Druzes, Druze, al-Darazi 德魯茲

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Doctrines教義

Druze beliefs deviate markedly from those of mainstream Islam, consisting of an amalgamation of Neo-Platonic, Isma'ili, and extreme Shi'ite beliefs.德魯茲人的信念顯著偏離主流伊斯蘭教,由合併的新柏拉圖,Isma'ili,和極端什葉派信仰的。 The movement derives its name from an Isma'ili missionary, al-Darazi (d.1019/20), who proclaimed the divinity of the sixth Fatimid caliph, Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021).運動源於它的名字從Isma'ili傳教士,AL-達拉日(d.1019/20),宣布第六屆的法蒂瑪王朝哈里發阿布·阿里·曼蘇爾·哈基姆(985-1021)的神。 The principal figure, however, behind the formation of the movement's beliefs was Hamzah ibn 'Ali (d. 1021) who not only taught the divinity of al-Hakim but claimed that he himself was the cosmic intellect.主要的身影,但是運動的信念的形成,背後是哈姆扎·本·阿里(卒於1021年),他不僅教的神性哈基姆,但聲稱他自己是宇宙的智慧。

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The Druzes attach particular importance to speaking the truth among themselves (although it is permissible to lie to outsiders and even to pretend to accept the religious beliefs of the ruling majority).該Druzes特別重視彼此之間說的是真話(雖然它是允許騙外人,甚至假裝接受的執政多數的宗教信仰)。 They believe that Hakim and Hamzah will return to the world and establish a just order ruled by Druzes.他們認為,哈基姆和哈姆扎將返回到世界,建立公正秩序所統治Druzes。 Some sects believe in reincarnation and the temporary manifestation of God in human form.有些教派相信輪迴和臨時表現上帝在人類的形式。 They assemble for worship on Thursdays, rather than Fridays, and reject much of Islamic legal practice.他們聚集在週四的崇拜,而不是週五,拒絕伊斯蘭法律實踐。

The Druze scripture is the Rasa'il al-hikmah (Epistles of Wisdom), most of which was composed by Hamzah's successor, Baha al-Din al-Muqtana.德魯茲派聖經是Rasa'il的AL-hikmah(書信的智慧),其中大部分是由哈姆扎的繼任者,巴哈al - Din的Muqtana。

History歷史

Druze religion has its origins in the second decade of the 11th century, when al-Darazi and Hamzah ibn Ali declared the sixth Fatimid caliph to be the incarnation of the godhead.德魯茲教派的宗教起源於11世紀的第二個十年,當達拉日和哈姆扎·伊本·阿里宣布第六屆的法蒂瑪王朝哈里發的神格的化身。 Following the death of al-Hakim in 1021 the Druze sect in Egypt was subjected to persecution and disappeared.去世後,哈基姆在1021德魯茲教派在埃及遭受迫害而消失。 The sect, however, flourished in Syria where it had been established by Darazi's followers, and reached as far as Iraq, Iran and India.該教派,但是,在敘利亞的蓬勃發展,它已成立了由達拉日的追隨者,並達成盡可能伊拉克,伊朗和印度。

During the Ottoman period the Druze were allowed to govern themselves.在奧斯曼帝國時期,德魯茲人被允許管理自己。 In the 17th and 18th centuries the sect was bitterly divided between the Qaysis and Yamanis who engaged in a series of violent conflicts with each other.在17世紀和18世紀的教派從事了一系列的暴力衝突,相互之間的Qaysis和Yamanis嚴重的分歧。 Throughout the 19th century, until the end of the first world war, the Druzes were almost continually in conflict with Maronite Christians.在整個19世紀,直到第一次世界大戰結束,Druzes幾乎不斷的衝突與馬龍派基督教徒。 The worst incident occurred in 1860 when the Druzes burned 150 Christian villages, and killed some 11,000 people.最嚴重的事件發生在1860年,當Druzes燒掉150基督教村莊,造成大約11000人死亡。

