Christian Halo, Nimbus基督教暈,雨雲

General Information 一般資料

In Christian sacred art (Eastern and Western churches), holy persons (saints) are depicted with a halo, a golden, yellow or white circular glow, around the head.在基督教的神聖的藝術(東部和西部教會),描述了神聖的人(聖人)的光環,一片金黃,黃色或白色的圓形發光,周圍的頭部。 It is sometimes called a nimbus as well.它有時被稱為靈氣以及。

The halo appears in the art of ancient Greece and Rome, and was incorporated into Christian art sometime in the 4th century.的光環出現在古希臘和古羅馬的藝術,已被納入基督教藝術在公元4世紀的某個時候。 Round halos are used to signify saints.圓形的光環被用來表示聖徒。 A cross within a halo is used to represent Jesus Christ.被用來代表耶穌基督的跨內的光環。 Triangular halos are used for representations of the Trinity.三角光環用於陳述的三位一體的。 Square halo are used to depict unusually saintly living personages.廣場鹵素用於描繪異常聖潔生活人士。

In popular piety, this practice has led to the belief that saints during their earthly life actually walked around with a halo around their head.在流行的虔誠,這種做法已導致聖徒在他們的塵世生活的信念,他們的頭周圍的光環走來走去。 Of the many wonderful stories about saints, some report that a saint was literally glowing.聖徒許多精彩的故事,一些報告,聖人簡直是發光的。 This is called the aureole, a lemon-drop-shaped item that appears to radiate from the entire body of the holy being.這就是所謂的光環,檸檬水滴形顯示的項目,輻射整個身體的聖者。 Finally, there is also "glory," a glowing effusion used to cover up depictions of genitalia.最後,也有“榮耀”,一個用來掩蓋描繪生殖器的發光積液。

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The halo underwent an interesting transformation during the Renaissance.在文藝復興時期的光環經歷了一個有趣的轉變。 Originally, the halo represented a glow of sanctity emanating from the head.最初,煥發出神聖的光環代表了從頭部發出的。 Since it was conventionally drawn as a circle, during the Renaissance, when perspective became more important in art, the halo was changed from an aura surrounding the head to a golden ring that appeared in perspective, mysteriously floating above the heads of the saints. ,因為它是傳統畫成一個圓圈,在文藝復興時期,在藝術的角度變得更加重要,從頭上的光環圍繞一個金戒指中出現的角度來看,神不知鬼不覺的頭浮在上面的聖徒的光環。


Halo

General Information 一般資料

The Halo, also called Nimbus, in art, is a radiant circle or disk surrounding the head of a holy person, a representation of spiritual character through the symbolism of light. “光暈”,也被稱為靈氣,藝術,周圍的頭一個神聖的人的精神品格,通過光的象徵意義,表示是一個輻射圈或磁盤。 In Hellenistic and Roman art the sun-god Helios and Roman emperors often appear with a crown of rays.在古希臘和羅馬藝術中的太陽神赫利俄斯和羅馬的皇帝經常出現的冠冕射線。 Because of its pagan origin, the form was avoided in Early Christian art, but a simple circular nimbus was adopted by Christian emperors for their official portraits.由於其異教的起源,避免在早期基督教藝術的形式,但通過他們的官方肖像的基督教皇帝一個簡單的圓形靈氣。

From the middle of the 4th century, Christ was also shown with this imperial attribute, as was his symbol, the Lamb of God, from the end of the 4th century.從第4個世紀中,基督也顯示這個帝國的屬性,因為是他的象徵,神的羔羊,從第4個世紀的結束。 In the 5th century it was sometimes given to angels, but it was not until the 6th century that the halo became customary for the Virgin Mary and other saints.公元5世紀,它有時給天使,但,但直到公元6世紀的聖母瑪利亞和其他聖人的光環成為習慣。 For a period during the 5th century, living persons of eminence were depicted with a square nimbus.一個時期在公元5世紀,人的隆起的生活被描繪與一個正方形靈氣。

The halo was used regularly in representations of Christ, the angels, and the saints throughout the Middle Ages.經常使用的基督,天使和聖徒在整個中世紀中陳述暈。 Often Christ's halo is quartered by the lines of a cross or inscribed with three bands, interpreted to signify his position in the Trinity.基督的光環往往駐紮線的交叉或刻有三個波段,解釋為表明自己的立場三位一體。 From the 15th century, however, with the growth of naturalism in Renaissance art, the nimbus created problems in representation.然而,從15世紀起,在文藝復興時期的藝術的自然增長,靈氣創建代表性的問題。 At first it was treated by some Florentine artists as a solid object seen in perspective, a disk fixed to the back of a saint's head.起初它被處理的一些佛羅倫薩的藝術家的角度看到了堅實的對象,裝聖人的頭後面的。 The inadequacy of this solution led to its decline in Italian art in the 16th century and to its abandonment by Michelangelo and Titian.該解決方案的不足之處,導致其在16世紀意大利藝術的下降和放棄由米開朗基羅和提香的。 In Flemish painting of the 15th century, it began to be represented as rays of light; under the influence of the Counter-Reformation, which sought to restore a glorious conception to religious art, this form was adopted by Italian artists of the late 16th century, notably Tintoretto, as a realistically rendered light emanating from the holy person's head.在佛蘭芒繪畫在15世紀,它開始光線;反改革,它試圖恢復光榮的觀念,以宗教藝術的影響下,這種形式是通過晚16世紀意大利藝術家,特別是丁托列托,作為一個神聖的人的頭逼真地呈現發出的光。 This new interpretation was the standard one in the Baroque period and in most subsequent religious works.這種新的解釋是在巴洛克時期,在隨後的大多數宗教工作的標準之一。

