的繼任者,聖西爾維斯特,認為它不適合離開羅馬,從而樹立了榜樣,他反复尼西亞的情況下,他的繼任者的情況下,里米尼的薩爾迪卡的遵循,和東部oecumenical的議會。 Between forty and fifty sees were represented at the council by bishops or proxies; the Bishops of London, York, and Lincoln were there.在40和50之間看到在安理會代表由主教或代理;倫敦,紐約,林肯的主教在那裡。 St. Sylvester sent legates.聖西爾維斯特派出使節。 The council condemned the Donatists and drew up a number of canons; it reported its proceedings in a letter to the pope, which is extant; but, as in the case of Nicaea, no detailed Acts remain, nor are any such mentioned by the ancients.安理會譴責多納,制定了一些大砲報告其訴訟寫信給教皇,這是現存的,但是,在尼西亞的情況下,沒有詳細的行為依然存在,也不是古人所提到的任何該等。 The Fathers in their letter salute Sylvester, saying that he had rightly decided not to quit the spot "where the Apostles daily sit in judgment"; had he been with them, they might perhaps have dealt more severely with the heretics.的父親致敬西爾維斯特在信中,他說,他不正確地決定退出點“,使徒們每天坐在判斷”,他一直與他們,他們也許更嚴重的處理與異端。 Among the canons, one forbids rebaptism (which was still practised in Africa), another declares that those who falsely accuse their brethren shall have communion only at the hour of death.其中的大砲,禁止rebaptism(仍然實行在非洲),另一個聲明,倒打一耙他們的弟兄,有共融小時死亡。 On the other hand, traditors are to be refused communion, but only when their fault has been proved by public official acts; those whom they have ordained are to retain their positions.另一方面,traditors將被拒絕共融,但只有當他們的錯,已被證明是公職人員行為的那些人,他們已命定要保持自己的立場。 The council produced some effect in Africa, but the main body of the Donatists was immovable.該委員會在非洲產生了一些影響,但主體的donatists是不動產。 They appealed from the council to the emperor.他們呼籲從理事會向皇帝。 Constantine was horrified: "O insolent madness!"康斯坦丁是嚇壞了:“O張狂太瘋狂了!” he wrote, "they appeal from heaven to earth, from Jesus Christ to a man."他寫道,“他們呼籲從天降在地上,從耶穌基督的一個人。”

THE POLICY OF CONSTANTINE康斯坦丁的政策

The emperor retained the Donatist envoys in Gaul, after at first dismissing them.皇帝保留了多納在高盧使者,後在第一駁回。 He seems to have thought of sending for Caecilian, then of granting a full examination in Africa.他似乎已經想發送蚓螈,然後在非洲給予全面檢查。 The case of Felix of Aptonga was in fact examined by his order at Carthage in February, 315 (St. Augustine is probably wrong in giving 314).費利克斯的Aptonga的情況下,實際上是在檢查他的命令在迦太基,315(聖奧古斯丁可能是錯誤的,給予314)。 The minutes of the proceedings have come down to us in a mutilated state; they are referred to by St. Optatus, who appended them to his book with other documents, and they are frequently cited by St. Augustine.的紀要下來給我們一個殘缺不全的狀態,他們被稱為聖Optatus,追加給他的書與其他文件,他們經常提到的聖奧古斯丁。 It was shown that the letter which the Donatists put forward as proving the crime of Felix, had been interpolated by a certain Ingentius; this was established by the confession of Ingentius, as well as by the witness of Alfius, the writer of the letter.多納徒派的信中提出證明犯罪的菲利克斯,結果表明,已插值一定Ingentius;,成立由的自白Ingentius,以及證人,筆者的信Alfius。 It was proved that Felix was actually absent at the time the search for Sacred Books was made at Aptonga.它證明,菲利克斯的時間在尋找神聖的書籍,Aptonga實際上是不存在的。 Constantine eventually summoned Caecilian and his opponents to Rome; but Caecilian, for some unknown reason, did not appear.康斯坦丁最終召喚蚓螈和他的對手羅馬,但蚓螈,由於一些未知的原因,並沒有出現。 Caecilian and Donatus the Great (who was now, at all events, bishop) were called to Milan, where Constantine heard both sides with great care.蚓螈和圖斯大(​​誰是現在,在所有的事件,主教)被稱為米蘭,在那裡康斯坦丁聽到雙方非常謹慎。 He declared that Caecilian was innocent and an excellent bishop (Augustine, Contra Cresconium, III lxxi).他宣稱,蚓螈是無辜的,一個優秀的主教(奧古斯丁,魂斗羅Cresconium,LXXI III)。 He retained both in Italy, however, while he sent two bishops, Eunomius and Olympius, to Africa, with an idea of putting Donatus and Caecilian aside, and substituting a new bishop, to be agreed upon by all parties.他保留,但是,在意大利,而他派了兩個的主教,Eunomius和匹阿斯,非洲,一個想法,把圖斯和蚓螈一邊,而代以新的主教,由各方商定。 It is to be presumed that Caecilian and Donatus had assented to this course; but the violence of the sectaries made it impossible to carry it out.這是推測,蚓螈和圖斯已經同意這門課程,但暴力的sectaries,不可能去實現它。 Eunomius and Olympius declared at Carthage that the Catholic Church was that which is diffused throughout the world and that the sentence pronounced against the Donatists could not be annulled. Eunomius和匹阿斯宣布,天主教教會在迦太基的是,這是在世界各地擴散,並不能廢止,對多納宣判。 They communicated with the clergy of Caecilian and returned to Italy.蚓螈的神職人員和他們溝通,回到意大利。 Donatus went back to Carthage, and Caecilian, seeing this, felt himself free to do the same.圖斯又回到了迦太基,並蚓螈,看到這種情況,覺得自己做同樣的。 Finally Constantine ordered that the churches which the Donatists had taken should be given to the Catholics.最後,君士坦丁下令教會的多納應給予天主教徒。 Their other meeting-places were confiscated.他們的其他會議的地方被沒收。 Those who were convicted (of calumny?) lost their goods.被定罪(誹謗),失去了自己的商品。 Evictions were carried out by the military.進行的軍事驅逐。 An ancient sermon on the passion of the Donatist "martyrs", Donatus and Advocatus, describes such scenes.一個古老的說教,就多納的“烈士”的激情,圖斯和Advocatus,描述了這樣的場景。 In one of them a regular massacre occurred, and a bishop was among the slain, if we may trust this curious document.在其中一人經常大屠殺發生後,主教是在被殺害的,如果我們可以相信這個奇怪的文件。 The Donatists were proud of this "persecution of Caecilian", which "the Pure" suffered at the hands of the "Church of the Traditors".的多納引以為傲的蚓螈“迫害”,其中“純”遭受了手中的“教會的Traditors的”。 The Comes Leontius and the Dux Ursacius were the special objects of their indignation.自帶,Leontius及具有DUX Ursacius是特殊的對象,他們的憤怒。

In 320 came revelations unpleasant to the "Pure". 320不愉快的“純”來啟示。 Nundinarius, a deacon of Cirta, had a quarrel with his bishop, Silvanus, who caused him to be stoned -- so he said in his complaint to certain Numidian bishops, in which he threatened that if they did not use their influence in his behalf with Silvanus, he would tell what he knew of them.一個的執事的西爾塔,有Nundinarius,爭吵與他的主教,西拉,導致他被石頭砸死的 - 所以他說在他的申訴一定的努米底亞的主教,他威脅說,如果他們不利用其影響力,他的代表西拉,他會告訴他所知道的。 As he got no satisfaction he brought the matter before Zenophilus, the consular of Numidia.當他沒有得到滿意的努米底亞領事Zenophilus,他將此事提交。 The minutes have come to us in a fragmentary form in the appendix of Optatus, under the title of "Gesta apud Zenophilum".分鐘到我們這裡來的零碎的形式在附錄中的Optatus,下“蓋斯塔APUD Zenophilum”。 Nundinarius produced letters from Purpurius and other bishops to Silvanus and to the people of Cirta, trying to have peace made with the inconvenient deacon. Nundinarius生產的字母從Purpurius和其他主教西拉,並的人西爾塔,有和平的不便執事。 The minutes of the search at Cirta, which we have already cited, were read and witnesses were called to establish their accuracy, including two of the fossores then present and a lector, Victor the grammarian.在西爾塔的搜索,我們已經提到,分鐘被讀取和傳喚證人,以確定其準確性,其中包括兩個的fossores和講師,維克多的文法。 It was shown no only that Silvanus was a traditor, but that he had assisted Purpurius, together with two priests and a deacon, in the theft of certain casks of vinegar belonging to the treasury, which were in the temple of Serapis.結果表明沒有只西拉是一個traditor的,但他曾協助Purpurius,連同兩名司鐸和執事,在盜竊某些屬於國庫,在對塞拉皮斯的醋桶。 Silvanus had ordained a priest for the sum of 20 folles (500 to 600 dollars).西拉按立為牧師20 Folles酒店(500至600美元)的總和。 It was established that none of the money given by Lucilla had reached the poor for whom it was ostensibly given.它成立,沒有錢的奧古斯塔魯西拉已經達到了窮人對他們來說,這是表面上給定的。 Thus Silvanus, one of the mainstays of the "Pure" Church, which declared that to communicate with any traditor was to be outside the Church, was himself proved to be a traditor.因此,西拉,“純”的教會,其中宣布,到溝通與任何traditor,是要教會之外的重要支柱之一,是本人被證明是一個traditor。 He was exiled by the consular for robbing the treasury, for obtaining money under false pretences, and for getting himself made bishop by violence.他被流放由領事搶劫國庫,為獲取金錢蒙混過關,並讓自己的主教暴力。 The Donatists later preferred to say that he was banished for refusing to communicate with the "Caecilianists", and Cresconius even spoke of "the persecution of Zenophilus".多納後最好說,他拒絕溝通“Caecilianists”,並Cresconius的,被流放甚至談到的“迫害”Zenophilus的。 But it should have been clear to all that the consecrators of Majorinus had called their opponents traditors in order to cover their own delinquencies.但它應該是所有人都很清楚,的consecrators的Majorinus他們的對手traditors為了掩蓋自己的拖欠。

