Indulgences放縱

General Information 一般資料

Indulgence, in Roman Catholic practice, the full or partial remission before God of temporal punishment for sins that have been forgiven.放縱,在羅馬天主教的做法,顳處罰,在神的面前被原諒的罪,全部或部分緩解。 It is granted by ecclesiastical authority and is considered to be a special form of intercession made by the whole church through its liturgy and prayers for the reconciliation of one of its members, living or dead.它被授予由教會的權威,被認為是一種特殊形式的說情由整個教會通過其禮儀和祈禱的和解之一,它的成員,活的還是死的。

In the early Christian church, severe penitential observances were imposed by the local priest or bishop on all who had been guilty of serious sins.在早期的基督教教堂,嚴重悔罪紀念活動實施由當地神父或主教對所有已犯了嚴重的罪。 It was believed that sins must be atoned for, at least in part, by the sinner in this world rather than in the next.有人認為的罪孽,必須有血氣的,至少部分,在這個世界上,而不是在未來的罪人。 Works of atonement consisted of fasts, pilgrimages, floggings, and other penances of greater or less severity imposed for a specified period of time.作品由一個指定的時間內實施的齋戒,朝聖,鞭笞,或大或小的嚴重程度和其他苦行贖罪。 Gradually, church authorities substituted lesser works of devotion (such as prayers or almsgiving), accompanied by indulgences equivalent to the corresponding periods of more severe penance.漸漸地,教會當局取代較小的作品奉獻(如祈禱或施捨),伴隨著寬容,相當於同期更嚴重的苦修。

It was not until the 12th century that theological reflection focused on indulgences.但直到12世紀的神學反省專注於放縱。 At first there was some opposition to the practice, but toward the end of the 12th century the attitude of theologians gradually became more favorable.起初有一些反對的做法,但向12世紀的神學家的態度逐漸變得更加有利。 At the same time, the granting of indulgences became increasingly a prerogative of the pope.同時,給予indulgences成為越來越多的教皇的特權。

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During the Middle Ages, abuses surrounded the practice of granting indulgences.在中世紀,濫用包圍的做法給予的寬容。 Their sale, with what appeared to be automatic spiritual benefits, even without personal repentance, led Martin Luther and other leaders of the 16th-century Protestant Reformation to abandon the practice altogether.什麼是自動的的精神好處,即使沒有個人懺悔,他們的銷售,導致16世紀的新教改革的馬丁·路德和其他領導人的做法完全放棄。

The Roman Catholic church still grants indulgences, but the practice has been simplified since 1967.羅馬天主教教會仍然給予的寬容,但自1967年以來的實踐已被簡化。 At that time reforms were introduced limiting the occasions for obtaining indulgences and dropping the time equivalents.當時推行改革取得的寬容和下降時間等值限制的場合。


Indulgences放縱

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Indulgences are the means by which the Roman Church claims to give remission before God of the temporal punishment due to sins, whose guilt has already been forgiven.寬容,是羅馬教會聲稱的手段,在神面前的罪,內疚已經原諒顳處罰,由於給緩解。 The theology of this idea developed slowly in the Western church and from the sixteenth century in Roman Catholicism; it has often been the case that practice went ahead of the theory.發展緩慢的西方十六世紀的羅馬天主教教會和神學的這個想法,通常的情況下,這種做法繼續理論。 Further, the granting of indulgences has sometimes been the occasion of abuse and controversy, eg, the famous controversy between Martin Luther and JJ Tetzel in 1517 in Germany at the beginning of the Protestant Reformation.此外,給予indulgences有時會被濫用和爭議,例如,著名的馬丁·路德和JJ泰澤爾於1517年在德國開始的新教改革的爭論之際。

Basic to the theology of indulgences is the distinction between eternal and temporal punishment due to sins.基本的神學的寬容是永恆的,時間到罪的處罰,由於之間的區別。 Roman Catholics believe that in absolution, given by the priest following repentance, the repentant sinner receives the remission of sins and removal of eternal punishment by God, for the sake of Jesus Christ.羅馬天主教徒相信,在赦免,由牧師以下悔改,悔改的罪人接收緩解的罪孽和去除神永恆的懲罰,為耶穌基督的緣故。 The matter of temporal punishment of sins remains, however, and this can only be removed by penitential acts and effort.顳處罰罪的問題仍然存在,但是,這只能刪除悔罪行為和精力的。 It is here that indulgences are believed to function, in that the church (via the pope or a bishop) grants indulgences to cover all or part of the temporal punishment of sins.正是在這裡,寬容,被認為是功能,通過教皇或主教教堂()授予的寬容,以支付全部或部分的顳處罰的罪孽。 In the case of an indulgence granted to a soul in purgatory the effect is to guarantee for that soul the intercession of the saints.在一個放縱的情況下授予的靈魂在煉獄中的作用是保證的靈魂的聖徒祈求。

By what power does the church grant such indulgences?有什麼權力,教會授予這樣的放縱呢? There is believed to exist a treasury of merits (those of Christ, the saints, and martyrs) available to the church in and through the communion of saints.被認為是存在的教會聖徒相通,並通過國庫的優點(這些基督,聖人,和烈士)。 The pope may make use of this merit and apply it via indulgences to Christian people in order to remit their temporal punishment.教皇可以利用這個優點,並將其應用於通過的寬容基督教的人為了免去其顳處罰。 Since the Second Vatican Council the Roman Church has made efforts to revise and improve this whole system.自第二次梵蒂岡會議在羅馬教會已作出努力,修改和完善整個系統。

P Toon P香椿
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
J. Neuner and J. Dupuis, eds., The Christian Faith in the Doctrinal Documents of the Catholic Church; P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, II, 205-9, 220, 433, 549.諾伊納和J. J.杜普伊斯,EDS,基督教信仰的天主教教會的教義文件,P.沙夫,信仰的基督教,二,205-9,220,433,549。


Indulgences放縱

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The word indulgence (Latin indulgentia, from indulgeo, to be kind or tender) originally meant kindness or favor; in post-classic Latin it came to mean the remission of a tax or debt.這個詞放縱(拉美indulgentia,從indulgeo,可來樣或招標)原來是指善良或有利於在後古典拉丁語,它意味著稅收或債務減免的。 In Roman law and in the Vulgate of the Old Testament (Isaiah 61:1) it was used to express release from captivity or punishment.在羅馬法中的拉丁文聖經的“舊約”(以賽亞書61:1),它是用來表達釋放囚禁或處罰。 In theological language also the word is sometimes employed in its primary sense to signify the kindness and mercy of God.在神學語言的字有時在其主要意義,象徵上帝的仁慈和憐憫。 But in the special sense in which it is here considered, an indulgence is a remission of the temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven.但在特殊的意義,它在這裡,放縱減免顳處罰罪,有罪已被赦免。 Among the equivalent terms used in antiquity were pax, remissio, donatio, condonatio.其中在古代相當於條款的成行,remissio,贈與,condonatio。

WHAT AN INDULGENCE IS NOT什麼是放縱不

To facilitate explanation, it may be well to state what an indulgence is not.為了便於說明,它可以很好地說明什麼是放縱。 It is not a permission to commit sin, nor a pardon of future sin; neither could be granted by any power.這是不是犯罪,也不是未來罪的赦免的權限,也可能被授予的任何權力。 It is not the forgiveness of the guilt of sin; it supposes that the sin has already been forgiven.這是不是有罪,罪的赦免,其設定的罪已經被赦免。 It is not an exemption from any law or duty, and much less from the obligation consequent on certain kinds of sin, eg, restitution; on the contrary, it means a more complete payment of the debt which the sinner owes to God.這是沒有任何法律責任的豁免,多因某些種類的罪,例如,恢復原狀的義務,相反的罪人向上帝欠的債務,這意味著一個更完整的支付。 It does not confer immunity from temptation or remove the possibility of subsequent lapses into sin.它並沒有賦予豁免誘惑或刪除隨後陷入罪的可能性。 Least of all is an indulgence the purchase of a pardon which secures the buyer's salvation or releases the soul of another from Purgatory.至少是一種放縱的購買保證買家的救贖或赦免釋放的另一個靈魂從煉獄。 The absurdity of such notions must be obvious to any one who forms a correct idea of what the Catholic Church really teaches on this subject.這種觀念的荒謬性是顯而易見的任何一個天主教會真的教什麼,在這個問題上形成正確的想法。

WHAT AN INDULGENCE IS什麼是放縱

An indulgence is the extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment due, in God's justice, to sin that has been forgiven, which remission is granted by the Church in the exercise of the power of the keys, through the application of the superabundant merits of Christ and of the saints, and for some just and reasonable motive.一個放縱的顳處罰,由於額外的聖禮緩解,在神的公義,罪,已被原諒,這緩解授予由教會中的關鍵的權力的行使,通過應用的過多的優點的基督和聖人,和一些公正和合理的動機。 Regarding this definition, the following points are to be noted:關於這個定義中,以下各點是應當注意:

In the Sacrament of Baptism not only is the guilt of sin remitted, but also all the penalties attached to sin.在聖洗聖事不僅是匯罪的有罪,但罪的懲罰。 In the Sacrament of Penance the guilt of sin is removed, and with it the eternal punishment due to mortal sin; but there still remains the temporal punishment required by Divine justice, and this requirement must be fulfilled either in the present life or in the world to come, ie, in Purgatory.在聖懺悔有罪,罪被刪除,並與它的永恆的處罰,由於彌天大罪,但仍然存在顳處罰神聖的正義要求,必須滿足這一要求,無論是在現在的生活中,還是在世界來,IE瀏覽器,在煉獄。 An indulgence offers the penitent sinner the means of discharging this debt during his life on earth.一個的放縱提供的懺悔的罪人期間,地球上的生命履行此債務的手段。

