(Pesach Passover) Seder逾越節逾越節家宴

General Information 一般資料

(This presentation primarily discusses Jewish perspectives on the Eucharist. At the end of this presentation are links to Catholic and Protestant persectives, and a more general presentation on the Eucharist that includes presentation of the Orthodox perspective.) (本文主要討論了猶太人的角度對聖體聖事,在演講結束的鏈接,天主教和新教persectives,和更具有一般性介紹聖體聖事,其中包括介紹正統的角度)。

General Information 一般資料

The seder (from the Hebrew word for "order") is the festal meal eaten on the first two nights of Passover, the Jewish celebration of the Exodus from Egypt.該seder(從希伯來語意為“命令”),是節日的前兩晚出埃及的猶太人慶祝逾越節,吃了一頓。 The main seder meal does not begin until the story of the Exodus has been retold through the reading of the Haggadah and, more important, reexperienced by the celebrants.主要seder餐不開始,直到“出埃及記”的故事新編通過閱讀該haggadah,更重要的,reexperienced由監禮的禮。 This recreation of the circumstances of bondage, together with the minutiae of the deliverance, form the heart and spirit of the seder and of the Passover festival itself.這個娛樂的束縛,加上細微的解脫的情況下,形成的seder和逾越節自己的的心臟和精神。

Certain foods are eaten in set order during the ceremony, including matzoth, the unleavened bread of bondage; maror, bitter herbs (grated horseradish), commemorating the bitterness of slavery; baitzah, a hard-cooked egg, symbolic of life's cycle of birth and death; zaroah, a roasted lamb bone representing the paschal lamb; haroseth, chopped nuts, apples, and wine, symbolic of the clay used by Pharaoh's Hebrew slaves to make bricks; and karpas, parsley, lettuce or other greens, as a reminder that the new growth during this spring festival brings renewed hope of universal peace.某些食物都吃掉,每套為了在儀式上,包括matzoth,未經的無酵麵包的束縛,苦菜,苦草藥(磨碎的辣根),紀念苦澀的奴役; baitzah,硬熟雞蛋,象徵著生命的週期的出生和死亡; zaroah,一個烤羊肉骨代表逾越節的羔羊; haroseth,切碎的堅果,蘋果,葡萄酒,象徵性的粘土法老的希伯來奴隸,使磚;和卡帕斯,香菜,生菜或其他綠色植物,作為提醒,今年春節期間,世界和平帶來新的希望,新的增長。 Four cups of wine are drunk at various moments in the ceremony.四杯酒是喝醉了,在不同時刻的儀式。 A goblet of wine for Elijah is placed on the seder table in the symbolic hope that the prophet, whose appearance will presage the coming of the Messiah, may enter and partake of the wine that awaits him.杯狀的葡萄酒以利亞,是在seder表,在象徵希望的先知,其外觀將預示著未來的救世主,可進入和參與的紅酒,正等待他。

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Passover逾越節

General Information 一般資料

Passover (in Hebrew, Pesach) is one of the most important Jewish festivals.逾越節(希伯來文,逾越節)是最重要的猶太節日之一。 Celebrated in late March or early April (by the Jewish calendar, Nisan 15-22), it commemorates the Exodus--the deliverance of Israel from slavery in Egypt.慶祝活動在三月下旬或四月上旬(猶太歷尼散月14日15-22),它是為了紀念“出埃及記” - 拯救以色列人從埃及的奴役。 The name Passover is interpreted in the Mishnah to refer to the statement (Exod. 12:23) that God would pass over the houses of the Israelites in killing the firstborn of Egypt.逾越節是解釋在mishnah的聲明(出埃及記12:23),神將通過在房子的以色列人殺害埃及的長子。 In the Bible, however, the name is applied to a festival involving the sacrifice of a lamb or kid and the eating of unleavened bread; this was probably an ancient spring festival. ,然而,在“聖經”中的名稱是適用於一節涉及的犧牲羔羊或小孩,吃無酵餅,這可能是一個古老的春節。

The Passover is celebrated for 7 days (outside Israel, traditionally observant Jews add an extra day), the first and last days being full holidays when work is not to be done.逾越節慶祝7天(以色列以外,傳統上觀察入微的猶太人添加額外的一天),第一個和最後的日子充滿假日時工作,沒有做。 Throughout the week only unleavened bread (matzo) is eaten; the scrupulously observant abstain from all leavened food and even from nonleavened food not prepared for the festival with special care.整個星期只酵麵包(matzo)是吃;一絲不苟地觀察入微棄權一切有酵的食物,甚至從nonleavened食物不準備為節日的特別照顧。 Samaritans still perform the ancient Passover sacrifice; all other Jews gave up this rite when the Temple was destroyed.撒瑪利亞仍表現古代逾越節犧牲其他所有的猶太人放棄了這項成年禮時,聖殿被摧毀。 Instead, the first two evenings of Passover are marked by a festal meal, called the seder, at which the story of the Exodus is retold through the reading of the Haggadah (story) and the symbols of the occasion--unleavened bread, bitter herbs, and others--are explained.相反,前兩個晚上的逾越節是標誌著一個節日餐,被稱為seder,在“出埃及記”的故事新編通過閱讀的haggadah(故事)和符號的場合 - 無酵餅,苦菜等等 - 進行了解釋。