The Donatist party owed its success in great part to the ability of its leader Donatus, the successor of Majorinus.多納黨的欠它的成功在很大程度上是其領導人圖斯的能力,繼任的Majorinus。 He appears to have really merited the title of "the Great" by his eloquence and force of character.他似乎真的值得他的口才和個性的力量“大”的標題。 His writings are lost.他的作品都將丟失。 His influence with his party was extraordinary.他與他的黨的影響力是非凡的。 St. Augustine frequently declaims against his arrogance and the impiety with which he was almost worshipped by his followers.聖奧古斯丁經常誦讀對他的傲慢和不敬,他幾乎是崇拜他的追隨者。 In his lifetime he is said to have greatly enjoyed the adulation he received, and after death he was counted as a martyr and miracles were ascribed to him.在他的一生中,他說很喜歡奉承他,和死亡後,他被算作一個烈士和奇蹟歸因於他。

In 321 Constantine relaxed his vigorous measures, having found that they did not produce the peace he had hoped for, and he weakly begged the Catholics to suffer the Donatists with patience.在321君士坦丁放鬆了嚴厲的措施,發現他們並沒有產生他所希望的和平,並,他弱乞求天主教徒遭受多納徒有耐心。 This was not easy, for the schismatics broke out into violence.這是不容易的,schismatics爆發成暴力事件。 At Cirta, Silvanus having returned, they seized the basilica which the emperor had built for the Catholics.在西爾塔,西拉返回,他們抓住了,皇帝已建成的教堂的天主教徒。 They would not give it up, and Constantine found no better expedient that to build another.他們不會給它,康斯坦丁沒有發現更好的權宜之計,要建立另一個。 Throughout Africa, but above all in Numidia, they were numerous.在整個非洲,但最重要的是在努米底亞,他們是多不勝數。 They taught that in all the rest of the world the Catholic Church had perished, through having communicated with the traditor Caecilian; their sect alone was the true Church.他們告訴我們,在世界各地的天主教會已經滅亡了,通過溝通的traditor蚓螈,他們的的教派獨顯真正的教會。 If a Catholic came into their churches, they drove him out, and washed with salt the pavement where he had stood.如果一個天主教進入他們的教會,他們把他趕了出去,並與鹽的鋪面裡,他站在洗滌。 Any Catholic who joined them was forced to be rebaptized.任何天主教的人加入了他們被迫重新洗禮。 They asserted that their own bishops and ministers were without fault, else their ministrations would be invalid.他們宣稱自己的主教和部長們沒有過錯,否則其ministrations將是無效的。 But in fact they were convicted of drunkenness and other sins.但事實上,他們被定罪的酗酒和其他的罪。 St. Augustine tells us on the authority of Tichonius that the Donatists held a council of two hundred and seventy bishops in which they discussed for seventy-five days the question of rebaptism; they finally decided that in cases where traditors refused to be rebaptized they should be communicated with in spite of this; and the Donatist bishops of Mauretania did not rebaptize traditors until the time of Macarius.聖奧古斯丁的權威Tichonius多納舉行了議會270主教中,他們討論的問題rebaptism75天告訴我們,他們最後決定的情況下,traditors拒絕被重新洗禮,他們應該進行通信,儘管這和毛里塔尼亞的多納圖派的主教沒有rebaptize traditors,直到米加利阿斯的時間。 Outside Africa the Donatists had a bishop residing on the property of an adherent in Spain, and at an early period of the schism they made a bishop for their small congregation in Rome, which met, it seems, on a hill outside the city, and had the name of "Montenses".在非洲以外的多納徒有一個主教居住對附著在西班牙的財產,並在早期階段的分裂,他們做了一個自己的小眾主教在羅馬召開會議,現在看來,在城外的一座小山上,和的名稱“Montenses”。 This antipapal "succession with a beginning" was frequently ridiculed by Catholic writers.這antipapal一開始“接班”,還經常嘲笑天主教作家。 The series included Felix, Boniface, Encolpius, Macrobius (c. 370), Lucian, Claudian (c. 378), and again Felix in 411.該系列產品包括菲利克斯,博尼,Encolpius,麥克羅比亞斯(約370),盧西安,克勞狄(公元前378),並再次菲利克斯在411。

THE CIRCUMCELLIONS本CIRCUMCELLIONS

The date of the first appearance of the Circumcellions is uncertain, but probably they began before the death of Constantine.行為circumcellions第一次出現的日期是不確定的,但可能是他們開始之前死亡的君士坦丁。 They were mostly rustic enthusiasts, who knew no Latin, but spoke Punic; it has been suggested that they may have been of Berber blood.他們大多​​是鄉村愛好者,誰知道沒有拉丁語,但說話迦太基,它已被認為,他們可能已經柏柏爾人的血液。 They joined the ranks of the Donatists, and were called by them agnostici and "soldiers of Christ", but in fact were brigands.他們的donatists加入了這個行列,被稱為由他們agnostici的兵“基督”,但實際上是強盜。 Troops of them were to be met in all parts of Africa.他們的軍隊在非洲的所有部分得到滿足。 They had no regular occupation, but ran about armed, like madmen.他們有沒有定期的職業,但跑了大約武裝,像瘋子。 They used no swords, on the ground that St. Peter had been told to put his sword into its sheath; but they did continual acts of violence with clubs, which they called "Israelites".他們沒有使用劍,在地面上已被告知,聖彼得把他的劍的鞘,但他們做了持續不斷的暴力行為的俱樂部,他們被稱為“以色列人”。 They bruised their victims without killing them, and left them to die.他們傷痕累累受害者沒有殺害他們,讓他們死。 In St. Augustine's time, however, they took to swords and all sorts of weapons; they rushed about accompanied by unmarried women, played, and drank.在聖奧古斯丁的時間,但是,他們採取了劍和各種武器,他們趕到未婚女性的陪同下,發揮,並喝了。 They battle-cry was Deo laudes, and no bandits were more terrible to meet.他們的戰鬥口號是迪奧laudes,並沒有土匪更可怕的是滿足。 They frequently sought death, counting suicide as martyrdom.他們經常尋求死亡,計數自殺殉難。 They were especially fond of flinging themselves from precipices; more rarely they sprang into the water or fire.他們特別喜歡扔自己從懸崖,更罕見的是,他們入水或火撲去。 Even women caught the infection, and those who had sinned would cast themselves from the cliffs, to atone for their fault.即使婦女陷入感染,並會投誰犯了罪自己從懸崖上,為自己的過錯贖罪。 Sometimes the Circumcellions sought death at the hands of others, either by paying men to kill them, by threatening to kill a passer-by if he would not kill them, or by their violence inducing magistrates to have them executed.有時的Circumcellions尋求死在別人的手裡,無論是支付人殺死了他們,威脅要殺死一個路人,如果他不殺他們,或他們的暴力行為誘導裁判官,讓他們執行。 While paganism still flourished, they would come in vast crowds to any great sacrifice, not to destroy the idols, but to be martyred.雖然異教仍然蓬勃發展,他們會來在廣大的人群,任何偉大的犧牲,而不是摧毀的偶像,但能和烈屬。 Theodoret says a Circumcellion was accustomed to announce his intention of becoming a martyr long before the time, in order to be well treated and fed like a beast for slaughter. theodoret公司一個Circumcellion說已經習慣了成為烈士很久之前的時間,為了很好的治療和餵養野獸般的供屠宰宣布他的意圖。 He relates an amusing story (Haer. Fab., IV, vi) to which St. Augustine also refers.他涉及到聖奧古斯丁還提到一個有趣的故事(Haer.廠,四,六)。 A number of these fanatics, fattened like pheasants, met a young man and offered him a drawn sword to smite them with, threatening to murder him if he refused.許多這些狂熱分子,養肥野雞一樣,遇到一個年輕男子,並給了他一個拔出來的刀擊殺他們,威脅要殺死他,如果他拒絕。 He pretended to fear that when he had killed a few, the rest might change their minds and avenge the deaths of their fellows; and he insisted that they must all be bound.他假裝害怕,當他殺害了一些,其餘的可能會改變他們的思想和他們的同伴報仇的死亡,他堅持認為,必須將它們全部綁定。 They agreed to this; when they were defenceless, the young man gave each of them a beating and went his way.他們同意時,他們手無寸鐵,這個年輕人給了他們每個人挨打,去他的方式。