Some writs of indulgence--none of them, however, issued by any pope or council (Pesch, Tr. Dogm., VII, 196, no. 464)--contain the expression, "indulgentia a culpa et a poena", ie release from guilt and from punishment; and this has occasioned considerable misunderstanding (cf. Lea, "History" etc. III, 54 sqq.).令狀的放縱 - 沒有他們,然而,教皇或議會發出的任何(佩施,入門Dogm。,VII,196,464) - 包含表達式,“indulgentia一個過失等人無明文不為罪”,即釋放內疚和處罰;曾經歷了相當大的誤解(參見李,“歷史”等III,54 SQQ)。 The real meaning of the formula is that, indulgences presupposing the Sacrament of Penance, the penitent, after receiving sacramental absolution from the guilt of sin, is afterwards freed from the temporal penalty by the indulgence (Bellarmine, "De Indulg"., I, 7).真正意義上的計算公式,寬容,前提聖事的懺悔,懺悔,聖赦免有罪,罪後,後釋放的放縱(貝拉明,的“Indulg”,我的時間被罰款, 7)。 In other words, sin is fully pardoned, ie its effects entirely obliterated, only when complete reparation, and consequently release from penalty as well as from guilt, has been made.換句話說,罪是完全赦免,即它的作用完全抹殺,只有當完全的賠償,罰款以及從內疚,從而釋放,已經取得了。 Hence Clement V (1305-1314) condemned the practice of those purveyors of indulgences who pretended to absolve" a culpa et a poena" (Clement, I. v, tit. 9, c. ii); the Council of Constance (1418) revoked (Sess. XLII, n. 14) all indulgences containing the said formula; Benedict XIV (1740-1758) treats them as spurious indulgences granted in this form, which he ascribes to the illicit practices of the "quaestores" or purveyors (De Syn. dioeces., VIII, viii. 7).因此,克萊門特V(1305至1314年)譴責這種做法的那些傳播者的寬容,謊稱自己開脫“過失等人無明文不為罪”(克萊門特,一v,針鋒相對。9。二)安理會的康斯坦茨(1418)撤銷達(sess. XLII,N 14)所有的寬容包含上述公式;本篤十四(1740年至1758年)將它們視為虛假的寬容,在這種形式授出,他歸咎於非法行為的“quaestores”或承辦商(德同步dioeces,八,八。7)。

The satisfaction, usually called the "penance", imposed by the confessor when he gives absolution is an integral part of the Sacrament of Penance; an indulgence is extra-sacramental; it presupposes the effects obtained by confession, contrition, and sacramental satisfaction.的滿意度,通常被稱為“懺悔”,所規定的懺悔,當他給赦免的懺悔聖事的一個組成部分,放縱是額外的聖事,它的前提是得到懺悔,懺悔,和聖滿意的效果。 It differs also from the penitential works undertaken of his own accord by the repentant sinner -- prayer, fasting, alms-giving -- in that these are personal and get their value from the merit of him who performs them, whereas an indulgence places at the penitent's disposal the merits of Christ and of the saints, which form the "Treasury" of the Church.這也從不同的自己的悔罪工作,悔改的罪人 - 祈禱,齋戒,施捨 - ,這些都是個人的,並得到他們的價值,從他的優點,進行他們的人,而一個放縱的地方懺悔,出售的是非曲直基督的聖人,形成“財政部”的教會。

An indulgence is valid both in the tribunal of the Church and in the tribunal of God.在審裁處的教會,並在審裁處的神是有效的放縱。 This means that it not only releases the penitent from his indebtedness to the Church or from the obligation of performing canonical penance, but also from the temporal punishment which he has incurred in the sight of God and which, without the indulgence, he would have to undergo in order to satisfy Divine justice.這意味著,它不僅釋放的懺悔,從他對教會的債務或義務的執行典型懺悔,但也從顳處罰的視線上帝,也是他所產生的,不放縱,他將不得不進行以滿足神的公義。 This, however, does not imply that the Church pretends to set aside the claim of God's justice or that she allows the sinner to repudiate his debt.然而,這並不意味著,教會假裝預留的主張上帝的公義,或者說,她讓罪人否定他的債務。 As St. Thomas says (Suppl., xxv. a. 1 ad 2um), "He who gains indulgences is not thereby released outright from what he owes as penalty, but is provided with the means of paying it."正如聖托馬斯說,(增刊,二十五。1。廣告2UM),“他獲得的寬容是不會因此徹底從他欠處罰,但提供的支付手段。” The Church therefore neither leaves the penitent helplessly in debt nor acquits him of all further accounting; she enables him to meet his obligations.因此,教會既沒有留下懺悔,無奈的債務,也沒有任何進一步的會計acquits他,使他滿足他的義務。

In granting an indulgence, the grantor (pope or bishop) does not offer his personal merits in lieu of what God demands from the sinner.在給予的放縱,設保人(教皇或主教)不提供他的個人價值代替上帝要求的罪人。 He acts in his official capacity as having jurisdiction in the Church, from whose spiritual treasury he draws the means wherewith payment is to be made.他的行為在他的官方身份,在教會裡,從他們的精神國庫他畫的手段怎能叫付款是有管轄權的。 The Church herself is not the absolute owner, but simply the administratrix, of the superabundant merits which that treasury contains.教會本身是沒有絕對的主人,而只是administratrix,過多的優點,財政部包含。 In applying them, she keeps in view both the design of God's mercy and the demands of God's justice.在應用中,她一直在查看這兩個神的憐憫和神的公義的要求設計的。 She therefore determines the amount of each concession, as well as the conditions which the penitent must fulfill if he would gain the indulgence.因此,她決定的金額,以及每一個特許的懺悔者必須滿足的條件,如果他能獲得的放縱。

VARIOUS KINDS OF INDULGENCES各種放縱

An indulgence that may be gained in any part of the world is universal, while one that can be gained only in a specified place (Rome, Jerusalem, etc.) is local.一個的放縱可能獲得在世界任何部分是普遍的,而可以在指定的地點(羅馬,耶路撒冷等)僅上漲是本地的。 A further distinction is that between perpetual indulgences,which may be gained at any time, and temporary,which are available on certain days only, or within certain periods.進一步的區別是永久的贖罪券,可在任何時候獲得暫時的,這是只在某些日子,或在一定期間內。 Real indulgences are attached to the use of certain objects (crucifix, rosary, medal); personal are those which do not require the use of any such material thing, or which are granted only to a certain class of individuals, eg members of an order or confraternity.真正的寬容,是連接到個人使用的某些對象(十字架,念珠,獎牌);是那些不需要使用任何此類物質的東西,或只授予給某個特定類別的個人,如成員的命令或幫會。 The most important distinction, however, is that between plenary indulgences and partial.最重要的區別,然而,就是在全體會議的寬容和部分。 By a plenary indulgence is meant the remission of the entire temporal punishment due to sin so that no further expiation is required in Purgatory.由全體會議放縱,指的是緩解了整個顳處罰,由於沒有進一步的贖罪罪,需要在煉獄。 A partial indulgence commutes only a certain portion of the penalty; and this portion is determined in accordance with the penitential discipline of the early Church.部分放縱的通勤只有一定比例的罰款,這部分是按照penitential紀律的早期教會的決定。 To say that an indulgence of so many days or years is granted means that it cancels an amount of purgatorial punishment equivalent to that which would have been remitted, in the sight of God, by the performance of so many days or years of the ancient canonical penance.如果說,這麼多天或數年的放縱被授予意味著將取消已匯量相當於煉獄的懲罰,在神的眼中,這麼多天或數年的古代典型的表現苦修。 Here, evidently, the reckoning makes no claim to absolute exactness; it has only a relative value.顯然,在這裡,測算並沒有要求絕對精確的,它只是一個相對值。

God alone knows what penalty remains to be paid and what its precise amount is in severity and duration.只有上帝知道什麼樣的處罰仍然要支付其精確的量是在嚴重程度和持續時間。 Finally, some indulgences are granted in behalf of the living only, while others may be applied in behalf of the souls departed.最後,有些放縱的生活僅代表授予,而其他人可能會在代表的靈魂離開。 It should be noted, however, that the application has not the same significance in both cases.然而,應當指出,在這兩種情況下,該應用程序具有不相同的意義。 The Church in granting an indulgence to the living exercises her jurisdiction; over the dead she has no jurisdiction and therefore makes the indulgence available for them by way of suffrage (per modum suffragii), ie she petitions God to accept these works of satisfaction and in consideration thereof to mitigate or shorten the sufferings of the souls in Purgatory.給予放縱的生活教會在行使其職權範圍,在死她沒有管轄權,因此,為他們提供放縱的的選舉權(每modum suffragii)方式,即她請願書神接受這些作品的滿意度和考慮其減輕或縮短痛苦的煉獄中的靈魂。

WHO CAN GRANT INDULGENCES世衛組織可以授予放縱

The distribution of the merits contained in the treasury of the Church is an exercise of authority (potestas iurisdictionis), not of the power conferred by Holy orders (potestas ordinis).國庫的教會中所含的優點,是一個鍛煉的分佈的權威(potestas iurisdictionis),不是電源所賦予的聖靈的的訂單(potestas ordinis)的。 Hence the pope, as supreme head of the Church on earth, can grant all kinds of indulgences to any and all of the faithful; and he alone can grant plenary indulgences.因此,教皇,作為地球上的教會最高首腦,可以授予各種放縱的任何及所有的忠實;他獨自一人可以授予全體會議放縱。 The power of the bishop, previously unrestricted, was limited by Innocent III (1215) to the granting of one year's indulgence at the dedication of a church and of forty days on other occasions.主教的力量是有限的,以前不受限制的,由英諾森三世(1215年)的一所教堂的奉獻精神給予一年的放縱和40天在其他場合。 Leo XIII (Rescript of 4 July. 1899) authorized the archbishops of South America to grant eighty days (Acta S. Sedis, XXXI, 758).利奧十三世(詔書。1899年7月4日)授權南美的大主教授予80天(文獻S.位置未定,XXXI,758)。 Pius X (28 August, 1903) allowed cardinals in their titular churches and dioceses to grant 200 days; archbishops, 100; bishops, 50.庇護十世(1903年8月28日)允許在他們的名義的教堂和教區樞機主教授予200天;大主教,100;主教,50。 These indulgences are not applicable to the souls departed.這些indulgences是不適用的靈魂離開。 They can be gained by persons not belonging to the diocese, but temporarily within its limits; and by the subjects of the granting bishop, whether these are within the diocese or outside--except when the indulgence is local.他們可以不屬於主教管區的人所獲得,但暫時在其限制範圍內;的主體授予主教,不管是在教區或外部 - 除了時的放縱是本地的。 Priests, vicars general, abbots, and generals of religious orders cannot grant indulgences unless specially authorized to do so.牧師,教區牧師一般,方丈,和將軍的宗教命令不能給予的寬容,除非特別授權這樣做。 On the other hand, the pope can empower a cleric who is not a priest to give an indulgence (St. Thomas, "Quodlib.", II, q. viii, a. 16).另一方面,教宗可以授權一名神職人員誰是不是一個牧師給一個放縱(聖托馬斯,“Quodlib。”第一,二,問:第八,16)。

