Eastern Church東方教會

General Information 一般資料

Eastern Church is a general term for the various ancient Christian communions of the Middle East and Eastern Europe, of which three groups remain today.東方教會是一個通用術語,中東和東歐,其中有三組留到今天的各種古老的基督教聖餐。

The earliest decisive split in Christendom took place in 451 as a result of the Council of Chalcedon, which was called to consider the claims of the Monophysites (see Monophysitism).最早的決定性分裂基督教發生在451 Chalcedon委員會,這是所謂的該monophysites考慮索賠(見基督一性)的結果。 The churches that rejected the statement of faith adopted by the council are the Armenian church, the Coptic church of Alexandria, the Ethiopian church, the Syrian church, and the Syrian church in India.教會否決安理會通過聲明的信仰的亞美尼亞教堂,亞歷山大的科普特教會,埃塞俄比亞教會,敘利亞教會,敘利亞教會在印度。 Sometimes known as the Oriental Orthodox , these churches today include more than 22 million members.有時也被稱為東方東正教 ,這些教會今天,有超過22萬的會員。

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The largest body, the Orthodox church , is in communion with the ecumenical patriarchate of Constantinople (Ýstanbul, Turkey).體量最大的東正教教堂 ,是在共融與君士坦丁堡普世牧首的(Ýstanbul,土耳其)。

A third group of churches is known collectively as Eastern Rite churches , which recognize the authority of the Roman Catholic church.第三組的教堂被統稱為東部成年禮的教會 ,承認羅馬天主教會的權威。


Eastern Church東方教會

Advanced Information - Catholic Perspective 先進的信息-天主教透視

(Editor's Note: This article from the Catholic Encyclopedia includes fairly severe biases toward the Catholic Church and against Protestants and the Orthodox Church and other Churches, and would normally be eliminated from consideration for BELIEVE for that reason. However, it is a thorough and accurate discussion of many subjects associated with Eastern Churches, and we felt it beneficial to include it, until a better presentation is found.) (編者按:本文從天主教百科全書,包括相當嚴重的偏見朝著天主教會和反對新教徒和東正教教會和其他教會,並會通常被淘汰審議相信因為這個原因。但是,它是一個全面的和準確的東方教會與多學科的討論,我們認為這有利於包括它,直到找到一個更好的演示文稿。)

I. DEFINITION OF AN EASTERN CHURCH一,定義一個東方的教會

An accident of political development has made it possible to divide the Christian world, in the first place, into two great halves, Eastern and Western.意外的政治發展使人們有可能分裂的基督教世界,擺在首位,到兩個偉大的一半,東部和西部。 The root of this division is, roughly and broadly speaking, the division of the Roman Empire made first by Diocletian (284-305), and again by the sons of Theodosius I (Arcadius in the East, 395-408; and Honorius in the West, 395-423), then finally made permanent by the establishment of a rival empire in the West (Charlemagne, 800).這個師是根,大約從廣義上講,在羅馬帝國的分裂第一戴克里先(284-305),再由狄奧多西一世的兒子(Arcadius在東,395-408;挪,在西395-423),然後終於有了永久的建立的對手查理曼帝國在西方(800)的。 The division of Eastern and Western Churches, then, in its origin corresponds to that of the empire.東方和西方教會的分裂,那麼,在其原產地的帝國。

Western Churches are those that either gravitate around Rome or broke away from her at the Reformation.西方的教堂是那些可以依據周圍羅馬或脫離她的改革。 Eastern Churches depend originally on the Eastern Empire at Constantinople; they are those that either find their centre in the patriarchate of that city (since the centralization of the fourth century) or have been formed by schisms which in the first instance concerned Constantinople rather than the Western world.東方教會取決於原先在君士坦丁堡的東羅馬帝國,他們是那些要么找到自己的那個城市的東正教中心的第四個世紀以來的集中或已形成在一審關注君士坦丁堡,而不是分裂西方世界。

Another distinction, that can be applied only in the most general and broadest sense, is that of language.另一個區別,也可以只適用於在最普遍和廣泛的意義上說,是語言。 Western Christendom till the Reformation was Latin; even now the Protestant bodies still bear unmistakably the mark of their Latin ancestry.西方基督教,直到改革是拉丁語,即使是現在,的新教團體仍然承擔著明白無誤地拉丁血統的標誌。 It was the great Latin Fathers and Schoolmen, St. Augustine (d. 430) most of all, who built up the traditions of the West; in ritual and canon law the Latin or Roman school formed the West.這是偉大的拉丁教父和schoolmen,聖奧古斯丁(四430)最重要的是,建立西方的傳統儀式和教會法的拉丁語或羅馬學校形成了西方。 In a still broader sense the East may be called Greek.在更廣泛的意義上可以稱為東方的希臘。 True, many Eastern Churches know nothing of Greek; the oldest (Nestorians, Armenians, Abyssinians) have never used Greek liturgically nor for their literature; nevertheless they too depend in some sense on a Greek tradition.誠然,許多東方教會什麼都不知道,希臘最古老的(景教徒,亞美尼亞人,阿比西尼亞)從來沒有使用過希臘語liturgically也為他們的文學,但他們太依賴在一定程度上在希臘的傳統。 Whereas our Latin Fathers have never concerned them at all (most Eastern Christians have never even heard of our schoolmen or canonists), they still feel the influence of the Greek Fathers, their theology is still concerned about controversies carried on originally in Greek and settled by Greek synods.而我們的拉丁教父從來沒有關心他們(最東部基督徒從來沒有聽說過,我們院學者或聖典),他們還是覺得希臘的父親的影響,他們的神學仍然關注爭議進行最初在希臘及交收希臘主教會議。 The literature of those that do not use Greek is formed on Greek models, is full of words carefully chosen or composed to correspond to some technical Greek distinction, then, in the broadest terms, is: that a Western Church is one originally dependent on Rome, whose traditions are Latin; an Eastern Church looks rather to Constantinople (either as a friend or an enemy) and inherits Greek ideas.那些不使用希臘希臘模型上形成的文學作品,是的話精心挑選或由對應於希臘一些技術上的區別,那麼,在最廣泛的是:西方的教會是一個原本依賴於羅馬,其傳統拉丁語,東方教會看起來相當君士坦丁堡(無論是作為朋友還是敵人),並繼承了希臘的思想。

The point may be stated more scientifically by using the old division of the patriarchates.這一點可能說明更科學地使用舊的主教的職位分工。 Originally (eg at the Council of Nicaea, AD 325, can. vi) there were three patriarchates, those of Rome, Alexandria, and Antioch.最初(例如,公元325年的尼西亞會議,六)有三個主教的職位,羅馬,亞歷山大和安提阿的。 Further legislation formed two more at the expense of Antioch: Constantinople in 381 and Jerusalem in 451.進一步的立法形成兩個以上在安提阿的費用:381年君士坦丁堡和耶路撒冷在451。 In any case the Roman patriarchate was always enormously the greatest. Western Christendom may be defined quite simply as the Roman patriarchate and all Churches that have broken away from it.在任何情況下,羅馬主教的職位總是極大地最大的。 西方基督教的羅馬主教的職位和遠離它打破所有教會可以定義很簡單。 All the others, with schismatical bodies formed from them, make up the Eastern half. But it must not be imaged that either half is in any sense one Church. 所有的人,從他們形成與分裂的機構,彌補東部的一半,但它不能進行成像,其中一半是在任何意義上,一個教會。 The Latin half was so (in spite of a few unimportant schisms) till the Reformation.拉丁一半是如此(儘管一些不重要的分裂),直到改革。 To find a time when there was one Eastern Church we must go back to the centuries before the Council of Ephesus (431).要查找的時候,有一個東方教會我們必須回到百年之前,安理會的以弗所(431)。 Since that council there have been separate schismatical Eastern Churches whose number has grown steadily down to our own time.從那時起,該局已經有獨立的分裂的東方教會,他們的人數一直穩步增長,為我們自己的時間。 The Nestorian heresy left a permanent Nestorian Church, the Monophysite and Monothelite quarrels made several more, the reunion with Rome of fractions of every Rite further increased the number, and quite lately the Bulgarian schism has created yet another; indeed it seems as if two more, in Cyprus and Syria, are being formed at the present moment (1908).景教異端留下了永久的景教教會,基督一性和Monothelite爭吵幾個零碎的每一個成年禮,親人團聚的羅馬進一步增加了不少,而且最近,保加利亞分裂又一次創造了,事實上,它看起來好像兩個在塞浦路斯和敘利亞,在目前(1908年)正在形成。

We have now a general criterion by which to answer the question: What is an Eastern Church?我們現在有一個普遍的標準來回答這個問題:什麼是東方教會? Looking at a map, we see that, roughly, the division between the Roman patriarchate and the others forms a line that runs down somewhat to the east of the River Vistula (Poland is Latin), then comes back above the Danube, to continue down the Adriatic Sea, and finally divides Africa west of Egypt.看地圖,我們可以看到,大概,羅馬主教的職位和其他部門之間形成了一個線運行了一些東部的河流維斯瓦河(波蘭是拉丁),然後回來多瑙河之上,繼續向下亞得里亞海,並最終將非洲埃及以西的。 Illyricum (Macedonia and Greece) once belonged to the Roman patriarchate, and Greater Greece (Southern Italy and Sicily) was intermittently Byzantine.伊利里庫姆(馬其頓和希臘)曾經屬於羅馬牧首,大希臘(意大利南部和西西里島)是間歇性拜占庭式的。 But both these lands eventually fell back into the branches that surrounded them (except for the thin remnant of the Catholic Italo-Greeks).但是,這些土地最終回落到分支包圍(除了薄殘餘的天主教意大利 - 希臘)。 We may, then, say that any ancient Church east of that line is an Eastern Church.可能的話,我們說,任何該行是一個古老的教堂東東方教會。 To these we must add those formed by missionaries (especially Russians) from one of these Churches.這些問題,我們必須添加從這些教會的傳教士(特別是俄羅斯)所形成的。 Later Latin and Protestant missions have further complicated the tangled state of the ecclesiastical East.後來拉丁美洲和傳教的教會東進一步複雜糾結的狀態。 Their adherents everywhere belong of course to the Western portion.他們的追隨者到處當然屬於西部的部分。

II. II。 CATALOGUE OF THE EASTERN CHURCHES東方教會的目錄

It is now possible to draw up the list of bodies that answer to our definition.現在可以回答我們的定義列表中的機構。 We have already noted that they are by no means all in communion with each other, nor have they any common basis of language, rite or faith.我們已經指出,他們絕不是所有的共融與對方,也沒有任何語言,儀式或信仰的共同基礎。 All are covered by a division into the great Orthodox Church , those formed by the Nestorian and Monophysite heresies (the original Monothelites are now all Eastern-Rite Catholics), and lastly the Catholic Eastern Rites corresponding in each case to a schismatical body.一個部門的偉大的東正教教堂 ,由景教和monophysite異端邪說 (原Monothelites現在都東區-成年禮天主教徒),並最後天主教東方禮儀相應的在每一種情況下,一個分裂的身體全部覆蓋。

Theologically, to Catholics, the vital distinction is between Eastern Catholic, on the one hand, and schismatics or heretics, on the other.神學上,天主教徒,重要的區別是東方天主教會之間,一方面,schismatics或異教徒,另一方面。 But it is not convenient to start from this basis in cataloguing Eastern Churches.但它並不方便,從這個基礎上,編目東方教會。 Historically and archeologically, it is a secondary question.歷史和考古學,它是一個次要的問題。 Each Catholic body has been formed from one of the schismatical ones; their organizations are comparatively late, dating in most cases from the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.每一個天主教機構已經形成了從分裂的那些之一,他們的組織是比較晚的,在大多數情況下,從十六世紀和十七世紀的約會。 Moreover, although all these Eastern-Rite Catholics of course agrees in the same Catholic Faith we profess, they are not organized as one body.此外,儘管所有這些東歐 - 成年禮天主教徒當然同意我們的在同一個信仰天主教,他們沒有組織成為一體。 Each branch keeps the rites (with in some cases modifications made at Rome for dogmatic reasons) of the corresponding schismatical body, and has an organization modelled on the same plan.每個分支相應的分裂的身體保持的儀式(在某些情況下所做的修改在羅馬為教條的原因),並有一個組織為藍本,同樣的計劃。 In faith a Catholic Armenian, for instance, is joined to Catholic Chaldees and Copts, and has no more to do with the schismatical Armenians than with Nestorians or Abyssinians.在信仰天主教的亞美尼亞人,例如,加入天主教的迦勒底和科普特人,並有更多的工作要做與分裂的亞美尼亞比景教或阿比西尼亞。 Nor does he forget this fact.他也沒有忘記這一點。 He knows quite well that he is a Catholic in union with the Pope of Rome, and that he is equally in union with every other Catholic.很清楚,他知道他是一個天主教在聯盟與羅馬教皇,和他同樣是在工會與其他所有的天主教徒。 Nevertheless, national customs, languages, and rites tell very strongly on the superficies, and our Catholic Armenian would certainly feel very much more at home in a non-Catholic church of his own nation than in a Coptic Catholic, or even Latin, church.然而,民族風俗,語言和禮儀告訴非常強烈的地上,和我們的亞美尼亞天主教一定會感到非常在家中他自己的一個非天主教國家比一個科普特天主教,甚至是拉丁語,教堂。

Outwardly, the bond of a common language and common liturgy is often the essential and radical division of a schism.從表面上看,債券的共同語言和共同的禮儀師的分裂往往是必要的,激進的。 Indeed these Eastern Catholic bodies in many cases still faintly reflect the divisions of their schismatical relations.事實上,在許多情況下,這些東方的天主教團體的分歧仍依稀反映其分裂的關係。 What in one case is a schism (as for instance between Orthodox and Jacobites) still remains as a not very friendly feeling between the different Eastern Catholic Churches (in this case Melkites and Catholic Syrians).在一種情況下是一個分裂(例如東正教和jacobites之間)仍然作為一個不是很親切的感覺,東方教會之間的不同(在這種情況下Melkites和天主教敘利亞人)。 Certainly, such feeling is a very different thing from formal schism, and the leaders of the Eastern Catholic Churches, we well as all their more intelligent members and all their well-wishers, earnestly strive to repress it.當然,這樣的感覺是一個非常不同的事情,從正式分裂,東方教會的領導人,以及所有他們更智能的成員和他們所有的好心人,認真努力壓抑它。 Nevertheless, quarrels between various Eastern Catholic bodies fill up too large a portion of Eastern Church history to be ignored; still, to take another instance, anyone who knows Syria knows that the friendship between Melkites and Maronites is not enthusiastic.然而,各種東方的天主教團體之間的爭吵填補了過大的部分被忽略的東方教會歷史,仍然採取的另一個實例,誰知道敘​​利亞的人都知道,Melkites和馬龍派教徒之間的友誼是積極性不高。 It will be seen, then, that for purposes of tabulation we cannot conveniently begin by cataloguing the Catholic bodies on the one side and then classing the schismatics together on the other.然後,人們將會看到,製表的目的,我們不能方便通過編目天主教機構的一側上,然後分級schismatics一起其他開始。 We must arrange these Churches according to their historical basis and origin: first, the larger and older schismatical Churches; then, side by side with each of these, the corresponding Eastern-Rite Catholic Church formed out of the schismatics in later times.我們必須安排根據他們的歷史基礎和起源:第一,較大及以上分裂的教會,這些教會的,那麼,側側與這些,形成相應的東部成年禮的天主教教會schismatics在以後的時間。