The halo is also found in Buddhist art of India, appearing from the late 3rd century AD.印度佛教藝術的光環也發現了,從公元3世紀後期出現。 It is believed that the motif was brought to the East by Greek invaders.它被認為是由希臘侵略者的主題被帶到了東方。

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Nimbus光環

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(Latin, related to Nebula, nephele, properly vapour, cloud), in art and archaeology signifies a shining light implying great dignity. (拉丁語,相關的星雲,涅斐勒,適當的水汽,雲),在藝術和考古學標誌著一個閃亮的光,這意味著極大的尊嚴。 Closely related are the halo, glory, and aureole.與此密切相關的光環,榮耀和光環。

In Nature在“自然”

All such symbols originate in natural phenomena, scientifically accounted for in textbooks on physics.所有這些符號起源於自然現象,科學地佔在物理課本上。 There are circular phenomena of light in drops or bubbles of water and in ice crystals which by the refraction of light reveal in greater or less degree the spectral colours.有圓形的光現象在滴或氣泡的水和冰晶的光的折射揭示在更大或更小的程度的光譜顏色。 Of the accompanying phenomena the horizontal and vertical diameters, the "column of light", may be mentioned.附圖現象中的水平和垂直的直徑,“列中的光”,可以提及。 The curious rings of light or colour similar to the above, which often form themselves before the iris of the eye even in candle light, are more gorgeous on the mountain mist (Pilatus, Rigi, and Brocken), if the beholder has the sun behind him; they surround his shadow as it is projected upon the clouds.好奇的環類似上述的光或顏色,往往形成自己的眼睛,即使在燭光前虹膜,更華麗的皮拉圖斯山,瑞吉山和布羅肯山霧(),如果旁觀者的背後有陽光他,他們包圍著他的影子,因為它是投射在雲層。 The dewdrops in a meadow can produce an appearance of light around a shadow, without, however, forming distinct circles.在草地上的露珠周圍光線的陰影的外觀,如果沒有,然而,形成獨特的圓圈。

Occasionally one even sees the planet Venus veiled by a disc of light.偶爾一看到金星幕光盤。 The phenomena of discs and broad rings are more usual in the sun and moon.的光盤和廣闊的環在太陽和月亮是更常見的現象。 The Babylonians studied them diligently (Kugler, "Sternkunde und Sterndienst in Babel", II, 1).巴比倫人學習他們勤奮地(庫格勒,“Sternkunde和Sterndienst巴別塔”,II,1)。 The terminology of these phenomena is vague.這些現象的術語是模糊的。 The disc or circle around the sun can be correctly called "anthelia", and the ring around the moon "halo".繞太陽的圓盤或圓,可以正確地稱為“anthelia”,環環繞月球的“光環”。 A more usual name is "aureole", which in a restricted sense means an oval or elliptical ray of light like a medallion.一個更常見的名稱是“光環”,在有限的意義上說,是指一個大獎章般的光芒的橢圓形​​或橢圓形的射線。 If the brightness is merely a luminous glow without definitely forming ring, circle.如果只是一個明亮的發光亮度沒有絕對形成環,圓。 or ellipse, it is usually spoken of as a "glory".或橢圓形,通常所說的一個“榮耀”。 The types in nature in which rays or beams of light with or without colour challenge attention, suggested the symbolical use of the nimbus to denote high dignity or power.在自然界中,射線或光束的光帶或不帶顏色的挑戰注意,建議使用的靈氣的象徵意義,表示尊嚴或電源。 It is thus that Divine characteristics and the loftiest types of humanity were denoted by the nimbus.因此,這是神聖的特性和類型的人類最崇高的靈氣表示。