Following the end of the first world war and the collapse of the Ottoman empire the Druze, like other groups in the region, came under the jurisdiction of the European powers who took control of the Middle East.結束之後的第一次世界戰爭和崩潰的奧斯曼帝國,德魯茲人,在該地區的其他群體一樣,來到管轄下的歐洲列強誰控制了中東。 The Druzes constituted important minority groups in three of the countries that were set up in the region in the 1940s: Syria, Lebanon and Israel. Druzes構成重要的少數群體在20世紀40年代,在該地區設立的三個國家:敘利亞,黎巴嫩和以色列。 The Druzes existed in Syria as a deprived minority denied political power and many educational opportunities. Druzes存在在敘利亞作為剝奪少數剝奪政治權力和許多受教育的機會。 In 1966 fears of a possible Druze inspired coup led to the purging of Druze officers from the Syrian army and the persecution of the Druzes, causing many to flee to the Lebanon and Jordan.在1966年的擔憂可能的德魯茲靈感政變導致德魯茲人員從敘利亞軍隊和迫害的Druzes的清洗,導致許多人逃離黎巴嫩和約旦。 The capture of the Golan heights by Israel in 1973 led to the further depletion of the Druze population of Syria.在1973年捕獲的戈蘭高地被以色列對敘利亞的德魯茲人口的進一步枯竭。

In Lebanon the history of the Druze has very much been tied up with the unfortunate history of the country.在黎巴嫩德魯茲的歷史非常被捆綁的不幸歷史的國家。 During the first twenty-five years of the country's history the various religious groups succeeded in coexisting without conflict.在第一25年的國家的歷史,各種不同的宗教群體成功地共存,而不會發生衝突。 However, the denial of effective political power to Lebanon's Muslims by the Christian majority led to the outbreak of civil war in 1958 and in 1975.然而,有效的政治權力,黎巴嫩的穆斯林拒絕導致內戰爆發於1958年,並於1975年由基督教多數。 One important consequence of the post-1975 conflict for the Druzes of Lebanon was the establishment of links between themselves and the Druzes of Syria and Israel as these two countries became involved in Lebanon's civil war. 1975年後為黎巴嫩的Druzes的衝突的一個重要後果是建立自己和Druzes敘利亞和以色列之間的聯繫,因為這兩個國家參與在黎巴嫩內戰。

The Druzes of Israel have enjoyed the most stability and prosperity of all the Middle Eastern Druze communities.以色列的Druzes享有的所有中東德魯茲教派最穩定和繁榮。 Of all the non-Jewish communities in Israel the Druzes have been the most loyal to the state.所有在以色列的非猶太人社區的的Druzes一直是最忠誠的狀態。 The refusal of the Druzes to involve themselves in the Arab-Israeli conflict and the loyalty of the majority of the Druzes to the state of Israel has led them to be treated relatively favourably by the Israeli authorities.拒絕的Druzes涉及到自己在阿拉伯 - 以色列衝突和忠誠度的多數的Druzes,以色列的狀態,導致他們被視為相對有利,以色列當局。

Symbols符號

The main symbol of the Druzes is the five-pointed star.的Druzes的主要標誌是五角星。 This can often be found outside Druze shrines.這通常可以發現外面德魯茲教派的聖地。

Adherents遺民

It is difficult to say with accuracy what the global population of the Druze community is.這是很難準確說,全球人口的德魯茲社區是什麼。 In Syria the Druzes number about 260,000 (Makarem 1974, 3); in Jordan about 3,000 (ibid); in Israel 89,300 (Europa Publications Ltd. I 1996, 1679); and in Lebanon 250,000 (Europa Publications Ltd., II 1996).在敘利亞的Druzes的人數大約為26萬(3)Makarem 1974年,在約旦約3000(同上);在以色列89,300(歐洲出版有限公司我1996年,1679年);和250,000在黎巴嫩(歐洲出版有限公司1996年,II)。 Small Druze communities also exist in the United States, Canada, Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Australia.小的德魯茲教派也存在於美國,加拿大,巴西,墨西哥,阿根廷和澳大利亞。

Headquarters / Main Centre總部/主要中心

There are numerous Druze centres in the Middle East.有許多德魯茲中心在中東。 In Syria the Druze population is concentrated in the Jabal Al-Duruz region which borders Jordan and Israel.在敘利亞的德魯茲人口主要集中在約旦和以色列接壤的Jabal al-Duruz地區。 In Lebanon they are concentrated in the centre of the country to t he east of Beirut.在黎巴嫩,他們都集中在國家,貝魯特東部的中心。 In Israel they are concentrated in Galilee.在以色列,他們都集中在加利利。