A. Schismatical Churches A.分裂的教會

1. 1。 Orthodox正統
The first of the Eastern Churches in size and importance is the great Orthodox Church.第一東方教會的規模和重要性是偉大的東正教教堂。 This is, after that of the Catholics, considerably the largest body in Christendom.之後的天主教徒,這是相當大的體量最大的基督教。 The Orthodox Church now counts about a hundred millions of members.東正教教堂,現在數以百萬計的約一百名成員。 It is the main body of Eastern Christendom, that remained faithful to the decrees of Ephesus and Calcedon when Nestorianism and Monophysitism cut away the national Churches in Syria and Egypt.它的主體是東基督教,仍然忠實的以弗所和Calcedon的法令時,景教和基督一性切去國家的教會在敘利亞和埃及。 It remained in union with the West till the great schism of Photius and then that of Caerularius, in the ninth and eleventh centuries.它仍然在工會與西方,直到偉大的分裂的photius,然後,Caerularius,在第九和第十一世紀。 In spite of the short-lived reunions made by the Second Council of Lyons (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439), this Church has been in schism ever since.儘管由第二屆理事會萊昂斯(1274)和佛羅倫薩(1439年)理事會短命的團聚,這個教會一直以來在分裂。

The "Orthodox" (it is convenient as well as courteous to call them by the name they use as a technical one for themselves) originally comprised the four Eastern patriarchates: Alexandria and Antioch, then Constantinople and Jerusalem. “正統派”(這是既方便,也有禮貌叫他們的名字,他們用自己的技術為)最初由四個東部主教的職位:亞歷山大和安提阿,君士坦丁堡和耶路撒冷。 But the balance between these four patriarchates was soon upset.但是,這四個主教的職位之間的平衡很快就被打亂了。 The Church of Cyprus was taken away from Antioch and made autocephalous (ie, extra-patriarchal) by the Council of Ephesus (431).塞浦路斯教會被帶走,從安提阿和獨立的(即,額外的宗法)安理會的以弗所(431)。 Then, in the fifth century, came the great upheavals of Nestorianism and Monophysitism, of which the result was that enormous numbers of Syrians and Egyptians fell away into schism.然後,在第五世紀,來到景教和基督一性,其結果是巨大的敘利亞人和埃及人下跌到分裂的大動盪。 So the Patriarchs of Antioch, Jerusalem (this was always a very small and comparatively unimportant centre), and Alexandria, losing most of its subjects, inevitably sank in importance.因此patriarchs的安提阿,耶路撒冷(這是一個非常小的和相對不重要的中心)和亞歷山大,失去了它的主題,不可避免地沉沒的重要性。 The Moslem conquest of their lands completed their ruin, so that they became the merest shadows of what their predecessors had once been.穆斯林征服他們的土地完成了他們的毀滅,使他們成為他們的前輩曾經是微薄的陰影。

Meanwhile Constantinople, honoured by the presence of the emperor, and always sure of his favour, rose rapidly in importance.同時君士坦丁堡,尊敬的皇帝的存在,並確保他的青睞,迅速上升的重要性。 Itself a new see, neither Apostolic nor primitive (the first Bishop of Byzantium was Metrophanes in 325), it succeeded so well in its ambitious career that for a short time after the great Eastern schism it seemed as if the Patriarch of the New Rome would take the same place over the Orthodox Church as did his rival the Pope of the Old Rome over Catholics.本身就是一個新的看,無論是使徒的也不原始的(拜占庭帝國的第一位主教Metrophanes 325),它成功地如此之好,其雄心勃勃的事業,偉大的東方分裂後很短的時間,好​​像新羅馬的主教在東正教採取同樣的地方,他的對手超過天主教徒的舊羅馬教皇。 It is also well known that it was this insatiable ambition of Constantinople that was chiefly responsible for the schism of the ninth and eleventh centuries.這也是眾所周知的,正是這種永不滿足的野心的君士坦丁堡,主要負責第九和第十一世紀的分裂。 The Turkish conquest, strangely enough, still further strengthened the power of the Byzantine patriarch, inasmuch as the Turks acknowledged him as the civil head of what they called the "Roman nation" ( Rum millet ), meaning thereby the whole Orthodox community of whatever patriarchate.奇怪的是,土耳其征服,進一步加大了對拜占庭式的族長,因為土耳其人承認他作為公務員的首長,他們所謂的“羅馬民族”( 朗姆酒小米 ),這意味著任何的東正教從而使整個東正教社區。 For about a century Constantinople enjoyed her power.大約一個世紀,君士坦丁堡喜歡她的力量。

The other patriarchs were content to be her vassals, many of them even came to spend their useless lives as ornaments of the chief patriarch's court, while Cyprus protested faintly and ineffectually that she was subject to no patriarch.其他的先祖內容是她的附庸,很多人甚至花了無用的生命作為裝飾品的首席族長的法院,而塞浦路斯抗議依稀徒勞,她沒有族長。 The bishop who had climbed to so high a place by a long course of degrading intrigue could for a little time justify in the Orthodox world his usurped title of Ecumenical Patriarch.主教一個長期的過程有辱人格的陰謀已攀升至如此高的地方,可以在東正教世界的一點點時間證明他的篡奪的普世牧首。 Then came his fall; since the sixteenth century he has lost one province after another, till now he too is only a shadow of what he once was, and the real power of the Orthodox body is in the new independent national Churches with their "holy Synods"; while high over all looms the shadow of Russia.之後,他下降;自16世紀以來,他已經失去了一個省,此起彼伏,到現在他也只是一個影子,他曾經是什麼,和真正的力量是在新的獨立的國家教會與他們的“神聖的東正教身體主教會議“,而高過所有織機俄羅斯的影子。 The separation of the various national Orthodox Churches from the patriarch of Constantinople forms the only important chapter in the modern history of this body.各個國家的東正教教堂,君士坦丁堡牧首的分離,形成本機構在近代歷史上唯一重要的一章。

The principle is always the same.其原理是總是相同的。 More and more has the idea obtained that political modifications should be followed by the Church, that is to say that the Church of an independent State must be itself independent of the patriarch.越來越多的想法得到了政治的修改應遵循的教會,說這是一個獨立的國家,教會必須是獨立的族長。 This by no means implies real independence for the national Church; on the contrary, in each case the much severer rule of the Government is substituted for the distant authority of the Ecumenical Patriarch.這決不意味著真正的獨立的國家教會,相反,在每一種情況下多得到政府的嚴厲規則取代了遙遠的權威,普世牧首。

Outside the Turkish Empire, in Russia and the Balkan States, the Orthodox Churches are shamelessly Erastian -- by far the most Erastian of all Christian bodies.在俄羅斯和巴爾幹國家,土耳其帝國外,東正教會是無恥地伊拉斯特派 - 迄今為止最伊拉斯特派所有的基督教團體。 The process began when the great Church of Russia was declared autocephalous by the Czar Feodor Ivanovitch, in 1589.這個過程開始時,偉大的俄羅斯宣布獨立的教會,在1589年由沙皇費奧多·伊万諾維奇。 Jeremias II of Constantinople took a bribe to acknowledge its independence.赫雷米亞斯II君士坦丁堡賄賂承認其獨立。 Peter the Great abolished the Russian patriarchate (of Moscow) and set up a "Holy Governing Synod" to rule the national Church in 1721.彼得大帝廢除了俄羅斯的東正教(莫斯科),並成立了“聖治在1721年的議會”統治國家的教會。 The Holy Synod is simply a department of the government through which the czar rules over his Church as absolutely as over his army and navy.聖主教,僅僅是政府的一個部門,沙皇在他的教會的規則,絕對超過他的陸軍和海軍。 The independence of Russia and its Holy Synod has since been copied by each Balkan State.俄羅斯和聖主教已經被複製的每個巴爾幹國家的獨立。 But this independence does not mean schism.但這種獨立性並不意味著分裂。 Its first announcement is naturally very distasteful to the patriarch and his court.它的第一個公告,自然是很討厭的族長和他的法院。 He often begins by excommunicating the new national Church root and branch.他經常開始新的國家教會開除的根源及分支。

But in each case he has been obliged to give in finally and to acknowledge one more "Sister in Christ" in the Holy Synod that has displaced his authority.但在每一種情況下,他被迫在最後,並承認在基督裡多了一個“姐姐”在聖主教已經取代了他的權威。 Only in the specially difficult and bitter case of the Bulgarian Church has a permanent schism resulted.只有在特別困難的和痛苦的情況下,保加利亞教會有一個永久分裂造成的。 Other causes have led to the establishment of a few other independent Churches, so that now the great Orthodox communion consists of sixteen independent Churches, each of which (except that of the Bulgars) is recognized by, and in communion with, the others.其他原因導致的其他幾個獨立的教會建立,所以,現在的偉大的東正教聖餐由16個獨立的教會,是公認的(除保加利亞),和交流,其他。

These Churches are這些教會都

This ends the list of allied bodies that make up the Orthodox Church.這將結束專職機構,使東正教列表。 Next come, in order of date, the old heretical Eastern Churches.接下來是,按日期順序,老異端的東方教會。

2. 2。 Nestorians景教
2. 2。 Nestorians景教
The Nestorians are now only a pitiful remnant of what was once a great Church.曾經是一個偉大的教會,景教現在只有可憐巴巴的殘餘。 Long before the heresy from which they have their name, there was a flourishing Christian community in Chaldea and Mesopotamia.很久以前的異端邪說,他們有他們的名字,有一個蓬勃發展的基督教社區在迦勒底與美索不達米亞。 According to their tradition it was founded by Addai and Mari (Addeus and Maris), two of the seventy-two Disciples.根據他們的傳統,它是由Addai和馬里(Addeus和Maris)的72門徒,兩個。 The present Nestorians count Mar Mari as the first Bishop of Ctesiphon and predecessor of their patriarch.本景教數月馬里的第一位主教泰西封和前任他們的族長。 In any case this community was originally subject to the Patriarch of Antioch.在任何情況下,這個社會本來是受家長的安提阿。 As his vicar, the metropolitan of the twin-cities of Seleucia and Ctesiphon (on either side of the Tigris, north-east of Babylon) bore the title of catholicos.他的副主教,雙城市的塞琉西亞和泰西封的底格里斯河上的任何一方,東北巴比倫大都市的孔的標題catholicos。 One of these metropolitans was present at the Council of Nicaea in 325.這些大城市之一是在325年的尼西亞會議。

The great distance of this Church from Antioch led in early times to a state of semi-independence that prepared the way for the later schism.從安提阿教會很大的距離,這導致在早期的半獨立做好了鋪墊,為後來的分裂狀態。 Already in the fourth century the Patriarch of Antioch waived his right of ordaining the catholicos of Seleucia-Ctesiphon, and allowed him to be ordained by his own suffragans.早在第四世紀,牧安提放棄他的塞琉西亞,泰西封catholicos的任命權,並允許他被祝聖自己的suffragans。 In view of the great importance of the right of ordaining, as a sign of jurisdiction throughout the East, this fact is important.是極為重要的任命權,轄境東的標誌,這其實是很重要的。 But it does not seem that real independence of Antioch was acknowledged or even claimed till after the schism.但它似乎並沒有真正的獨立的安提阿承認,甚至聲稱直到分裂。 In the fifth century the influence of the famous Theodore of Mopsuestia and that of his school of Edessa spread the heresy of Nestorius throughout this extreme Eastern Church.在第五世紀著名的西奧多的Mopsuestia的影響力和他的學校的edessa散佈異端的nestorius整個這個極端的東方教會。 Naturally, the later Nestorians deny that their fathers accepted any new doctrine at that time, and they claim that Nestorius learned from them rather than they from him ("Nestorius eos secutus est, non ipsi Nestorium", Ebed-Jesu of Nisibis, about 1300. Assemani, "Bibli. Orient.", III, 1, 355).當然,後來的基督教教派否認,他們的父親當時接受任何新的學說,他們聲稱聶斯脫裡,而不是他們,從他們身上學到他(“聶斯脫裡EOS secutus美國東部時間非同側Nestorium”,以別的,JESU的尼西比斯,約1300 。Assemani,“Bibli。東方”,三,1,355)。

There may be truth in this.有可能是不無道理的。 Theodore and his school had certainly prepared the way for Nestorius.西奧多和他的學校肯定已經做好了鋪墊聶斯脫裡。 In any case the rejection of the Council of Ephesus (431) by these Christians in Chaldea and Mesopotamia produced a schism between them and the rest of Christendom.在任何情況下,拒絕接受安理會的以弗所(431)在迦勒底與美索不達米亞這些基督徒產生了它們之間的分裂和其餘的基督教。 When Babaeus, himself a Nestorian, became catholicos, in 498, there were practically no more Catholics in those parts.當Babaeus,自己景教,成為catholicos,498,幾乎沒有更多的天主教徒在這些地區。 From Ctesiphon the Faith had spread across the frontier into Persia, even before that city was conquered by the Persian king (244).從泰西封的信​​念跨邊境傳播到波斯,甚至在此之前,城市被征服了波斯國王(244)。 The Persian Church, then, always depended on Ctesiphon and shared its heresy.波斯教堂,然後,總是依靠泰西封,並分享了它的異端邪說。 From the fifth century this most remote of the Eastern Churches has been cut off from the rest of Christendom, and till modern times was the most separate and forgotten community of all.從第五世紀最遙遠的東方教會已經被切斷,從其餘的基督教,直到近代最獨立的和被遺忘的社區。

Shut out from the Roman Empire (Zeno closed the school of Edessa in 489), but, for a time at least, protected by the Persian kings, the Nestorian Church flourished around Ctesiphon, Nisibis (where the school was reorganized), and throughout Persia.從羅馬帝國(芝諾關閉了學校的edessa 489)拒之門外,但是,時間至少,保護的波斯國王,景教教會蓬勃發展,周圍泰西封,尼西比斯(如學校被整頓了),和整個波斯。 Since the schism the catholicos occasionally assumed the title of patriarch.由於分裂catholicos偶爾擔任族長的標題。 The Church then spread towards the East and sent missionaries to India and even China.然後向東蔓延,並派遣傳教士到印度,甚至中國教會。 A Nestorian inscription of the year 781 has been found at Singan Fu in China (J. Heller, SJ, "Prolegomena zu einer neuen Ausgabe der nestorianischen Inschrift von Singan Fu", in the "Verhandlungen des VII. internationalen Orientalistencongresses", Vienna, 1886, pp. 37 sp.).景教碑文已經發現在singan富在中國(,SJ J.海勒,的“緒論祖einer諾伊恩Ausgabe得nestorianischen Inschrift馮Singan賦”,“Verhandlungen第七。internationalen Orientalistencongresses的”,維也納,1886年的一年781 ,第37 sp。)的。

Its greatest extent was in the eleventh century, when twenty-five metropolitans obeyed the Nestorian patriarch.其最大的程度上是在11世紀,在25大城市服從了景教主教。 But since the end of the fourteenth century it has gradually sunk to a very small sect, first, because of a fierce persecution by the Mongols (Timur Leng), and then through internal disputes and schisms.但結束以來的14世紀,它已逐漸淪落到一個非常小的教派,第一,因為激烈的迫害蒙古人(帖木兒冷),然後通過內部的紛爭和分裂。 Two great schisms as to the patriarchal succession in the sixteenth century led to a reunion of part of the Nestorian Church with Rome, forming the Catholic Chaldean Church.兩個偉大的分裂,導致在16世紀的景教教會與羅馬的一部分團聚的宗法繼承,形成了天主教迦勒底教會。 At present there are about 150,000 Nestorians living chiefly in highlands west of Lake Urumiah.目前,有大約15萬景教,主要居住在高原湖Urumiah西部。 They speak a modern dialect of Syriac.他們所講的現代方言的敘利亞文。