DISPOSITIONS NECESSARY TO GAIN AN INDULGENCE的處置需要獲得一個INDULGENCE

The mere fact that the Church proclaims an indulgence does not imply that it can be gained without effort on the part of the faithful.的教會宣稱的放縱這一事實並不意味著它可以毫不費力地獲得了部分的忠實。 From what has been said above, it is clear that the recipient must be free from the guilt of mortal sin.從上面已經說了,它是有罪的彌天大罪,收件人必須是自由的。 Furthermore, for plenary indulgences, confession and Communion are usually required, while for partial indulgences, though confession is not obligatory, the formula corde saltem contrito, ie "at least with a contrite heart", is the customary prescription.此外,為全體會議放縱,懺悔和聖餐通常是必需的,而部分的寬容,雖然表白是不是強制性的,公式協和客機的saltem contrito,即“至少在痛悔的心”,是習慣的處方。 Regarding the question discussed by theologians whether a person in mortal sin can gain an indulgence for the dead, see PURGATORY.就討論的問題是否由神學家,一個彌天大罪的人可以得到一種放縱的死,看到“煉獄”。 It is also necessary to have the intention, at least habitual, of gaining the indulgence.還必須有意向,至少是習慣性的,獲得的放縱。 Finally, from the nature of the case, it is obvious that one must perform the good works -- prayers, alms deeds, visits to a church, etc. -- which are prescribed in the granting of an indulgence.最後,從案件的性質,它是明顯的,一個人必須執行的好作品 - 祈禱,施捨的事蹟,參觀一座教堂,等等 - 這是規定,在批准的放縱。 For details see "Raccolta".有關詳細信息,請參閱“Raccolta”。

AUTHORITATIVE TEACHING OF THE CHURCH權威的教學,教會

The Council of Constance condemned among the errors of Wyclif the proposition: "It is foolish to believe in the indulgences granted by the pope and the bishops" (Sess. VIII, 4 May, 1415; see Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchiridion", 622).安理會的康斯坦茨譴責威克里夫的錯誤之間的命題:“這是愚蠢的認為在indulgences授予的教皇和主教們”(Sess.八,5月4日,1415年;見登青格Bannwart,“便覽”,622 )。 In the Bull "Exsurge Domine", 15 June, 1520, Leo X condemned Luther's assertions that "Indulgences are pious frauds of the faithful"; and that "Indulgences do not avail those who really gain them for the remission of the penalty due to actual sin in the sight of God's justice" (Enchiridion, 75S, 759), The Council of Trent (Sess, XXV, 3-4, Dec., 1563) declared: "Since the power of granting indulgences has been given to the Church by Christ, and since the Church from the earliest times has made use of this Divinely given power, the holy synod teaches and ordains that the use of indulgences, as most salutary to Christians and as approved by the authority of the councils, shall be retained in the Church; and it further pronounces anathema against those who either declare that indulgences are useless or deny that the Church has the power to grant them (Enchridion, 989). It is therefore of faith (de fide)在牛市“Exsurge Domine”,15日年6月,1520年,利奧十世譴責路德的說法,“寬容,是虔誠的欺詐行為的忠實”;和,“寬容,也沒有利用這些誰真正贏得他們緩解的處罰由於實際罪在上帝的正義“(便覽,75S,759)的視線,安理會的遄達(sess中,二十五,3-4,12月,1563年)宣布:”既然已經考慮到教會的力量,給予寬容,基督,從最早的時候,因為教會使用這個神給定的功率,聖主教,教,注定使用的寬容,最有益的基督徒和權威的議會批准的,應當保留在的教會,它宣告詛咒對那些誰宣布indulgences是無用的,或拒絕,教會有能力給予他們(Enchridion,989)。因此,信仰(真正)

that the Church has received from Christ the power to grant indulgences, and that the use of indulgences is salutary for the faithful.收到來自基督,教會授予權的寬容,贖罪券的使用是有益的忠實。

BASIS OF THE DOCTRINE基準的學說

An essential element in indulgences is the application to one person of the satisfaction performed by others.放縱的一個重要元素,是一個人的滿意度進行其他的應用程序。 This transfer is based on three things: the Communion of Saints, the principle of vicarious satisfaction, and the Treasury of the Church.這種轉移是基於三樣東西:我信聖徒相通,替代滿意的原則,及庫務局的教會。

(1) The Communion of Saints (1)我信聖徒相通

"We being many, are one body in Christ, and every one members one of another" (Romans 12:5). “我們這許多人,在基督裡是一個身體,每一個成員”(羅馬書12:5)。 As each organ shares in the life of the whole body, so does each of the faithful profit by the prayers and good works of all the rest-a benefit which accrues, in the first instance, to those who are in the state of grace, but also, though less fully, to the sinful members.作為生活中的整個身體各器官的股份,所以每一個忠實的利​​潤的祈禱和優秀作品的所有其他的利益產生時的第一個實例,那些誰是在國家的寬限期,而且,儘管不那麼充分,罪惡的成員。

(2) The Principle of Vicarious Satisfaction (2)原則替代滿意度

Each good action of the just man possesses a double value: that of merit and that of satisfaction, or expiation.每一個良好的行動的正直的人擁有雙重價值,優點和滿意度,或贖罪。 Merit is personal, and therefore it cannot be transferred; but satisfaction can be applied to others, as St. Paul writes to the Colossians (i, 24) of his own works: "Who now rejoice in my sufferings for you, and fill up those things that are wanting of the sufferings of Christ, in my flesh, for his body, which is the Church," (See SATISFACTION.)優點是個人的,因此它不能被轉移,但可以應用到其他滿意,聖保羅寫信給歌羅西書(I,24)自己的作品:“現在誰因我為你們受苦,並填寫這些事情,是想基督的苦難,在我的肉,他的身體,這是教會“(參見滿意度。)

(3) The Treasury of the Church (3)國庫的教會

Christ, as St. John declares in his First Epistle (ii, 2), "is the propitiation for our sins: and not for ours only, but also for those of the whole world."基督,聖約翰宣布在他的第一書信(二,2),“是為我們的罪作了挽回祭:不是單為我們,也為那些對整個世界。” Since the satisfaction of Christ is infinite, it constitutes an inexhaustible fund which is more than sufficient to cover the indebtedness contracted by sin, Besides, there are the satisfactory works of the Blessed Virgin Mary undiminished by any penalty due to sin, and the virtues, penances, and sufferings of the saints vastly exceeding any temporal punishment which these servants of God might have incurred.此外,由於基督的滿意度是無限的,它構成了一個取之不盡,用之不竭的基金,這是更足以抵償債務收縮罪,有滿意的作品,聖母瑪利亞沒有減少任何因罪的刑罰,和美德,苦行,和痛苦的聖人大大超過任何時間的懲罰,可能會招致這些神的僕人。 These are added to the treasury of the Church as a secondary deposit, not independent of, but rather acquired through, the merits of Christ.這些被添加到國庫的教會作為一個次要的存款,而不是獨立的,而是通過收購,基督的優點。 The development of this doctrine in explicit form was the work of the great Schoolmen, notably Alexander of Hales (Summa, IV, Q. xxiii, m. 3, n. 6), Albertus Magnus (In IV Sent., dist. xx, art. 16), and St. Thomas (In IV Sent., dist. xx, q. i, art. 3, sol. 1).明確的形式的發展,這一學說是工作的偉大schoolmen,尤其是亞歷山大黑爾斯(總結,四,問:二十三,M 3,N。6),(IV:Albertus思派,區XX,第16條),聖托馬斯(IV發送,距離XX,問我,藝術3,溶膠。1)。 As Aquinas declares (Quodlib., II, q. vii, art. 16): "All the saints intended that whatever they did or suffered for God's sake should be profitable not only to themselves but to the whole Church."正如阿奎那宣布(Quodlib.,II,Q。七,第16條):“所有的聖人,無論他們做了或遭受偏偏是有利可圖的,不僅本身,而是整個教會。” And he further points out (Contra Gent., III, 158) that what one endures for another being a work of love, is more acceptable as satisfaction in God's sight than what one suffers on one's own account, since this is a matter of necessity.而且他進一步指出了(魂斗羅根特。,第三,158)是什麼1等外,另一個是對我們的愛護,是更可接受的滿意度在神的眼中比什麼1受到一個人的自己的帳戶上的,因為這是一個問題的必要性。 The existence of an infinite treasury of merits in the Church is dogmatically set forth in the Bull "Unigenitus", published by Clement VI, 27 Jan., 1343, and later inserted in the "Corpus Juris" (Extrav. Com., lib. V, tit. ix. c. ii): "Upon the altar of the Cross", says the pope, "Christ shed of His blood not merely a drop, though this would have sufficed, by reason of the union with the Word, to redeem the whole human race, but a copious torrent. . . thereby laying up an infinite treasure for mankind. This treasure He neither wrapped up in a napkin nor hid in a field, but entrusted to Blessed Peter, the key-bearer, and his successors, that they might, for just and reasonable causes, distribute it to the faithful in full or in partial remission of the temporal punishment due to sin."無限國庫的優點在教會中存在的武斷地提出的公牛“Unigenitus”,克萊門特六,1343年1月27日公佈的,後來插入的“法典”(Extrav. COM,庫。 V,針鋒相對。九。二):“在壇上的十字架”,教宗說,“基督棚他的血,不只是下降,雖然這個就足夠了,通過工會與Word的原因,贖回全部人類,但一個豐富的洪流,從而奠定了一個無窮的寶藏,為人類服務。這個寶藏,他既不在在一張餐巾紙上也包裹起來​​,藏在一個領域,但委託有福了彼得,關鍵旗手,並他的繼任者,他們可能會為公正,合理的原因,分發它的忠實全部或部分緩解的時間罪罰。“ Hence the condemnation by Leo X of Luther's assertion that "the treasures of the Church from which the pope grants indulgences are not the merits of Christ and the saints" (Enchiridion, 757).因此,利奧十世譴責路德的斷言,“寶藏的教會,教宗贈款indulgences是沒有的優點,耶穌和聖徒”(便覽,757)。 For the same reason, Pius VI (1794) branded as false, temerarious, and injurious to the merits of Christ and the saints, the error of the synod of Pistoia that the treasury of the Church was an invention of scholastic subtlety (Enchiridion, 1541).出於同樣的原因,庇護六世(1794)品牌為false,temerarious的,和有害的是非曲直基督和聖徒,國庫的教會是一個發明,在學術上的微妙錯誤的主教的皮斯托亞(便覽,1541 )。 According to Catholic doctrine, therefore, the source of indulgences is constituted by the merits of Christ and the saints.因此,根據天主教教義,放縱的來源是由耶穌和聖徒的優點。 This treasury is left to the keeping, not of the individual Christian, but of the Church.此國庫剩下的存放,而不是個別的基督徒,但教會的。 Consequently, to make it available for the faithful, there is required an exercise of authority, which alone can determine in what way, on what terms, and to what extent, indulgences may be granted.因此,它的忠實,有需要行使權力,只有這樣才能確定用什麼方式,在什麼條件,到什麼程度,寬容,可授予。