When in controversy with Catholics, the Donatist bishops were not proud of their supporters.在與天主教徒的爭議,多納主教不是他們的支持者而感到自豪。 They declared that self-precipitation from a cliff had been forbidden in the councils.他們宣布,在議會中的自我沉澱已禁止從懸崖上。 Yet the bodies of these suicides were sacrilegiously honoured, and crowds celebrated their anniversaries.然而,這些自殺者的屍體被褻瀆榮幸,和群眾慶祝他們的週年紀念日。 Their bishops could not but conform, and they were often glad enough of the strong arms of the Circumcellions.他們的主教不能符合,和,他們往往高興足夠的強大武器行為circumcellions。 Theodoret, soon after St. Augustine's death, knew of no other Donatists than the Circumcellions; and these were the typical Donatists in the eyes of all outside Africa. theodoret公司,聖奧古斯丁死亡後不久,知道的沒有其他多納比Circumcellions,而這些是典型的多納的眼睛以外的所有非洲。 They were especially dangerous to the Catholic clergy, whose houses they attacked and pillaged.他們是特別危險的天主教神職人員,他們的房子,他們攻擊和掠奪。 They beat and wounded them, put lime and vinegar on their eyes, and even forced them to be rebaptized.他們毆打並打傷了他們,把他們的眼睛的石灰和醋,甚至迫使他們重新洗禮。 Under Axidus and Fasir, "the leaders of the Saints" in Numidia, property and roads were unsafe, debtors were protected, slaves were set in their masters' carriages, and the masters made to run before them.根據Axidus和Fasir,“領導人的聖人”在努米底亞,財產和道路是不安全的,債務人受到保護,奴隸們在他們的主人“車,運行在他們面前的主人。 At length, the Donatist bishops invited a general named Taurinus to repress these extravagances.長度,多納圖派主教邀請了一般命名為Taurinus,鎮壓這些奢侈品上。 He met with resistance in a place named Octava, and the altars and tablets to be seen there in St. Optatus's time testified to the veneration given to the Circumcellions who were slain; but their bishops denied them the honour due to martyrs.他遇到了阻力在指定地點Octava,證明給定的被殺害的Circumcellions,崇拜的神壇片可以看到有在聖Optatus的時間,但他們的主教否認他們向烈士的榮譽。 It seems that in 336-7 the proefectus proetorio of Italy, Gregory took some measures against the Donatists, for St. Optatus tells us that Donatus wrote him a letter beginning: "Gregory, stain on the senate and disgrace to the prefects".看來,格雷戈里在336-7意大利的proefectus proetorio的中採取了一些措施對多納,聖Optatus告訴我們,圖斯給他寫了一封信開始:“格雷戈里在參議院和恥辱,染色的省長”。

THE "PERSECUTION" OF MACARIUS “迫害”米加利阿斯的

When Constantine became master of the East by defeating Licinius in 323, he was prevented by the rise of Arianism in the East from sending, as he had hoped, Eastern bishops to Africa, to adjust the differences between the Donatists and the Catholics.當康斯坦丁成為擊敗李錫尼在323東主,他被阻止的發送,如他所願,到非洲東部主教,調整多納徒和天主教徒之間的差異阿里烏主義在東方的崛起。 Caecilian of Carthage was present at the Council of Nicea in 325, and his successor, Gratus, was at that of Sardica in 342.蚓螈的迦太基在325年的尼西亞會議,他的的接班人,Gratus,342的薩爾迪卡。 The conciliabulum of the Easterns on that occasion wrote a letter to Donatus, as though he were the true Bishop of Carthage; but the Arians failed to gain the support of the Donatists, who looked upon the whole East as cut off from the Church, which survived in Africa alone. conciliabulum東方那次寫了一封信給那圖斯,雖然他是真正的迦太基主教,但亞利安未能獲得支持的donatists,誰看了切斷後,整個東從教會,僅在非洲生存。 The Emperor Constans was an anxious as his father to give peace to Africa In 347 he sent thither two commissioners, Paulus and Macarius, with large sums of money for distribution.皇帝常數是著急,因為他的父親給非洲和平,他就打發兩個專員,保盧斯和米加利阿斯,大筆的錢,分佈在347。 Donatus naturally saw in this an attempt to win over his adherents to the Church by bribery; he received the envoys with insolence: "What has the emperor to do with the Church?"圖斯自然看到了在這個企圖通過賄賂拉攏他的信徒的教會,他的使者傲慢:“與教會做皇帝有什麼關係?” said he, and he forbade his people to accept any largess from Constans.他說,和他禁止他的人民接受任何從CONSTANS的賞賜。 In most parts, however, the friendly mission seems to have been not unfavourably received.然而,在大部分地區,友好的使命似乎已經不低收到。 But at Bagai in Numidia the bishop, Donatus, assembled the Circumcellions of the neighbourhood, who had already been excited by their bishops. ,但在Bagai在努米底亞的主教,那圖斯,聚集Circumcellions的附近,已經被激發他們的主教。 Macarius was obliged to ask for the protection of the military.米加利阿斯不得不問的軍事保護。 The Circumcellions attacked them, and killed two or three soldiers; the troops then became uncontrollable, and slew some of the Donatists.的Circumcellions攻擊他們,殺了兩個或三個士兵,部隊,然後變得無法控制,和轉換的donatists。 This unfortunate incident was thereafter continually thrown in the teeth of the Catholics, and they were nicknamed Macarians by the Donatists, who declared that Donatus of Bagai had been precipitated from a rock, and that another bishop, Marculus, had been thrown into a well.這一不幸事件後,不斷拋出在牙齒的天主教徒,和他們起了綽號Macarians宣布,已沉澱的Bagai圖斯從一塊大石頭,,另一個主教,Marculus,被扔進了良好的多納,。 The existing Acts of two other Donatist martyrs of 347, Maximian and Isaac, are preserved; they apparently belong to Carthage, and are attributed by Harnack to the antipope Macrobius.馬克西米安和以撒,其他兩個多納烈士347現有的行為,將被保留,他們顯然屬於迦太基,並歸因於哈爾納克的對立教皇麥克羅比亞斯的。 It seems that after violence had begun, the envoys ordered the Donatists to unite with the Church whether they willed or no.看來,暴力事件後已經開始了,使者下令的多納團結與教會他們是否有決心,從不躊躇或沒有。 Many of the bishops took flight with their partisans; a few joined the Catholics; the rest were banished.的主教了許多飛行與他們的黨羽,一些加入了天主教,其餘的被放逐。 Donatus the Great died in exile.圖斯大死於流放。 A Donatist named Vitellius composed a book to show that the servants of God are hated by the world.一個多納名為Vitellius組成一本書來顯示神的僕人,是人們深惡痛絕的世界。

