Mu'tazilah, Mu'tazilite School, Mu'tazilites, Mutazili Mu'tazilah,穆爾太齊賴派的學校,Mu'tazilites,Mutazili

General Information 一般資料

Doctrines教義

The Mu'tazilite school of theology emerged out of the question raised by the Kharijites whether works are integral to faith or independent of faith. On the question of the relationship between faith and works, the Mu'tazilites adopted the position that someone who commits a grave sin without repenting occupies a middle state between being a Muslim and not being a Muslim. 學校的神學Mu'tazilite湧現出的作品是不可或缺的信仰或信仰的獨立的Kharijites是否提出的問題。信仰和工作之間的關係的問題,穆爾太齊賴派的人採取的立場是誰犯了沒有悔改,佔據了嚴重的罪過是一個穆斯林,而不是作為一個穆斯林之間的中間狀態。

A second doctrine concerned the nature of God.第二個學說有關神的本質。 God is pure Essence and, therefore, without eternal attributes such as hands.上帝是純粹的本質,因此,沒有永恆的屬性,如手。 Passages in the Qur'an that ascribe human or physical properties to God are to be regarded as metaphorical rather than literal.在“古蘭經”的經文,歸因於人或實體的屬性,神是被視為隱喻,而不是文字。

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The Mu'tazilites also argued that the Qur'an was created and not eternal.穆爾太齊賴派還認為,“古蘭經”,而不是永恆的。 The basis of this doctrine was the claim that the eternal coexistence of the Qur'an beside Allah gave the impression of another god beside Allah.這一學說的基礎是要求真主“古蘭經”旁邊的永恆共存旁邊安拉的另一位神給人的印象。

Human acts are free and, therefore, people are entirely responsible for their decisions and actions.人的行為是免費的,因此,人們對自己的決策和行動負完全的責任。 Divine predestination is incompatible with God's justice and human responsibility.神的宿命是不符合上帝的公義和人類的責任。 God, however, must of necessity act justly; it follows from this that the promises of reward that God has made in the Qur'an to righteous people and the punishments he had issued to evildoers must be carried out by him on the day of judgement.然而,神一定的必要性行為公正,它的承諾的獎勵,神已經立在“古蘭經”中的正義之士和懲罰,他已發行作惡的,必須進行審判的日子,他。

Mu'tazilites are generally seen as responsible for the incorporation of Greek philosophical thought into Islamic theology.穆爾太齊賴派被普遍認為是負責將希臘哲學思想在伊斯蘭神學。 This is particularly apparent in their belief that knowledge of God can be acquired through reason as well as revelation.在他們的信仰的神識可以通過後天的原因以及啟示,這一點尤其明顯。

History歷史

The term Mu'tazilah derives from the Arabic al-mu'tazilah, which means the one who separated.的的長期Mu'tazilah來自阿拉伯語的al-mu'tazilah,這意味著一個分離。 It was applied to the school established in Iraq by Wasil b.它適用於在伊拉克建立的學校,Wasil b。 'Ata (699-749), a student of the distinguished scholar Hasn al-Basri (642-728). ATA(699-749),傑出的學者不是招人巴斯里(642-728)的學生。

At the time of the rise of the 'Abbasids in 750 the Mu'tazilites began to become prominent in the Islamic world.當時的阿拔斯王朝的崛起在750穆爾太齊賴派開始成為突出的伊斯蘭世界。 In the 9th century the 'Abbasid caliph, al-Ma'mun, raised Mu'tazilah doctrine to the status of the state creed.在9世紀的阿拔斯王朝的哈里發,鋁馬穆,升Mu'tazilah學說的狀態信條的地位。 Openly supported by the caliphate, the Mu'tazilites became increasingly intolerant and began to persecute their opponents.哈里發的公開支持,穆爾太齊賴派開始變得越來越不寬容和迫害他們的對手。 On one occasion the eminent Sunni scholar and founder of one of the four orthodox jurisprudential schools, Ahmad b.有一次,著名的遜尼派學者和創始人的四個的正統法理上學校之一,:艾哈邁德b。 Hanbal (d.855), was subjected to flogging and imprisonment for his refusal to subscribe to the Mu'tazilite doctrine that the Qur'an was created in time.罕百里(d.855),遭到鞭刑和監禁他拒絕認購到的Mu'tazilite的學說,“古蘭經”中創建的時間。

Always unpopular with the ordinary people, the Mu'tazilites' power gradually began to wane.總是不受歡迎的與常人,,Mu'tazilites的權力逐漸開始減少。 They lost the support of the caliphs and by the 10th century the Traditionist (Sunni majority) opposition to Mu'tazilah found a spokesman in Abu al-Hasan al-Ash'ari (d.935), who himself had previously been a Mu'tazilite.他們失去了支持的哈里發和10世紀的傳統主義者(遜尼派佔多數)反對以Mu'tazilah的發言人阿布·哈桑·阿什阿里(d.935),自己以前的MU tazilite。 Al-Ash'ari's new school of theology and the school of Abu Mansur al-Maturidi (d.945) provided the new basis of orthodox Islamic theology, leading to the complete disappearance of the Mu'tazile movement.正統的伊斯蘭神學的神學和學校的阿布·曼蘇爾AL-Maturidi(d.945)鋁阿什阿里的新學校提供了新的基礎,導致完全消失的Mu'tazile運動。

Symbols符號

Mu'tazilah does not identify itself through the use of any symbol system. mu'tazilah不識別自身通過使用任何符號系統。

Adherents遺民

The school has no contemporary adherents.學校有沒有當代的信徒。

Headquarters / Main Centre總部/主要中心

When the school was in existence its main centres were in Basra and Baghdad.當學校存在的主要中心在巴士拉和巴格達。

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Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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