Midrash米德拉士

General Information 一般資料

Midrash (Hebrew darash,"interpretation"), term applied to Jewish expository and exegetical writings on the Scriptures.米德拉士(希伯來文darash,“解釋”),術語,適用於猶太說明性的訓詁著作“聖經”。 These writings consist of the interpretations by different rabbis of the laws and customs set forth in the Old Testament.這些著作包括不同的拉比在舊約中所規定的法律和習俗的解釋。 The earliest elements of the Midrashic writings appear to have been produced before 100BC by the scribes.最早的元素的Midrashic的著作似乎已經100BC的文士之前。 The material contained in the Midrash is divided into three groups; the abstract Halakah, consisting of the traditional law; the Halakic Midrash, a deduction of the traditional law from the written law; and the Haggadic Midrash (see Haggada), consisting of legends, sermons, and interpretations of the narrative parts of the Bible and concerning ethics and theology rather than law.在米德拉士包含的材料被分為三組,抽象的Halakah,傳統的國際法,包括了halakic米德拉士,傳統的國際法,扣除從書面的法律,以及該haggadic的米德拉士(見Haggada),包括傳說,布道,敘事部分的“聖經”和有關倫理和神學,而不是法律的解釋。 The forms and styles of these writings show considerable flexibility, ranging from parables to sermons to codifications of law.這些作品的形式和風格,表現出相當大的靈活性,從比喻講道法律編纂工作的。

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Midrashim米大示

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The term commonly designates ancient rabbinical commentaries on the Hebrew Scriptures.這個詞通常指定古老的希伯來文聖經猶太教評論。 It is the plural form of the word Midrash which is found only twice in the Old Testament (II Par. [Chronicles], xiii, 22; xxiv, 27), where it is rendered by liber (book) in the Vulgate, and by "commentary" in the Revised Version.這是米德拉士是發現,只有兩次在舊約中(II標準桿。編年史,22十三,二十四,27日),其中所呈現的LIBER(書),在武加大這個詞的複數形式,並通過“評論”的修訂版。 In rabbinical parlance, Midrash has the abstract and general sense of study, exposition of Scripture, while Midrashim are primarily the free and artificial explanations of the Sacred Text given by its ancient expositors, and secondarily the collections of such explanations in the shape of commentaries on Holy Writ.在猶太教的說法,米德拉士有抽象的,一般意義上的研究,闡述了聖經,,而米德拉什是主要的自由和人工的神聖文本賦予其古老的解釋者的解釋,這樣的解釋,其次是集合的形狀評論聖典。

ORIGINS AND KINDS OF MIDRASHIM ORIGINS種米大示

After the return from Babylon, the Law was the centre of the life of the Jews at home and abroad.從巴比倫回歸後,法為中心的生活的猶太人在國內和國外。 Henceforth, the one concern of the Jewish authorities was to make sure that the Mosaic precepts be accurately complied with by all, and under all circumstances, and it is from this practical standpoint that the Scribes and after them the Rabbis studied and expounded the contents of their sacred writings.從今以後,關注的猶太當局,以確保摩西的戒律準確地遵守,在任何情況下,它是從這個實際情況來看,文士和研究,並闡述了他們的拉比後的內容他們的神聖的著作。 A part of these contents, viz., the enactments of the Mosaic Law, made of course directly for the purpose of promoting legal righteousness in Israel; yet, as these laws had been framed in view of concrete circumstances of the past, they had to be explained in a more or less artificial way to make them fit the altered circumstances of Jewish life, or serve as Scriptural basis or support of the various traditional observances which made up the oral law.這些內容的一部分,即。的成文法則,直接的目的,促進法律正義,在以色列的鑲嵌法,當然,但是,由於這些法律被誣陷的具體情況,在過去,他們不得不在或多或少人工的方法,使它們適合改裝後的情況,猶太人的生活,或作為聖經的依據或支持各種傳統的紀念活動,其中口服法來解釋。 All such artificial explanations of the terms of the Mosaic legislation are legal, or Halahcic, Midrashim.所有人工解釋的條款,鑲嵌立法是法律,或Halahcic的,米大示。 Distinct from this general kind of Midrashim are those called homiletical, or Hagadic, which embrace the interpretation, illustration, or expansion, in a moralizing or edifying manner, of the non-legal portions of the Hebrew Bible.從這個一般種米大示不同的是那些所謂的講道,或Hagadic的,擁抱的解釋,說明,或擴展,在道德說教或有啟發性的方式,對非法律部分的希伯來文聖經。 As the object of this latter kind of Midrashim was not to determine the precise requirements of the Law, but rather to confirm in a general manner Jewish hearers in their faith and its practice, Hagadic explanations of the non-legal parts of Scripture are characterized by a much greater freedom of exposition than the Halachic Midrashim; and it may be truly said that Hagadic expositors have availed themselves of whatever material -- sayings of prominent Rabbis (eg, philosophical or mystical disquisitions concerning angels, demons, paradise, hell, Messias, Satan, feasts and fasts, parables, legends, satirical assaults on the heathen and their rites, etc.) -- could render their treatment of those portions of the Sacred Text more instructive or edifying.作為對象,這後一種米大示法來確定精確的要求,而是確認在一般的方式猶太hearers在他們的信仰和實踐,Hagadic解釋非法律部分經文的特點是更大的自由的的哈拉哈米德拉什相比,博覽會,以及它可能真正說,Hagadic解釋者利用自己的什麼材料 - 著名的拉比的說法(例如,哲學或神秘的議論,關於天使,惡魔,天堂,地獄,彌賽亞,撒旦,節日和齋戒,寓言,傳說,諷刺攻擊對異教徒和他們的儀式,等) - 可以使他們的那部分的神聖文本,更多的有益的或者有啟發性的治療。 Both kinds of Midrashim were at first preserved only orally; but their writing down commenced with the second century of our era, and they now exist in the shape chiefly of exegetical or homiletical works on the whole or parts of the Hebrew Bible.這兩種米大示,在第一只保存口服;但他們寫下的第二個世紀開始,我們的時代,和他們現在存在的形狀,主要的釋經講道作品的全部或部分的希伯來文聖經。