THE POWER TO GRANT INDULGENCES授予權的寬容

Once it is admitted that Christ left the Church the power to forgive sins (see PENANCE), the power of granting indulgences is logically inferred.一旦承認,離開教會的基督赦罪的權柄(見苦修),電源給予寬容,在邏輯上的推斷。 Since the sacramental forgiveness of sin extends both to the guilt and to the eternal punishment, it plainly follows that the Church can also free the penitent from the lesser or temporal penalty.由於聖罪得赦免的內疚和永恆的處罰,說白了,教會也可以釋放的懺悔,從較小的時間或罰款。 This becomes clearer, however, when we consider the amplitude of the power granted to Peter (Matthew 16:19): "I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shaft loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven."這一點變得更加清晰,然而,當我們考慮振幅所賦予的權力(馬太福音16:19)彼得:“我將天國的鑰匙給你。凡你在地上綁定,就應受其約束在天上:你和任何軸在地上,它會被釋放在天上。“ (Cf. Matthew 18:18, where like power is conferred on all the Apostles.) No limit is placed upon this power of loosing, "the power of the keys", as it is called; it must, therefore, extend to any and all bonds contracted by sin, including the penalty no less than the guilt. (參見馬太福音18:18,賦予所有的使徒般的力量。)被放置沒有限制這種權力的鬆動,“權力的鑰匙”時,因為它是所謂的,它必須,因此,適用於任何和所有債券承包罪,包括罰款不低於有罪。 When the Church, therefore, by an indulgence, remits this penalty, her action, according to the declaration of Christ, is ratified in heaven.因此,當教會,由放縱,匯款的懲罰,她的行動根據基督的申報,批准在天堂。 That this power, as the Council of Trent affirms, was exercised from the earliest times, is shown by St. Paul's words (2 Corinthians 2:5-10) in which he deals with the case of the incest man of Corinth.這種權力,安理會的遄達申明,獲行使,從最早的時候,是聖保祿的話(哥林多後書2:5-10),他在處理的情況下,亂倫科林斯人。 The sinner had been excluded by St. Paul's order from the company of the faithful, but had truly repented.聖保羅的訂單從公司的忠實的罪人已被排除,但真正悔改了。 Hence the Apostle judges that to such a one "this rebuke is sufficient that is given by many" and adds: "To whom you have pardoned any thing, I also. For what I have pardoned, if I have pardoned any thing, for your sakes have I done it in the person of Christ."因此,使徒法官,這樣的一個人“這種責備是足夠的,許多人”,並補充說:“你跟誰赦免任何事情,我也對於我赦免了他們,如果我原諒任何事情,你的緣故,我做到了基督的人。“ St. Paul had bound the guilty one in the fetters of excommunication; he now releases the penitent from this punishment by an exercise of his authority -- "in the person of Christ."聖保羅在被逐出教會的羈絆,必然是有罪的,他現在發布的懺悔,從這個處罰行使他的權力 - “基督的人。” Here we have all the essentials of an indulgence.在這裡,我們擁有所有的必需品的放縱。

These essentials persist in the subsequent practice of the Church, though the accidental features vary according as new conditions arise.這些要領堅持在隨後的實踐的教會,但偶然的特點根據出現的新情況。 During the persecutions, those Christians who had fallen away but desired to be restored to the communion of the Church often obtained from the martyrs a memorial (libellus pacis) to be presented to the bishop, that he, in consideration of the martyrs' sufferings, might admit the penitents to absolution, thereby releasing them from the punishment they had incurred.的迫害,那些基督徒已經下降了,但所需的恢復獲得的烈士紀念(libellus PACIS)將提交給主教的教會的共融,他在考慮烈士的痛苦,可能承認悔罪者的赦免,從而釋放他們的懲罰,他們已產生。 Tertullian refers to this when he says (Ad martyres, c. i, PL, I, 621): "Which peace some, not having it in the Church, are accustomed to beg from the martyrs in prison; and therefore you should possess and cherish and preserve it in you that so you perchance may be able to grant it to others."特土良是指這一點時,他說​​(廣告martyres,C。,PL,I,621):“和平一些,沒有在教會裡,習慣於從烈士在獄中求,因此,你應該擁有珍惜和維護你,所以你也許能賦予別人。“ Additional light is thrown on this subject by the vigorous attack which the same Tertullian made after he had become a Montanist.額外的光被拋出這個問題上的大力相同德爾圖良的攻擊後,他已成為一個Montanist。 In the first part of his treatise "De pudicitia", he attacks the pope for his alleged laxity in admitting adulterers to penance and pardon, and flouts the peremptory edict of the "pontifex maximus episcopus episcoporum".在第一部分中,他的論文“pudicitia”,他攻擊教皇,指控他在將承認姦淫的懺悔和寬恕的鬆弛,明顯違反了強制性的法令,“大祭司大菱鮃episcopus episcoporum”。 At the close he complains that the same power of remission is now allowed also to the martyrs, and urges that it should be enough for them to purge their own sins -- sufficiat martyri propria delicta purgasse". And, again, "How can the oil of thy little lamp suffice both for thee and me?" (c. xxii). It is sufficient to note that many of his arguments would apply with as much and as little force to the indulgences of later ages.截至收盤,他抱怨說,,緩解現在允許相同的功率也向烈士,並促請它應該是足以讓他們清洗自己的罪孽 - sufficiat martyri固有delicta purgasse“。,再次,”如何才能你的小燈卻沒有足夠的油,你和我嗎?“(約二十二)。這是足夠的注意,許多他的論點適用於盡可能多和盡可能少的武力的寬容,對後世。

During St. Cyprian's time (d. 258), the heretic Novatian claimed that none of the lapsi should be readmitted to the Church; others, like Felicissimus, held that such sinners should be received without any penance.在聖塞浦路斯(四258),邪教諾瓦蒂安聲稱,沒有的lapsi應該被重新接納到教會的人,像Felicissimus,認為應在收到這樣的罪人,沒有任何懺悔。 Between these extremes, St. Cyprian holds the middle course, insisting that such penitents should be reconciled on the fulfillment of the proper conditions.在這兩種極端之間,聖塞浦路斯持有中間路線,堅持履行適當的條件下,這樣的懺悔者應核對。 On the one hand, he condemns the abuses connected with the libellus, in particular the custom of having it made out in blank by the martyrs and filled in by any one who needed it.一方面,他譴責的濫用連接的libellus,在特別的習俗有它在空白的烈士,在任何一個需要它的人填寫。 "To this you should diligently attend", he writes to the martyrs (Ep. xv), "that you designate by name those to whom you wish peace to be given." “你應該認真參加”,他寫道到的烈士(插曲十五),“您指定的那些人,你想和平給予的名稱。” On the other hand, he recognizes the value of these memorials: "Those who have received a libellus from the martyrs and with their help can, before the Lord, get relief in their sins, let such, if they be ill and in danger, after confession and the imposition of your hands, depart unto the Lord with the peace promised them by the martyrs" (Ep. xiii, PL, IV, 261).另一方面,他承認這些紀念碑的價值:“誰收到了libellus,從烈士,並在他們的幫助下,在耶和華面前,獲得紓緩他們的罪,讓這樣的,如果他們是生病的危險,懺悔和實施你的手,離開後所不欲,主的和平承諾烈士“(插曲十三,PL,IV,261)。 St. Cyprian, therefore, believed that the merits of the martyrs could be applied to less worthy Christians by way of vicarious satisfaction, and that such satisfaction was acceptable in the eyes of God as well as of the Church. ,因此,聖塞浦路斯認為烈士的優點,可應用於少,值得基督徒替代滿意的方式,在上帝的眼中,這樣的滿意度是可以接受的,以及教會的。