The patriarchate descends from uncle to nephew, or to younger brothers, in the family of Mama; each patriarch bears the name Simon (Mar Shimun) as a title.宗主教區下降從叔叔,侄子,弟弟,媽媽在家庭中的每一個族長熊的名字西蒙(月Shimun)作為標題。 Ignoring the Second General Council, and of course strongly opposed to the Third (Ephesus), they only acknowledge the First Nicene (325).忽略第二屆理事會,當然強烈反對三(以弗所),他們只承認第一次尼西亞(325)。 They have a Creed of their own, formed from an old Antiochene Creed, which does not contain any trace of the particular heresy from which their Church is named.他們有自己的信條,形成了從一個古老的的安提阿信條,不包含特定的異端邪說從他們的教堂被命名為任何痕跡。 In deed it is difficult to say how far any Nestorians now are conscious of the particular teaching condemned by the Council of Ephesus, though they still honour Nestorius, Theodore of Mopsuestia, and other undoubted heretics as saints and doctors.的確是很難說多遠的特定的教學譴責安理會的以弗所,任何的景教現在是有意識的,但他們仍然榮譽聶斯脫裡,西奧多的Mopsuestia,和其他聖人和醫生無疑異端。

The patriarch rules over twelve other bishops (the list in Silbernagl, "Verfassung", p. 267).族長規則12的其他主教(列表中Silbernagl中,“Verfassung”,第267頁)。 Their hierarchy consists of the patriarch, metropolitans, bishops, chorepiscopi, archdeacons, priests, deacons, subdeacons, and readers.他們的層次結構由族長,大都市,主教,chorepiscopi,副主教,神父,執事,耶穌,和讀者。 There are also many monasteries.也有許多寺廟。 They use Syriac liturgically written in their own (Nestorian) form of the alphabet.他們使用的敘利亞文liturgically寫在自己的字母(景教)的形式。 The patriarch, who now generally calls himself "Patriarch of the East", resides at Kochanes, a remote valley of the Kurdish mountains by the Zab, on the frontier between Persia and Turkey.族長,現在一般稱自己為“族長的東方”,居住在Kochanes,由扎卜的庫爾德山區一個偏僻的山谷,波斯和土耳其之間的邊界。 He has an undefined political jurisdiction over his people, though he does not receive a berat from the Sultan.他有一個未定義的政治管轄過他的人,雖然他沒有收到培拉特從蘇丹。 In any ways this most remote Church stands alone; it has kept a number of curious and archaic customs (such as the perpetual abstinence of the patriarch, etc.) that separate it from other Eastern Churches almost as much as from those of the West.以任何方式最偏遠的教會是獨立的,它一直保持好奇和古老的習俗(如永久禁慾的族長,等),將它從其他東歐教會幾乎一樣多從西方一些。 Lately the Archbishop of Canterbury's mission to the Nestorians has aroused a certain interest about them in England.最近,坎特伯雷大主教的nestorians的使命,在英國引起了一定的興趣。

All the other separated Eastern Churches are formed by the other great heresy of the fourth century, Monophysitism.所有其他分離的東方教會是由其他偉大的異端邪說的第四個世紀,基督一性。 There are first the national Churches of Egypt, Syria, and Armenia.埃及,敘利亞,亞美尼亞有第一次全國教會。

3. 3。 Copts科普特人
The Copts form the Church of Egypt.埃及科普特教會的。 Monophysitism was in a special sense the national religion of Egypt.基督一性論埃及的國教是在一個特殊的意義。 As an extreme opposition to Nestorianism, the Egyptians believed it to be the faith of their hero St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 444).作為一個極端的反對景教,埃及人相信它是他們的英雄圣西里爾的亞歷山德里亞(卒於444年)的信心。 His successor, Dioscurus (444-55), was deposed and excommunicated by the Council of Calcedon (451).他的的接班人,Dioscurus(444-55),被廢黜,由理事會Calcedon(451)逐出教會。 From his time the Monophysite party gained ground very quickly among the native population, so that soon it became an expression of their national feeling against the Imperial (Melchite, or Melkite) garrison and government officials.從他的基督一性論黨獲得地面之間的外來人口非常迅速,因此,它很快成為表達他們的民族感情,反對帝國(Melchite,或Melkite的)駐軍和政府官員。 Afterwards, at the Moslem invasion (641), the opposition was so strong that the native Egyptians threw in their lot with the conquerors against the Greeks.隨後,在穆斯林入侵(641),是如此強烈的反對,反對希臘人的征服者,本土埃及人把他們的命運。

The two sides are still represented by the native Monophysites and the Orthodox minority.雙方仍然由當地基督一性和東正教少數代表。 The Monophysites are sometimes called Jacobites here as in Syria; but the old national name Copt (Gr. Aigyptios ) has become the regular one for their Church as well as for their nation.該monophysites有時也被稱為詹姆斯黨在敘利亞,但舊的國家名稱科普特 (希臘文Aigyptios)已成為定期為他們的教會,以及為他們的國家。 Their patriarch, with the title of Alexandria, succeeds Dioscurus and Timothy the Cat, a fanatical Monophysite.與亞歷山大的標題,他們的族長,成功Dioscurus和提摩太的貓,一個狂熱的基督一性。 He lives at Cairo, ruling over thirteen dioceses and about 500,000 subjects.他住在開羅,轄13教區和50萬左右的主題。 For him, too, the law is perpetual abstinence.對於他來說,也是如此,法律是永恆的禁慾。 There are many monasteries.有許多寺廟。 The Copts use their old language liturgically and have in it a number of liturgies all derived from the original Greek rite of Alexandria (St. Mark).科普特人使用舊的的語言liturgically和一些禮儀全部來自亞歷山大的希臘原文儀式(聖馬可)。 But Coptic is a dead language, so much so that even most priests understand very little of it.但科普特人是一種死語言,以至於即使是最祭司了解很少。 They all speak Arabic, and their service books give an Arabic version of the text in parallel columns.他們都講阿拉伯語,他們的服務書籍給一個平行柱阿拉伯語版本中的文本。 The Church is, on the whole, in a poor state.教會是,就整體而言,在一個貧窮的國家。 The Copts are mostly fellaheen who live by tilling the ground, in a state of great poverty and ignorance.科普特人大多是fellaheen,通過翻耕地面,在巨大的貧困和無知的狀態。 And the clergy share the same conditions.和神職人員共享相同的條件。 Lately there have been something of a revival among them, and certain rich Coptic merchants of Cairo have begun to found schools and seminaries and generally to promote education and such advantages among their nation.最近復興的東西在他們中間,和財主開羅的科普特人的商人已經開始發現學校和神學院,旨在促進教育,這種優勢在他們的國家。 One of these, M. Gabriel Labib, who is editing their service books, promises to be a scholar of some distinction in questions of liturgy and archeology.其中之一,M.加布里埃爾·拉比卜,編輯自己的服務書籍,有望成為一個學者的一些區別的禮儀和考古學的問題。

4. 4。 Abyssinians阿比西尼亞貓
The Church of Abyssinia, or Ethiopia, always depended on Egypt.阿比西尼亞或埃塞俄比亞的教會,總是依賴於埃及。 It was founded by St. Frumentius, who was ordained and sent by St. Athanasius in 326.它是由聖弗魯門,被祝聖和聖亞他那修在326發送。 So Abyssinia has always acknowledged the supremacy of the Patriarch of Alexandria, and still considers its Church as a daughter-church of the See of St. Mark.所以阿比西尼亞一直承認亞歷山大的族長至高無上的地位,並仍然認為作為一個女兒教會的聖馬可教堂。 The same causes that made Egypt Monophysite affected Abyssinia equally.同樣的原因,埃及基督一性的影響同樣阿比西尼亞。 She naturally, almost inevitably, shared the schism of the mother Church.自然,她幾乎是不可避免的,共享的母親教會的分裂。 So Abyssinia is still Monophysite, and acknowledges the Coptic patriarch as her head.所以阿比西尼亞仍是基督一性,並承認科普特人的族長,她的頭。 There is now only one bishop of Abyssinia (there were once two) who is called Abuna (Our Father) and resides at Adeva (the old see of Axum).現在有一個主教的阿比西尼亞(有一次兩個)被稱為阿布南的 (我們的天父),位於在Adeva(舊的阿克蘇姆)。 He is always a Coptic monk consecrated and sent by the Coptic patriarch.他始終是一個科普特僧侶奉獻和發送的科普特人的族長。 It does not seem, however, that there is now much communication between Cairo and Adeva, though the patriarch still has the right of deposing the Abuna.然而,它似乎沒有,現在有太多的交流之間的開羅和Adeva的,雖然族長有權罷免的Abuna的,。

Abyssinia has about three million inhabitants, nearly all members of the national Church.阿比西尼亞擁有約300萬人口,幾乎所有的國家教會的成員。 There are many monks and an enormous number of priests, whom the Abuna ordains practically without any previous preparation or examination.有許多僧侶和祭司的數量巨大的,注定幾乎沒有任何準備或檢查他們的Abuna。 The Abyssinians have liturgies, again, derived from those of Alexandria in the old (classical) form of their language.阿比西尼亞貓有禮儀,再次,來自的亞歷山德里亞,舊的(古典的),他們的語言形式。 The Abyssinian Church, being the religion of more than half barbarous people, cut off by the schism from relations with any other Christian body except the poor and backward Copts, is certainly the lowest representative of the great Christian family.阿比西尼亞教會,是超過半野蠻的人的分裂,切斷從任何其他基督教機構的關係,除了貧窮落後的科普特人的宗教,肯定是最低的代表偉大的基督教家庭。 The people have gradually mixed up Christianity with a number of pagan and magical elements, and are specially noted for strong Jewish tendencies (they circumcise and have on their altars a sort of Ark of the Covenant containing the Ten Commandments).的人已逐漸混淆了基督教與異教的魔法元素,並特別注意強猶太人的傾向(他們行割禮,並在他們的祭壇上有一種方舟公約“十誡)。 Lately Russia has developed an interest in the Abyssinians and has begun to undertake schemes for educating them, and, of course, at the same time, converting them to Orthodoxy.最近,俄羅斯已研製出一種在阿比西尼亞的興趣,並已開始進行計劃,以便教育他們,和,當然,在相同的時間,將它們轉換為東正教。

5. 5。 Jacobites詹姆斯黨
The Jacobites are the Monophysites of Syria.詹姆斯黨是敘利亞的基督一性的。 Here, too, chiefly out of political opposition to the imperial court, Monophysitism spread quickly among the native population, and here, too, there was the same opposition between the Syrian Monophysites in the country and the Greek Melkites in the cities.在這裡,主要是出於政治上的反對朝廷,基督一性迅速蔓延的外來人口之間,而在這裡,也有同樣的反對敘利亞基督一性的國家和希臘Melkites在城市之間。 Severus of Antioch (512-18) was an ardent Monophysite.西弗勒斯的安提阿(512-18)是一個熱心的基督一性。 After his death the Emperor Justinian (527-65) tried to cut off the succession by having all bishops suspect of heresy locked up in monasteries.在他死後,皇帝查士丁尼(527-65),試圖切斷繼承所有的主教懷疑的異端鎖在寺院。 But his wife Theodora was herself a Monophysite; he arranged the ordination of two monks of that party, Theodore and James.但他的妻子西奧多拉是自己的基督一性論,他安排了兩名僧人的那一方,西奧多和詹姆斯的協調。 It was from this James, called Zanzalos and Baradaï (Jacob Baradaeus), that they have their name ( Ia'qobaie , "Jacobite"); it is sometimes used for any Monophysite anywhere, but had better be kept for the national Syrian Church.正是從這個詹姆斯,Zanzalos和Baradaï(雅各布baradaeus),他們有他們的的域名(Ia'qobaie,“詹姆斯”),它有時也被用於任何地方任何monophysite,但最好保持國家的敘利亞教會。 James found two Coptic bishops, who with him ordained a whole hierarchy, including one Sergius of Tella as Patriarch of Antioch.詹姆斯發現,科普特主教,誰跟他受戒的整體層次結構,其中包括謝爾蓋迪特利亞牧安提。

From this Sergius the Jacobite patriarchs descend.從這個謝爾蓋詹姆斯先祖下降。 Historically, the Jacobites of Syria are the national Church of their country, as much as the Copts in Egypt; but they by no means form so exclusively the religion of the native population.從歷史上看,向jacobites的敘利亞國家教會自己的國家,就像埃及的科普特人,但他們沒有辦法形成專門的外來人口的宗教。 Syria never held together, was never so compact a unity as Egypt.敘利亞從來沒有,從來沒有如此緊湊的團結作為埃及。 We have seen that the Eastern Syrians expressed their national, anti-Imperial feeling by adopting the extreme opposite heresy, Nestorianism, which, however, had the same advantage of not being the religion of Caesar and his court.我們已經看到,東部敘利亞人表示他們的國家,反帝國主義的感覺,採用極端相反的異端,景教,但是不凱撒和他的法院的宗教,有同樣的優勢。 Among the Western Syrians, too, there has always been a lack of cohesion. ,在西方敘利亞人,也有一直缺乏凝聚力。 They had in Monophysite times two patriarchates (Antioch and Jerusalem) instead of one.他們有兩個主教的職位(安提阿和耶路撒冷),而不是一個在基督一性次。 In all quarrels, whether political or theological, whereas the Copts move like one man for the cause of Egypt and the "Christian Pharaoh", the Syrians are divided amongst themselves.在所有的爭吵,無論是政治或神學,而科普特人移動的埃及和“基督教法老”像一個人的事業,敘利亞人被劃分在它們之間。

So there have always been many more Melkites in Syria, and the Jacobites were never an overwhelming majority.因此,有總是多了很多Melkites在敘利亞,並,詹姆斯黨從來沒有以壓倒多數。 Now they are a small minority (about 80,000) dwelling in Syria, Mesopotamia, Kurdistan.現在,他們是居住在敘利亞,美索不達米亞,庫爾德斯坦一小部分(約80,000元)。 Their head is the Jacobite Patriarch of "Antioch and all the East".他們的頭是詹姆斯黨元老的“安提阿和所有東”。 He always takes the name Ignatius and dwells either at Diarbekir or Mardin in Mesopotamia.他始終把名字伊格內修斯,住在馬爾丁在美索不達米亞Diarbekir或。 Under him, as first of the metropolitans, is the Maphrian, a prelate who was originally set up to rule the Eastern Jacobites as a rival of the Nestorian catholicos.在他的領導下,作為第一的大都市,是的的一個主教Maphrian,最初設置,以排除作為一個敵手的景教catholicos的東部詹姆斯黨。 Originally the maphrian had a number of special rights and privileges that made him almost independent of his patriarch.本來maphrian有一些特殊的權利和特權,使他幾乎獨立於他的元老。 Now he has only precedence of other metropolitans, a few rights in connection with the patriarch's election and consecration (when the patriarch dies he is generally succeeded by the maphrian) and the title "Maphrian and Catholicos of the East".現在,他只有優先級等大城市,一些權利的族長的選舉和奉獻(族長去世時,他通常是成功的maphrian的)和標題“Maphrian東方的catholicos的”。 Besides these two, the Jacobites have seven metropolitans and three other bishops.除了這兩個的詹姆斯黨有7個大城市和其他三名主教。 As in all Eastern Churches, there are many monks, from whom the bishops are always taken.在所有東歐教會,有許多僧侶,主教總是被人。 The Syrian Jacobites are in communion with the Copts.敘利亞詹姆斯黨的共融與科普特人。