PRINCIPAL MIDRASHIM主要米德拉什

The three earliest and in several respects most important Midrashic collections are: (1) the Mechilta, on a portion of Exodus, and embodying the tradition mainly of the School of Rabbi Ishmael (first century); (2) the Siphra, on Leviticus, embodying the tradition of rabbi Aqiba with additions from the School of rabbi Ishmael; (3) the Siphre on Numbers and Deuteronomy, going back mainly to the schools of the same two Rabbis.三個最早在以下幾個方面最重要的米大示解經的集合:(1)Mechilta,“出埃及記”的部分,並體現了傳統為主的學校的拉比以實瑪利(世紀);(2)Siphra的,利未記,體現了傳統增加的拉比Aqiba,從學校的拉比以實瑪利(3)Siphre民數記和申命記,回去主要是兩個相同的拉比的學校。 These three works are used in the Gemaras.這些三個工程在Gemaras使用的。 (4) The Rabboth (great commentaries), a large collection of ten Midrashim on the Pentateuch and Megilloth, which bear the respective names of: (a) Bereshith Rabba, on Genesis (mainly from the sixth century); (b) Shemoth Rabba, on Exodus (eleventh and twelfth century); (c) Wayyiqra Rabba, on Leviticus (middle seventh Century); (d)Bamidbar Rabba, on Numbers (twelfth century); (e) Debarim Rabba, on Deuteronomy (tenth century); (f) Shir Ashshirim Rabba, on Canticle of Canticles (probably before the middle of ninth century); (g) Ruth Rabba, on Ruth (same date as foregoing); (h) Echa Rabba, on Lamentations (seventh century); (i) Midrash Qoheleth, on Ecclesiastes (probably before middle of ninth century); (j) Midrash Esther, on Esther (AD 940). (4)的Rabboth(偉大的評注),收集了大量的10米大示對五和Megilloth,承擔各自的名稱:(一)本的起初RABBA,成因(主要是從公元六世紀),(二)Shemoth RABBA ,在出埃及記(第十一屆和第十二屆世紀),(C)Wayyiqra RABBA,利未記(中七世紀),(D)Bamidbar RABBA號(12世紀);(E)Debarim RABBA,申命記(十世紀); (F)事兒Ashshirim RABBA,頌歌的Canticles(可能是中間的第九世紀前);(G)的露絲RABBA,在露絲(同日,上述);(H)ECHA RABBA,就悲嘆(七世紀);( I)米德拉士Qoheleth,對傳道書(可能是在中間的第九世紀),(j)條米德拉士以斯帖記,以斯帖記(公元940年)。 Of these Rabboth, the Midrashim on Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy are chiefly made up of homilies on the Scripture sections for the Sabbath or festival, while the others are rather of an exegetical nature.的這些Rabboth,米大示對出埃及記,利未記,民數記,申命記主要為安息日或節日,對聖經章節的頌歌,而其他相當的訓詁性質的。 (5) The Pesiqta, a compilation of homilies on special Pentateuchal and Prophetic lessons (early eighth century); (6) Pirqe Rabbi Eliezer (not before eighth century), a Midrashic narrative of the more important events of the Penteteuch; (7) Tanchuma or Yelammedenu (ninth century) on the whole Pentateuch; its homilies consist of a Halachic introduction, followed by several proems, exposition of the opening verses, and the Messianic conclusion; (8) Midrash Shemuel, on the first two Books of Kings (I, II Samuel); (9) Midrash Tehillim, on the Psalms; (10) Midrash Mishle, on Proverbs; (11) Yalqut Shimeoni, a kind of catena extending over all the Hebrew Scriptures. (5)Pesiqta,彙編頌歌特殊pentateuchal的和先知的教訓(八世紀初)的;(6)一米大示解經的Penteteuch更重要的事件的敘述猶太教教士Eliezer Pirqe(前八世紀),(7) Tanchuma或整個pentateuch Yelammedenu(第九世紀),其講道包括的哈拉哈介紹,其次由的幾個proems,闡述了開放的詩句,和彌賽亞的結論;(8)米德拉士示母利,第一兩本書的國王( I,II塞繆爾)(9)米德拉士Tehillim的詩篇;(10)的米德拉士Mishle,在箴言;(11)Yalqut Shimeoni,一種系列延伸至所有的希伯來文聖經。