In Poetry在詩

In poetry, this symbol of light is chiefly used in the form of rays and flames or a diffused glow.在詩歌中,這個符號主要用於光射線的形式和火焰擴散的光芒。 The Bible presents the best example: God is Light. “聖經”給出了最好的例子:神就是光。 The Son of God, the Brightness of His Father's glory (Hebr., i, 3).神的兒子,他的父的榮耀(Hebr.的亮度,I,3)。 An emerald light surrounds God and His throne (Apoc., iv, 3), and the Son of Man seems to the prophet a flame of fire (Apoc., i, 14 sq.).翠綠的光包圍的神,他的的寶座(Apoc.,四,3),人子似乎先知火焰中(Apoc.,一,14平方米)。 So also He appeared in His Transfiguration on Tabor.所以,他也出現在他的變身,在他泊山。 On Sinai, God appeared in a cloud which at once concealed and revealed Him (Ex., xxiv, 16, sq.) and even the countenance of Moses shone with a marvellous light in the presence of God (Ex., xxxiv, 29, sq.).在西奈山,上帝出現在雲這一次隱瞞,並透露他(出埃及記,二十四,16平方米),甚至摩西的面容閃爍著一個奇妙的光在神的面前(出埃及記三十四,29,平方米)。 Such descriptions may have influenced Christian artists to distinguish God and the saints by means of a halo, especially around the head.這樣的描述可能已經影響了基督教藝術家區分上帝和聖人的光環,特別是在頭部。 They were also familiar with the descriptions of the classical poets whose gods appeared veiled by a cloud; eg according to Virgil, divinity appears "nimbo circumdata, succincta, effulgens" (bathed in light and shining through a cloud).他們也熟悉的古典詩人的神​​出現隱晦的雲的描述,如維吉爾,神出現“,succincta nimbo龜甲,effulgens”(沐浴在燈光下閃閃發光的雲)。

In Art在藝術

In the plastic arts (painting and sculpture) the symbolism of the nimbus was early in use among the pagans who determined its form.在造型藝術(繪畫和雕塑)之間的異教徒,決定了它的形式很早就在使用靈氣的象徵意義。 In the monuments of Hellenic and Roman art, the heads of the gods, heroes, and other distinguished persons are often found with a disc-shaped halo, a circle of light, or a rayed-fillet.在希臘和羅馬藝術的紀念碑,頭上的神,英雄和其他傑出人士經常發現有一個圓盤狀的光環,圓光,或光檢查,圓角。 They are, therefore, associated especially with gods and creatures of light such as the Phoenix.因此,他們尤其與神的動物,如鳳凰。 The disc of light is likewise used in the Pompeian wall paintings to typify gods and demigods only, but later, in profane art it was extended to cherubs or even simple personifications, and is simply a reminder that the figures so depicted are not human.在龐貝壁畫的光盤同樣採用典型的神和半神,但後,在世俗的藝術,它延伸到天使,甚至簡單的化身,而​​僅僅是一個提醒的數字,描繪的是沒有人。 In the miniatures of the oldest Virgil manuscript all the great personages wear a nimbus.在維吉爾最古老的手稿的縮影,所有偉大的人物穿著一個靈氣。

The custom of the Egyptian and Syrian kings of having themselves represented with a rayed crown to indicate the status of demigods, spread throughout the East and the West.埃及和敘利亞國王有自己的風俗,代表與一個光檢查表冠來表示半神半人的狀態,傳遍了整個東方和西方。 In Rome the halo was first used only for deceased emperors as a sign of celestial bliss, but afterwards living rulers also were given the rayed crown, and after the third century, although not first by Constantine, the simple rayed nimbus.在羅馬的光環只為死者皇帝作為天體幸福的標誌,但後生活統治者也考慮到射線的冠,之後的第三個世紀,雖然不是第一次由君士坦丁光檢查,簡單的靈氣。 Under Constantine the rayed crown appears only in exceptional cases on the coin, and was first adopted emblematically by Julian the Apostate.根據君士坦丁出現了光檢查的冠,只有在特殊情況下,硬幣,並首次採用了emblematically朱利安的叛教者。 Henceforth the nimbus appears without rays, as the emperors now wished themselves considered worthy of great honour, but no longer as divine beings.從今以後,靈氣光線沒有出現,現在的皇帝希望自己認為值得的巨大的榮譽,而不再像以前那樣神。

In early Christian art, the rayed nimbus as well as the rayless disc were adopted in accordance with tradition.在早期基督教藝術,以及的rayless盤射線的靈氣按照傳統採用。 The sun and the Phoenix received, as in pagan art, a wreath or a rayed crown, also the simple halo.太陽和鳳凰,在異教的藝術品,一個花圈或光檢查的冠,也簡單的光環。 The latter was reserved not only for emperors but for men of genius and personifications of all kinds, although both in ecclesiastical and profane art, this emblem was usually omitted in ideal figures.不僅皇帝,但男性的天才和人格化,各種後者被保留,雖然在教會和世俗的藝術,這一會徽通常被省略了理想的數字。 In other cases the influence of ancient art tradition must not be denied.在其他情況下,古老的藝術傳統的影響不能被拒絕。 The Middle Ages scarcely recognized such influence, and were satisfied to refer to the Bible as an example for wreath and crown or shield shaped discs as marks of honour to holy personages.中世紀時幾乎認不出這樣的影響力,並信納“聖經”作為一個例子花圈和冠或盾牌形狀的光盤標記的榮譽神聖的人士。 Durandus writes: Durandus寫道:

"Sic omnes sancti pinguntur coronati, quasi dicerunt. Filiae Jerusalem, venite et videte martyres cum coronis quibus coronavit eas Dominus. Et in Libro Sapientiae: Justi accipient regnum decoris et diadema speciei de manu Domini. Corona autem huiusmodi depingitur in forma scuti rotundi, quia sancti Dei protectione divina fruuntur, unde cantant gratulabundi: Domine ut scuto bonae voluntatis tuae coronasti nos" (Thus all the saints are depicted, crowned as if they would say: O Daughters of Jerusalem, come and see the martyrs with the crowns with which the Lord has crowned them. And in the Book of Wisdom: The Just shall receive a kingdom of glory, and a crown of beauty at the hands of the Lord, and a crown of this kind is shown in the form of a round shield. because they enjoy the divine protection of the Holy God, whence they sing rejoicing: O Lord, Thou hast crowned us with a shield of Thy goods-will.) (Rationale divin. offic., I, 3, 19, sq.). “骰omnes聖斯皮里圖斯pinguntur coronati,dicerunt準。Filiae耶路撒冷,venite的videte martyres暨CORONIS quibus coronavit EAS Dominus等在利布羅Sapientiae:JUSTI accipient REGNUM decoris等Diadema魚speciei的馬努多米尼。電暈autem huiusmodi depingitur在形式上scuti rotundi,quia聖斯皮里圖斯DEI protectione神曲fruuntur,unde cantant gratulabundi:Domine UT scuto bonae voluntatis TUAE coronasti不“(因此,所有的聖徒的描述,加冕,如果他們會說:耶路撒冷的眾女子阿,來看看烈士的冠的主戴上它們,在這本書的智慧:只需將收到的國度的榮耀,冠美在主手中的,而這種形式的圓盾構的冠冕。因為他們喜歡聖潔的神神的保護,從那裡他們唱的大喜:主啊,祢加冕我們的盾牌你的東西。)的理由DIVIN。OFFIC,I,3,19,(平方米)。

Furthermore the Middle Ages are almost exclusively accredited with the extension of symbolism inasmuch as they traced, sometimes felicitously, allusions to Christian truths in existing symbols, of which they sought no other origin.此外,在中世紀幾乎完全認可的象徵意義,因為它們追踪的擴展,有時巧妙地,在現有的符號,他們不再尋求其他來源的典故,以基督教的真理。 Durandus adds to the passage quoted above, the nimbus containing a cross, usual in the figures of Christ, signifying redemption through the Cross, and the square nimbus which was occasionally combined with it in living persons, to typify the four cardinal virtues. Durandus添加到上文所引述包含一個十字架,基督的數字一樣,標誌著贖回通過交叉,生活的人,偶爾與它相結合,典型的四項基本原則美德和方靈氣,靈氣。 Judging by the principal monuments, however, the square nimbus appears to be only a variant of the round halo used to preserve a distinction and thus guard against placing living persons on a par with the saints.然而,從主要的古蹟,方靈氣似乎是唯一的一個變體的圓暈用來保存區別,從而防止生的人相提並論的聖人。 The idea of the cardinal virtues, the firmness of a squared stone, or the imperfection of a square figure as contrasted with a round one was merely a later development.的基本道德理念,堅定的方形石頭,還是不完美的方形圖作為對比,一個圓形的僅僅是以後的發展。 In the cross nimbus the association of the nimbus with an annexed cross must be conceded historical; but that this cross is a "signum Christi crucifixi" Durandus probably interprets correctly.在跨靈氣所附的靈氣與跨協會必須承認歷史,但這個十字架實在是一個“正負號斯蒂cr​​ucifixi”Durandus可能解釋正確。

Origin起源

As stated above the nimbus was in use long before the Christian era.如上所述的靈氣是在使用長前基督教時代。 According to the exhaustive researches of Stephani it was an invention of the Hellenic epoch.根據Stephani了詳盡的研究,這是希臘劃時代的發明。 In early Christian art the nimbus certainly is not found on images of God and celestial beings, but only on figures borrowed from profane art, and in Biblical scenes; in place of the simple nimbus, rays or an aureole (with the nimbus) were made to portray heavenly glory.在早期基督教藝術的靈氣肯定是沒有發現的神和仙人的圖像,但只在數字借用褻瀆藝術,並在聖經的場面,代替簡單的靈氣,射線或光環(靈氣)描繪天上的榮耀。 Hence it follows that the Bible furnished no example for the bestowal of a halo upon individual saintly personages.因此,“聖經”拿不出例子恩賜的光環對個別聖潔的人士。 As a matter of fact the nimbus, as an inheritance from ancient art tradition, was readily adopted and ultimately found the widest application because the symbol of light for all divine, saintly ideals is offered by nature and not infrequently used in Scripture.作為一個事實上的靈氣,從古老的藝術傳統的繼承,很輕易地被採納,並最終找到了最廣泛的應用,因為所有神聖的,聖潔的理想​​的象徵所提供的性質,而不是在聖經中不經常使用。 In contemporary pagan art, the nimbus as a symbol of divinity had become so indefinite, that it must have been accepted as something quite new.當代異教的藝術品,的靈氣神力的象徵,變得如此不確定的,它必須被接受的東西挺新的。