After the persecutions had ceased, the penitential discipline remained in force, but greater leniency was shown in applying it.已經停止迫害後,仍然有效,悔罪紀律,但更大的寬大顯示在應用它。 St. Cyprian himself was reproached for mitigating the "Evangelical severity" on which he at first insisted; to this he replied (Ep. lii) that such strictness was needful during the time of persecution not only to stimulate the faithful in the performance of penance, but also to quicken them for the glory of martyrdom; when, on the contrary, peace was secured to the Church, relaxation was necessary in order to prevent sinners from falling into despair and leading the life of pagans.減輕“福音嚴重程度”上,他堅持在第一聖塞浦路斯自己受譴責的,這一點,他說(插曲崇禮),這樣嚴格外邦人在時間的迫害,不僅刺激的忠實的表現懺悔,同時也加快他們的榮耀殉道,相反,和平固定的教會,放鬆是必要的,以防止罪人陷入絕望和引領生活的異教徒。 In 380 St. Gregory of Nyssa (Ep. ad Letojum) declares that the penance should be shortened in the case of those who showed sincerity and zeal in performing it -- "ut spatium canonibus praestitum posset contrahere (can. xviii; cf. can. ix, vi, viii, xi, xiii, xix). In the same spirit, St. Basil (379), after prescribing more lenient treatment for various crimes, lays down the general principle that in all such cases it is not merely the duration of the penance that must be considered, but the way in which it is performed (Ep. ad Amphilochium, c. lxxxiv). Similar leniency is shown by various Councils--Ancyra (314), Laodicea (320), Nicaea (325), Arles (330). It became quite common during this period to favor those who were ill, and especially those who were in danger of death (see Amort, "Historia", 28 sq.). The ancient penitentials of Ireland and England, though exacting in regard to discipline, provide for relaxation in certain cases. St. Cummian, eg, in his Penitential (seventh century), treating (cap. v) of the sin of robbery, prescribed that he who has often committed theft shall do penance for seven years or for such time as the priest may judge fit, must always be reconciled with him whom he has wronged, and make restitution proportioned to the injury, and thereby his penance shall be considerably shortened (multum breviabit poenitentiam ejus). But should he be unwilling or unable (to comply with these conditions), he must do penance for the whole time prescribed and in all its details. (Cf. Moran, "Essays on the Early Irish Church", Dublin, 1864, p. 259.)在380聖格雷戈里的果樹(插曲的廣告Letojum)宣布,懺悔,應縮短的情況下表現出的誠意和熱情,在執行它 - “UT spatium canonibus praestitum posset contrahere(can.十八;比照。九,六,八,十一,十三,十九)。本著同樣的精神,聖羅勒(379),後的更寬大處理各種犯罪,規定了總的原則,在所有這些情況下,它不僅是懺悔是必須考慮的,但執行的方式,它的持續時間(插曲廣告Amphilochium,。lxxxiv)。類似的寬大的各議會 - 安該拉,老底嘉(320),(314)尼西亞(325 ),阿爾勒(330)。變得相當普遍,在此期間有利於那些誰生病,特別是那些在面臨死亡的危險的情況下(見攤銷,“史記”,28平方米)。愛爾蘭和英國的的古penitentials的,雖然嚴格的紀律方面,在某些情況下,為緩和。聖Cummian,例如,在他的悔罪(七世紀),處理(第V),搶劫罪的規定,他經常犯盜竊罪的做懺悔七年的時間為牧師可以判斷適應,必須始終與他和解,他有委屈,並作出賠償比例的傷害,他的懺悔,從而大大縮短(multum breviabit poenitentiam ejus)。但是,如果他不願或不能(符合這些條件的),他必須做懺悔規定的全部時間中的所有細節。(參見莫蘭,“散文早期的愛爾蘭教會”,都柏林,1864年,P。 259)。

Another practice which shows quite clearly the difference between sacramental absolution and the granting of indulgences was the solemn reconciliation of penitents.另一種做法,很清楚地表明聖赦免,並給予indulgences之間的差異是莊嚴的懺悔者的和解。 These, at the beginning of Lent, had received from the priest absolution from their sins and the penance enjoined by the canons; on Maundy Thursday they presented themselves before the bishop, who laid hands on them, reconciled them with the Church, and admitted them to communion. ,在大齋期開始,已收到從牧師赦免他們的罪,並責成由大砲的懺悔;濯足節上,他們介紹了自己之前的主教,誰對他們下手,和解與教會,並承認他們共融。 This reconciliation was reserved to the bishop, as is expressly declared in the Penitential of Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury; though in case of necessity the bishop could delegate a priest for the purpose (lib. I, xiii).和解是保留給主教,是明確宣布,坎特伯雷大主教西奧多的懺悔,但在必要的情況下,主教可以指派一名牧師為目的(lib.我,十三)。 Since the bishop did not hear their confession, the "absolution" which he pronounced must have been a release from some penalty they had incurred.由於主教沒有聽到他們的懺悔,他宣布“赦免”,必須有一個釋放他們招致了一些懲罰。 The effect, moreover, of this reconciliation was to restore the penitent to the state of baptismal innocence and consequently of freedom from all penalties, as appears from the so-called Apostolic Constitutions (lib, II, c. xli) where it is said: "Eritque in loco baptismi impositio manuum"--ie the imposition of hands has the same effect as baptism (cf. Palmieri, "De Poenitentia", Rome, 1879, 459 sq.).的效果,而且,這種和解是恢復的懺悔,以洗禮的清白,因此所有處罰自由的狀態,出現所謂的使徒憲法(庫。四十一,二,)它是說: “在本地baptismi impositio manuum Eritque”的 - 即強加的手洗禮(參見帕爾邁,“Poenitentia”,羅馬,1879年,459平方米)具有相同的效果。 In a later period (eighth century to twelfth) it became customary to permit the substitution of some lighter penance for that which the canons prescribed.在後一時期(八世紀至十二),它成了習慣,允許替代一些較輕的苦修規定的大砲。 Thus the Penitential of Egbert, Archbishop of York, declares (XIII, 11): "For him who can comply with what the penitential prescribes, well and good; for him who cannot, we give counsel of God's mercy. Instead of one day on bread and water let him sing fifty psalms on his knees or seventy psalms without genuflecting .... But if he does not know the psalms and cannot fast, let him, instead of one year on bread and water, give twenty-six solidi in alms, fast till None on one day of each week and till Vespers on another, and in the three Lents bestow in alms half of what he receives."因此,在悔罪的埃格伯,約克大主教,宣布(十三,11):“對他來說,誰能夠遵守什麼,悔罪規定,一個好主意,為他,我們給律師以神的慈悲。而不是1天上麵包和水,讓他唱他的膝蓋或70詩篇50詩篇沒有genuflecting ......但是,如果他不知道的詩篇,不能快,讓他,而不是一年的麵包和水,給26凝固施捨,快至每星期有一天,直到晚禱的另一沒有,在三Lents賜給他收到的施捨一半。“ The practice of substituting the recitation of psalms or the giving of alms for a portion of the fast is also sanctioned in the Irish Synod of 807, which says (c. xxiv) that the fast of the second day of the week may be "redeemed" by singing one psalter or by giving one denarius to a poor person.代朗誦的詩篇,或提供部分的快速施捨的做法是在愛爾蘭主教會議的807,它說(約二十四),可能是“贖回的第二個星期幾的快速批准“唱詩篇,或由一個銀錢來給貧窮的人。 Here we have the beginning of the so-called "redemptions" which soon passed into general usage.在這裡,我們有所謂的“贖回”,很快傳遞到一般使用的開始。 Among other forms of commutation were pilgrimages to well-known shrines such as that at St. Albans in England or at Compostela in Spain.在其他形式的減刑知名的聖地,如在聖奧爾本斯在英格蘭或波斯特拉在西班牙的朝聖者。 But the most important place of pilgrimage was Rome.但最重要的是羅馬朝聖的地方。 According to Bede (674-735) the "visitatio liminum", or visit to the tomb of the Apostles, was even then regarded as a good work of great efficacy (Hist. Eccl., IV, 23).比德(674-735)的“visitatio liminum”,或訪問墓的使徒,甚至被視為一個良好的工作有很大的療效(Hist.傳道書。,IV,23)。 At first the pilgrims came simply to venerate the relics of the Apostles and martyrs; but in course of time their chief purpose was to gain the indulgences granted by the pope and attached especially to the Stations.在第一個朝聖者來簡單地崇敬的使徒和烈士的遺物,但隨著時間的推移,他們的主要目的是為了獲得由教皇授予的寬容,尤其是站。 Jerusalem, too, had long been the goal of these pious journeys, and the reports which the pilgrims gave of their treatment by the infidels finally brought about the Crusades.耶路撒冷,也長久以來的目標,這些虔誠的旅程,和報告的朝聖者給他們的治療的異教徒終於帶來的十字軍東征。 At the Council of Clermont (1095) the First Crusade was organized, and it was decreed (can. ii): "Whoever, out of pure devotion and not for the purpose of gaining honor or money, shall go to Jerusalem to liberate the Church of God, let that journey be counted in lieu of all penance".在克萊蒙特會議(1095年)第一次十字軍東征是有組織的,它是命令(can. II):“無論是誰,出純粹的奉獻,而不是為了獲得榮譽和金錢的目的,應當去耶路撒冷的教會中解放出來上帝,讓旅程計算代替所有苦修“。 Similar indulgences were granted throughout the five centuries following (Amort, op. cit., 46 sq.), the object being to encourage these expeditions which involved so much hardship and yet were of such great importance for Christendom and civilization.類似的寬容,被授予在五個世紀(攤銷,前引書,46平方米),目的是鼓勵這些涉及如此多的困難,但如此重要的基督教和文明的探險。 The spirit in which these grants were made is expressed by St. Bernard, the preacher of the Second Crusade (1146): "Receive the sign of the Cross, and thou shalt likewise obtain the indulgence of all thou hast confessed with a contrite heart (ep. cccxxii; al., ccclxii).的精神,這些補助金表示,聖伯納,傳教士的第二次十字軍東征(1146):“接收十字架的符號,你也同樣得到所有你所交待的放縱與痛悔的心( EP cccxxii人,ccclxii)。