A solemn Mass was celebrated in each place where the union was completed, and the Donatists set about a rumour that images (obviously of the emperor) were to be placed in the altar and worshipped.在完成每個地方的工會舉行了隆重的彌撒,多納有關的傳聞,圖像(明顯的皇帝)被放置在祭壇和崇拜。 As nothing of the sort was found to be done, and as the envoys merely made a speech in favour of unity, it seems that the reunion was effected with less violence than might have been expected.由於沒有排序做的事,作為使節們只是做了一個有利於團結的演講中,似乎團聚的影響與暴力可能已經比預期的少。 The Catholics and their bishops praised God for the peace that ensued, though they declared that they had no responsibility for the action of Paulus and Macarius.天主教徒和主教稱讚上帝為隨之而來的和平,儘管他們宣稱,他們不負責的行動保盧斯和米加利阿斯的。 In the following year Gratus, the Catholic Bishop of Carthage, held a council, in which the reiteration of baptism was forbidden, while, to please the rallied Donatists, traditors were condemned anew.在接下來的一年Gratus,天主教主教的迦太基,舉行了理事會,重申洗禮是被禁止的,同時,請譴責的反彈的多納,traditors被重新。 It was forbidden to honour suicides as martyrs.它被禁止為烈士的榮譽自殺。

THE RESTORATION OF DONATISM BY JULIAN由朱利安恢復多納圖斯派

The peace was happy for Africa, and the forcible means by which it was obtained were justified by the violence of the sectaries.非洲的和平很高興,和由它獲得的強制手段是有道理的,暴力的sectaries。 But the accession of Julian the Apostate in 361 changed the face of affairs.但在361朱利安的叛教者的加入改變的臉上的事務。 Delighted to throw Christianity into confusion, Julian allowed the Catholic bishops who had been exiled by Constantius to return to the sees which the Arians were occupying.扔基督教陷入混亂,非常高興,朱利安允許的天主教主教被放逐了君返回看到白羊座的佔領。 The Donatists, who had been banished by Constans, were similarly allowed to return at their own petition, and received back their basilicas.多納,被驅逐CONSTANS的,同樣可以返回自己的請願書,並收到他們的大教堂。 Scenes of violence were the result of this policy both in the East and the West.暴力場面的這一政策,無論在東方和西方的結果。 "Your fury", wrote St. Optatus, "returned to Africa at the same moment that the devil was set free", for the same emperor restored supremacy to paganism and the Donatists to Africa The decree of Julian was considered so discreditable to them, that the Emperor Honorius in 405 had it posted up throughout Africa for their shame. “你的憤怒”,聖Optatus寫道,“回到非洲在同一時刻,魔鬼自由”,相同的皇帝恢復至上異教和多納非洲的法令朱利安他們被認為是可恥的,皇帝honorius 405它貼上去的整個非洲對自己的羞辱。 St. Optatus gives a vehement catalogue of the excesses committed by the Donatists on their return.聖Optatus給出了一個強烈目錄的過激行為的多納在他們的回歸。 They invaded the basilicas with arms; they committed so many murders that a report of them was sent to the emperor.他們侵略的武器,他們犯下這麼多謀殺案的報告,他們被送到皇帝大教堂。 Under the orders of two bishops, a party attacked the basilica of Lemellef; they stripped off the roof, pelted with tiles the deacons who were round the altar, and killed two of them.兩位主教的命令下,黨的襲擊的大殿Lemellef;他們剝脫下來的屋頂,瓷磚的執事呈圓形的祭壇投擲,並殺死他們兩個。 In Maruetania riots signalized the return of the Donatists. Maruetania暴動燈號的donatists的回報。 In Numidia two bishops availed themselves of the complaisance of the magistrates to throw a peaceful population into confusion, expelling the faithful, wounding the men, and not sparing the women and children.在努米底亞兩位主教利用自己的殷勤的裁判,拋出一個和平的人民陷入一片混亂之中,驅逐了信實的,傷人的男子,婦女和兒童也不放過。 Since they did not admit the validity of the sacraments administered by traditors, when they seized the churches they cast the Holy Eucharist to the dogs; but the dogs, inflamed with madness, attacked their own masters.由於他們不承認的有效性聖禮管理的traditors,當他們抓住了聖體聖事的教會,他們投的狗,但狗,發炎的瘋狂攻擊自己的主人。 An ampulla of chrism thrown out of a window was found unbroken on the rocks.壺腹的一個窗口扔出去的聖油是連續的岩石上發現的。 Two bishops were guilty of rape; one of these seized the aged Catholic bishop and condemned him to public penance.兩位主教犯有強姦罪,繳獲的這些老人天主教主教,譴責他公開懺悔。 All Catholics whom they could force to join their party were made penitents, even clerics of every rank, and children, contrary to the law of the Church.所有的天主教徒可能會迫使他們加入他們的黨進行了懺悔,甚至每一個職級的神職人員,和兒童,違反法律的教會。 some for a year, some for a month, some but for a day.一年,一個月,但其中一些的日子。 In taking possession of a basilica, they destroyed the altar, or removed it, or at least scraped the surface.他們在接管的教堂,摧毀了一座壇,或刪除它,或至少表面刮。 They sometimes broke up the chalices, and sold the materials.他們有時會分手的酒杯,銷售的材料。 They washed pavements, walls, and columns.他們沖洗路面,牆壁和列。 Not content with recovering their churches, they employed pagan functionaries to obtain for them possession of the sacred vessels, furniture, altar-linen, and especially the books (how did they purify the book? asks St. Optatus), sometimes leaving the Catholic congregation with no books at all.沒有內容,恢復他們的教會,他們受僱於異教徒的工作人員,他們擁有神聖的船隻,家具,祭壇用品,尤其是書籍(他們是怎麼淨化的書嗎?問聖Optatus),有時留下的天主教教會沒有書。 The cemeteries were closed to the Catholic dead.墓地被關閉的天主教死。 The revolt of Firmus, a Mauretanian chieftain who defied the Roman power and eventually assumed the style of emperor (366-72), was undoubtedly supported by many Donatists.反抗Firmus,一個Mauretanian的頭目,無視羅馬功率和最終承擔了風格的皇帝(366-72),無疑是許多多納支持。 The imperial laws against them were strengthened by Valentinian in 373 and by Gratian, who wrote in 377 to the vicar of prefects, Flavian (himself a Donatist), ordering all the basilicas of the schismatics to be given up to the Catholics.帝國的法律,加強對他們的瓦倫蒂安373格拉提安,是誰寫的schismatics被放棄的天主教徒大教堂的副主教的省長,弗拉維安(自己一多納),訂購377。 St. Augustine shows that even the churches which the Donatists themselves had built were included.聖奧古斯丁顯示,即使已建成的donatists自己的教會被列入。 The same emperor required Claudian, the Donatist bishop at Rome, to return to Africa; as he refused to obey, a Roman council had him driven a hundred miles from the city.同樣的皇帝克勞狄,多納主教在羅馬,回到非洲,他拒絕服從,羅馬議會,他帶動了100英里的城市。 It is probable that the Catholic Bishop of Carthage, Genethlius, caused the laws to be mildly administered in Africa.這是可能的,天主教主教的迦太基,Genethlius,“引起了法律在非洲輕度管理的。

ST. ST。 OPTATUS OPTATUS

The Catholic champion, St. Optatus, Bishop of Milevis, published his great work "De schismate Donatistarum" in answer to that of the Donatist Bishop of Carthage, Parmenianus, under Valentinian and Valens, 364-375 (so St. Jerome).天主教冠軍,聖Optatus,Milevis主教,發表了他的偉大的工作“schismate Donatistarum”在回答,多納迦太基主教,Parmenianus的,根據瓦倫蒂安和瓦倫斯,364-375(圣杰羅姆)​​。 Optatus himself tells us that he was writing after the death of Julian (363) and more than sixty years after the beginning of the schism (he means the persecution of 303). Optatus自己告訴我們,他是在寫死亡後的朱利安(363)和超過60年後開始分裂(他指的是迫害303)。 The form which we possess is a second edition, brought up to date by the author after the accession of Pope Siricius (Dec., 384), with a seventh book added to the original six.的形式,我們所擁有的是第二版,帶來了最新的:教皇Siricius(12月,384)後加入的作者,第七本書添加到原來的六。 In the first book he describes the origin and growth of the schism; in the second he shows the notes of the true Church; in the third he defends the Catholics from the charge of persecuting, with especial reference to the days of Macarius.在他的第一本書描述的起源和發展的分裂,在第二,他的真教會的音符,在第三,他捍衛天主教徒的迫害負責,尤其是參考的日子米加利阿斯。 In the fourth book he refutes Parmenianus's proofs from Scripture that the sacrifice of a sinner is polluted.在第四本書,他駁斥Parmenianus的證明從聖經中犧牲的罪人被污染。 In the fifth book he shows the validity of baptism even when conferred by sinners, for it is conferred by Christ, the minister being the instrument only.在第五本書中,他顯示了有效性的洗禮,即使賦予的罪人,因為它是基督,部長儀器所賦予的。 This is the first important statement of the doctrine that the grace of the sacraments is derived from the opus operatum of Christ independently of the worthiness of the minister.這是第一次的學說的聖禮的恩典是來自基督的的電視劇operatum的獨立部長老有所為的重要講話。 In the sixth book he describes the violence of the Donatists and the sacrilegious way in which they had treated Catholic altars.在他的第六本書描述的donatists的暴力和褻瀆神明的方式,他們處理的天主教祭壇。 In the seventh book he treats chiefly of unity and of reunion, and returns to the subject of Macarius.在第七本書中,他把主要的團結和團聚,返回的主題米加利阿斯。