The Christian feast called Easter in English is called Passover in many other languages (Pascha, Pascuas, Paques).基督教節日復活節在英語稱為逾越節(復活節,Pascuas,帕克)在許多其他語言。

The Passover lamb is interpreted as foreshadowing the sacrifice on the cross of Jesus, the lamb of God.逾越節的羔羊,可以解釋為鋪墊犧牲在十字架上的耶穌,上帝的羔羊。

Bernard J. Bamberger伯納德·J.班貝格

Bibliography 參考書目
Bokser, BM, The Origins of the Seder (1984); Gaster, TH, Passover: Its History and Traditions (1949; repr. 1962); Goodman, Philip, ed., The Passover Anthology (1961); Wolfson, Ron, and Grishaver, JL, The Art of Jewish Living: The Passover Seder (1988)博克塞,BM,起源的seder(1984);胃,釷,逾越節:它的歷史和傳統(1949年,1962年再版。);古德曼,弘,編輯,逾越節選集(1961年);沃爾夫森,羅恩,和grishaver,的JL,猶太生活的藝術:的逾越節家宴(1988年)


Pesach Passover Seder逾越節逾越節家宴

General Information (Basic) 一般信息(基本)

Of all the Jewish holidays, Pesach is the one most commonly observed, even by otherwise non-observant Jews.所有猶太假期,pesach是一個最常見的,即使是由其他非觀察入微的猶太人。 According to the 1990 National Jewish Population Survey (NJPS), more than 80% of Jews have attended a Pesach seder.根據1990年全國猶太人人口的調查(NJPS),80%以上的猶太人出席了逾越節家宴。

Pesach begins on the 15th day of the Jewish month of Nissan. It is the first of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Shavu'ot and Sukkot). 逾越節開始的第15天的猶太一個月的日產的三大節日與歷史和農業意義(其他兩個是Shavu'ot和住棚節)這是第一個。 Agriculturally, it represents the beginning of the harvest season in Israel, but little attention is paid to this aspect of the holiday.農業而言,它代表了開始收穫的季節,在以色列,但很少注意這方面的假期。 The primary observances of Pesach are related to the Exodus from Egypt after generations of slavery.逾越節的主要紀念活動都與出埃及後,幾代人的奴役。 This story is told in Exodus, Ch.這個故事是說,在出埃及記,CH。 1-15. 1-15。 Many of the Pesach observances are instituted in Chs.許多的逾越節慶祝活動的制度CHS。 12-15. 12-15。

The name "Pesach" (PAY-sahch, with a "ch" as in the Scottich "loch") comes from the Hebrew root Peh-Samech-Chet , meaning to pass through, to pass over, to exempt or to spare.來自希伯來文根peh-Samech切特命名為“逾越節”(PAY-sahch中的Scottich“湖”與“路”),這意味著通過,通過後,豁免或以備用。 It refers to the fact that Gd "passed over" the houses of the Jews when he was slaying the firstborn of Egypt.它指的是一個事實,即神“,通過對”兩院的猶太人時,他被殺害埃及的長子。 In English, the holiday is known as Passover.在英語中,被稱為逾越節的假期。 "Pesach" is also the name of the sacrificial offering (a lamb) that was made in the Temple on this holiday. “逾越節”是也,在寺廟的節日祭品(羔羊)的名稱。 The holiday is also referred to as Chag he-Aviv , (the Spring Festival), Chag ha-Matzoth , (the Festival of Matzahs), and Z'man Cherutenu , (the Time of Our Freedom) (again, all with those Scottish "ch"s).這個節日也被稱為作為CHAG特拉維夫(春節),CHAG HA-Matzoth,(節matzahs​​擺),Z'man Cherutenu,(我們的自由時間)(再次強調,所有與蘇格蘭“通道”)。

Probably the most significant observance related to Pesach involves the removal of chametz (leaven; sounds like "hum it's" with that Scottish ch) from our homes.也許最重要的遵守相關pesach涉及搬遷的chametz(神曲,聽起來像“哼哼”與蘇格蘭的CH),從我們的家園。 This commemorates the fact that the Jews leaving Egypt were in a hurry, and did not have time to let their bread rise. It is also a symbolic way of removing the "puffiness" (arrogance, pride) from our souls.這是紀念猶太人離開埃及的事實,都是在趕時間,沒有時間讓他們的麵包崛起。 刪除“虛胖”(傲慢,驕傲),從我們的靈魂,這也是一個象徵性的方式。