The nimbus of early Christian art manifests only in a few particular drawings, its relationship with that of late antiquity.早期基督教藝術的靈氣,體現只在少數特定的圖紙,其關係與近古。 In the first half of the fourth century, Christ received a nimbus only when portrayed seated upon a throne or in an exalted and princely character, but it had already been used since Constantine, in pictures of the emperors, and was emblematic, not so much of divine as of human dignity and greatness.上半年的第四個世紀,基督收到了靈氣,只有當描繪坐在一個寶座或崇高的王公字符,但它已經被使用,因為康斯坦丁,照片中的皇帝,而且是象徵性的,沒有那麼多神的作為人的尊嚴和偉大。 In other scenes however, Christ at that time was represented without this emblem.然而,在其他場景中,基督在當時沒有這個標誌的代表。 The "exaltation" of Christ as indicated by the nimbus, refers to His dignity as a teacher and king rather than to His Godhead. “提高”基督的靈氣,是指他的尊嚴,而不是他的神性作為老師和王。 Before long the nimbus became a fixed symbol of Christ and later (in the fourth century), of an angel or a lamb when used as the type of Christ.在長期的靈氣成為一個固定的象徵基督,後來在第四世紀,天使或羊肉時,用基督的類型。 The number of personages who were given a halo increased rapidly, until towards the end of the sixth century the use of symbols in the Christian Church became as general as it had formerly been in pagan art.暈人士的數量迅速增加,直到接近年底的第六個世紀在基督教教會的符號成為一般使用,因為它以前是在異教的藝術品。

Miniature painting in its cycle represents all the most important personages with haloes, just as did the Virgil codex, so that the continuity of the secular and Christian styles is obvious.微型畫在其週期代表了所有最重要人物的光環,就像維吉爾食品法典委員會,使持續性的世俗和基督教的款式是明顯的。 This connection is definitively revealed when royal persons, eg, Herod, receive a nimbus.連接是明確透露,王室的人,例如,希律王,當收到靈氣。 Very soon the Blessed Virgin Mary always, and martyrs and saints usually, were crowned with a halo.很快加冕的聖母瑪利亞始終,烈士和聖人通常,暈。 More rarely the beloved dead or some person conspicuous for his position or dignity were so honoured.更罕見的心愛的突出他的立場和尊嚴的死或一些人是如此的榮幸。 Saints were so represented if they constituted the central figure or needed to be distinguished from the surrounding personages.聖徒構成的核心人物,如果他們需要,以區別於周圍的人士如此表示。 The nimbus was used arbitrarily in personification, Gospel types, and the like.靈氣的化身,福音類型等任意使用。 Official representations clearly show a fixed system, but outside of these there was great variety.官方表示清楚地顯示一個固定的系統,但這些之外,還有種類繁多。 Works of art may be distinctly differentiated according to their birthplace.藝術作品可能會明顯分化,根據自己的出生地。 The nimbus in the Orient seems to has e been in general use at an early period, but whether it was first adopted from ecclesiastical art is uncertain.在東方的靈氣似乎一直在一般使用在早期階段,但是否它首次採用了從宗教藝術是不確定的。 In general the customs of the East and West are parallel; for instance, in the West the personifications appear with a nimbus as early as the third century and Christ enthroned no later than in the East (in the time of Constantine).在一般情況下海關的東,西是平行的,例如,在西方的化身出現的靈氣早在第三世紀,基督登基沒有比在東方(康斯坦丁的時間)。 Their nature makes it apparent that in every department of plastic art the nimbus is more rarely used than in painting.它們的性質使得它明顯,在各部門的造型藝術比繪畫的靈氣更很少使用。

Form and Colour形式和顏色

The form of the symbol was first definitely determined by Gregory the Great who (about 600) permitted himself to be painted with a square nimbus.格里高利大(約600)允許自己畫一個正方形的靈氣符號的形式第一次明確地確定。 Johannus Diaconus in his life of the pope, gives the reason: "circa verticem tabulae similitudinem, quod viventis insigne est, preferens, non coronam" (bearing around his head the likeness of a square, which is the sign for a living person, and not a crown.) (Migne, "PL", 75, 231). Johannus Diaconus的教皇在他的生活中,給出的理由是:“大約verticem油松similitudinem,狴viventis insigne EST,preferens,非coronam”(一個正方形的樣式,這是一個活生生的人的標誌,在他的頭部和一頂王冠。)(米涅,“PL”,75,231)。 It appears to have already been customary to use the round nimbus for saints.這似乎已經習慣使用的圓形靈氣,聖人。 In any event the few extant examples from the following centuries show that, almost without exception only the living, principally ecclesiastics, but also the laity and even women and children, were represented with a square nimbus.在任何情況下,從以下幾個世紀的一些現存的例子表明,幾乎無一例外的生活,主要是教士,但也俗人,甚至婦女和兒童,,一個方形靈氣派代表出席了會議。 The aureole, that is the halo which surrounds an entire figure, naturally takes the shape of an oval, though if it is used for a bust, it readily resumes the circular form.的光環,是包圍整個圖形的光環,自然需要一個橢圓形的形狀,但如果它被用於一個半身像,它很容易恢復的圓形形式。 The radiation of light from a centre is essential and we must recognize the circle of light of the sun-god in ancient art as one of the prototypes of the aureole.中心的輻射是必要的,我們必須認識到光的太陽神在古老的藝術圈的光環的原型之一。 The medallion form was for a long time in use among the ancient Romans for the Imagines clipeata.獎章的形式是在很長一段時間之間的古羅馬的想像clipeata的的使用。 The gradations of colour in the aureole reveal the influence of Apoc., iv, 3, where a rainbow was round about the throne of God.的光環顯示的色彩層次的影響載脂蛋白C,四,三,關於神的寶座的彩虹是圓的。 Indeed, in very early times the aureole was only used in representations of God as the Dove or Hand, or of Christ when the divinity was to be emphatically expressed.事實上,在非常早的時期,光環只用在神的斑鳩,或手,或基督的神性時,需重點表達的陳述。