They name the Coptic patriarch in the Liturgy, and the rule is that each Syrian patriarch should send an official letter to his brother of Alexandria to announce his succession.他們命名的科普特人的族長,在禮儀和規則,是每一個敘利亞的族長要發送的公函給他的弟弟亞歷山德里亞宣布他的繼任。 This implies a recognition of superior rank which is consistent with the old precedence of Alexandria over Antioch.這意味著優越的排名是一致的亞歷山大,安提阿與舊優先的認可。 At Mardin still linger the remains of an old pagan community of Sun-worshippers who in 1762 (when the Turks finally decided to apply to them, too, the extermination that the Koran prescribes for pagans) preferred to hide under the outward appearance of Jacobite Christianity.在馬爾丁仍縈繞一個古老的異教社會的遺體於1762年(當土耳其人終於決定適用於他們,也滅絕“可蘭經”規定異教徒)優先詹姆斯基督教的外觀下隱藏的太陽崇拜者。 They were, therefore, all nominally converted, and they conform the laws of the Jacobite Church, baptize, fast, receive all sacraments and Christian burial.他們,因此,所有的名義上的轉換,並符合法律的詹姆士派教會,洗禮,速度快,接收所有聖禮和基督教墓地。 But they only marry among themselves and every one knows that they still practise their old pagan rites in secret.但他們之間只娶自己,每個人都知道的秘密,他們仍然實行舊的異教儀式。 There are about one hundred families of these people, still called Shamsiyeh (people of the Sun).有約百這些人的家庭,仍稱為Shamsiyeh(太陽的人)。

6. 6。 Malabar Christians馬拉巴爾基督徒

The Malabar Christians in India have had the strangest history of all these Eastern Churches.在印度的馬拉巴爾基督徒奇怪的所有這些東方教會的歷史。 For, having been Nestorians, they have now veered round to the other extreme and have become Monophysites.因為,景教,他們現在已經轉向輪走向了另一個極端,並已成為基督一性。 We hear of Christian communities along the Malabar coast (in Southern India from Goa to Cape Comorin) as early as the sixth century.我們聽到的馬拉巴爾海岸沿線(南印度果阿海角科摩羅)早在六世紀的基督教社區。 They claim the Apostle of St. Thomas as their founder (hence their name "Thomas Christians", or "Christians of St. Thomas").他們聲稱,他們的創始人(因此他們的名字“托馬斯基督徒”,或“聖托馬斯的基督徒”)的使徒聖托馬斯。 In the first period they depended on the Catholicos of Selecuia-Ctesiphon, and were Nestorians like him.在第一階段,他們依靠的catholicos的Selecuia - 泰西封,和是景教像他這樣的。 They are really one of the many missionary Churches founded by the Nestorians in Asia.他們是真正的nestorians在亞洲的許多傳教士教會成立。 In the sixteenth century the Portuguese succeeded in converting a part of this Church to reunion in Rome.在十六世紀葡萄牙人成功地將這個教會團聚在羅馬的一部分。 A further schism among these Eastern Catholics led to a complicated situation, of which the Jacobite patriarch took advantage by sending a bishop to form a Jacobite Malabar Church.其中東部天主教徒的進一步分裂導致的複雜局面,其中詹姆斯黨元老了優勢通過發送一個主教形成詹姆斯黨馬拉巴爾教會。

There were then three parties among them: Nestorians, Jacobites, and Catholics.三方其中:景教,詹姆斯黨,和天主教徒。 The line of Nestorian metropolitans died out (it has been revived lately) and nearly all the non-Catholic Thomas Christians may be counted as Monophysites since the eighteenth century.該生產線的景教大都市死了(它最近已經恢復),幾乎所有的非天主教的的托馬斯基督徒會被算作自18世紀基督一性。 But the Jacobite patriarch seems to have forgotten them, so that after 1751 they chose their own hierarchy and were an independent Church.但詹姆斯黨元老似乎已經忘記了他們,所以,1751年後,他們選擇了自己的層次,是一個獨立的教會。 In the nineteenth century, after they had been practically rediscovered by the English, the Jacobites in Syria tried to reassert authority over Malabar by sending out a metropolitan named Athanasius.在19世紀後,他們實際上已被重新發現的英語,jacobites在敘利亞試圖重新樹立權威馬拉巴爾通過發送大都市叫亞他那修。 Athanasius made a considerable disturbance, excommunicated the hierarchy he found, and tried to reorganize this Church in communion with the Syrian patriarch.亞他那修做出了相當大的干擾,驅逐層次,他發現,並試圖重新組織這個教會的共融與敘利亞族長。 But the Rajah of Travancore took the side of the national Church and forced Athanasius to leave the county.但惹的特拉凡哥爾了一邊的國家教會,被迫離開他那修縣。

Since then the Thomas Christians have been a quite independent Church whose communion with the Jacobites of Syria is at most only theoretic.自那時以來,托馬斯基督徒是一個完全獨立的教會的共融內,jacobites的敘利亞是最多只有理論。 There are about 70,000 of them under a metropolitan who calls himself "Bishop and Gate of all India".大約有70,000下都市人自稱“主教和所有的印度門”。 He is always named by his predecessor, ie each metropolitan chooses a coadjutor with the right of succession.他總是被命名為他的前任,即每個大城市選擇一個幫手繼承權。 The Thomas Christians use Syriac liturgically and describe themselves generally as "Syrians".托馬斯基督徒使用敘利亞的liturgically的,一般形容自己為“敘利亞人”。

7. 7。 Armenians亞美尼亞
The Armenian Church is the last and the most important of these Monophysite bodies.亞美尼亞教會是最後的也是最重要的是這些基督一性機構。 Although it agrees in faith with the Copts and Jacobites, it is not communion with them (a union arranged by a synod in 726 came to nothing) nor with any other Church in the world.雖然它同意在信仰與科普特人,和jacobites,它是不與他們(工會的安排,由主教在726石沉大海),也不與任何其他教會在世界的共融。 This is a national Church in the strictest sense of all: except for the large Armenian Catholic body that forms the usual pendant, and for a very small number of Protestants, every Armenian belongs to it, and it has no members who are not Armenians.在嚴格意義上,這是一個國家的教會,,除了大亞美尼亞天主教體形成通常挂件,以及極少數的新教徒,每一個亞美尼亞屬於它的,它有沒有誰不亞美尼亞。 So in this case the name of the national and of the religion are really the same.因此,在這種情況下,國家和宗教的名稱實際上是一樣的。 Only, since there are the Eastern Catholics, it is necessary to distinguish whether an Armenian belongs to them or to the schismatical (Monophysite) Church.只是,因為有東部天主教徒,這是必要區分是否亞美尼亞人是屬於他們的,或分裂的教會(基督一)。

Because of this distinction it is usual to call the others Gregorian Armenians -- after St. Gregory the Illuminator -- another polite concession of form on our part akin to that of "Orthodox" etc. Quite lately the Gregorian Armenians have begun to call themselves Orthodox.由於這種區別,它通常是調用其他的格列高利亞美尼亞 - 在聖格雷戈里的照明燈 - 另一種客氣類似的“正統”等相當近來的格列高利亞美尼亞人已經開始稱自己為我們的特許經營權東正教。 This has no meaning and only confuses the issue.這已經沒有意義了,只有混淆的問題。 Of course each Church thinks itself really Orthodox, and Catholic and Apostolic and Holy too.當然,每個教會認為自己真正的東正教,天主教和使徒和聖。 But one must keep technical names clear, or we shall always talk at cross purposes.但是,我們必須保持技術名稱,明確的,我們將永遠在相互交談。 The polite convention throughout the Levant is that we are Catholics, that people in communion with the "Ecumenical Patriarch" are Orthodox, and that Monophysite Armenians are Gregorian.整個地中海東部禮貌​​的慣例是,我們是天主教徒,人的共融與“普世牧首”,是正統,monophysite亞美尼亞是格列高利。 They should be content with that is an honourable title to which we and the Orthodox do not of course think that they have really any right.與這是一個光榮稱號,這是我們和東正教也當然不認為他們真的有任何權利,他們應該是內容。 They have no real right to it, because the Apostle of Armenia, St. Gregory the Illuminator (295), was no Monophysite, but a Catholic in union with Rome. ,因為他們沒有真正的權利,聖格雷戈里的照明燈(295),亞美尼亞使徒的基督一性,但在工會與羅馬天主教。

The Armenian Church was in the first period subject to the Metropolitan of Caesarea; he ordained its bishops.亞美尼亞教會在第一時間內該撒利亞的城市居民,他任命的主教。 It suffered persecution from the Persians and was an honoured branch of the great Catholic Church till the sixth century.它從波斯和遭受迫害的榮幸,直到公元六世紀最偉大的天主教教會的分支。 Then Monophysitism spread through Armenia from Syria, and in 527 the Armenian primate, Nerses, in the Synod of Duin, formally rejected the Council of Calcedon.然後通過亞美尼亞敘利亞基督一性傳播,並,在527的亞美尼亞的靈長類動物,涅爾謝斯,在主教的Duin酒店,正式拒絕了安理會的Calcedon。 The schism was quite manifest in 552, when the primate, Abraham I, excommunicated the Church of Georgia and all others who accepted the decrees of Chalcedon.分裂是很明顯的,在552,當亞伯拉罕我的靈長類動物,被開除的喬治亞州的教會和所有其他人接受了法令的chalcedon。 From that time the national Armenian Church has been isolated from the rest of Christendom; the continual attempts at reunion made by Catholic missionaries, however, have established a considerable body of Armenian Catholics.從那個時候,國家的亞美尼亞教堂已被隔離,其餘的基督教團聚天主教傳教士在不斷的嘗試,但是,已經建立了相當多的亞美尼亞天主教徒。

The Armenians are a prolific and widespread race.亞美尼亞人是一位多產的和廣泛的種族。 They are found not only in Armenia, but scattered all over the Levant and in many cities of Europe and America.他們發現,不僅在亞美尼亞,但散落在地中海東部和在歐洲和美國的許多城市。 As they always bring their Church with them, it is a large and important community, second only to the Orthodox in size among Eastern Churches.他們總是把他們的教會,這是一個龐大而重要的社會,僅次於東方教會東正教之間的大小。 There are about three millions of Gregorian Armenians.大約有三百萬的格列高利亞美尼亞人。 Among their bishops four have the title of patriarch.在他們的主教四有族長的標題。 The first is the Patriarch of Etchmiadzin, who bears as a special title that of catholicos .首先是祖師的Etchmiadzin,誰承擔作為一個特殊的頭銜,catholicos。 Etchmiadzin is a monastery in the province of Erivan, between the Black and the Caspian Seas, near Mount Ararat (since 1828 Russian territory). Etchmiadzin是Erivan兩個省的一個修道院,黑海和里海附近的亞拉臘山(自1828年俄羅斯境內)之間。 It is the cradle of the race and their chief sanctuary.這是人類的搖籃的種族,他們的主要避難所。

The catholicos is the head of the Armenia Church and to a great extent of his nation too. catholicos是亞美尼亞教會的頭和他的國家在很大的程度。 Before the Russian occupation of Erivan he had unlimited jurisdiction over all Georgian Armenians and was something very like an Armenian pope. Erivan兩個前俄羅斯佔領,他有無限的司法管轄區的所有格魯吉亞亞美尼亞人,和是非常喜歡亞美尼亞教皇的東西。 But since he sits under the shadow of Russia, and especially since the Russian Government has begun to interfere in his election and administration, the Armenians of Turkey have made themselves nearly independent of him.但由於他坐的陰影下的俄羅斯,土耳其的亞美尼亞人,特別是因為俄羅斯政府已經開始在他的選舉和行政干預,自己幾乎獨立於他。 The second rank belongs to the Patriarch of Constantinople.They have had a bishop at Constantinople since 1307.屬於第二級的族長Constantinople.They曾在君士坦丁堡的主教,因為1307。 In 1461 Mohammed II gave this bishop the title of Patriarch of the Armenians, so as to rivet their loyalty to his capital and to form a millet (nation) on the same footing as the Rum millet (the Orthodox Church). 1461年,穆罕默德二世送給主教的標題對亞美尼亞人的族長,鉚釘他們的忠誠,以他的資本形成的小米 (國家)在同一基礎上的朗姆酒小米 (東正教)。

This patriarch is the person responsible to the Porte for his race, has the same privileges as his Orthodox rival, and now uses the jurisdiction over all Turkish Armeniansthat formerly belonged to the catholicos.族長負責人的門為他的種族,他的東正教對手,具有相同的權限和現在使用所有的土耳其Armeniansthat原屬的catholicos管轄權的。 Under him, and little more than titular patriarchs, are those of Sis in Cilicia (a title kept after a temporary schism in 1440 and Jerusalem (whose title was assumed illegally in the eighteenth century). The Armenians have seven dioceses in the Russian Empire, two in Persia, and thirty-five in Turkey. They distinguish archbishops from bishops by an honorary precedence only and have an upper class of priests called Vartapeds, who are celibate and provide all the higher offices (bishops are always taken from their ranks). There are, of course, as in all Eastern Churches, many monks.在他的領導下,多一點名義上的先祖,是矽統科技在基利家的(保持一個標題後,臨時在1440和耶路撒冷(假設其所有權非法在十八世紀)的分裂。有七個教區,在俄羅斯帝國的亞美尼亞人,在波斯,在土耳其35。他們區分由主教大主教的名譽優先級只和上層階級的神職人員所謂的Vartapeds,誰是獨身主義者,並提供更高的辦事處(主教們總是從他們的行列)。有,當然,在所有東歐教會,許多僧侶。

In many ways the Armenian (Gregorian) Church has been influenced by Rome, so that they are among Eastern schismatical bodies the only one that can be described as at all latinized.在許多方面的亞美尼亞教會(陽曆)已被羅馬人的影響,所以,他們是在東部分裂的團體,可以說是唯一一個於所有拉丁化的。 Examples of such influence are their use of unleavened bread for the Holy Eurcharist, their vestments (the mitre is almost exactly the Roman one), etc. This appears to be the result of opposition to their nearer rivals, the Orthodox.這種影響力的例子是他們使用的無酵餅神聖的Eurcharist,他們的禮服(斜切幾乎完全是在羅馬),這似乎是反對的結果接近的對手,東正教。 In any case, at present the Armenians are probably nearer to the Catholic Church and better disposed for reunion than any other of these communions.在任何情況下,在目前的亞美尼亞人可能接近天主教會和這些聖餐團聚比任何其他更好的處理。 Their Monophysitism is now very vague and shadowy -- as indeed is the case with most Monophysite Churches.他們的基督一性是很模糊,朦朧的 - 事實上是最基督一性論教會的情況。 It is from them that the greatest proportion of Eastern-Rite Catholics have been converted.這是從他們,已轉換東部成年禮天主教徒的比例最大。

This brings us to the end of the Monophysite bodies and so to the end of all schismatical Eastern Churches.這給我們帶來的基督一性機構,所以到了年底所有分裂的東方教會。 A further schism was indeed caused by the Monothelite heresy in the seventh century, but the whole of the Church then formed (the Maronite Church) has been for many centuries reunited with Rome.進一步分裂,的確造成的Monothelite在第七世紀的異端,但整個教會的形成(馬龍派教會)已經與羅馬的許多世紀以來團聚。 So Maronites have their place only among the Eastern Catholics.所以馬龍派教徒都有自己的位置,只在東部天主教徒。

B. Eastern Catholic Churches B.東方教會

The definition of an Eastern-Rite Catholic is: A Christian of any Eastern rite in union with the pope : ie a Catholic who belongs not to the Roman, but to an Eastern rite.東部成年禮的天主教的定義是: 一個基督徒的工會與教皇任何東方禮儀 :即天主教不屬於羅馬,但東方禮儀。 They differ from other Eastern Christians in that they are in communion with Rome, and from Latins in that they have other rites.他們不同於其他東部基督徒,他們是在與羅馬的共融,拉丁人,他們有其他儀式。

A curious, but entirely theoretic, question of terminology is: Are Milanese and Mozarabic considered Eastern Rite Catholics?一位好奇的,但完全的理論,術語問題是:米蘭和莫札拉布認為東部成年禮的天主教徒嗎? If we make rite our basis, they are.如果我們做儀式,他們是我們的基礎。 That is, they are Catholics who do not belong to the Roman Rite.也就是說,他們是天主教徒不屬於羅馬的儀式。 The point has sometimes been urged rather as a catch than seriously.這一點有時被要求,而不是認真的catch。 As a matter of fact, the real basis, though it is superficially less obvious than rite, is patriarchate.事實上,真正的基礎,雖然它表面上那麼明顯儀式,是主教的職位。 Eastern-Rite Catholics are Catholics who do not belong to the Roman patriarchate.東部成年禮天主教徒,天主教徒不屬於羅馬牧首。 So these two remnants of other rites in the West do not constitute Eastern-Rite Churches.因此,這兩個殘餘的其他儀式在西方,並不構成東區愛色麗的教會。