Similar concessions were frequently made on occasions, such as the dedication of churches, eg, that of the old Temple Church in London, which was consecrated in honor of the Blessed Virgin Mary, 10 February, 1185, by the Lord Heraclius, who to those yearly visiting it indulged sixty days of the penance enjoined them -- as the inscription over the main entrance attests.經常在不同場合作出類似的讓步,,如奉獻的教堂,例如,與老在倫敦的聖殿教堂,神聖的紀念聖母瑪利亞2月10日,1185年,由主Heraclius的,那些誰每年訪問過它縱容的懺悔60天的囑咐 - 的主要入口處的題詞證明。 The canonization of saints was often marked by the granting of an indulgence, eg in honor of St. Laurence 0'Toole by Honorius III (1226), in honor of St. Edmund of Canterbury by Innocent IV (1248), and in honor of St. Thomas of Hereford by John XXII (1320).經常被標記的封聖批准的放縱,例如在聖勞倫斯0'Toole榮譽聖埃德蒙坎特伯雷榮譽挪,III(1226年),英諾森四世(1248),和以紀念聖托馬斯的赫里福德約翰二十二(1320)。 A famous indulgence is that of the Portiuncula (qv), obtained by St. Francis in 1221 from Honorius III.一個著名的放縱的Portiuncula(請參閱),聖弗朗西斯在1221年honorius三。 But the most important largess during this period was the plenary indulgence granted in 1300 by Boniface VIII to those who, being truly contrite and having confessed their sins, should visit the basilicas of Sts.但在此期間最重要的賞賜是在1300年授予的全體會議放縱的波尼法爵八世的人,是真正痛悔,承認自己的罪過,參觀大教堂的STS。 Peter and Paul (see JUBILEE).彼得和保羅(銀禧)。

Among the works of charity which were furthered by indulgences, the hospital held a prominent place.在進一步的寬容慈善的作品,醫院舉行了突出的位置。 Lea in his "History of Confession and Indulgences" (III, 189) mentions only the hospital of Santo Spirito in Rome, while another Protestant writer, Uhlhorn (Gesch. d. Christliche Liebesthatigkeit, Stuttgart, 1884, II, 244) states that "one cannot go through the archives of any hospital without finding numerous letters of indulgence". Lea在他的“歷史的懺悔和贖罪券”(III,189)只提到醫院,而另一位新教的作家,烏爾霍恩(Gesch.。Christliche Liebesthatigkeit,斯圖加特,1884年,II,244)指出:“在羅馬的Santo Spirito酒店沒有找到無數信件的放縱“,人可以不經過任何醫院的檔案。 The one at Halberstadt in 1284 had no less than fourteen such grants, each giving an indulgence of forty days.一個於1284年在哈爾伯施塔特不低於14贈款,給人一種放縱四十天。 The hospitals at Lucerne, Rothenberg, Rostock, and Augsburg enjoyed similar privileges.醫院在盧塞恩,羅森堡,羅斯托克和奧格斯堡享有類似的特權。

ABUSES嚴亞明

It may seem strange that the doctrine of indulgences should have proved such a stumbling-block, and excited so much prejudice and opposition.放縱的教義已經證明了這樣一個絆腳石,高興這麼多的偏見和反對,這似乎很奇怪。 But the explanation of this may be found in the abuses which unhappily have been associated with what is in itself a salutary practice.但解釋,這可能是怏怏不樂地,這本身就是一個有益的實踐已與侵犯。 In this respect of course indulgences are not exceptional: no institution, however holy, has entirely escaped abuse through the malice or unworthiness of man.當然在這方面的寬容也不例外:任何機構,但神聖的,通過惡意或無價值的人已經完全逃脫濫用。 Even the Eucharist, as St. Paul declares, means an eating and drinking of judgment to the recipient who discerns not the body of the Lord.即使在聖體聖事,聖保羅宣布,是指吃的和喝的判斷,洞察不是身體的主收件人。 (1 Corinthians 11:27-29). (哥林多前書11:27-29)。 And, as God's forbearance is constantly abused by those who relapse into sin, it is not surprising that the offer of pardon in the form of an indulgence should have led to evil practices. ,作為上帝的寬容是不斷被濫用那些誰復發入罪,這是不奇怪,提供赦免的形式的放縱導致了邪惡的做法。 These again have been in a special way the object of attack because, doubtless, of their connection with Luther's revolt (see LUTHER).這些又是在一種特殊的方式攻擊,因為,毫無疑問,他們與路德的反抗(見路德)的對象。 On the other hand, it should not be forgotten that the Church, while holding fast to the principle and intrinsic value of indulgences, has repeatedly condemned their misuse: in fact, it is often from the severity of her condemnation that we learn how grave the abuses were.另一方面,它不應該被遺忘,而堅守的原則和內在價值的寬容,教會曾多次譴責他們的濫用,事實上,它往往是從她的譴責的嚴重程度,我們學習如何嚴重虐待行為。

Even in the age of the martyrs, as stated above there were practices which St. Cyprian was obliged to reprehend, yet he did not forbid the martyrs to give the libelli.即使在年齡的烈士,正如上面有聖塞浦路斯不得不申斥的做法,但他沒有禁止的烈士給libelli的。 In later times abuses were met by repressive measures on the part of the Church.在稍後的時間濫用得到滿足的一部分,教會的鎮壓措施。 Thus the Council of Clovesho in England (747) condemns those who imagine that they might atone for their crimes by substituting, in place of their own, the austerities of mercenary penitents.因此,安理會在英國的Clovesho(747)譴責那些誰想像,他們可能會為自己的罪行贖罪代,在自己的傭兵懺悔,苦行的地方。 Against the excessive indulgences granted by some prelates, the Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) decreed that at the dedication of a church the indulgence should not be for more than year, and, for the anniversary of the dedication or any other case, it should not exceed forty days, this being the limit observed by the pope himself on such occasions.反對過度放縱一些主教授予的拉特蘭(1215年),第四屆理事會頒布法令,在奉獻的一所教堂的放縱不應該超過一年,週年的奉獻或任何其他情況下,它應不超過四十天,這是由教宗本人觀察到了極限,在這樣的場合。 The same restriction was enacted by the Council of Ravenna in 1317.拉文納理事會在1317年頒布了同樣的限制。 In answer to the complaint of the Dominicans and Franciscans, that certain prelates had put their own construction on the indulgences granted to these Orders, Clement IV in 1268 forbade any such interpretation, declaring that, when it was needed, it would be given by the Holy See.在回答的投訴,多米尼加和方濟各,某些主教把他們的自身建設上的寬容給予這些訂單,克萊門特四,禁止任何這樣的解釋,宣布在1268年,當它是必要的,但它會給予的羅馬教廷。 In 1330 the brothers of the hospital of Haut-Pas falsely asserted that the grants made in their favor were more extensive than what the documents allowed: John XXII had all these brothers in France seized and imprisoned. 1330年上PAS的​​兄弟醫院的虛假聲稱,補助有利於自己的文件允許更廣泛的約翰二十二了所有這些兄弟在法國扣押和監禁。 Boniface IX, writing to the Bishop of Ferrara in 1392, condemns the practice of certain religious who falsely claimed that they were authorized by the pope to forgive all sorts of sins, and exacted money from the simple-minded among the faithful by promising them perpetual happiness in this world and eternal glory in the next.博尼法斯九,寫於1392年,費拉拉的主教譴責某些宗教的做法,謊稱由教皇授權原諒他們各種的罪,付出的錢從簡單的頭腦的人的忠實承諾他們永久在這個世界上的幸福和永恆的榮耀,在未來。 When Henry, Archbishop of Canterbury, attempted in 1420 to give a plenary indulgence in the form of the Roman Jubilee, he was severely reprimanded by Martin V, who characterized his action as "unheard-of presumption and sacrilegious audacity".當亨利,坎特伯雷大主教,企圖於1420年的羅馬銀禧一次全體會議放縱的形式,他嚴厲譴責馬丁V,誰把他的行動是“前所未聞的推定和褻瀆的大膽”。 In 1450 Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa, Apostolic Legate to Germany, found some preachers asserting that indulgences released from the guilt of sin as well as from the punishment. 1450年樞機主教尼古拉斯的庫薩,使徒的特使到德國,發現一些傳教士,聲稱放縱有罪,罪以及釋放的處罰。 This error, due to a misunderstanding of the words "a culpa et a poena", the cardinal condemned at the Council of Magdeburg.這個錯誤,由於“過失等無明文不為罪”,譴責在安理會的馬格德堡的大是大非的話的誤解。 Finally, Sixtus IV in 1478, lest the idea of gaining indulgences should prove an incentive to sin, reserved for the judgment of the Holy See a large number of cases in which faculties had formerly been granted to confessors (Extrav. Com., tit. de poen. et remiss.).最後,在1478年獲得放縱的想法,以免西斯四要證明的激勵罪,預留給羅馬教廷的大量案件中,以前被授予學院的懺悔(Extrav. COM,針鋒相對的判斷。 POEN。等失職)。

Traffic in Indulgences交通放縱

These measures show plainly that the Church long before the Reformation, not only recognized the existence of abuses, but also used her authority to correct them.這些措施清楚地表明很久以前,教會的改革,不僅認識到存在的濫用,但也使用她的權力予以糾正。