He calls Parmenianus "brother", and wishes to treat the Donatists as brethren, since they were not heretics.他呼籲Parmenianus“兄弟”,並希望把多納如弟兄,因為他們不是異端。 Like some other Fathers, he holds that only pagans and heretics go to hell; schismatics and all Catholics will eventually be saved after a necessary purgatory.一些其他父親一樣,他認為,只有異教徒和異端去地獄,,schismatics所有的天主教徒最終將被保存後的必要煉獄。 This is the more curious, because before him and after him in Africa Cyprian and Augustine both taught that schism is as bad as heresy, if not worse.這是更好奇,因為在他之前和之後,他在非洲塞浦路斯和奧古斯丁教視為異端邪說,分裂是壞的,如果不是更糟。 St. Optatus was much venerated by St. Augustine and later by St. Fulgentius.聖Optatus十分崇敬的聖奧古斯丁,由聖傅箴修。 He writes with vehemence, sometimes with violence, in spite of his protestations of friendliness; but he is carried away by his indignation.他寫的激烈,有時有暴力,儘管他的抗議友好的,但他帶走了他的憤慨。 His style is forcible and effective, often concise and epigrammatic.他的風格是強制的和有效的,往往是簡潔和警句。 To this work he appended a collection of documents containing the evidence for the history he had related.這項工作,他附加了一個集合包含了相關的歷史,他的證據的文件。 This dossier had certainly been formed much earlier, at all events before the peace of 347, and not long after the latest document it contains, which is dated Feb., 330; the rest are not later than 321, and may possibly have been put together as early as that year.本材料肯定已經形成要早得多,在和平的所有事件之前的347,及後不久,它包含了最新的文​​件,這是年2月,330,其餘的都是不超過321,並有可能被放在一起,早在當年。 Unfortunately these important historical testimonies have come down to us only in a single mutilated manuscript, the archetype of which was also incomplete.不幸的是,這些重要的歷史遺跡已回落到我們的原型,它只有在一個單一的殘缺不全的手稿,也是不完整的。 The collection was freely used at the conference of 411 and is often quoted at some length by St. Augustine, who has preserved many interesting portions which would otherwise be unknown to us.收集在這次會議上,411是自由使用,是經常被引用的聖奧古斯丁在一些長度,保留了許多有趣的部分,否則將是我們未知的。

THE MAXIMIANISTS本MAXIMIANISTS

Before Augustine took up the mantle of Optatus together with a double portion of his spirit, the Catholics had gained new and victorious arguments from the divisions among the Donatists themselves.在奧古斯丁的衣缽Optatus了雙分,他的精神,天主教徒取得新的勝利的論據之間的donatists自己的部門。 Like so many other schisms, this schism bred schisms within itself.像許多其他的分裂,這種分裂繁殖內部的分裂。 In Mauretania and Numidia these separated sects were so numerous that the Donatists themselves could not name them all.在毛里塔尼亞和努米底亞這些單獨的教派是如此眾多的donatists自己無法說出他們所有。 We hear of Urbanists; of Claudianists, who were reconciled to the main body by Primianus of Carthage; of Rogatists, a Mauretanian sect, of mild character, because no Circumcellion belonged to it; the Rogatists were severely punished whenever the Donatists could induce the magistrates to do so, and were also persecuted by Optatus of Timgad.我們聽到了城市規劃者; Claudianists,和解的主體Primianus的迦太基;的Rogatists,一個Mauretanian的教派,性格溫和,因為沒有Circumcellion屬於它的Rogatists嚴厲的懲罰時,多納可誘導裁判官這樣做,也受到迫害的optatus的提姆加德。 But the most famous sectaries were the Maximianists, for the story of their separation from the Donatists reproduces with strange exactitude that of the withdrawal of the Donatists themselves from the communion of the Church; and the conduct of the Donatists towards them was so inconsistent with their avowed principles, that it became in the skilled hands of Augustine the most effective weapon of all his controversial armoury.但最有名的sectaries Maximianists,其分離的故事,從多納再現奇怪的精確性,donatists自己的教會的共融撤出;的donatists對他們的行為是不符合他們的公開宣布的原則,即成為熟練的手在奧古斯丁的最有效的武器,他的所有有爭議的軍械庫。 Primianus, Donatist Bishop of Carthage, excommunicated the deacon Maximianus.多納迦太基主教,Primianus,逐出教會的執事Maximianus。 The latter (who was, like Majorinus, supported by a lady) got together a council of forty-three bishops, who summoned Primianus to appear before them.後者(是誰,像Majorinus,一位女士支持)得到了一個委員會43主教,誰召見Primianus出現在他們面前。 The primate refused, insulted their envoys, tried to have them prevented from celebrating the Sacred Mysteries, and had stones thrown at them in the street.靈長類動物的拒絕,侮辱他們的使節,試圖讓他們阻止慶祝神聖的奧秘,並投擲石塊,他們在街頭。 The council summoned him before a greater council, which met to the number of a hundred bishops at Cebarsussum in June, 393.該委員會傳喚他之前,理事會,該理事會舉行會議,數的100主教在Cebarsussum中,393。 Primianus was deposed; all clerics were to leave his communion within eight days; if they should delay till after Christmas, they would not be permitted to return to the Church even after penance; the laity were allowed until the following Easter, under the same penalty. Primianus被廢黜的所有神職人員離開他的共融八天之內,如果他們應推遲到聖誕節後,他們將不會被允許返回到教會,甚至在苦修被允許的俗人,直到復活節下面,在相同的處罰。 A new bishop of Carthage was appointed in the person of Maximian himself, and was consecrated by twelve bishops.迦太基主教被任命為一個新的在瑪西自己的人,和12的主教是神聖的。 The partisans of Primianus were rebaptized, if they had been baptized after the permitted delay.游擊隊的Primianus被rebaptized,如果他們已經受洗後允許的延遲。 Primianus stood out, and demanded to be judged by a Numidian council; three hundred and ten bishops met at Bagai in April, 394; the primate did not take the place of an accused person, but himself presided. “Primianus脫穎而出,並要求來評判一個努米底亞議會310主教在Bagai會見中,394的靈長類動物沒有被控告人的地方,但親自主持。 He was of course acquitted, and the Maximianists were condemned without a hearing.他是無罪釋放的過程,並沒有舉行聽證會的Maximianists譴責。 All but the twelve consecrators and their abettors among the clergy of Carthage were given till Christmas to return; after this period they would be obliged to do penance.但的12 consecrators的迦太基的神職人員和他們的教唆者之間返回到聖誕節後此期間,他們將不得不做懺悔。 This decree, composed in eloquent style by Emeritus of Caesarea, and adopted by acclamation, made the Donatists hence-forward ridiculous through their having readmitted schismatics without penance.沒有苦修組成,在該撒利亞的名譽,雄辯的風格,並以鼓掌方式通過,該法令,多納因此,通過他們再次入院schismatics可笑。 Maximian's church was razed to the ground, and after the term of grace had elapsed, the Donatists persecuted the unfortunate Maximianists, representing themselves as Catholics, and demanding that the magistrates should enforce against the new sectaries the very laws which Catholics emperors had drawn up against Donatism.瑪西的教堂被夷為平地,地面,之後的寬限期期限已經過去了,多納徒受迫害的不幸Maximianists,表示自己是天主教徒,並要求,裁判官應執行對在新的sectaries很有規律這天主教徒皇帝已經制定了針對多納圖斯派。 Their influence enabled them to do this, for they were still far more numerous than the Catholics, and the magistrates must often have been of their party.他們的影響力,使他們能夠做到這一點,他們仍然比天主教徒多得多,往往是他們的黨和裁判必須。 In the reception of those who returned from the party of Maximian they were yet more fatally inconsequent.在接收返回瑪西黨的他們更致命inconsequent的。 The rule was theoretically adhered to that all who had been baptized in the schism must be rebaptized; but if a bishop returned, he and his whole flock were admitted without rebaptism.的規則,理論上堅持必須重新洗禮,所有已受洗的分裂,但,如果主教回來後,他和他的整個羊群被承認,沒有rebaptism。 This was allowed even in the case of two of the consecrators of Maximian, Praetextatus of Assur and Felixianus of Musti, after the proconsul had vainly tried to expel them from their sees, and although a Donatist bishop, Rogatus, had already been appointed at Assur.這是允許的情況下的的consecrators瑪西的的亞述和Felixianus的Musti,Praetextatus,兩個方伯後,妄圖將他們驅逐他們認為,雖然多納的主教,Rogatus,已經被任命為亞述。 In another case the party of Primianus was more consistent.在另一種情況下,黨的Primianus是比較一致的。 Salvius, the Maximianist Bishop of Membresa, was another of the consecrators. ,Maximianist的Membresa主教,Salvius是另一個的consecrators的。 He was twice summoned by the proconsul to retire in favour of the Primianist Restitutus.他兩次召集方伯在贊成的Primianist Restitutus退休。 As he was much respected by the people of Membresa, a mob was brought over from the neighbouring town of Abitene to expel him; the aged bishop was beaten, and made to dance with dead dogs tied around his neck.由於他十分尊重的人Membresa,被帶到一個暴徒從鄰鎮的Abitene驅逐他,毆打老人的主教,並提出了與死的狗脖子上系著跳舞。 But his people built him a new church, and three bishops coexisted in this small town, a Maximianist, a Primianist, and a Catholic.但是,他的人給他建了一個新的教會,三名主教在這個小鎮上並存,Maximianist,一個Primianist,和天主教。