In the West, rite does not always follow patriarchate; the great Gallican Church, with her own rite, was always part of the Roman patriarchate; so are Milan and Toledo.在西方,儀式並不總是遵循的東正教偉大的gallican教會,用她自己的儀式的一部分,在羅馬主教的職位,所以AC米蘭和托萊多。 This, however, raises a new difficulty; for it may be urged that in that case the Italo-Greeks are not Eastern Catholics, since they certainly belong to the Roman patriarchate.然而,這提出了一個新的困難,因為它可能會敦促,在這種情況下,意大利 - 希臘東部天主教徒,因為他們肯定屬於羅馬牧首。 They do, of course; and they always have done so legally.他們這樣做,當然,他們總是這樣做合法。 But the constitution of these Italo-Greek Churches was originally the result of an attempt on the part of the Eastern emperors (Leo III, 717-741, especially; see "Orth. Eastern Church", 45-47) to filch them from the Roman patriarchate and join them to that of Constantinople.但是,憲法的這些意大利 - 希臘教會的東部皇帝利奧三世(717-741,特別是看到“Ortho的。東方教會”,45〜47)的一部分,試圖竊取他們從最初的結果羅馬主教的職位,並將它們加入到君士坦丁堡。 Although the attempt did not succeed, the descendants of the Greeks in Calabria, Sicily, etc., have kept the Byzantine Rite.雖然企圖沒有得逞,其後裔的希臘人在卡拉布里亞,西西里島等,都保持了拜占庭禮儀。 They are an exception to the rule, invariable in the East, that rite follows patriarchate, and are an exception to the general principle about Eastern Rites too.他們是一個例外,不變的東方儀式如下主教的職位,是一個東方禮儀的一般原則的例外。 As they have no diocesan bishops of their own, on this ground it may well be denied that they form a Church.因為他們沒有自己的教區主教,在這一基礎上,它可能會被拒絕,他們形成了一個教會。 An Italo-Greek may best be defined as a member of the Roman patriarchate in Italy, Sicily, or Corsica, who, as a memory of older arrangements, is still allowed to use the Byzantine Rite.一個意大利 - 希臘可能最好被定義為一個成員的羅馬東正​​教在意大利的西西里島,科西嘉島,人,作為一個記憶的舊的安排,仍允許使用拜占庭成年禮。

With regard to the fundamental distinction of patriarchate, it must be noted that it is no longer purely geographical.的根本區別的東正教方面,必須注意的是,它不再是純粹的地理。 A Latin in the East belongs to the Roman patriarch as much as if he lived in the West; Latin missionaries everywhere and the newer dioceses in Australia and American count as part of what was once the patriarchate of Western Europe.一個拉丁屬於東方的羅馬主教,拉丁美洲,如果他住在西方傳教士無處不在,新的主教管區在澳大利亞和美國數的一部分,曾經是東正教西歐。 So also the Melkites in Leghorn, Marseilles, and Paris belong to the Byzantine Catholic patriarchate, though, as foreigners, they are temporarily subject to Latin bishops.裡窩那,馬賽,巴黎的Melkites屬於拜占庭式的天主教主教的職位,不過,作為外國人,他們暫時拉丁主教。

A short enumeration and description of the Catholic Eastern Rites will complete this picture of the Eastern Churches.天主教東方禮儀短列舉和描述的東方教會完成這幅畫。 It is, in the first place, a mistake (encouraged by Eastern schismatics and Anglicans) to look upon these Catholic Eastern Rites as a sort of compromise between Latin and other rites, or between Catholics and schismatics.它是在第一個地方,一個錯誤(鼓勵東部schismatics和聖公會)的眼光來看待這些天主教東方禮儀作為一種妥協拉丁美洲和其他儀式,,或天主教徒與schismatics。 Nor is it true that they are Catholics to whom grudging leave has been given to keep something of their national customs.它也不是真正的人吝嗇已給予許可,以保持他們的民族習俗的東西,他們是天主教徒。 Their position is quite simple and quite logical.他們的立場是非常簡單,非常合乎邏輯的。 They represent exactly the state of the Eastern Churches before the schisms.他們表示正是東方教會前分裂的狀態。 They are entirely and uncompromisingly Catholics in our strictest sense of the word, quite as much as Latins.他們是在我們的嚴格意義上的完全和毫不妥協的天主教徒,相當多的拉丁。 They accept the whole Catholic Faith and the authority of the pope as visible head of the Catholic Church, as did St. Athanasius, St. Basil, St. John Chrysostom.他們接受整個信仰天主教和教皇的權威可見的天主教教會的頭,像聖亞他那修,聖羅勒,聖約翰金口。

They do not belong to the pope's patriarchate, nor do they use his rite, any more than did the great saints of Eastern Christendom.他們不屬於教宗的主教的職位,也不使用他的儀式,超過了偉大的聖人東基督教。 They have their own rites and their own patriarchs, as had their fathers before the schism.他們有自己的儀式和自己的先祖,因為他們的父親之前的分裂。 Nor is there any idea of compromise or concession about this.也沒有任何的妥協和讓步對這個想法。 The Catholic Church has never been identified with the Western patriarchate.與西方的東正教,天主教教會從來沒有被確定。 The pope's position as patriarch of the West is as distinct from his papal rights as is his authority as local Bishop of Rome.是他的權力,為當地的主教,羅馬教皇的地位,作為元老的西方是有別於他的教皇的權利。 It is no more necessary to belong to his patriarchate in order to acknowledge his supreme jurisdiction that it is necessary to have him for diocesan bishop.它不再是屬於他的牧為了確認他的最高司法管轄權,這是需要有他的教區主教。

The Eastern Catholic Churches in union with the West have always been as much the ideal of the Church Universal as the Latin Church.東方教會與西方一直在聯合盡可能多的拉丁教會在普世教會的理想。 If some of those Eastern Churches fall into schism, that is a misfortune which does not affect the others who remain faithful.如果這些東方教會陷入分裂,這是一種不幸,這並不影響其他人保持忠誠的人。 If all fall away, the Eastern half of the Church disappears for a time as an actual fact; it remains as a theory and an ideal to be realized again as soon as they, or some of them, come back to union with Rome.如果東部一半的教會也隨之消失,消失的時間作為一個實際的事實,它仍然是作為一種理論和理想的實現,只要他們或他們中的一些,回來工會與羅馬。

This is what has happened.這是發生了什麼事。 There is at any rate no certain evidence of continuity from time before the schism in any of these Eastern Catholic Churches.有是無論如何沒有一定的證據,這些東方教會的分裂,以前從時間的連續性。 Through the bad time, from the various schisms to the sixteenth and seventh centuries, there are traces, isolated cases, of bishops who have at least wished for reunion with the West; but it cannot be claimed that any considerable body of Eastern Christians have kept the union throughout.通過的不好的時候,在各種分裂第十六屆和第七世紀,有痕跡,孤立的情況下,主教誰已至少希望團聚與西方,但它可以不被聲稱,任何可觀的身體東部基督徒都保持工會始終。 The Maronites think they have, but they are mistaken; the only real case is that of the Italo-Greeks (who have never been schismatic).馬龍派教徒認為他們的,但他們錯了,只有真正的情況是,意大利 - 希臘(從來沒有分裂)。

Really the Eastern Catholic Churches were formed by Catholic missionaries since the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.真的是東方教會形成以來,十六,十七世紀的天主教傳教士。 And as soon as any number of Eastern Christians were persuaded to reunite with the West, the situation that had existed before the schisms became an actual one again.盡快任意數量的東部基督徒被說服的情況之前就已存在的分裂與西方的團聚,再次成為實際。 They became Catholics; no one thought of asking them to become Latins.他們成為天主教徒,誰也沒有想到,要求他們成為拉丁人。 They were given bishops and patriarchs of their own as successors of the old Catholic Eastern bishops before the schism, and they became what all Eastern Christians had once been -- Catholics.給了他們自己的主教和patriarchs分裂前的舊天主教東區主教的接班人,他們成為了東部基督徒曾經是 - 天主教徒。

That the Eastern Catholics are comparatively small bodies is the unfortunate result of the fact that the majority of their countrymen prefer schism.東部天主教徒比較小的機構是不幸的結果,大多數的同胞喜歡分裂的事實。 Our missionaries would willingly make them larger ones.我們的傳教士會心甘情願地讓他們較大的。 But, juridically, they stand exactly where all the East once stood, before the Greek schism, or during the short-lived union of Florence (1439-53).但是,在法律上,他們的立場究竟在何處,所有東站,在希臘的分裂,或短命的聯盟佛羅倫薩(1439年至1453年)期間。 And they have as much right to exist and be respected as have Latins, or the great Catholic bishops in the East had during the first centuries.和他們有同樣的權利存在和得到尊重有拉丁人,或在第一世紀的偉大天主教主教團在東方。 The idea of latinizing all Eastern Catholics, sometimes defended by people on our side whose zeal for uniformity is greater than their knowledge of the historical and juridical situation, is diametrically opposed to antiquity, to the Catholic system of ecclesiastical organization, and to the policy of all popes.的想法latinizing所有東部天主教徒,有時辯護的人站在我們這一邊,熱情的均勻性大於他們的歷史和法律知識的情況,是截然相反的古代,天主教系統的教會組織的政策所有的教皇。 Nor has it any hope of success.也沒有任何成功的希望。 The East may become Catholic again; it will never be what it never has been -- Latin.東有可能成為天主教再次,它永遠不會是從未有過的 - 拉丁舞。

1. 1。 Byzantine Catholics拜占庭式的天主教徒
1. 1。 The Byzantine Catholics are those who correspond to the Orthodox.拜占庭式的天主教徒是對應於東正教的。 They all use the same (Byzantine) Rite; but they are not all organized as one body.它們都使用相同的(拜占庭)成年禮;但並非所有的組織為一體。 They form seven groups:他們形成七組:

This completes the list of Byzantine Catholics, of whom it may be said that the chief want is organization among themselves.這樣就完成了拜占庭式的天主教徒,其中可以說,它的主要要的是彼此之間的組織。 There has often been talk of restoring a Catholic (Melkite) Patriarch of Constantinople.經常被談論恢復一個天主教(Melkite)的君士坦丁堡牧首。 It was said that Pope Leo XIII intended to arrange this before he died.有人說,教皇利奧十三世打算安排在他去世前。 If such a revival ever is made, the patriarch would have jurisdiction, or at least a primacy, over all Catholics of his Rite; in this way the scattered unities of Melkites in Syria, Ruthenians in Hungary, Italo-Greeks in Sicily, and so on, would be linked together as are all other Eastern Catholic Churches.如果這樣的復興,族長將有管轄權,或至少至高無上的地位,超過所有的天主教徒,他的愛色麗在這樣分散的統一體Melkites在敘利亞,匈牙利魯塞尼亞中,意大利 - 希臘人在西西里島,等,將連接在一起的所有其他東方教會。

2. 2。 Chaldean Catholics迦勒底天主教
The Chaldees are Eastern Catholics converted from Nestorianism.迦勒底人是從景教東部天主教徒轉換。 In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries a complicated series of quarrels and schisms among the Nestorians led to not very stable unions of first one and then another party with the Holy See.在十六,十七世紀的爭吵和分裂之間的nestorians導致一系列複雜的第一個工會不是很穩定,則另一方與羅馬教廷。 Since that time there has always been a Catholic patriarch of the Chaldees, though several times the person so appointed fell away into schism again and had to be replaced by another.自那時以來,一直有一個天主教主教為迦勒底人,,雖然幾次如此委任的人消失了再分裂,並取而代之的是另一種。 The Chaldees are said now to number about 70,000 souls (Silbernagl, op. cit., 354; but Werner, "Orbis Terr. Cath.", 166, gives the number as 33,000).迦勒底人說,現在約70000靈魂(Silbernagl,前引書,354,但沃納,“奧比斯地區蛋白酶。”,166給出的數字為33,000)。 Their primate lives at Mosul, having the title of Patriarch of Babylon.他們的靈長類動物生活在摩蘇爾,巴比倫的族長的標題。 Under him are two archbishoprics and ten other sees.在他的領導下是2 archbishoprics,和其他十看到。

There are monasteries whose arrangements are very similar to those of the Nestorians.有寺院,其安排是非常類似的nestorians。 The liturgical books (in Syriac, slightly revised from the Nestorian ones) are printed by the Dominicans at Mosul.禮儀的書籍(敘利亞文景教的,略作修改)印的多米尼加在摩蘇爾。 Most of their canon law depends on the Bull of Pius IX, "Reversurus" (12 July, 1867), published for the Armenians and extended to the Chaldees by another Bull, "Cum ecclesiastica" (31 Aug., 1869).他們的教會法取決於上公牛的庇護九世,“Reversurus”(12 7月,1867年),亞美尼亞和另一個牛市的迦勒底人,的“暨ecclesiastica”(1869年8月31日)。 They have some students at the Propaganda College in Rome.他們有一些學生在宣傳學院在羅馬。

3. 3。 Alexandrian Catholics亞歷山大天主教徒
The Alexandrian Catholics (Catholic Copts) have had a vicar Apostolic since 1781.亞歷山大的天主教徒(天主教科普特人)有一個教區牧師使徒自1781。 Before that (in 1442 and again in 1713) the Coptic patriarch had submitted to Rome, but in neither case was the union of long duration.在此之前,(在1442年和1713年)科普特人的族長提交了羅馬,但在這兩種情況下都不是工會,持續時間長。 As the number of Catholics of this Rite has increased very considerably of late years, Leo XIII in 1895 restore the Catholic patriarchate.作為這個儀式的天主教徒人數增加非常顯著的晚年,利奧十三世在1895年恢復了天主教的主教的職位。 The patriarch lives at Cairo and rules over about 20,000 Catholic Copts.族長住在開羅,超過約20,000天主教科普特人的規則。

4. 4。 Abyssinians阿比西尼亞貓
The Abyssinians, too, had many relations with Rome in past times, and Latin missionaries built up a considerable Catholic Abyssinian Church.阿比西尼亞貓,也有很多關係,與羅馬在過去的時代,拉丁傳教士建立了一個相當大的天主教阿比西尼亞教會。 But repeated persecutions and banishment of Catholics prevented this community from becoming a permanent one with a regular hierarchy.但反复的天主教徒的迫害和驅逐防止這個社會成為一個永久的一個普通的層次。 Now that the Government is tolerant, some thousands of Abyssinians are Catholics.現在,政府是寬容的,有成千上萬的阿比西尼亞貓是天主教徒。 They have an Apostolic vicar at Keren.他們有一個宗座代牧仁。 If their numbers increase, no doubt they will in time be organized under a Catholic Abuna who should depend on the Catholic Coptic patriarch.如果他們的人數增加,毫無疑問,他們將在組織根據一個天主教Abuna的應取決於對天主教科普特人的族長。 Their liturgy, too, is at present in a state of disorganization.他們的禮儀,也就是在目前的混亂狀態。 It seems that the Monophysite Abyssinian books will need a good deal of revision before they can be used by Catholics.看來,基督一性阿比西尼亞書籍將需要一個良好的天主教徒,才可以使用大量的修訂。 Meanwhile the priests ordained for this rite have a translation of the Roman Mass in their own language, an arrangement that is not meant to be more than a temporary expedient.同時,受戒這一儀式的祭司有自己的語言,並不意味著要多一個暫時的權宜之計的安排,在羅馬地下的翻譯。