In early Christian times (as now) the round nimbus was by far the most usual designation of Christ and the saints.在早期基督教時期(就像現在)的圓形靈氣是迄今為止最常用的指定的耶穌和聖徒。 The broad circle is often replaced by the ring of light or a coloured disc, especially on fabrics and miniatures.廣泛的圓經常更換的光或彩色盤,特別是在面料和微型環。 In pictures without colour the nimbus is shown by an engraved line or a raised circlet, often by a disc in relief.在沒有顏色的圖片靈氣的刻線或凸起的小圈所示,經常光盤救濟。 In the aureole blue indicates celestial glory, and it is used in the nimbus to fill in the surface, as are yellow, gray, and other colours while the margins are sharply defined in different tints.在光環藍色表示天上的榮耀,並用它的靈氣,以填補在表面,是黃色的,灰色,其他顏色的邊緣清晰的在不同的色彩。 In many haloes the inner part is white.在許多的光環內的部分是白色的。 In mosaics, since the fifth and sixth centuries, blue has been replaced by gold.馬賽克,第五和第六個世紀以來,藍色已取代黃金。 From this period also, the frescoes show a corresponding yellow as seen for instance in paintings in the catacombs.同時,從這一時期的壁畫,例如在地下墓穴的繪畫表現出相應的黃色。 Gold or yellow prevails in miniatures, but there is a great deal of variety in illustrated books.黃金或黃色普遍存在的微縮模型,但有大量的各種繪本。 Blue as a symbol of heaven has the preference, but gold, which later became the rule, gives a more obvious impression of light.藍色的象徵天堂的偏好,但光金,即後來的規則,給人的印象更加明顯。

The explanation of the cross nimbus variety is obvious.跨靈氣品種的解釋是顯而易見的。 Since the sixth century it has characterized Christ and the Lamb of God, but occasionally it is given to the other Persons of the Trinity.自六世紀,它的特點基督和上帝的羔羊,但偶爾它是考慮到其他人的三位一體。 In connection with it, in the fourth and fifth centuries there was a monogram nimbus.在與它的連接,在第四和第五世紀,有一個會標靈氣。 The cross and the monogram of Christ were beside or above the head of Christ and the Lamb.十字架和基督的會標是基督的頭和羔羊的旁邊或上方。 In the fifth century they were brought to the upper edge of the nimbus and finally both were concentrically combined with it.在五世紀,他們被帶到的上緣的靈氣,最後都被同心與它相結合。 In more recent times the monogram and the monogram nimbus have become more rare.在更近的時候,會標,會標靈氣的已經變得更為罕見。 The letters Alpha and Omega for Christ and M and A for Mary, were intended for monograms and frequently accompanied the nimbus.字母阿爾法和歐米茄為基督和M和A瑪麗,用於印章,往往伴隨著靈氣。

Development發育

In order to understand the nimbus and its history, it is necessary to trace it through the different branches of art.為了理解的靈氣和它的歷史,它是通過不同的藝術部門的需要進行跟踪。 The frescoes in the catacombs have a peculiar significance inasmuch as they determine the period when the nimbus was admitted into Christian art.地下墓穴的壁畫中,有一個特殊的意義,因為它們確定的期限時,被接納為基督教藝術的靈氣。 The numerous figures lacking this symbol (Christ, Mary, and the Apostles) show that before Constantine, representations of specifically Christian character were not influenced by art traditions.眾多缺乏這種符號(基督,聖母瑪利亞,和使徒)的數字顯示,在康斯坦丁之前,特別是基督徒的品格的表現並沒有受到藝術傳統。 Only pictures of the sun, the seasons, and a few ornamental heads carried a nimbus at that date.只有圖片的太陽,季節,和一些裝飾負責人於該日進行了靈氣。 The single exception is found in a figure over the well-known "Ship in a Storm" of one of the Sacrament chapels.唯一的例外是在一個數字在著名的“船在風暴”的聖禮教堂之一。 But it is to be observed that in this case we are not dealing with a representation of God, but merely with a personification of heavenly aid, which marked a transition from personifications to direct representations of holy personages.但它是被觀察到,在這種情況下,我們是不處理與上帝的代表性,而僅僅是與天上的援助,這標誌著過渡神聖的人士直接表示從人格化的化身。 The figure seems to be copied from pictures of the sun god.這個數字似乎要複製圖片的太陽神。