The leader of the Donatists at this time was Optatus, Bishop of Thamugadi (Timgad), called Gildonianus, from his friendship with Gildo, the Count of Africa (386-397).領導者的donatists在這個時候,主教Thamugadi Optatus(提姆加德),稱為Gildonianus,從他的友誼與吉爾多的非洲(386-397),計數。 For ten years Optatus, supported by Gildo, was the tyrant of Africa.十年來,Optatus,由吉爾多的支持,是非洲的暴君。 He persecuted the Rogatists and Maximianists, and he used troops against the Catholics.他迫害的Rogatists和的Maximianists,他用部隊對天主教徒。 St. Augustine tells us that his vices and cruelties were beyond description; but they had at least the effect of disgracing the cause of the Donatists, for though he was hated throughout Africa for his wickedness and his evil deeds, yet the Puritan faction remained always in full communion with this bishop, who was a robber, a ravisher, an oppressor, a traitor, and a monster of cruelty.聖奧古斯丁告訴我們,他無法形容的罪惡和殘酷,但他們至少有效果的donatists羞辱的原因,他雖然被恨他的邪惡和他的惡行整個非洲,但始終保持清教徒派在完全共融這主教,誰被一個強盜,ravisher,壓迫者,叛徒和殘暴的怪物。 When Gildo fell in 397, after having made himself master of Africa for a few months, Optatus was thrown into a prison, in which he died.當吉爾多下跌397點,後經作出自己的主了數個月的非洲,Optatus被扔進監獄,他死了。

SAINT AUGUSTINE聖奧古斯丁

St. Augustine began his victorious campaign against Donatism soon after he was ordained priest in 391.聖奧古斯丁開始他的勝利對多納圖斯派運動,不久後,他被祝聖司鐸在391。 His popular psalm or "Abecedarium" against the Donatists was intended to make known to the people the arguments set forth by St. Optatus, with the same conciliatory end in view.他的流行讚美詩或“Abecedarium”的反對多納徒的目的是要讓人知道的人所提出的論點由聖Optatus,用相同的和解結束。 It shows that the sect was founded by traditors, condemned by pope and council, separated from the whole world, a cause of division, violence, and bloodshed; the true Church is the one Vine, whose branches are over all the earth.這表明,該教派是由traditors,譴責教皇和議會,分開了整個世界,分裂,暴力和流血的原因,真正的教會是一個畏縮不前,其分支在全地上。 After St. Augustine had become bishop in 395, he obtained conferences with some of the Donatist leaders, though not with his rival at Hippo.在聖奧古斯丁已經成為主教在395,他獲得了一些的多納領導人的會議,雖然不是他的對手在河馬。 In 400 he wrote three books against the letter of Parmenianus, refuting his calumnies and his arguments from Scripture.在400,他寫了三本書對信Parmenianus,從聖經反駁他的誹謗和他的論點。 More important were his seven books on baptism, in which, after developing the principle already laid down by St. Optatus, that the effect of the sacrament is independent of the holiness of the minister, he shows in great detail that the authority of St. Cyprian is more awkward than convenient for the Donatists.更重要的是他的七本書的洗禮,其中,後開發的原則已經訂下聖Optatus,聖餐的效果是獨立的聖潔之臣,他表示非常詳細,權威的聖塞浦路斯是較方便的多納多尷尬。 The principal Donatist controversialist of the day was Petilianus, Bishop of Constantine, a successor of the traditor Silvanus.多納的主要爭論者的日子是君士坦丁主教,Petilianus的traditor西拉的繼任者。 St. Augustine wrote two books in reply to a letter of his against the Church, adding a third book to answer another letter in which he was himself attacked by Petilianus.聖奧古斯丁寫了兩本書回答了一封信,他對教會的,加入第三本書回答的另一封信中,他是自己攻擊的Petilianus。 Before this last book he published his "De Unitate ecclesiae" about 403.在此之前的最後一本書,他出版了他的“德Unitate該書約403。 To these works must be added some sermons and some letters which are real treatises.這些作品必須添加一些的講道和一些字母,這是真實的論文。

The arguments used by St. Augustine against Donatism fall under three heads.聖奧古斯丁對多納圖斯派使用的參數下了三個頭。 First we have the historical proofs of the regularity of Caecilian's consecration, of the innocence of Felix of Aptonga, of the guilt of the founders of the "Pure" Church, also the judgment given by pope, council, and emperor, the true history of Macarius, the barbarous behaviour of the Donatists under Julian, the violence of the Circumcellions, and so forth.首先,我們的歷史證明,蚓螈的奉獻規律的清白的費利克斯的Aptonga的,有罪的創始人的“純”教會,也由羅馬教皇,理事會和皇帝,真實的歷史的判決野蠻行為的donatists米加利阿斯,根據朱利安,暴力​​行為circumcellions,等等。 Second, there are the doctrinal arguments: the proofs from the Old and New Testaments that the Church is Catholic, diffused throughout the world, and necessarily one and united; appeal is made to the See of Rome, where the succession of bishops is uninterrupted from St. Peter himself; St. Augustine borrows his list of popes from St. Optatus (Ep. li), and in his psalm crystallizes the argument into the famous phrase: "That is the rock against which the proud gates of hell do not prevail."第二,有教義的論點:從舊約和新約教會是天主教的證據,在世界各地擴散,並一定是和聯合國提出上訴向看到的羅馬,在那裡的繼承主教是不間斷的,聖彼得本人,聖奧古斯丁借用他的名單從“插曲李:聖Optatus()的教皇,在他的詩篇結晶的參數的那句名言:”這是驕傲的地獄之門的岩石並不佔上風“。 A further appeal is to the Eastern Church, and especially to the Apostolic Churches to which St. Peter, St. Paul, and St. John addressed epistles - they were not in communion with the Donatists.進一步上訴的東方教會,特別是使徒教堂,聖彼得大教堂,聖保羅,聖約翰解決書信 - 他們不是在共融與多納徒。 The validity of baptism conferred by heretics, the impiety of rebaptizing, are important points.有效性的洗禮所賦予的異端者,的不虔誠的rebaptizing的,是很重要的點。 All these arguments were found in St. Optatus.所有這些論點被發現在聖Optatus。 Peculiar to St. Augustine is the necessity of defending St. Cyprian, and the third category is wholly his own.特有的聖奧古斯丁是保衛聖塞浦路斯的必要性,第三類完全是他自己的。 The third division comprises the argumentum ad hominem drawn from the inconsistency of the Donatists themselves: Secundus had pardoned the traditors; full fellowship was accorded to malefactors like Optatus Gildonianus and the Circumcellions; Tichonius turned against his own party; Maximian had divided from Primatus just as Majorinus from Caecilian; the Maximianists had been readmitted without rebaptism.第三部門包括:陳雲廣告人身攻擊來自不一致的donatists自己:Secundus了赦免traditors,全額獎學金給予居心不良像Optatus Gildonianus和的Circumcellions的; Tichonius反抗他自己的黨;瑪西了從Primatus劃分,就像Majorinus蚓螈的Maximianists已入院的沒有rebaptism。