5. 5。 Syrians敘利亞人
The Catholic Syrian Church dates from 1781.敘利亞天主教教堂可以追溯到1781年。 At that time a number of Jacobite bishops, priests, and lay people, who had agreed to reunion with Rome, elected one Ignatius Giarve to succeed the dead Jacobite patriarch, George III.當時,一些詹姆士派主教,神父和信徒,已同意與親人團聚的羅馬,選出一個伊格內修斯Giarve接替死去的詹姆斯黨元老,喬治三世。 Giarve sent to Rome asking for recognition and a pallium, and submitting in all things to the pope's authority. Giarve發送到羅馬,要求認可和大腦皮層,並提交所有的東西,教皇的權威。 But he was then deposed by those of his people who clung to Jacobitism, and a Jacobite patriarch was elected.但他廢黜他的人,誰堅持到Jacobitism,詹姆斯黨元老當選。 From this time there have been two rival successions.這時候就出現了兩個對立的繼承。 In 1830 the Catholic Syrians were acknowledged by the Turkish Government as a separate millet .在1830年的天主教敘利亞人被承認由土耳其政府作為一個單獨的小米 The Catholic patriarch lives at Beirut, most of his flock in Mesopotamia.天主教主教在貝魯特的生活,他的羊群在美索不達米亞。 Under him are three archbishops and six other bishops, five monasteries, and about 25,000 families.在他的領導下,三個大主教和主教,5個寺院,約25000個家庭。

6. 6。 Malabar Catholics馬拉巴爾天主教徒
There is also a Catholic Church of Malabar formed by the Synod of Diamper in 1599.還有一個天主教教堂馬拉巴爾於1599年由主教的Diamper。 This Church, too, has passed through stormy periods; quite lately, since the Vatican Council, a new schism has been formed form it of about 30,000 people who are in communion with neither the Catholics, nor the Jacobites, nor the Nestorians, nor any one else at all.這個教會,也已通過通過暴風雨的期間;相當近來,梵蒂岡大公會議以來,已經形成一個新的分裂,形成約30000人,在交流既不是天主教徒,也不是詹姆斯黨,也不是景教,也沒有任何人所有。 There are now about 200,000 Malabar Catholics under three vicars Apostolic (at Trichur, Changanacherry, and Ernaculam).現在還有約20萬馬拉巴爾天主教徒在三個vicars使徒(在Trichur,Changanacherry,並Ernaculam的的)。

7. 7。 Armenians亞美尼亞
The Catholic Armenians are an important body numbering altogether about 130,000 souls.天主教亞美尼亞人是一個重要的身體編號,共約13萬靈魂。 Like their Gregorian countrymen they are scattered about the Levant, and they have congregations in Austria and Italy.公曆的同胞一樣,他們是分散的黎凡特,他們有教會在奧地利和意大利。 There have been several more or less temporary reunions of the Armenian Church since the fourteenth century, but in each case a rival Gregorian party set up rival patriarchs and bishops.第十四世紀以來,已經有幾個更多或更少臨時的聚會的亞美尼亞教堂,但在每種情況下一個對手陽曆黨成立的對手先祖和主教。 The head of the Catholic Armenians is the Catholic Armenian Patriarch of Constantinople (since 1830), in whom is joined the patriarchate of Cilicia.頭的天主教亞美尼亞的亞美尼亞天主教君士坦丁堡牧首(自1830年),在其中加入了東正教基利家。 He always takes the name Peter, and rules over three titular archbishops and fourteen sees, of which one is Alexandria and one Ispahan in Persia (Werner-- Silbernagl, 346).他始終把您的名字Peter和規則在三個名義上的大主教和14看到,其中一個是亞歷山大和伊斯法罕兩村在波斯(沃納 - Silbernagl,346)。 After much dispute he is now recognized by the Porte as the head of a separate millet , and he also represents before the Government all other Catholic bodies that have as yet no political organization.經過一番口舌之爭,他是目前公認的門作為一個單獨的小米的頭,他也代表了前政府的所有其他天主教團體還沒有任何政治組織。

There are also many Catholic Armenians in Austria-Hungary who are subject in Transylvania to the Latin bishops, but in Galicia to the Armenian Archbishop of Lemberg.也有許多天主教的亞美尼亞人在奧匈帝國須在特蘭西瓦尼亞的拉丁主教,但在加利西亞的亞美尼亞大主教倫貝格。 In Russia there is an Armenian Catholic See of Artvin immediately subject to the pope.在俄羅斯,有一個亞美尼亞天主教的阿爾特溫立即受到了教皇。 The Mechitarists (Founded by Mechitar of Sebaste in 1711) are an important element of Armenian Catholicism.公司成立於1711年的sebaste Mechitar)Mechitarists(亞美尼亞天主教的一個重要組成部分。 They are monks who follow the Rule of St. Benedict and have monasteries at San Lazzaro outside Venice, at Vienna, and in many towns in the Balkans, Armenia, and Russia.他們是遵循法治的聖本篤在威尼斯的San Lazzaro外,在維也納,在巴爾幹地區,亞美尼亞和俄羅斯在許多城鎮,並有寺院的僧侶。 They have missions all over the Levant, schools, and presses that produce important liturgical, historical, historical, and theological works.他們有駐黎凡特,學校,並按下產生重要的禮儀,歷史,歷史,神學著作。 Since 1869 all Armenian Catholic priests must be celibate.自1869年以來,亞美尼亞天主教神父必須獨身。

8. 8。 Maronites馬龍派教徒
Lastly, the Maronite Church is entirely Catholic.最後,完全是天主教馬龍派教會 There is much dispute as to its origin and the reason of its separation from the Syrian national Church.有很多爭議,它的起源和敘利亞的國家教會分離的原因。 It is certain that it was formed around monasteries in the Lebanon founded by a certain John Maro in the fourth century.可以肯定的是,它的周圍形成一定的約翰·馬羅在第四世紀的寺廟,在黎巴嫩成立。 In spite of the indignant protests of all Maronites there is no doubt that they were separated from the old See of Antioch by the fact that they were Monothelites.儘管所有馬龍派教徒的憤怒的抗議,但毫無疑問,他們從舊見安提分離的事實,他們Monothelites。 They were reunited to the Roman Church in the twelfth century, and then (after a period of wavering) since 1216, when their patriarch, Jeremias II, made his definite submission, they have been unswervingly faithful, alone among all Eastern Churches.他們團聚了在12世紀的羅馬教會,然後經過一段時間的搖擺不定自1216年以來,當他們的族長,赫雷米亞斯II,他明確了自己提交的,他們一直忠貞不渝,獨自一人所有東歐教會。 As in other cases, the Maronites, too, are allowed to keep their old organization and titles.在其他情況下,馬龍派教徒,也被允許保留他們原來的組織和標題。

Their head is the Maronite "Patriarch of Antioch and all the East", successor to Monothelite rivals of the old line, who, therefore, in no way represents the original patriarchate.他們的頭是龍族“安提阿宗主教和所有東”,繼任者,Monothelite的舊行的對手,因此,在沒有辦法代表原始的東正教。 He is also the civil head of his nation, although he has no berat from the sultan, and lives in a large palace at Bkerki in the Lebanon.他也是公務員的首長,他的國家,他雖然沒有培拉特從蘇丹在一個大行宮Bkerki,在黎巴嫩和生活的。 He has under him nine sees and several titular bishops.他在他的主持下,9所看到和幾個名義上的主教。 There are many monasteries and convents.有許多寺廟和修道院。 The present law of the Maronite Church was drawn up by the great national council held in 1736 at the monastery of Our Lady of the Almond Trees (Deir Saïdat al-Luaize), in the Lebanon.由大國民議會於1736年舉行的杏仁樹(代爾SaïdatAL-Luaize)的聖母修道院的,在黎巴嫩的馬龍派教會制定本法律。 There are about 300,000 Maronites in the Lebanon and scattered along the Syrian coast.有大約30萬馬龍派教徒在黎巴嫩和敘利亞海岸沿線。 They also have colonies in Egypt and Cyprus, and numbers of them have lately begun to emigrate to America.他們也有在埃及和塞浦路斯的殖民地,和數字,他們最近開始移民到美國。 They have a national college at Rome.他們有一個國家的大學在羅馬。

Conclusion結論

This completes the list of all the Eastern Churches, whether schismatic or Catholic.這樣就完成了所有的東歐教會的列表,是否分裂或天主教。

In considering their general characteristics we must first of all again separate the Eastern Catholics from the others.在考慮它們的一般特性,我們首先必須再次分開東部天主教徒與其他。 Eastern Rite Catholics are true Catholics, and have as much right to be so treated as Latins.東部成年禮的天主教徒是真正的天主教徒,有同樣的權利,被視為拉丁。 As far as faith and morals go they must be numbered with us; as far as the idea of an Eastern Church may now seem to connote schism or a state of opposition to the Holy See, they repudiate it as strongly as we do.至於信仰和道德去,他們必須列在我們數盡可能的東方教會的想法,現在似乎意味著分裂或國家的反對羅馬教廷,他們強烈否認,因為我們做。 Nevertheless, their position is very important as being the result of relations between Rome and the East, and as showing the terms on which reunion between East and West is possible.然而,他們的地位是非常重要的,因為羅馬和東方之間的關係的結果,顯示東方和西方之間的團聚是可能的條款。

III. III。 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SCHISMATICAL EASTERN CHURCHES東方教會分裂的特徵

Although these Churches have no communion among themselves, and although many of them are bitterly opposed to the others, there are certain broad lines in which they may be classed together and contrasted with the West.雖然這些教會彼此之間沒有交流,雖然他們中的許多強烈反對別人,也有一定的寬線,他們可能被歸類在一起,與西方的對比。

National Feeling 民族感情

The first of these is their national feeling.首先是他們的民族感情。 In all these groups the Church is the nation; the vehement and often intolerant ardour of what seems to be their religious conviction is always really national pride and national loyalty under the guise of theology.在所有這些團體,教會是國家的激烈,往往不能耐受的熱情似乎是他們的宗教信念始終是真正的民族自豪感和對國家的忠誠在神學的幌子下。 This strong national feeling is the natural result of their political circumstances.這種強烈的民族感情,是他們的政治環境下的自然結果。 For centuries, since the first ages, various nations have lived side by side and have carried on bitter opposition against each other in the Levant.幾個世紀以來,由於第一年齡段,不同的國家生活並排,並進行了激烈的反對互相在地中海東部。 Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Balkans have never had one homogeneous population speaking one language.敘利亞,埃及,美索不達米亞和巴爾幹地區從未有過的同質人口講一種語言。 From the beginning, nationality in these parts has been a question not of the soil, but of a community held together by its language, striving for supremacy with other communities.從一開始,已經在這些地區的國籍問題的土壤,但社區一起舉行了它的語言,努力與其他社區的霸主地位。 The Roman contest accentuated this.加劇了這一羅馬的比賽。 Rome and then Constantinople was always a foreign tyranny to Syrians and Egyptians.羅馬,然後君士坦丁堡一直是外國人的暴政,敘利亞和埃及。 And already in the fourth century of the Christian Era they began to accentuate their own nationalism, crushed in politics, by taking up an anti-imperial form of religion, by which they could express their hatred for the Government.已經在第四世紀的基督教時代,他們開始強調自己的民族主義,在政治上粉碎,採取了形式的宗教,反帝國主義,他們可以表達自己對政府的仇恨。 Such an attitude has characterized these nations ever since.這樣的態度,這些國家至今。 Under the Turk, too, the only possible separate organization was and is an ecclesiastical one.在土耳其人,也唯一可能的獨立的組織,是一個教會的。 The Turk even increased the confusion.土耳其人甚至增加了混亂。 He found a simple and convenient way of organizing thesubject Christians by taking their religion as a basis.他們的宗教為基礎的組織thesubject基督徒,他發現了一個簡單方便的方法。 So the Porte recognizes each sect as an artificial nation ( millet ).因此,奧斯曼帝國政府承認各教派作為一個人造的民族( 小米 )。 The Orthodox Church became the "Roman nation" ( Rum millet ), inheriting the name of the old Empire.東正教會成為“羅馬民族”( 朗姆酒小米 ),繼承名老帝國。 Then there were the "Armenian nation" ( Ermeni millet ), the "Coptic nation", and so on.有“亞美尼亞民族”(Ermeni小米 ),的“科普特國家”,等等。 Blood has nothing to do with it.血液有什麼用它做。 Any subject of the Porte who joins the Orthodox Church becomes a Roman and is submitted politically to the ecumenical patriarch; a Jew who is converted by Armenians becomes an Armenian.任何一個科目的門人加入東正教成為羅馬和政治上提交的普世牧首,轉換亞美尼亞成為一個猶太人,亞美尼亞人。 True, the latest development of Turkish politics has modified this artificial system, and there have been during the nineteenthcentury repeated attempts to set up one great Ottoman nation. ,土耳其政治的最新發展已經修改了這個人造的系統,也有過在十九世紀反复嘗試建立一個偉大的奧斯曼國家。 But the effect of centuries is too deeply rooted, and the opposition between Islam and Christianity too great, to make this possible.但幾個世紀的影響是太深入人心,之間的對立伊斯蘭教和基督教太大,使這一切成為可能。 A Moslem in Turkey -- whether Turk, Arab, or negro -- is simply a Moslem, and a Christian is a Roman, or Armenian, or Maronite, etc. Our Western idea of separating politics from religion, of being on the one hand loyal citizens of our country and on the other, as a quite distinct thing, members of some Church, is unknown in the East.在土耳其 - 一個穆斯林突厥人,阿拉伯人,黑人 - 是否僅僅是一個穆斯林,和基督教是羅馬人,或亞美尼亞,或龍族,等我們的西方思想的政治與宗教分離,一方面我們的國家和其他忠誠的公民,作為一個非常不同的事情,一些教會的成員,是未知的東方。 The millet is what matters; and the millet is a religious body. 小米是最重要的,和小米是一個宗教機構。 So obvious does this identification seem to them that till quite lately they applied it to us.所以,很明顯,這識別似乎對他們,直到相當最近,他們給我們。 A Catholic was (and still is to the more remote and ignorant people) a "French Christian", a Protestant an "English Christian"; in speaking French or Italian, Levantines constantly use the word nation for religion .天主教是(現在仍然是較偏遠和無知的人)“法國基督教,新教的”英語基督教“,能說流利的法語或意大利語,Levantines經常使用這個詞對宗教國家 Hence it is, also, that there are practically no conversions from one religion to another.因此,也有幾乎沒有從一個宗教轉換到另一個。 Theology, dogma, or any kind of religious conviction counts for little or nothing.神學教條,或任何形式的宗教信念計數很少或根本沒有。 A man keeps to his millet and hotly defends it, as we do to our fatherlands; for a Jacobite to turn Orthodox would be like a Frenchman turning German.一個人不斷地向他的小米和激烈的辯護,因為我們做我們的祖國,詹姆斯黨把東正教會像一個法國人轉向德國。