On the other hand, several pictures of Christ in the catacombs, dating from the fourth century, indicate the period when the nimbus was first used in the way familiar to us.另一方面,基督的幾張照片,在地下墓穴,歷史可追溯至第四世紀,表明期間第一次使用的方式為我們所熟悉的靈氣。 Besides the Roman catacombs others, especially that of El Baghaouat in the great Oasis of the Libyan desert, must be taken into account.除了在羅馬地下墓穴的人,尤其是薩爾瓦多Baghaouat利比亞沙漠中的綠洲,必須考慮到。 For the period succeeding Constantine, mosaics furnish important evidence since they present not only very numerous and usually definite examples of the nimbus, but have a more official character and give intelligent portrayals of religious axioms.馬賽克對於成功的康斯坦丁期間,提供了重要的證據,因為他們提出的靈氣不僅非常多,而且通常是明確的例子,但有一個更正式的性格和智能描繪的宗教公理。 Although allowance must be made for later restorations a constant development is apparent in this field.雖然津貼必須為以後的修復顯然,在這一領域不斷發展。 The treatment of the nimbus, in the illuminating and illustrating of books, was influenced by the caprices of the individual artist and the tradition of different schools.治療的靈氣,在照明和說明的書籍,是受個別藝術家的反复無常和不同學校的傳統。 In textiles and embroidery the most extensive use was made of the nimbus, and a rich colour scheme was developed, to which these technical arts are by nature adapted.在紡織品和刺繡,用途最廣泛的靈氣,和豐富的色彩方案的制定,這些技術藝術是自然適應。 Unfortunately the examples which have been preserved are only imperfectly known and the dates are often difficult to determine.不幸的是,已被保存下來的例子不完善眾所周知的日期往往是難以確定的。

Sculpture presents little opportunity for the use of the nimbus.雕塑的機會很少使用的靈氣。 In some few instances, indeed, the nimbus is painted on ivory or wood carvings but more often we find it engraved or raised in relief.的確,在某些少數情況下,靈氣是畫在象牙或木雕,但更多的時候,我們發現它刻或凸起的浮雕。 Figures with this emblem are rare.這個會徽的數字是罕見的。 On the sarcophagi we find that Christ and the Lamb (apart from the sun) alone appear with a circle or disc, the Apostles and Mary, never.在石棺中,我們發現基督的羔羊(除了太陽)單獨出現一個圓形或光盤,使徒和瑪麗,從來沒有。 In ivory neither Mary nor Christ is so distinguished.在象牙無論是瑪麗也不讓尊貴的基督。 In the course of centuries the Christian idea that God, according to Holy Scripture the Source of Light and Divine things, must always be given a halo.在幾個世紀以來,基督教思想,神,根據聖經的來源燈和神聖的東西,必須始終給予的光環。 became more pronounced.變得更加明顯。 This applied to the three Divine Persons and their emblems, as the Cross, Lamb, Dove, Eye, and Hand; and since, according to Scripture, saints are children of Light (Luke, xvi, 8; John, xii, 36), as such they should share the honour.這三個神聖的人,他們的標誌的十字架,羊,鴿子,眼睛和手;因為根據聖經,聖人是光明之子(路十六,8,約翰,十二,36),因此,他們應該分享榮譽。

Preference was shown for the garland or crown (corona et gloriae corona) of Christ which was also bestowed by God as a reward upon the saints, either spiritually in this life or in the Kingdom of Heaven (Ps. xx, 4; Heb., ii, 7 sq.).偏好顯示的花環或冠等gloriae電暈(電暈)的基督,也被賦予神的聖人作為獎勵後,無論是在生活中還是在天國(詩XX,4;來。精神,二,7平方米)。 Garlands and crowns of glory are frequently mentioned in the Bible (I Peter v, 4; Apoc., iv, 4, etc.).花環和榮耀的冠冕是經常提到的“聖經”(彼得V,4載脂蛋白C。,四,四,等)。 The nimbus also takes the form of a shield to emphasize the idea of Divine protection (Ps. v, 13).靈氣另一種形式的屏蔽強調的理念是神聖的保護(詩五,13)。 A truly classic authority for the explanation of the nimbus may be found in Wis., v, 17: the Just shall "receive a kingdom of glory, and a crown of beauty at the hands of the Lord: for with His right hand He will cover them, and with His holy arm He will defend them."是真正的經典權威的解釋的靈氣可能會發現:“應”獲得榮耀的國度,並在主手中的一頂王冠的美女:用他的右手,他將在美國威斯康星州,17 V,包括他們,和他的聖臂,他會為他們辯護。“ (In Greek, "Holds the shield over them".) (在希臘文中,“持有的盾之上的人”。)