This last method of argument was found to be of great practical value, and many conversions were now taking place, largely on account of the false position in which the Donatists had placed themselves.這最後一種方法的參數被認為是很大的實用價值,許多轉換正在發生,在很大程度上考慮的多納將自己置於錯誤的位置。 This point had been especially emphasized by the Council of Carthage of Sept., 401, which had ordered information as to the treatment of the Maximianists to be gathered from magistrates.這一點已特別強調的理事會迦太基9月,401,已下令信息收集由裁判的Maximianists的治療。 The same synod restored the earlier rule, long since abolished, that Donatist bishops and clergy should retain their rank if they returned to the Church.同樣的主教,恢復了先前的規則,早已取消,多納圖派的主教和神職人員應保留其職級,如果他們歸還教會。 Pope Anastasius I wrote to the council urging the importance of the Donatist question.教皇阿納斯塔修斯我寫了的委員會敦促的重要的多納問題的。 Another council in 403 organized public disputations with the Donatists.另一個會在403舉辦的公共disputations與多納徒。 This energetic action roused the Circumcellions to new violence.這個精力充沛的行動激起了Circumcellions了新的暴力。 The life of St. Augustine was endangered.聖奧古斯丁的生命受到威脅。 His future biographer, St. Possidius of Calama, was insulted and ill-treated by a party led by a Donatist priest, Crispinus.他未來的傳記,聖Possidius的卡拉馬,被侮辱和虐待,導致的多納牧師,Crispinus的一方。 The latter's bishop, also named Crispinus, was tried at Carthage and fined ten pounds of gold as a heretic, though the fine was remitted by Possidius.後者的主教,也被稱為Crispinus,試圖在迦太基作為一個邪教組織,並處罰金10公斤的黃金,雖然罰款匯Possidius的。 This is the first case known to us in which a Donatist is declared a heretic, but henceforth it is the common style for them.這是已知的第一種情況下,我們的多納被宣布為異端者,但此後,這是他們的共同風格。 The cruel and disgusting treatment of Maximianus, Bishop of Bagai, is also related by St. Augustine in detail.詳細的Maximianus,主教的Bagai,也與聖奧古斯丁的殘忍和令人作嘔的治療。 The Emperor Honorius was induced by the Catholics to renew the old laws against the Donatists at the beginning of 405.皇帝honorius誘導的天主教徒對多納405開始更新舊的法律。 Some good resulted, but the Circumcellions of Hippo were excited to new violence.有一些很好的結果,但河馬的Circumcellions激發了新的暴力。 The letter of Petilianus was defended by a grammarian named Cresconius, against whom St. Augustine published a reply in four books.信Petilianus保衛由一個文法的Cresconius,所針對的聖奧古斯丁發表了四本書在答复。 The third and fourth books are especially important, as in these he argues from the Donatists' treatment of the Maximianists, quotes the Acts of the Council of Cirta held by Secundus, and cites other important documents.第三和第四本書是特別重要的,因為在這些他認為從多納“治療的的的Maximianists,報價的行為理事會西爾塔的舉行Secundus的,並列舉了其他重要文件。 The saint also replied to a pamphlet by Petilianus, "De unico baptismate".聖人也說了一本小冊子,由Petilianus,“UNICO baptismate”。

THE "COLLATIO" OF 411 “411”COLLATIO

St. Augustine had once hoped to conciliate the Donatists by reason only.聖奧古斯丁曾經希望多納僅因調解。 The violence of the Circumcellions, the cruelties of Optatus of Thamugadi, the more recent attacks on Catholic bishops had all given proof that repression by the secular arm was absolutely unavoidable.在的暴力行為circumcellions,optatus的Thamugadi的暴行,更近的攻擊天主教主教都給予證明,鎮壓世俗的手臂是絕對不可避免的。 It was not necessarily a case of persecution for religious opinions, but simply one of the protection of life and property and the ensuring of freedom and safety for Catholics.它不一定是一個受迫害的情況下,宗教的意見,但一個簡單的生命和財產的保護和保障的自由和安全的天主教徒。 Nevertheless the laws went much further than this.然而,法律比這走得更遠。 Those of Honorius were promulgated anew in 408 and 410.挪,重新公佈408和410。 In 411 the method of disputation was organized on a grand scale by order of the emperor himself at the request of the Catholic bishops. 411的方法爭議的天主教主教的要求,舉辦了一個規模宏大的皇帝本人的命令。 Their case was now complete and unanswerable.他們的情況現在是完全的和無可辯駁的。 But this was to be brought home to the people of Africa, and public opinion was to be forced to recognize the facts, by a public exposure of the weakness of the separatist position.但是,這是要​​帶回家給非洲人民和輿論是不得不承認的事實,通過公開曝光的分裂立場的弱點。 The emperor sent an official named Marcellinus, an excellent Christian, to preside as cognitor at the conference.皇帝發出了正式命名為馬爾,一個很好的基督徒,主持作為cognitor,在這次會議上。 He issued a proclamation declaring that he would exercise absolute impartiality in his conduct of the proceedings and in his final judgment.他發出公告,宣布他將行使絕對公正的訴訟和他的行為,他的最終判決。 The Donatist bishops who should come to the conference were to receive back for the present the basilicas which had been taken from them.多納圖派的主教,誰應該來的會議接收目前已經從他們的大教堂。 The number of those who arrived at Carthage was very large, though somewhat less that the two hundred and seventy-nine whose signatures were appended to a letter to the president.到達迦太基的數量是非常大的,雖然有點少,279的簽名附加了一封信給總統。 The Catholic bishops numbered two hundred and eighty-six.天主教主教編號為286。 Marcellinus decided that each party should elect seven disputants, who alone should speak, seven advisers whom they might consult, and four secretaries to keep the records.馬爾決定,各締約方應選舉糾紛當事人,應該說,七顧問,他們可能會參考,四名秘書保存有關紀錄。 Thus only thirty-six bishops would be present in all.因此,只有36主教會出現在所有。 The Donatists pretended that this was a device to prevent their great numbers being known; but the Catholics did not object to all of them being present, provided no disturbance was caused.多納假裝,這是一個裝置,以防止大批被稱為天主教徒不反對他們存在,沒有造成任何干擾。

The chief Catholic speaker, besides the amiable and venerable Bishop of Carthage, Aurelius, was of course Augustine, whose fame had already spread through the whole Church.首席天主教揚聲器,,除了和藹可親,令人尊敬的主教的迦太基,奧勒留,當然奧古斯丁,他的名聲已經傳遍整個教會。 His friend, Alypius of Tagaste, and his disciple and biographer, Possidius, were also among the seven.也他的朋友,Alypius的塔加斯特,和他的弟子和傳記,Possidius,在七個。 The principal Donatist speakers were Emeritus of Caesarea in Mauretania (Cherchel) and Petilianus of Constantine (Cirta); the latter spoke or interrupted about a hundred and fifty times, until on the third day he was so hoarse that he had to desist.主要多納發言者名譽的該撒利亞在毛里塔尼亞(謝謝爾)和康斯坦丁(西爾塔)的Petilianus的,而後者說話,打斷了約一百五十次,直到第三日,他是如此沙啞,他不得不停止。 The Catholics made a generous proposal that any Donatist bishop who should join the Church, should preside alternately with the Catholic bishop in the episcopal chair, unless the people should object, in which case both must resign and a new election be made.天主教徒作出了慷慨的建議任何多納誰應該參加教會的主教,應主持交替與天主教主教在主教的座椅,除非人都應該反對,在這種情況下,都必須辭職,一個新的選舉。 The conference was held on the 1, 3, and 8 June.召開這次會議是在1,3,和6月8日。 The policy of the Donatists was to raise technical objections, to cause delay, and by all manner of means to prevent the Catholic disputants from stating their case.該政策的donatists是提高技術的異議,導致延遲,並通過各種形式的手段來防止天主教的爭論者說明他們的情況。 The Catholic case was, however, clearly enunciated on the first day in letters which were read, addressed by the Catholic bishops to Marcellinus and to their deputies to instruct them in the procedure.但是,天主教的情況下,明確闡述利努斯和他們的代表的天主教主教,指導他們解決過程中的閱讀,在信的第一天。 A discussion of important points was arrived at only on the third day, amid many interruptions.討論的重要事項中到達的第三天,許多中斷。 It was then evident that the unwillingness of the Donatists to have a real discussion was due to the fact that they could not reply to the arguments and documents brought forward by the Catholics.這是明顯的donatists不願意有一個真正的討論是由於這一事實,他們不能答复的參數和文件提出的天主教徒。 The insincerity as well as the inconsequence and clumsiness of the sectaries did them great harm.偽善,以及inconsequence和笨拙的sectaries都做了很大的傷害。 The main doctrinal points and historical proofs of the Catholics were made perfectly plain.主要教義點和天主教徒的歷史證明變得淺顯易懂。 The cognitor summed up in favor of the Catholic bishops.總結了贊成的天主教主教的cognitor。 The churches which had been provisionally restored to the Donatists were to be given up; their assemblies were forbidden under grave penalties.教會已經暫時恢復的多納要放棄他們的集會被禁止的嚴重處罰。 The lands of those who permitted Circumcellions on their property were to be confiscated.這些誰允許Circumcellions對自己的財產的土地將被沒收。 The minutes of this great conference were submitted to all the speakers for their approval, and the report of each speech (mostly only a single sentence) was signed by the speaker as a guarantee of its accuracy.這個偉大的會議,提交會議紀要,供其核准大家的發言,每次發言的報告(大多只有一個單句)簽署了揚聲器為保證其準確性。 We possess these manuscripts in full only as far as the middle of the third day; for the rest only the headings of each little speech are preserved.我們擁有這些手稿中只有盡可能的第三天中間,剩下的只有每一個言語不多的標題將被保留。 These headings were composed by order of Marcellinus in order to facilitate reference.這些標題是由順序馬爾為了方便大家參考。 On account of the dullness and a length of the full report, St. Augustine composed a popular resume of the discussions in his "Breviculus Collationis", and went with more detail into a few points in a final pamphlet, "Ad Donatistas post Collationem".聖奧古斯丁的暗沉,長度為報告全文,組成了一個流行的簡歷在他的“Breviculus Collat​​ionis”的討論,更多的細節去到幾個點在最後的小冊子,“廣告Donatistas後Collat​​ionem” 。