In spite of all this, disorders continued and furnished the pretext for attacks directed against the doctrine itself, no less than against the practice of indulgences.儘管這一切,疾病繼續提供藉口對理論本身的攻擊,毫不遜色,而不是贖罪券的做法。 Here, as in so many other matters, the love of money was the chief root of the evil: indulgences were employed by mercenary ecclesiastics as a means of pecuniary gain.在這裡,在其他許多問題一樣,對金錢的熱愛是長根的邪惡放縱僱用的傭兵教士金錢利益的一種手段。 Leaving the details concerning this traffic to a subsequent article (see REFORMATION), it may suffice for the present to note that the doctrine itself has no natural or necessary connection with pecuniary profit, as is evident from the fact that the abundant indulgences of the present day are free from this evil association: the only conditions required are the saying of certain prayers or the performance of some good work or some practice of piety.離開的細節隨後的文章(見改造)的流量,它可能滿足目前需要注意的是理論本身有沒有自然的或必要的連接與金錢利潤,是顯而易見的事實,豐富的放縱本每天從這個邪惡的關聯所需的唯一條件是“的話,某些祈禱或一些很好的工作或一些實踐孝道的性能。 Again, it is easy to see how abuses crept in. Among the good works which might be encouraged by being made the condition of an indulgence, alms giving would naturally hold a conspicuous place, while men would be induced by the same means to contribute to some pious cause such as the building of churches, the endowment of hospitals, or the organization of a crusade.再次,這是很容易看到如何濫用躡手躡腳地。提出的條件的放縱,可能會鼓勵其中的優秀作品中,布施自然會保持一個顯眼的地方,而男人會引起同樣的手段作出貢獻一些虔誠的原因,如教會的建設,醫院的捐贈,或組織十字軍東征。 It is well to observe that in these purposes there is nothing essentially evil.這是觀察到,在這些用途中,並沒有什麼本質上邪惡的。 To give money to God or to the poor is a praiseworthy act, and, when it is done from right motives, it will surely not go unrewarded.把錢給上帝或窮人是值得稱道的行為,正確的動機,當它完成,這將肯定不會獲得報酬。 Looked at in this light, it might well seem a suitable condition for gaining the spiritual benefit of an indulgence.看著這個角度來說,它可能似乎是一個合適的條件下獲得的精神利益的一種放縱。 Yet, however innocent in itself, this practice was fraught with grave danger, and soon became a fruitful source of evil.然而,這種做法然而無辜的本身,充滿著極大的危險,並很快成為一個富有​​成果的罪惡之源。 On the one hand there was the danger that the payment might be regarded as the price of the indulgence, and that those who sought to gain it might lose sight of the more important conditions.一方面,有可能會被視為支付的價格的放縱,和那些尋求獲得更重要的條件,它可能會忽略的危險。 On the other hand, those who granted indulgences might be tempted to make them a means of raising money: and, even where the rulers of the Church were free from blame in this matter, there was room for corruption in their officials and agents, or among the popular preachers of indulgences.另一方面,那些授出的寬容可能被誘惑,使他們籌集資金的一種手段和統治者的教會,即使是免費的怪在這個問題上,有腐敗在他們的官員和代理人,或在受歡迎的傳教士的放縱。 This class has happily disappeared, but the type has been preserved in Chaucer's "Pardoner", with his bogus relics and indulgences.這個類已經愉快地消失了,但該類型被保存在喬叟的“Pardoner”,用他的假文物和放縱。

While it cannot be denied that these abuses were widespread, it should also be noted that, even when corruption was at its worst, these spiritual grants were being properly used by sincere Christians, who sought them in the right spirit, and by priests and preachers, who took care to insist on the need of true repentance.雖然它可以不被拒絕,這些暴行是廣泛的,它也應該指出的是,即使在腐敗是在最壞的情況,這些精神補助金被正確地使用通過真誠的基督徒,誰尋求他們在正確的精神,和神父和傳教士照顧,誰堅持的需要,確有悔改表現。 It is therefore not difficult to understand why the Church, instead of abolishing the practice of indulgences, aimed rather at strengthening it by eliminating the evil elements.因此,不難理解為什麼而在教會,而不是取消放縱的做法,目的是加強消除邪惡勢力。 The Council of Trent in its decree "On Indulgences" (Sess. XXV) declares: "In granting indulgences the Council desires that moderation be observed in accordance with the ancient approved custom of the Church, lest through excessive ease ecclesiastical discipline be weakened; and further, seeking to correct the abuses that have crept in . . . it decrees that all criminal gain therewith connected shall be entirely done away with as a source of grievous abuse among the Christian people; and as to other disorders arising from superstition, ignorance, irreverence, or any cause whatsoever--since these, on account of the widespread corruption, cannot be removed by special prohibitions--the Council lays upon each bishop the duty of finding out such abuses as exist in his own diocese, of bringing them before the next provincial synod, and of reporting them, with the assent of the other bishops, to the Roman Pontiff, by whose authority and prudence measures will be taken for the welfare of the Church at large, so that the benefit of indulgences may be bestowed on all the faithful by means at once pious, holy, and free from corruption."安理會的遄達(sess. XXV)號法令“關於贖罪券”,宣稱:“在給予寬容,委員會希望按照教會的批准古老的習俗,在觀察,適度,以免因過度容易被削弱教會的紀律;進一步,尋求糾正濫用,躡手躡腳的,它的法令,所有與之相連的犯罪所得,應完全免掉的基督教人民之間的嚴重虐待的來源,以及其他疾病所產生的迷信,愚昧,不敬,或因任何原因 - 因為這些,考慮普遍的腐敗現象,不能被刪除的特別禁令 - 理事會規定後,每個主教在他自己的教區找出這類侵權行為存在的責任,把他們之前未來的省議會,報告,與其他主教的同意,是羅馬教皇,經其授權,將採取審慎措施的教堂的福利,這樣的利益,放縱可能會被賦予對所有的信徒在一次虔誠,聖潔,無腐敗的手段。“ After deploring the fact that, in spite of the remedies prescribed by earlier councils, the traders (quaestores) in indulgences continued their nefarious practice to the great scandal of the faithful, the council ordained that the name and method of these quaestores should be entirely abolished, and that indulgences and other spiritual favors of which the faithful ought not to be deprived should be published by the bishops and bestowed gratuitously, so that all might at length understand that these heavenly treasures were dispensed for the sake of piety and not of lucre (Sess. XXI, c. ix).感到遺憾的是,儘管早期議會所訂明的補救措施,在放縱的的商人(quaestores)繼續其邪惡的巨大醜聞的忠實實踐後,該局命定的名稱和方法這些quaestores應該完全取消的寬容等精神的忠實青睞,其中不應該被剝奪公佈的主教和無償賜予,讓所有可能在長度明白,這些神聖的珍寶被免除,而不是為了虔誠的錢財( SESS。XXI。九)。 In 1567 St. Pius V canceled all grants of indulgences involving any fees or other financial transactions.在1567年聖庇護五世取消了所有的寬容涉及任何費用或其他金融交易的補助,。

Apocryphal Indulgences未經證實的寬容

One of the worst abuses was that of inventing or falsifying grants of indulgence.其中最嚴重的侵權行為,發明或偽造補助金的放縱。 Previous to the Reformation, such practices abounded and called out severe pronouncements by ecclesiastical authority, especially by the Fourth Council of the Lateran (1215) and that of Vienne (1311).到改革之前,這樣的做法比比皆是,嚴重聲明,並呼籲教會的權威,特別是第四屆理事會的拉特蘭(1215年)和維埃納(1311)。 After the Council of Trent the most important measure taken to prevent such frauds was the establishment of the Congregation of Indulgences.安理會的遄達後,採取措施防止這類詐騙案的最重要的措施是建立的眾贖罪。 A special commission of cardinals served under Clement VIII and Paul V, regulating all matters pertaining to indulgences.一個特別委員會,擔任,根據克萊門特八和保羅V的樞機主教,規管所有事項有關的寬容。 The Congregation of Indulgences was definitively established by Clement IX in 1669 and reorganized by Clement XI in 1710.會眾的贖罪券是明確的克萊門特九在1669年成立,並於1710年由克萊門特十一重組。 It has rendered efficient service by deciding various questions relative to the granting of indulgences and by its publications.它提供了高效率的服務,決定給予indulgences相關的各種問題,​​並通過其出版物。 The "Raccolta" (qv) was first issued by one of its consultors, Telesforo Galli, in 1807; the last three editions 1877, 1886, and 1898 were published by the Congregation.首次發行的“Raccolta”(請參閱)1其諮,Telesforo的加利,在1807年的最後三個版本,1877年,1886年和1898年出版了眾。 The other official publication is the "Decreta authentica", containing the decisions of the Congregation from 1668 to 1882.其他正式刊物是“Decreta身份驗證”,會眾1668年至1882年的決定。 This was published in 1883 by order of Leo XIII.這是在1883年出版的利奧十三世的命令。 See also "Rescripta authentica" by Joseph Schneider (Ratisbon, 1885). “Rescripta身份驗證”由約瑟夫·施耐德(拉蒂斯邦,1885)。 By a Motu Proprio of Pius X, dated 28 January, 1904, the Congregation of Indulgences was united to the Congregation of Rites, without any diminution, however, of its prerogatives.一個的MOTU PROPRIO的庇護十世,於1904年1月28日,眾贖罪團結起來,眾禮記“,沒有任何縮減,然而,擁有的特權。