We have noted that religious conviction counts for little.我們注意到,宗教信念計數的小。 It is hard to say how much say of these bodies (Nestorian or Monophysite) are now even conscious of what was once the cardinal issue of their schism.這是很難說多少說的這些機構(景教或基督一性),甚至是現在意識到什麼曾經是他們的分裂的大是大非的問題。 The bishops and more educated clergy have no doubt a general and hazy idea of the question -- Nestorians think that everyone else denies Christ's real manhood, Monophysites that all their opponents "divide Christ".主教和更多的受過教育的神職人員無疑是一個一般的問題和模糊的概念 - ,景教徒認為,每個人都否認基督的真正的男子漢氣概,基督一性,所有他們的對手“分裂基督”。 But what stirs their enthusiasm is not the metaphysical problem; it is the conviction that what they believe is the faith of their fathers, the heroes of their "nation" who were persecuted by the other millets , as they are day-to-day (for there everyone thinks that everyone else persecutes his religion).但是,是什麼激起他們的熱情是不是形而上的問題,這是信念,他們認為這是他們的父親的信仰,誰是英雄,他們的“民族”,因為他們是受迫害的其他小米每天的日常(因為在那裡每個人都認為其他人迫害他的宗教)。 Opposed to all these little milal (plural of millet ) there looms, each decade mightier and more dangerous, the West, Europe Frengistan (of which the United States, of course, forms part to them).反對所有這些小milal的複數小米有織機,每一個十年更有力和更危險的,西方的,美國,當然,一部分給他們)的:歐洲Frengistan(。 Their lands are overrun with Frengis ; Frengi schools tempt their young men, and Frengi churches, with eloquent sermons and attractive services, their women.他們的土地被侵占與Frengis,Frengi學校引誘他們的少年人,和Frengi教堂,雄辯的說教和吸引力的服務,他們的女人。 They frequent the schools assiduously; for the Levantine has discovered that arithmetic, French, and physical science are useful helps to earning a good living.他們經常在學校刻苦鑽研,地中海東部發現,算術,法語和物理科學是有用的,有助於獲得一個良好的生活。 But to accept the Frengi religion means treason to their nation.但是,到接受的Frengi的宗教意味著背叛他們的國家。 It is a matter of course to them that we are Catholics or Protestants, those are our milal ; but an Armenian, a Copt, a Nestorian does not become a Frengi .這是一個順理成章地,我們是天主教徒還是新教徒,那些是我們的milal的的 ,但亞美尼亞人,一個科普特人,景教不會成為Frengi的 Against this barrier argument, quotation of Scripture, texts of Fathers, accounts of Church history, break in vain.在此屏障參數,報價聖經,文字的父親,教會歷史的帳戶,打破徒勞的。 Your opponent listens, is perhaps even mildly interested, and then goes about his business as before. Frengis are very clever and learned; but of course he is an Armenia, or whatever it may be.你的對手在聽,也許是即使溫和感興趣的,然後去他的生意和以前一樣。Frengis是非常聰明和有學問的,但當然,他是亞美尼亞,或不管它可能是。 Sometimes whole bodies move (as Nestorian dioceses have lately begun to coquet with Russian Orthodoxy), and then every member moves too.有時整個身體移動(,景教主教管區最近開始賣弄風情的俄羅斯東正教),然後每一個成員移動。 One cleaves to one's millet whatever it does.一個切割的小米,無論它做什麼。 Certainly, if the heads of any body can be persuaded to accept reunion with Rome, the rank and file will make no difficulty, unless there be another party strong enough to proclaim that those heads have deserted the nation.當然,如果可以說服任何機構的負責人接受親人團聚的羅馬,排名和文件將不困難,除非有另一種足夠強大的一方宣稱這些頭都拋棄了這個國家。

Intense Conservatism 強烈的保守主義

The second characteristic, a corollary of the first, is the intense conservatism of all these bodies.第二個特點,必然產生的結果,是所有這些機構在激烈的保守主義。 They cling fanatically to their rites, even to the smallest custom -- because it is by these that the millet is held together.他們狂熱地抱住他們的儀式,即使是在很小的習俗-因為它是由這些小米一起舉行。 Liturgical language is the burning question in the Balkans.禮儀語言是在巴爾幹地區的熱點問題。 They are all Orthodox, but inside the Orthodox Church, there are various milal -- Bulgars, Vlachs, Serbs, Greeks, whose bond of union is the language used in church.他們都是正統的,但裡面的東正教教堂,有不同的milal的 -保加利亞,瓦拉幾人,塞爾維亞人,希臘人,其紐帶是在教會中所使用的語言。 So one understands the uproar made in Macedonia about language in the liturgy; the revolution among the Serbs of Uskub in 1896, when their new metropolitan celebrated in Greek (Orth. Eastern Church, 326); the ludicrous scandal at Monastir, in Macedonia, when they fought overa dead man's body and set the whole town ablaze because some wanted him to be buried in Greek and some in Rumanian (op. cit., 333).因此,人們了解在馬其頓的沸沸揚揚,關於語言的禮儀;革命的於斯屈布,塞爾維亞人之間於1896年,在希臘慶祝他們的新都市(Orth.東方教會,3​​26);在莫納斯提爾可笑的醜聞,在馬其頓,當他們打overa死去的人的屍體,並設置整個城市燈火輝煌,因為有人要他被安葬在希臘和一些在羅馬尼亞(同上,333)。 The great and disastrous Bulgarian schism, the schism at Antioch, are simply questionsof the nationality of the clergy and the language they use.偉大的和災難性的保加利亞分裂,分裂在安提阿,只是questionsof的國籍神職人員和他們所使用的語言。

Conclusion 結論

It follows then that the great difficulty in the way of reunion is this question of nationality.如下的方式團聚了很大的困難,這是國籍問題。 Theology counts for very little.很少神學計數。 Creeds and arguments, even when people seem to make much of them, are really only shibboleths, convenient expressions of what they really care about -- their nation.信條和參數,甚至當人們似乎使他們中的許多,真的是唯一的陳詞濫調,方便表達他們真正關心的 - 他們的國家。 The question of nature and person in Christ, the Filioque in the Creed, azyme bread, and so on do not really stir the heart of the Eastern Christian.問題的性質和人在基督裡,在的信條,azyme麵包,等沒有真正挑起的心臟東部基督徒的聖子 But he will not become a Frengi .但他不會成為一個Frengi。 Hence the importance of the Eastern Catholic Churches.因此,東方教會的重要性。 Once for all these people will never become Latins, nor is there any reason why they should.一旦所有這些人將永遠不會成為拉丁人,也沒有任何理由為什麼他們應該。 The wisdom of the Holy See has always been to restore union, to insist on the Catholic Faith, and for the rest to leave each millet alone with its own native hierarchy, its own language, its own rites.羅馬教廷的智慧,一直到恢復工會,堅持信仰天主教,其餘的離開每個小米單獨與自己的母語層次,自己的語言,自己的儀式。 When this is done we have an Eastern Catholic Church.當做到這一點,我們有的東方天主教教會。

IV. IV。 ROME AND THE EASTERN CHURCHES羅馬和東方教會

Early attempts at reunion在團聚的早期嘗試

The attempts at reunion date from after the schism of Michael Caerularius (1054).試圖在團聚的日期之後的分裂:邁克爾Caerularius(1054)。 Before that Rome was little concerned about the older Nestorian and Monophysite schisms.在此之前,羅馬是有點擔心年齡較大的景教和monophysite分裂。 The conversion of these people might well be left to their neighbours, the Catholics of the Eastern Empire.轉換這些人很可能留給他們的鄰居,東羅馬帝國的天主教徒。 Naturally, in those days the Greeks set about this conversion in the most disastrous way conceivable.當然,在那些日子裡,希臘人將這種轉換的最災難性的方式行之有效的。 It was the Government of Constantinople that tried to convert them back along the most impossible line, by destroying their nationality and centralizing them under the patriarch of the imperial city.這是政府的君士坦丁堡,試圖將它們轉換回沿最不可能線,摧毀他們的國籍和集中他們的族長的皇城下。 And the means used were, frankly and crudely, persecution.而採用的手段,坦率地說,粗略地說,迫害。 Monophysite conventicles were broken up by imperial soldiers, Monophysite bishops banished or executed.基督一性conventicles打破了由帝國士兵,基督一主教被驅逐或執行。 Of course this confirmed their hatred of Caesar and Caesar's religion.當然,這證實了他們的凱撒,凱撒的宗教仇恨。 The East, before as well as after the great schism, did nothing towards pacifying the schismatics at its gates.東,偉大的分裂之前和之後,沒有對安撫schismatics在它的大門。 Only quite lately has Russia taken a more reasonable and conciliatory attitude towards Nestorians in Persia and Abyssinians, who are outside her political power.相當近來俄羅斯採取了更加合理,息事寧人的態度,對景教在波斯和阿比西尼亞貓,誰是她的政治權力之外。 Her attitude towards people she can persecute may be seen in her abominable treatment of the Armenians in Russia.可以看出,在俄羅斯的亞美尼亞人在她的惡劣對待她的態度的人,她可以逼迫。

Councils of Lyons (1274) and Florence (1438)議會萊昂斯(1274)和佛羅倫薩(1438)

It was, in the first instance, with the Orthodox that Rome treated with a view to reunion.這是,首先,與東正教,羅馬處理與團聚。 The Second Council of Lyons (1274) and the Council of Ferrara-Florence (1438-39) were the first efforts on a large scale.第二屆理事會萊昂斯(1274)和理事會的費拉拉 - 佛羅倫薩(1438年至1439年)是第一個大規模的努力。 And at Florence were at least some representatives of all the other Eastern Churches; as a kind of supplement to the great affair of the Orthodox, reunion with them was considered too.在佛羅倫薩至少有一些的所有其他東歐教會的代表,也被認為是作為一種補充的偉大的東正教,與他們團聚的事。 None of these reunions were stable.沒有這些聚會是穩定的。 Nevertheless they were, and they remain, important facts.然而,他們,和他們保持重要的事實。 They (the union of Florence especially) were preceded by elaborate discussions in which the attitudes of East and West, Orthodox and Catholic, were clearly compared.他們(佛羅倫薩尤其是工會)之前的態度,東方和西方,東正教和天主教,顯然比較詳細的討論。 Every question was examined -- the primacy, the Filioque , azyme bread, purgatory, celibacy, etc.每個問題都進行了檢查-的首要地位, 聖子 ,azyme麵包,煉獄,獨身等。

The Council of Florence has not been forgotten in the East.安理會的佛羅倫薩並沒有被遺忘在世界東方。 It showed Eastern Christians what the conditions of reunion are, and it has left them always conscious that reunion is possible and is greatly desired by Rome.這表明東部基督徒團聚的條件是什麼,它已經離開他們總是有意識的團聚是可能的,非常希望羅馬。 And on the other hand it remains always as an invaluable precedent for the Roman Court.而在另一方面,它始終保持的羅馬法院作為一個寶貴的先例。 The attitude of the Holy See at Florence was the only right one: to be quite unswerving in the question of faith and to concede everything else that possibly can be conceded.羅馬教廷的態度在佛羅倫薩是唯一正確的,是非常堅定不移的信仰問題,並承認一切,也有可能會承認。 There is no need of uniformity in rites or in canon law; as long as practices are not absolutely bad and immoral, each Church may work out its own development along its own lines.有沒有必要儀式或教會法的一致性;,只要做法是沒有絕對壞的,不道德的,每一個教會自己的發展沿著自己的生產線。 Customs that would not suit the West may suit the East very well; and we have no right to quarrel with such customs as long as they are not forced upon us.海關將不適合西方東方適應得非常好;,我們有這樣的習俗,只要不吵架的,因為他們沒有強加給我們的。

So, at Florence, in all these matters there was no attempt at changing the old order.因此,在佛羅倫薩,在所有這些問題上有沒有改變舊秩序的企圖。 Each Church was to keep its own liturgy and its own canon law as far as that was not incompatible with the Roman primacy, which is de fide .每個教會是盡可能保持自己的禮儀和自己的教會法,這不是與羅馬的首要地位,這是去真正的不兼容。 The very decree that proclaimed the primacy added the clause, that the pope guides and rules the whole Church of God "without prejudice to the rights and privileges of the other patriarchs".非常法令,宣布的首要條款,增加了教皇的指導和規則的整個教會的神“在不損害其他族長的權利和特權”。 And the East was to keep its married clergy and its leavened bread, was not to say the Filioque in the Creed, nor use solid statues, nor do any of the things they resent as being Latin.東方以保持其已婚的神職人員和其發酵的麵包,並不是說聖子的信條,也沒有使用固態雕像,也沒有任何反感的事情,他們是拉丁。

After the Council of Florence經過理事會的佛羅倫薩

This has been the attitude of Rome ever since.這是自從羅馬的態度。 Many popes have published decrees, Encyclicals, Bulls that show that they have never forgotten the venerable and ancient Churches cut off from us by these schisms; in all these documents consistently the tone and attitude are the same.許多教皇已經發布法令,的諭,公牛隊表示,他們從來沒有忘記我們這些分裂的尊敬和古老的教堂;在所有這些文件中一貫的語氣和態度都是一樣的。 If there has been any latinizing movement among Eastern Catholics, it has sprung up among themselves; they have occasionally been disposed to copy practices of the far richer and mightier Latin Church with which they are united.東部天主教徒之間如果有任何latinizing的運動,它已如雨後春筍般湧現,它們之間,他們偶爾會被出售複製更豐富和更有力的拉丁教會與他們聯合的做法。 But all the Roman documents point the other way.但是,所有的羅馬文件指出的其他方式。

If any Eastern customs have been discouraged or forbidden, it is because they were obviously abuses and immoral like the quasi-hereditary patriarchate of the Nestorians, or sheer paganism like the superstitions forbidden by the Maronite Synod of 1736.東方的習俗,如果有任何不鼓勵或禁止,那是因為他們有明顯的虐待和不道德的一樣準世襲的景教主教的職位,或純粹的異教類似的迷信禁止馬龍派主教的1736。 True, their liturgical books have been altered in places; true also that in the past these corrections were made sometimes by well-meaning officials of Propaganda whose liturgical knowledge was not equal to their pious zeal.誠然,他們的禮儀書籍被修改的地方;也是如此,在過去的這些修正有時是善意的宣傳官員的禮儀知識,不等於他們的虔誠的熱情。 But in this case, too, the criterion was not conformity with the Roman Rite, but purification from supposed (sometimes mistakenly supposed) false doctrine.但是,在這種情況下,標準是不符合羅馬的儀式,但淨化從假定的(有時會錯誤地假設的)錯誤的教義。 That the Maronite Rite is so latinized is due to its own clergy.馬洛尼成年禮拉丁化是由於其自身的神職人員。 It was the Maronites themselves who insisted on using our vestments, our azyme bread, our Communion under one kind, till these things had to be recognized, because they were already ancient customs to them prescribed by the use of generations.這是馬龍派教徒自己堅持使用我們的法衣,我們azyme麵包,我們的共融下一種,直到這些東西都被認可,因為他們已經是古老的習俗,他們通過幾代人的使用規定。

Papal Documents羅馬教皇的文件

A short survey of papal documents relating to the Eastern Churches will make these points clear.一個簡短的調查,東方教會的羅馬教皇的有關文件,明確提出這些問題。

Before Pius IX, the most important of these documents was Benedict XIV's Encyclical "Allatae sunt" of 2 July, 1755.在庇護九世,最重要的是這些文件是本篤十四世通諭“Allatae必須遵守”1755年7月2日。 In it the pope is able to quote a long list of his predecessors who had already cared for the Eastern Churches and their rites.在它的教宗是能夠引用一個長長的清單,他的前任已經照顧,東方教會和他們的儀式。 He mentions acts of Innocent III (1198-1216), Honorius III (1216-27), Innocent IV (1243-54), Alexander IV (1254-61), Gregory X (1271-76), Nicholas III (1277-80), Eugene IV (1431-47), Leo X (1513-21), Clement VII (1523-34), Pius IV (1559-65), all to this effect.他提到了行為的英諾森三世(1198年至1216年),honorius三(1216年至1227年),英諾森四世(1243年至1254年),亞歷山大四世(1254年至1261年),格雷戈里X(1271年至1276年),尼古拉斯三世(1277年至1280年),尤金四(1431年至1447年),獅子座X(1513年至1521年),克萊門特七世(1523年至1534年),約四(1559年至1565年),所有效果。