Whereas in pagan art, the rayless nimbus signified neither holiness nor Divine protection but merely majesty and power, in Christian art it was more and more definitely made the emblem of such virtue and grace, which emanating from God, extends over the saints only.而在異教的藝術品,rayless靈氣既不是聖潔的,也不是神的保護,但僅僅是威嚴和權力的象徵,在基督教藝術中,它被越來越多的肯定了會徽的美德和風度,從上帝發出的,延伸的聖人只。 Urban VIII formally prohibited giving the nimbus to persons who were not beatified.烏爾班八世正式禁止靈氣的人誰不冊封為真福。 Since the eighteenth century the word "halo" has been incorporated into the German language.自十八世紀的“光環”已被納入德國的語言。 In Western countries John the Baptist is the only saint of the Old Testament who is given a halo, doubtless because before his time the grace of Christ had not yet been bestowed in its fullness.在西方國家是唯一的聖施洗約翰的舊約是誰給的光環,無疑是因為在他的時間基督的恩典尚未被安置在其豐滿。

We have already found that the aureole was be considered exclusively a device of Christian art, especially as it was reserved at first for the Divinity, and later extended only to the Blessed Virgin.我們已經發現的光環被認為是專門的設備,基督教藝術,特別是當它被保留在第一的神,後來延伸向聖母瑪利亞。 Instead of simple beams it often consists of pointed flames or is shaded off into the colours of the rainbow.而不是簡支梁,它通常包括有針對性的火焰或陰影到彩虹的顏色。 This form as well as the simple nimbus, by the omission of the circumference, may be transposed into a garland of rays or a glory.這種形式,以及簡單的靈氣,所遺漏的周長,可以調換成的花環射線或榮耀。 A glory imitating the sun's rays was very popular for the monstrances, in other respects the lunula suggests the nimbus only because the costliness of the material enhances the lustre.一個榮耀的模仿太陽的光線是非常普遍的的monstrances,在其他方面,甲半月建議的靈氣,只是因為昂貴的材料,提高了光澤。 The aureole obtained the Italian name of mandorla from its almond shape.杏仁狀的光環獲得了意大利名身光。

In Germany the fish was agreed upon for the symbol of Christ, or a fish bladder if it had the shape of a figure 8.在德國,魚商定基督符號,或魚膀胱,如果它有一個數字8的形狀。 God the Father is typified in later pictures by an equilateral triangle, or two interlaced triangles, also by a hexagon to suggest the Trinity.父神是在後面的圖片代表一個等邊三角形,或兩個交錯的三角形,也建議三位一體的六邊形。 If there is no circle around the cross nimbus, the three visible arms of the cross give the same effect.如果有三個可見臂的交叉沒有交叉靈氣一圈,得到相同的效果。 Occasionally the mandorla is found composed of seven doves (type of the Seven Gifts of the Holy Ghost), or of angels.偶爾的身光組成的鴿子(七禮品的聖靈類型),或天使。 The latter are used in large pictures of the Last Judgment or heaven, for instance in the "glories" of Italian domes.後者是在最後的審判或天堂大的圖片,例如在“輝煌”的意大利圓頂。 In painting, haloes of cloud are sometimes used for delicate angel heads, as in Raphael's works.在繪畫中,有時會暈的雲精緻的天使頭,在拉斐爾的作品。 Angels also form a nimbus around the head of the Mother of God.天使也是上帝的母親的頭周圍形成了一個靈氣。 She is also given the twelve stars of Apoc., xii, 1.她也的十二星載脂蛋白C。,第十二,1。 Saint John Nepomucene has five or seven stars because of the great light which hovered over his body when he was drowned in the Moldau by order of King Wenceslaus.聖約翰Nepomucene有五,七顆星,因為上空盤旋的大光,他的身體時,他被淹沒在伏爾塔瓦河王Wenceslaus為了。

Artists have developed many varieties of the nimbus and aureole.藝術家們開發了許多品種的靈氣,光環。 Since the Renaissance it has been fashioned more and more lightly and delicately and sometimes entirely omitted, as the artists thought they could suggest the characteristics of the personage by the painting.自文藝復興以來,它已經塑造了越來越多的輕率和微妙的,有時甚至完全省略,因為藝術家們認為,他們可以建議的人士所畫的特點。 It is true that the nimbus is not intrinsically a part of the figure and at times even appears heavy and intrusive.這是真正的靈氣是沒有本質上的數字的一部分,有時甚至會出現重和侵入。 A distinguishing symbol may not, however, be readily dispensed with and with the omission of this one the images of the saints have often degenerated into mere genre pictures and worldly types.的一個顯著標誌,然而,很容易省去,遺漏了一個圖像的聖人往往單純風格圖片和世俗的類型,淪落到。 A delicate circlet of light shining or floating over the head does not lessen the artistic impression, and even if the character of Christ or the Madonna is sufficiently indicated in the drawing, yet it must be conceded that the nimbus, like a crown, not only characterizes and differentiates a figure but distinguishes and exalts it as well.一個微妙的光芒照耀或漂浮在頭上的頭飾不減少的藝術印象,即使基督或麥當娜的性格充分顯示在繪圖,但必須承認的靈氣,像一頂王冠,而不是只特徵和一個數字區別,但區別和頌揚它。

G Gietmann ĝGietmann
Transcribed by Michael C. Tinkler轉錄由邁克爾C.廷克勒
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI天主教百科全書,卷席
Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor Imprimatur.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約



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