On 30 Jan., 412, Honorius issued a final law against the Donatists, renewing old legislation and adding a scale of fines for Donatist clergy, and for the laity and their wives: the illustres were to pay fifty pounds of gold, the spectabiles forty, the senatores and sacerdotales thirty, the clarissimi and principales twenty, the decuriones, negotiatores, and plebeii five, which Circumcellions were to pay ten pounds of silver. 1月30日,412,挪,發出了最後的法律對多納,老的立法和規模的罰款,多納神職人員,俗人和他們的妻子:illustres支付50英鎊的金,spectabiles的40 ,senatores sacerdotales 30,clarissimi和principales 20,的的decuriones,negotiatores,pl​​ebeii五,Circumcellions支付10英鎊的銀。 Slaves were to be reproved by their masters, coloni were to be constrained by repeated beatings.奴隸被責備他們的主人,科洛尼受制於一再毆打。 All bishops and clerics were exiled from Africa.所有的主教和神職人員被流放來自非洲。 In 414 the fines were increased for those of high rank: a proconsul, vicar, or count was fined two hundred pounds of gold, and a senator a hundred.在414的罰款增加,等級高的一個地方總督,牧師,或計數被罰款兩百斤的黃金,和一位參議員一百。 A further law was published in 428. 428發表進一步的法律。 The good Marcellinus, who had become the friend of St. Augustine, fell a victim (it is supposed) to the rancour of the Donatists; for he was put to death in 413, as though an accomplice in the revolt of Heraclius, Count of Africa, in spite of the orders of the emperor, who did not believe him guilty.馬爾好,已成為聖奧古斯丁的朋友,下跌的受害者(應該)的donatists的積怨,他被判處死刑的413,雖然Heraclius的共犯的反抗,計數非洲,儘管聽命於皇帝,誰也不敢相信他有罪。 Donatism was now discredited by the conference and proscribed by the persecuting laws of Honorius.多納圖斯派現在狗血淋會議禁止的法律挪,迫害。 The Circumcellions made some dying efforts, and a priest was killed by them at Hippo. Circumcellions取得一些垂死的努力,和一位牧師被殺害了他們在河馬。 It does not seem that the decrees were rigidly carried out, for the Donatist clergy was still found in Africa.它似乎並沒有進行嚴格的法令進行,多納神職人員仍然在非洲發現的。 The ingenious Emeritus was at Caesarea in 418, and at the wish of Pope Zosimus St. Augustine had a conference with him, without result.巧妙的名譽是在該撒利亞在418的教皇卓西姆聖奧古斯丁的願望有一個會議,他無果而終。 But on the whole Donatism was dead.但的整個多納圖斯派上已經死了。 Even before the conference the Catholic Bishops in Africa were considerably more numerous than the Donatists, except in Numidia.即使在會議召開前天主教主教團在非洲比多納多,但在努米底亞。 From the time of the invasion of the Vandals in 430 little is heard of them until the days of St. Gregory the Great, when they seem to have revived somewhat, for the pope complained to the Emperor Maurice that the laws were not strictly enforced.從入侵的汪達爾人在430小的時候聽說過他們,直到天的聖格雷戈里大時,他們似乎有些已經恢復,教皇抱怨皇帝莫里斯的法律並沒有嚴格執行。 They finally disappeared with the irruptions of the Saracens.他們的撒拉遜irruptions終於消失了。

DONATIST WRITERS多納作家

There seems to have been no lack of literary activity among the Donatists of the fourth century, though little remains to us.似乎一直不乏第四世紀多納徒之間的文學活動,雖然我們只有很少量的。 The works of Donatus the Great were known to St. Jerome, but have not been preserved.圖斯的被稱為圣杰羅姆的作品,但還沒有被保存下來。 His book on the Holy Spirit is said by that Father to have been Arian in doctrine.他的書對聖靈說,父親一直阿里安在學說。 It is possible that the Pseudo-Cyprianic "De singularitate clericorum" is by Macrobius; and the "Adversus aleatores" is by an antipope, either Donatist or Novatianist.這可能是偽Cyprianic“singularitate clericorum”是由麥克羅比亞斯,和“Adversus aleatores”是偽教皇,無論是多納或Novatianist的。 The arguments of Parmenianus and Cresconius are known to us, though their works are lost; but Monceaux has been able to restore from St. Augustine's citations short works by Petilianus of Constantine and Gaudentius of Thamugadi, and also a libellus by a certain Fulgentius, from the citations in the Pseudo-Augustinian "Contra Fulgentium Donatistam".已知的的論點,Parmenianus和Cresconius我們,雖然他們的作品失去了,但Monceaux一直能夠恢復從聖奧古斯丁的引文很短的Thamugadi康斯坦丁和Gaudentius的Petilianus的作品,也一定傅箴修libellus,從引用的偽奧古斯丁的“魂斗羅Fulgentium Donatistam”。 Of Tichonius, or Tyconius, we still possess the treatise "De Septem regulis" (PL, XVIII; new ed. by Professor Burkitt, in Cambridge "Texts and Studies", III, 1, 1894) on the interpretation of Holy Scripture.作者:Tichonius,或Tyconius的,我們仍然擁有的論文“德年九月份regulis”(PL,十八,新的編輯。伯基特教授,“劍橋文本和研究報告”,三,1,1894)的解釋聖經。 His commentary on the Apocalypse is lost; it was used by Jerome, Primasius, and Beatus in their commentaries on the same book.失去了他的啟示的評論,它使用的杰羅姆,Primasius和貝亞圖斯在他們的評論,對同一本書。 Tichonius is chiefly celebrated for his views on the Church, which were quite inconsistent with Donatism, and which Parmenianus tried to refute.主要是為慶祝Tichonius是他對教會的看法,這是完全不符合多納圖斯派,,這Parmenianus試圖反駁。 In the famous words of St. Augustine (who often refers to his illogical position and to the force with which her argued against the cardinal tenets of his own sect): "Tichonius assailed on all sides by the voices of the holy pages, awoke and saw the Church of God diffused throughout the world, as had been foreseen and foretold of her so long before by the hearts and mouths of the saints. And seeing this, he undertook to demonstrate and assert against his own party that no sin of man, however villainous and monstrous, can interfere with the promises of God, nor can any impiety of any persons within the Church cause the word of God to be made void as to the existence and diffusion of the Church to the ends of the earth, which was promised to the Fathers and now is manifest" (Contra Ep. Parmen., I, i).在聖奧古斯丁(往往指的是不合邏輯的位置和他的力量,她反對他自己的教派的大是大非的原則)的名言:“Tichonius抨擊在各方面的聲音神聖的頁面,醒了過來,看到了神的教會在世界各地擴散,已經預見和預言了她這麼久才的心和嘴的聖人。看到這種情況,他對他自己的黨進行了展示,並斷言,沒有罪的人,但是無賴,怪異,可能會干擾與神的應許,也沒有任何人在教會內引起的任何不敬上帝的話,落了空為天涯海角的存在和擴散,教會,這是答應了父親,現在是清單“(魂斗羅EP。帕門,I,I)。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息的書面由約翰·查普曼。 Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.轉錄由Anthony A.基林。 Aeterna non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.永恆非caduca天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約



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