Gregory XIII (1572-85) founded at Rome colleges for Greeks, Maronites, Armenians.格里高利十三世(1572年至1585年)為希臘人,羅馬學院成立於馬龍派教徒,亞美尼亞人。 In 1602 Clement VIII published a decree allowing Ruthenian priests to celebrate their rite in Latin churches. 1602年克萊門特八世公佈了一項法令,允許在拉丁教會的儀式,以慶祝他們的魯塞尼亞祭司。 In 1624 Urban VIII forbade Ruthenians to become Latins. 1624年烏爾班八世禁止的魯塞尼亞成為拉丁。 Clement IX, in 1669, published the same order for Armenian Catholics (Allatae sunt, I).克萊門特九,在1669年,發表了相同的順序亞美尼亞的天主教徒(Allatae必須遵守,I)。 Benedict XIV not only quotes these examples of former popes, he confirms the same principle by new laws.教宗本篤十四世不僅引用了前教皇的這些例子,他證實了同樣的原則,通過新的法律。 In 1742 he had re-established the Ruthenian Church with the Byzantine Rite after the national Council of Zamosc, confirming again the laws of Clement VIII in 1595.在1742年,他重新建立了魯塞尼亞教會扎莫希奇全國理事會的拜占庭成年禮後,再次確認克萊門特八,在1595年的法律。 When the Melkite Patriarch of Antioch wanted to change the use of the Presanctified Liturgy in his Rite, Benedict XIV answered: "The ancient rubrics of the Greek Church must be kept unaltered, and your priests must be made to follow them" (Bullarium Ben. XIV., Tom. I).牧安提Melkite想改變用途的presanctified他的祭禮儀中,教宗本篤十四世回答說:“古老的量規,希臘教會必須保持不變,和你的祭司必須遵循”(Bullarium本。十四,湯姆·I)。 He ordains that Melkites who, for lack ofa priest of their own Rite, had been baptized by a Latin, should not be considered as having changed to our Use: "We forbid absolutely that any Catholic Melkites who follow the Greek Rite should pass over to the Latin Rite" (ib., cap. xvii).他ordains,OFA自己的愛色麗牧師的不足,已受洗的拉丁Melkites不應該被視為改變我們的使用:“我們禁止絕對,誰跟隨希臘的成年禮任何天主教Melkites,應傳遞到拉丁禮“(同上,第第十七章)。

The Encyclical "Allatae sunt" forbids missionaries to convert schismatics to the Latin Rite; when they become Catholics they must join the corresponding Eastern Rite (XI).通諭“Allatae必須遵守”禁止傳教士轉換schismatics的拉丁禮,當他們成為天主教徒,他們必須加入相應的東部成年禮(XI)。 In the Bull "Etsi pastoralis" (1742) the same pope orders that there shall be no precedence because of Rite.在牛市ETSI pastoralis“(1742)相同教皇的命令,不得有沒有因為愛色麗優先。 Each prelate shall have rank according to his own position or the date of his ordination; in mixed dioceses, if the bishop is Latin (as in Southern Italy), he is to have at least one vicar-general of the other Rite (IX).每一個主教應根據自己的位置或日期,他的協調排名在混合教區的主教,如果是拉丁美洲(如在意大利南部),他是至少有一個牧師,一般的成年禮(IX) 。

Most of all did the last two popes show their concern for Eastern Christendom.最重要的是最後兩位教皇的關注,東基督教。 Each by a number of Acts carried on the tradition of conciliation towards the schismatical Churches and of protection of Catholic Eastern Rites.每一個數字進行調解的傳統,對分裂的教會和保護天主教東方禮儀行為。

Pius IX, in his Encyclical "In Suprema Petri" (Epiphany, 1848), again assures non-Catholics that "we will keep unchanged your liturgies, which indeed we greatly honour"; schismatic clergy who join the Catholic Church are to keep the same rank and position as they had before.庇護九世,在他的通諭“在SUPREMA的Petri”主顯節(1848年),又保證了非天主教徒說:“我們將保持不變,你的禮儀,這當然是我們非常榮幸”分裂加入天主教會的神職人員誰是保持相同的等級和地位,因為他們面前。 In 1853 the Catholic Rumanians were given a bishop of their own Rite, and in the Allocution made on that occasion, as well as in the one to the Armenians on 2 February, 1854, he again insists on the same principle.在1853年,天主教羅馬尼亞人給予自己的愛色麗的主教,在那次會議上提出的訓政,以及在一個對亞美尼亞人在1854年2月2日,他再次堅持同樣的原則。 In 1860 the Bulgars, disgusted with the Phanar (the Greeks of Constantinople), approached the Catholic Armenian patriarch, Hassun; he, and the pope confirming him, promised that there should be no latinizing of their Rite. 1860年,保加利亞,反感的Phanar(希臘人的君士坦丁堡),接近亞美尼亞天主教族長,Hassun他,和,教皇,確認他保證說,自己的成年禮,應該沒有latinizing的。 Pius IX founded, 6 January, 1862, a separate department for the Oriental Rites as a special section of the great Propaganda Congregation.庇護九世成立後,1862年,一個單獨的部門,東方禮儀作為一個特殊路段的巨大宣傳眾。

Leo XIII in 1888 wrote a letter to the Armenians (Paterna charitas) in which he exhorts the Gregorians to reunion, always on the same terms.利奧十三世在1888年寫了一封信,對亞美尼亞人(帕特納charitas)在他勸告Gregorians的團聚,總是在相同的條件。 But his most important act, perhaps the most important of all documents of this kind, is the Encyclical "Orientalium dignitas ecclesiarum" of 30 November, 1894.但是,他的最重要的行為,也許最重要的是這種類型的所有文件,是通諭“Orientalium人性尊嚴ecclesiarum”11月30日,1894年。 In this letter the pope reviewed and confirmed all similar acts of his predecessors and then strengthened them by yet severer laws against any form of latinizing the East.在這封信中,教皇審查,並確認所有類似的行為,他的前任,然後,加強他們還嚴厲的法律禁止任何形式的latinizing東方。 The first part of the Encyclical quotes examples of the care of former popes for Eastern Rites, especially of Pius IX; Pope Leo remembers also what he himself has already done for the same cause -- the foundation of colleges at Rome, Philippopoli, Adrianople, Athens, and St. Ann at Jerusalem.第一部分的通諭報價的關心前教皇東方禮儀的例子,尤其是庇護九世教皇利奧還記得他自己已經做了相同的原因 - 高校基礎,在羅馬,Philippopoli的,阿德里安,雅典和聖安在耶路撒冷。 He again commands that in these colleges students should be exactly trained to observe their own rites.他再次命令,這些高校的學生,應完全訓練觀察自己的儀式。 He praises these venerable Eastern liturgies as representing most ancient and sacred traditions, and quotes again the text that has been used so often for this purpose, circumdata varietate applied to the queen, who is the Church (Ps. xliv, 10).他稱讚這些古老的東方禮儀作為代表最古老,最神聖的傳統,並再次引用的文本,所以經常被用於此目的,,龜甲varietate適用於女王,誰是教會(詩四十四,10)。 The Constitutions of Benedict XIV against latinizers are confirmed; new and most severe laws are promulgated: any missionary who tries to persuade an Eastern-Rite Catholic to join the Latin Rite is ipso facto suspended, and is to be expelled from his place.確認本篤十四對latinizers的憲法,頒布新的和最嚴厲的法律:任何傳教士試圖說服東部成年禮的天主教加入拉丁語成年禮是依據事實暫停的,是被驅逐出自己的位置。 In colleges where boys of different Rites are educated there are to be priests of each Rite to administer the sacraments.在不同的禮儀的教育男孩的院校有每個祭的祭司施行聖禮。 In case of need one may receive a sacrament from a priest of another Rite; but for Communion it should be, if possible, at least one who uses the same kind of bread.在需要的情況下,可能會收到從另一個祭的祭司的聖禮,但為聖餐,它應該是,如果可能的話,至少有一個人使用相同種類的麵包。 No length of use can prescribe a change of Rite.沒有使用的長度可以給你開祭的變化。 A woman marrying may conform to her husband's Rite, but if she becomes a widow she must go back to her own.一個女人結婚可能會符合她的丈夫的愛色麗,但如果她變成了寡婦,她必須回到自己的。

In the Encyclical "Praeclara gratulationis', of 20 June, 1894, that has been often described as "Leo XIII's testament", he again turned to the Eastern Churches and invited them in the most courteous and the gentlest way to come back to communion with us. He assures schismatics that no great difference exists between their faith and ours, and repeats once more that he would provide for all their customs without narrowness (Orth. Eastern Church, 434, 435). It was this letter that called forth the unpardonably offense answer of Anthimos VII of Constantinople (op. cit., 435-438). Nor, as long as he lived, did Leo XIII cease caring for Eastern Churches. On 11 June, 1895, he wrote the letter "Unitas christiana" to be the Copts, and on 24 December of that same year he restored the Catholic Coptic patriarchate. Lastly, on 19 March, 1895, in a motu proprio , he again insisted on the reverence due to the Eastern Churches and explained the duties of Latin delegates in the East.在通諭“Praeclara gratulationis”,20年6月,1894年,,已被常常描述為“利奧十三世的遺囑”中,他再次轉向東方教會,邀請他們在最有禮貌和的溫和的方式,以前來回共融與他保證我們之間不存在很大的差異,他們的信仰和我們的schismatics,和再一次重複,他將提供所有未經海關的狹窄(Orth.東方教會,434,435),這是這封信提出了所謂的十惡不赦犯罪的:Anthimos第七君士坦丁堡(同上,435-438)的答案,也只要他活著,也利奧十三世不再關心東方教會在1895年6月11日,他寫了一封信,“聯合文學克里斯蒂安娜”科普特人,12月24日,同年,他又恢復了天主教科普特主教的職位。最後,於1895年3月19日,在MOTU PROPRIO,他再次堅持崇敬由於東方教會和解釋的拉丁代表的職責在東部地區。

As a last example of all, Pius X in his Allocution, after the now famous celebration of the Byzantine Liturgy in his presence on 12 February, 1908, again repeated the same declaration of respect for Eastern rites and customs and the same assurance of his intention to preserve them (Echos d'Orient, May, 1908, 129-31).作為最後一個例子,在他的庇護十世訓政,現在著名的慶祝活動後,2月12日的拜占庭禮儀中,他的存在,1908年,再次重複了同樣的聲明,東方禮儀和習俗的尊重和同樣的信心,他打算保留他們(東方迴聲報德,日,1908年,129-31)。 Indeed this spirit of conservatism with regard to liturgies is in our own time growing steadily at Rome with the increase of liturgical knowledge, so that there is reason to believe that whatever unintentional mistakes have been made in the past (chiefly with regard to the Maronite and Catholic Armenian rites) will now gradually be corrected, and that the tradition of the most entire acceptance and recognition of other rites in the East will be maintained even more firmly than in the past.事實上,這方面的禮儀精神的保守主義是在我們自己的時間穩步增長,在羅馬與禮儀知識的增加,因此,有理由相信,任何無意的錯誤已在過去(主要是關於龍族和亞美尼亞天主教儀式)將逐漸被糾正,將保持甚至比以往更加堅定,最全的接受和認可的其他儀式在東方的傳統。

Conclusion結論

On the other hand, in spite of occasional outbursts of anti-papal feeling on the part of the various chiefs of these Churches, it is certain that the vision of unity is beginning to make itself seen very widely in the East.另一方面,在雖然偶爾爆發反教皇的感覺,這些教會的各種酋長,可以肯定的是團結的願景開始,使自己看到了非常廣泛的東方。 In the first place, education and contact with Western Europeans inevitably breaks down a great part of the old prejudice, jealousy, and fearof us.首先,教育和西歐的接觸不可避免地打破了舊的偏見,嫉妒,和fearof我們的很大一部分。 It was a Latin missionary who said lately: "They are finding out that we are neither so vicious nor so clever as they had thought."這是一個拉丁傳教士最近說:“他們正在尋找的是,我們既不是惡性的,也不是那麼聰明,因為他們想”。 And with this intercourse grows the hope of regeneration for their own nations by contact with the West.這個交往的發展與西方的接觸,希望能再生為自己的國家。 Once they realize that we do not want to eat them up, and that their milal are safe, whatever happens, they cannot but see the advantages we have to offer them.一旦他們認識到,我們不想吃起來,是他們的milal是安全的,無論發生什麼事,他們不能,但我們必須為他們提供的優勢。 And with this feeling goes the gradual realization of something larger in the way of a Church than their own milal .這種感覺去一些大的一所教堂比他們自己milal的方式逐步實現。 Hitherto, it was difficult to say that the various Eastern schismatics understood by the "Catholic Church" in the creed.迄今為止,這是很難說的各種東部schismatics理解的“天主教會”的信條。 The Orthodox certainly always mean their own communion only ("Orth. Eastern Church", 366-70); the other smaller bodies certainly hold that they alone have the true faith; everyone else -- especially Latins -- is a heretic.東正教的一定總是意味著自己的聖餐(“Ortho的。東方教會”,366-70);其他較小的機構固然認為只有他們是真正的信仰,所有的人 - 尤其是拉丁人 - 是一個邪教組織。 So, presumably, for them, too, the Catholic Church is only their own body.因此,據推測,對他們來說,太,天主教會只有自己的身體。 But this is passing with the growth of more knowledge of other countries and a juster sense of perspective.但是,這是通過與其他國家更多的知識和更加公正的透視感的增長。 The Nestorian who looks at a map of the world can hardly go on believing that his sect is the only and whole Church of Christ.景教在世界地圖上看起來很難去相信他的教派是唯一的和整個教會的基督。 And with the apprehension of larger issues there comes the first wish for reunion.而更大的問題的憂慮來團聚的第一個願望。 For a Church consisting of mutually excommunicate bodies is a monstrosity that is rejected by everyone (except perhaps some Armenians) in the East.對於一個教會由相互破門機構組成的是一個怪物,每個人都被拒絕(除了或許有些亞美尼亞)在東方。

The feeling out towards the West for sympathy, help, and perhaps eventually communion, is in the direction of Catholics, not of Protestants.的感覺,對西方同情,幫助,也許最終的共融,是天主教徒的方向,而不是新教徒。 Protestantism is too remote from all their theology, and its principles are too destructive of all their system for it to attract them.新教是太偏僻了,從他們的神學,其原理是太具破壞性的所有系統,以吸引他們。 Harnack notes this of Russians: that their more friendly feeling towards the West tends Romeward, not in an Evangelical direction (Reden and Aufsätze, II, 279); it is at least equally true of other Eastern Churches.哈納克指出的俄羅斯,他們對西方往往更親切的感覺Romeward,而不是一個福音的方向(Reden和Aufsätze,II,279),這是其他東歐教會至少同樣真實的。 When the conviction has spread that they have everything to gain by becoming again members of a really universal Church, that union with Rome means all the advantages of Western ideas and a sound theological position, and that, on the other hand, it leaves the national millet untouched, un-latinized, and only stronger for so powerful an alliance, then indeed the now shadowy and remote issues about nature and person in Christ, the entirely artificial grievances of the Filioque and our azyme bread will easily be buried in the dust that has gathered over them for centuries, and Eastern Christians may some day wake up and find that there is nothing to do but to register again a union that ought never to have been broken.的信念傳播,他們有百利而無再次成為一個真正的普世教會的成員,該聯盟與羅馬裝置的所有優點,西方的觀念和良好的神學立場,而且,另一方面,它使國家小米也不放過,未拉丁化,如此強大的聯盟,只有更強,的確是關於自然和人在基督裡,完全是人為 filioque,和我們azyme麵包的怨氣現在陰影和遠程問題會很容易被埋沒在塵土中了,他們已經聚集了幾個世紀以來,東部基督徒可能在某一天醒來,發現有什麼做的,但重新註冊一個工會,應該從來沒有被打破。

Adrian Fortescue阿德里安Fortescue的
Transcribed by Christine J. Murray轉錄由Christine J.默里

The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor 天主教百科全書,體積V Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。人頭馬lafort,檢查員
Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York 的認可。+約翰M法利,大主教紐約



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