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Druzes Druzes

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Small Mohammedan sect in Syria, notorious for their opposition to the Marionites, a Catholic people dwelling on the slopes of the Lebanon.小伊斯蘭教教派在敘利亞,他們反對的Marionites,天主教的人居住在山坡上的黎巴嫩臭名昭著。 Their name is derived as a plural form of Dorazy, the proper name of a Persian at the court of El Hakim in Egypt (about 1015).他們的名字派生的複數形式Dorazy的波斯在法庭上的El哈基姆在埃及(1015),正確的名稱。 They subsequently repudiated all connection with this Mohammed Ibn Ismail el-Dorazy, and styled themselves Unitarians, or Muwahhedin, on account of the emphasis they lay on the unity of God.他們隨後否認穆罕默德·伊本·伊斯梅爾el-Dorazy的所有連接,並稱呼了自己的一神論,或Muwahhedin,他們考慮的重點在於神的統一。 Their history begins with the arrival of Dorazy in the Wady el-Teim, after his flight from Egypt.開始河道谷el-Teim的的到來的Dorazy在他們的歷史,從埃及後,他的飛行。 This Persian had had the audacity to read to a large multitude in a mosque a book tending to prove that El Hakim, the mad Fatimite caliph, was an incarnation of God.這波斯語不得不厚顏無恥地閱讀到眾多的清真寺一本書傾向於證明了,薩爾瓦多哈基姆,狂Fatimite的哈里發,是一個神的化身。 Escaping from the crowd, who were enraged at this blasphemy, he fled to the valley between Hermon and the Southern Lebanon, and with the support of his master preached his doctrine to these mountaineers, already given to Batenite doctrine and therefore predisposed to accept a further incarnation of the Deity.逃離的人群,他們被激怒了在這褻瀆,他逃到黑門山之間的谷地和​​黎巴嫩南部,宣揚他的學說與他的主人的支持,這些登山者,已經給Batenite學說,因此傾向於接受進一步道成肉身的神。 He was soon superseded by another Persian, Hamzeh Ibn Ahmed El Hady, who became the real founder of the sect and the author of its sacred books.他很快就被另一位波斯,哈姆澤·伊本·艾哈邁德·哈代,成為真正的創始人,該教派的神聖的書籍和作者。 After the assassination of El Hakim, Hamzeh wrote a treatise to prove that El Hakim had not really died but only disappeared to test the faith of his followers.的El哈基姆被暗殺後,,哈姆澤寫了一篇論文,證明,薩爾瓦多哈基姆 - 不是真的死了,但只消失,以測試他的追隨者的信仰。 This disappearance and ultimate return of El Hakim are the cardinal points of the Druze faith today.這消失的El哈基姆和最終的回報是今天的德魯茲人的信仰的基本點。 The sacred books of the Druzes, successfully hidden from the world for eight centuries, have since the middle of the last century found their way into European libraries.神聖的的Druzes的書籍,成功的隱藏了八個世紀的世界,在上個世紀​​中期以來,發現他們的方式進入歐洲的圖書館。 They are written in Arabic and effect the style of the Koran.他們用阿拉伯文寫的,和對“可蘭經”的風格。 They consist of six volumes containing 111 treatises of a controversial character or explanatory epistles to individual persons.他們包括六冊,包含111論文的一個有爭議的人物或解釋書信個人。 Each book takes its name from its first treatise.每本書的名字從第一次的論文。 Their speculations strongly reflect their Persian origin.他們的的猜測強烈反映他們的波斯的起源。