SALUTARY EFFECTS OF INDULGENCES贖罪券的有益效果

Lea (History, etc., III, 446) somewhat reluctantly acknowledges that "with the decline in the financial possibilities of the system, indulgences have greatly multiplied as an incentive to spiritual exercises, and they can thus be so easily obtained that there is no danger of the recurrence of the old abuses, even if the finer sense of fitness, characteristic of modern times, on the part of both prelates and people, did not deter the attempt." LEA(歷史等,III,446)有點不情願地承認,“在金融系統的可能性下降,放縱,大大乘以精神鍛煉作為獎勵,因此他們可以那麼容易獲得,有沒有復發的老濫用的危險,即使更好的健身意識,近代的特點,主教和人民的一部分,並沒有阻止企圖。“ The full significance, however, of this "multiplication" lies in the fact that.在於一個事實,即完整的意義,然而,在此“乘法”。 the Church, by rooting out abuses, has shown the rigor of her spiritual life.教會,剷除濫用,已經顯示出她的精神生活的嚴謹性。 She has maintained the practice of indulgences, because, when these are used in accordance with what she prescribes, they strengthen the spiritual life by inducing the faithful to approach the sacraments and to purify their consciences of sin.她一直保持著贖罪的做法,因為這些都是用在與她規定,他們加強了屬靈的生命誘導忠實於接近聖禮,並淨化自己的良心罪。 And further, they encourage the performance, in a truly religious spirit, of works that redound, not alone to the welfare of the individual, but also to God's glory and to the service of the neighbor.此外,他們鼓勵的性能,在一個真正的宗教精神,作品的回報,而不是單獨的個人的福利,同時也為神的榮耀和鄰居的服務。

Publication information Written by WH Kent.出版信息作者:WH肯特。 Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.轉錄由查爾斯理髮師,SJ。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全書,卷VII。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

BELLARMINE, De indulgentiis (Cologne, 1600); PASSERINI, De indulgentiis (Rome, 1672); AMORT, De origine......indulgentiarum (Venice, 1738); BOUVIER, Traité dogmatique et pratique des indulgences (Paris, 1855): SCHOOFS, Die Lehre vom kirchl.貝拉明,德indulgentiis(科隆,1600);帕塞里尼,德indulgentiis(羅馬,1672年);攤銷,起源“...... indulgentiarum(威尼斯,1738年),”論dogmatique的BOUVIER,等無疫通行證DES的寬容(巴黎,1855年) :模具Lehre SCHOOFS,VOM kirchl。 Ablass (Munster, 1857); GRONE, Der Ablass, seine Gesch. Ablass(明斯特,1857年); GRONE,德Ablass,圍網Gesch。 u. U。 Bedeutung (Ratisbon, 1863). Bedeutung(拉蒂斯邦,1863)。


Apostolic Indulgences使徒恕罪

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The indulgences known as Apostolic or Apostolical are those which the Roman pontiff, the successor of the Prince of the Apostles, attaches to the crosses, crucifixes, chaplets, rosaries, images, and medals which he blesses, either with his own hand or by those to whom he has delegated this faculty.被稱為使徒或使徒的放縱是羅馬教皇,王子的使徒的繼任者,重視的十字架,十字架,項圈,念珠,圖像和金牌,他祝福,用他自己的手或由那些他已委派教師。 The principles set forth in the general article on indulgences apply here also.所載文章上的寬容的原則在這裡也適用。 But since these Apostolic indulgences are among the most frequent and abundant of those now in use throughout the Church, they seem to require a separate and more detailed treatment.但是,因為這些使徒indulgences是其中最常見的和豐富的,那些現在使用的整個教會,他們似乎需要一個單獨的和更詳細的治療。 As the name implies, they are indulgences granted by the pope himself.正如它的名字所暗示的,他們是由教宗本人授出的放縱。 Some of them are plenary, and others are partial indulgences.其中有些是全體會議,和其他部分的寬容。 It may be observed that, the possession of the cross or medal or other indulgenced object is not the sole or immediate condition for gaining the indulgences attached thereto by the blessing of the Holy Father or his delegate.可以觀察到,擁有的交叉或獎章或其他indulgenced的對象不是唯一的或直接的條件獲得寬容,連同我們的聖父教宗的祝福,或他的代表。 But the possession enables the recipient to gain the various indulgences on the performance of certain prescribed good works or acts of piety.但擁有能夠接收方獲得的各種放縱的虔誠的若干規定的優秀作品或行為上的表現。 In this respect the possession of the object may be regarded as analogous to the local or personal limitation of other indulgences.在這方面,佔有的對象,可能會被視為類似的地方或個人的局限性,其他的寬容。 For in blessing the objects presented to him, the Holy Father thereby grants the indulgences, not to all the faithful indiscriminately, but to certain persons, to wit the actual or prospective possessors of these crosses, medals, etc., which.對於贈送給他祝福的對象,聖父,從而給予寬容,所有的信徒,而不是不分青紅皂白地,但某些人,即這些雜交的實際或潛在的擁有者,獎牌等,其中。 may thus be regarded as the marks or tokens distinguishing those persons to whom this special privilege is given.可以看作是區分人的商標或標記,這個特殊的權限被授予。 At the same time, since it is open to all the faithful to obtain such blessed objects, especially now, when the faculty for giving this blessing is so readily granted to the clergy throughout the world, the Apostotic indulgences can hardly be reckoned with those that are merely local or personal.在同一時間,所有的信徒獲得祝福的對象,尤其是現在,當教師給這個祝福是如此容易授予世界各地的神職人員,因為它是開放的,Apostotic寬容,也很難被忽視的那些僅僅是本地或個人。

Although the popes have been in the habit of granting indulgences from a much earlier date, some of them having an analogous limitation or connection with the holding or wearing of a blessed object, the Apostolic indulgences, as we now know them, date only from the year 1587-just a lifetime after the publication of Luther's famous theses against indulgences.雖然教皇一直在給予寬容,從一個更早的日期的習慣,其中一些具有類似限制與持有或穿著的祝福對象,使徒的寬容,因為我們現在知道他們,迄今為止,只有從今年1587-一生的公佈後,反對放縱路德的著名論斷。 And a curious interest attaches to the first origin of this familiar practice.一個奇怪的興趣十分重視這個熟悉的做法的最初起源。 Before that date popes had simply blessed medals or other objects presented to them for that purpose.在此之前,日教皇只是祝福他們用於這一目的的獎牌或其他物體。 But as Pope Sixtus V sets forth in his Bull "Laudemus viros gloriosos" (1 December, 1587), the workmen engaged in his restoration and adornment of the Lateran Basilica, in pulling down some very old walls, had accidentally brought to light a number of ancient coins bearing on one side a cross and on the other the likeness of one or other of the early Christian emperors.但是,作為教皇西斯五載列在他的公牛的“Laudemus viros gloriosos”(1587年12月1日),在他的恢復和裝飾的拉特蘭大教堂的工人從事,拉低了一些非常古老的城牆,出了意外,揭示了一個數古硬幣的一面上一個十字和其他相似的或其他的早期基督教的皇帝。 This remarkable discovery led the pontiff, in accordance with the opening words of his Bull, to sing the praises of those old rulers of Christendom, such as Constantine, Theodosius, and Marcianus.這個了不起的發現導致了教皇,按照開放的話,他在公牛,唱那些老的基督教統治者的讚譽,如君士坦丁,狄奧多西,Marcianus。 And, by a happy thought, he made their old coins again pass current, though bearing, as be fitted their new life, not an earthly but a heavenly and spiritual value.而且,一個快樂的思想,他做了,舊硬幣再通過電流,雖然軸承,為安裝新的生活,而不是一個俗世的但天上和精神價值的。 In other words, he granted a number of indulgences, on the performance of certain pious works, to all who became possessors of the old coins enriched with this new blessing.換句話說,他理所當然的寬容一些,某些虔誠的工程上的表現,成為擁有這個新的祝福與豐富的老硬幣。 The list of special indulgences set forth in this Bull as thus attached to those coins of the Christian emperors is the first instance of the Apostolic indulgences which the popes now attach to the medals, etc. presented for their benediction.提出的特別寬容,在這個牛市,從而連接到這些硬幣的基督教皇帝的列表是使徒的寬容,現在的教皇的獎牌的第一個實例,提出為他們祝福。 It must not be supposed, however, that the Apostolical indulgences, now so generally given in this familiar manner, are in all respects the same as those granted on this special occasion by Pope Sixtus V. A comparison of the aforesaid Bull "Laudemus viros gloriosos" with the list in the instruction annexed to the customary faculty for blessing rosaries etc., attaching indulgences thereto, will show many points of difference, both in the extent of the indulgences and in the good works prescribed as conditions for gaining them.然而,它不能被認為是使徒的寬容,所以一般在這個熟悉的方式,在各方面都相同西斯五,比較上述公牛的“Laudemus viros gloriosos在這個特殊的場合,授出的購股權“所附的指令列表中的習慣教師的祝福念珠等,與之連接的寬容,會顯示出許多的差異點,無論是在程度上的放縱和規定為條件,獲得他們的優秀作品。 And it will be found, as might have been anticipated, that in some cases the indulgences given in the Sixtine Bull are more abundant than the others.這將是發現,可能已經預期,在某些情況下,給定的在牛的Sixtine中的寬容,是比別人更豐富。 In at least one important point both lists are in agreement.至少在一個重要的一點,這兩個列表是一致的。 Thus it will be seen that in both cases a plenary indulgence may be gained by those who devoutly invoke the Holy Name of Jesus at the hour of death (in mortis articulo).因此,可以看出,在兩種情況下可能會獲得一次全體會議放縱那些虔誠地調用耶穌的聖名在一小時死亡(在臨終危象)。 But, on the other hand, the plenary indulgence for confession and Communion which the possessors of the Lateran coins could apparently gain on any day can only be gained by holders of ordinary indulgenced objects on certain great festivals, and that on the fixed condition of reciting certain prayers.但是,另一方面,懺悔和聖餐的拉特蘭硬幣的擁有者顯然可以得到在任何一天的全體會議放縱只能獲得持有人的的普通indulgenced對象,在某些偉大的節日,而且在固定的條件,背誦某些祈禱。

Publication information出版信息
Written by WH Kent.作者:WH肯特。 Transcribed by Charles Sweeney, SJ.轉錄由查爾斯理髮師,SJ。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VII.天主教百科全書,卷VII。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, June 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年6月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約



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