IMPORTANCE OF MIDRASHIM重要性米大示

At first sight, one might think that such farrago as the Midrashic literature could be of interest and value only to a Jew as Jew, inasmuch as the Midrashim are thoroughly steeped in the spirit of Judaism, bear distinct witness to the laws customs, doctrines, aspirations of the Jewish race, and record the noblest ideas, sayings, and teachings of the Jewish sages in early times.乍一看,人們可能會認為Midrashic文學等farrago的可能是一個猶太人,因為猶太人的利益和價值,因為米德拉什徹底沉浸在猶太教的精神,承擔不同的法律習俗,教條的見證,猶太種族的願望,並記錄最崇高的想法,諺語,和早期的猶太聖人的教導。 The more, however, he examines the contents of these ancient expository works, the more he discovers that they are an invaluable source of information to the Christian apologist, the Biblical student, and the general scholar as well.越多,但是,他研究這些古老的說明性作品的內容,他發現他們是一個非常寶貴的信息來源,基督教護教聖經的學生,和一般學者以及。 In this body of ancient literature there is much in the line of ideas, expressions, reasonings, and descriptions, which can be used to illustrate and confirm the inspired records of Christianity and the traditional teachings of the Church, notably concerning the passages of the Old Testament to be regarded as Messianic.在這個機構中的古代文學裡有很多東西線的想法,表達,推理,和描述,可以用來說明,並確認靈感記錄基督教和傳統教義的教會,特別是與舊的通道舊約被視為救世主的。 The Biblical student will at times notice in the oldest parts of the Midrashim, Scriptural readings anterior to those embodied in the Massoretic text. “聖經”的學生有時會注意到,在米大示,讀“聖經前體現在massoretic文本的最古老的部分。 Again, "when it is borne in mind that the annotators and Punctuators of the Hebrew text, and the translators of the [most] ancient versions, were Jews impregnated with the theological opinions of the nation, and prosecuted their Biblical labours in harmony with these opinions. . . .the importance of the Halachic and Hagadic exegesis to the criticism of the Hebrew text, and to a right understanding of the Greek, Chaldee, Syriac, and other versions, can hardly be overrated."同樣,“當它被銘記的註解者和標點符號的希伯來文和翻譯[最古老的版本,是猶太人浸漬的國家與神學的觀點,並起訴他們的聖經勞動力和諧與這些意見....的希伯來文的批評,並有正確的理解,希臘,迦勒底,敘利亞和其他版本的哈拉哈和Hagadic註釋的重要性,卻很難被高估了。“ (Ginsburg, in Kitto's "Cyclop. Of Biblical Liter.", III, 173). (金斯伯格,在Kitto的“的Cyclop。”聖經“升”,III,173)。 Lastly the Philologist, the historian, the philosopher, the jurist, and the statesman, will easily find in the Midrashim remarks and discussions which have a direct bearing on their respective branches of study.最後,語言學家,歷史學家,哲學家,法學家和政治家,將不難發現,在米大示言論和討論各自的分支的研究有直接關係。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息的書面由Francis E.羊腿。 Dedicated to Congregation Ben Joseph in Montpelier, VT The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume X. Published 1911.專用的Montpelier,VT堂本約瑟夫的天主教百科全書,卷十,發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

UGLINI, Thesaurus Antiquitatum Sacrarum, vols XIV-XVI (Venice, 1752-1754); JELLINECK, Bet Ha-Midrasch (Leipzig, and Vienna, 1853-1877); SCHURER, The Jewish People in the Time of Christ (New York, 18910; ZUNE, die gottesdienstlichen Vortrage d. Juden (Frankfort, 1892); WUNSCHE, Bibliotheca Rabbinica (Leipzig, 1880-1885); Trier, 1892, 1893); GRUNHUT, Sofer Ha Likkutim (Jerusalem, (1898-1901); STRACK, Einl. id Talmud (Leipzig, 1900); OESTERLEY AND BOX, The Religion and Worship of the Synagogue (New York, 1907). UGLINI,的詞庫Antiquitatum Sacrarum,卷XIV-XVI(威尼斯,1752年至1754年); JELLINECK,投注哈Midrasch(萊比錫,維也納,1853年至1877年); SCHURER,猶太人民在時間的基督(紐約,18910 Zune播放器,模具gottesdienstlichen Vortrage D。Juden(法蘭克福,1892年); WUNSCHE,萊比錫,:書目Rabbinica(1880-1885);特里爾,1892年,1893年); GRUNHUT,Sofer:哈Likkutim(耶路撒冷,(1898-1901); STRACK, Einl。ID塔木德(萊比錫,1900年); OESTERLEY BOX,宗教和信仰的猶太教堂(紐約,1907年)。



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