The Druze doctrine concerning God is characterized by its abstraction from all Divine attributes; these, it declares, would imply limitation in the Supreme Being.德魯茲主義關於上帝的特點是它的抽象所有的神的屬性,它宣布,將意味著在最高法院被限制。 God, however, manifested Himself first in the Universal Mind, then in the Universal Soul, and again in the Word.上帝,然而,第一次表現自己的宇宙精神,然後在通用的靈魂,並再次在Word中。 These three form the first great manifestation.這三種形式的第一個偉大的表現。 The second great manifestation began with the residence of the Universal mind in Adam for a thousand years; after which Enoch took his place, and in turn was followed by the seven ministers, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus, Mohammed, Ibn Ishmail; the seventh is unknown.的第二大表現在亞當的居住條件的普遍心態開始了一千多年後,諾了他的位置,和,其次依次由七位部長,諾亞,亞伯拉罕,摩西,耶穌,穆罕默德·伊本·Ishmail;的七是未知之數。 God appeared ten times in human form, for the last time in El Hakim.神以人的形式出現了10次,最後一次在El哈基姆。 The Druzes teach a distinction between Jesus, the son of Joseph, and the Christ. Druzes教,約瑟的兒子,耶穌與基督之間的區別。 Christ instructed Jesus, but finally Jesus disobeyed Christ and was crucified in consequence.基督指示耶穌,耶穌,但最終違背了基督被釘在十字架上的後果。 Christ, who was concealed under the form of one of the disciples of Jesus, stole the body of Jesus from the grave, and gave out the report that Christ had risen, in order that the true Druzes might be concealed for awhile in the religion of Jesus.基督,誰是耶穌的門徒之一的形式下掩蓋,偷走了耶穌的身體從墳墓,並給出了報告,基督已經復活了,為了一段時間,可能會被掩蓋的宗教,真正的Druzes耶穌。 The Druzes are firm believers in the transmigration of souls, and this transmigration will never end; after the Judgment Day death will continue, but it will be painless for the saved, who will live to the age of 120 years, and whose souls will forthwith be reborn and re-enter a life of peace and pleasure.的Druzes的輪迴的靈魂是堅定的信徒,這個輪迴永遠不會結束的審判日死亡後會繼續,但是這將是無痛的保存,誰將會活到120年的年齡,其靈魂將隨即獲得重生,並重新進入和平與快樂的生活。 The Druze are unshakably convinced that the whole of China is peopled with adherents of their religion.德魯茲人都堅定不移地相信,整個中國的信奉他們的宗教的人。 The Judgment Day, or rather the golden age for the Druzes, will be at hand when the Christians wax greater than the Mohammedans, some nine hundred years after the disappearance of El Hakim.在審判之日,或者更確切地說,黃金時代的Druzes,將在手時的基督徒蠟大於伊斯蘭教的,後一些900年,薩爾瓦多哈基姆的消失。 Then the Christians, aided by the King of Abyssinia, a sort of Antichrist named "The Antagonist", will march against the Caaba in Mecca.然後基督徒,阿比西尼亞國王的幫助下,名為“拮抗劑”的一種反基督者,將進軍對的Caaba的在麥加。 The hosts of Christ and Mohammed will meet, but only to be both overcome by 2,500,000 Chinese Druzes.基督和穆罕默德的主機見面會,但,只有向既克服2,500,000中國Druzes的。 Moslems and Christians will both be reduced to everlasting slavery, and the Unitarians will reign forever.穆斯林和基督教徒都將被降低到永恆的奴役,和一神論者作王,直到永永遠。 The Druze religion contains several moral precepts: veracity, love of the brethren, forsaking of idolatry, repudiation of devils, acknowledgement of God's unity at all times, secrecy in religion, and resignation to the will of God.德魯茲宗教包含幾個道德戒律:真實性,愛弟兄,放棄偶像崇拜的,不可否認的魔鬼,在任何時候都承認神的統一,保密,在宗教,和神的旨意辭職。

The Druzes are divided into two main classes: the Ukkal, or initiated, and the Juhhal, or uninitiated; among the former the Iwayid profess the strictest Druze principles. Druzes是分為兩大類:的Ukkal,或發起,並的Juhhal,或門外漢,其中前者的Iwayid自稱最嚴格的德魯茲原則。 They meet on Thursday evenings for worship, which consists almost exclusively in reading their sacred books.他們滿足於週四晚上的崇拜,幾乎完全由在讀他們的神聖的書籍。 They often comply with the outward observances of Islam and even make pretense of being Mohammedans, but they are officially designated as unbelievers.他們往往遵守向外紀念活動對伊斯蘭教,甚至是伊斯蘭教的幌子,但他們被正式指定為不信。 They live mostly in Lebanon, but are also found in the Hauran and in the districts near Damascus; their total number is estimated at 100,000 or a few thousand more.他們大多​​居住在黎巴嫩,但也發現在Hauran和在大馬士革附近地區的,他們的總人數估計在10萬或幾千。 Encouraged by Turkish authorities, the Druze in 1860 attacked the Catholic Marionites, and are said to have massacred some ten thousand of them.土耳其當局的鼓勵下,1860年的德魯茲人在襲擊的天主教Marionites,並屠殺了大約10000。 The massacres were stayed mainly through English and French intervention.被擱置的大屠殺,主要是通過英語和法語的干預。

Publication information Written by JP Arendzen.出版信息作者:JP Arendzen。 Transcribed by M. Donahue.轉錄由M.多納休。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

Wortabet, Researchers into the Religions of Syria (London, 1860); Churchill, the Druze and Marionites (London, 1862); Socin in Realencyk.für prof. Wortabet,到敘利亞的宗教(倫敦,1860年);丘吉爾,德魯茲派和Marionites的(倫敦,1862年); Socin在Realencyk.für教授的研究人員。 Theol. theol的 (Leipzig, 1898), sv Drusen; Neumann, Das Volk des Drusen (Vienna, 1878). (萊比錫,1898年),SV玻璃膜疣,:紐曼,DAS,沃爾克德玻璃膜疣(維也納,1878年)。



Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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