Chametz includes anything made from the five major grains (wheat, rye, barley, oats and spelt) that has not been completely cooked within 18 minutes after coming into contact with water. Chametz包括任何由5個主要穀物(小麥,黑麥,大麥,燕麥和小麥)還沒有完全煮熟18分鐘後,接觸到水。 Orthodox Jews of Ashkenazic background also avoid rice, corn, peanuts, and legumes (beans) as if they were chametz.正統派猶太教徒的ashkenazic背景,也避免了水稻,玉米,花生,豆類(菜豆),如果他們chametz。 All of these items are commonly used to make bread, thus use of them was prohibited to avoid any confusion.所有這些項目通常用來做麵包,因此利用這些被禁止,以避免任何混淆。 Such additional items are referred to as "kitniyot."這種附加項被稱為“kitniyot。”

We may not eat chametz during Pesach; we may not even own it or derive benefit from it.我們可能不會吃chametz期間pesach,我們甚至可能無法擁有它,或獲得將從中獲益。 We may not even feed it to our pets or cattle.我們甚至有可能不會將其提供給我們的寵物或牲畜。 All chametz, including utensils used to cook chametz, must either be disposed of or sold to a non-Jew (they can be repurchased after the holiday).所有chametz,包括器皿用來煮chametz,必須出售或出售給非猶太人(他們可以購回後的假期)。 Pets' diets must be changed for the holiday, or the pets must be sold to a non-Jew (like the food and utensils, the pets can be repurchased after the holiday ends).為公眾假期,必須改變寵物的飲食或寵物必須出售給非猶太人(如食物和食具,寵物的假期結束後,可以購回)。 I have noticed that many non-Jews and non-observant Jews mock this practice of selling chametz as an artificial technicality.我已經注意到,許多非猶太人和非猶太人的觀察的模擬,這種做法出售chametz作為一個人造的技術性。 I assure you that this sale is very real and legally binding, and would not be valid under Jewish law if it were not.我向你保證,這個買賣是非常真實和具有法律約束力的,並不能有效根據猶太法律,如果它不是。 From the gentile's perspective, the purchase functions much like the buying and selling of futures on the stock market: even though he does not take physical posession of the goods, his temporary legal ownership of those goods is very real and potentially profitable.從非猶太人的角度來看,購買功能很像買入和賣出期貨對股市的:即使他不考慮實際佔有的貨物,他的臨時合法所有權的那些貨物是很現實的和潛在的有利可圖的。

The process of cleaning the home of all chametz in preparation for Pesach is an enormous task. To do it right, you must prepare for several weeks and spend several days scrubbing everything down, going over the edges of your stove and fridge with a toothpick and a Q-Tip, covering all surfaces that come in contact with foil or shelf-liner, etc., etc., etc. After the cleaning is completed, the morning before the seder, a formal search of the house for chametz is undertaken, and any remaining chametz is burned. 過程中的清洗家中所有chametz準備pesach是一項艱鉅的任務。要做到這一點,你必須準備好幾個星期,花費數天洗滌一切,用牙籤在你的爐灶和冰箱的邊緣,一個Q-提示,覆蓋所有表面接觸箔或大陸架班輪等,等,等,清洗工作完成後,上午前seder,正式搜查該府為chametz進行,任何剩餘chametz是燒了。

The grain product we eat during Pesach is called matzah. Matzah is unleavened bread, made simply from flour and water and cooked very quickly. 在逾越節吃的糧食產品,我們稱為無酵餅。matzah是未經發酵的麵包,簡單地用麵粉和水和熟的非常快。 This is the bread that the Jews made for their flight from Egypt.這是猶太人為自己的航班從埃及的麵包。 We have come up with many inventive ways to use matzah; it is available in a variety of textures for cooking: matzah flour (finely ground for cakes and cookies), matzah meal (coarsely ground, used as a bread crumb substitute), matzah farfel (little chunks, a noodle or bread cube substitute), and full-sized matzahs (about 10 inches square, a bread substitute).我們已經提出了很多創造性的使用方法matzah,它是適用於各種質地做飯:matzah麵粉(細磨的蛋糕和餅乾),matzah餐(粗糙地面,用來作為麵包粉代替),matzah法爾費爾(小塊,麵條或麵包立方體代替),和全尺寸matzahs​​的(約10平方英寸,麵包的替代品)。

The day before Pesach is the Fast of the Firstborn, a minor fast for all firstborn males, commemorating the fact that the firstborn Jewish males in Egypt were not killed during the final plague.前一天pesach是快速的長子,未成年人的快速所有頭生的男子,紀念這一事實,頭生男生猶太人在埃及被打死不會在最後一災。

On the first night of Pesach (first two nights for traditional Jews outside Israel), we have a special family meal filled with ritual to remind us of the significance of the holiday.在第一個晚上,pesach(首兩晚為傳統的以色列以外的猶太人), 我們有一個特別的家庭餐充滿儀式,以提醒我們的節日的意義。 This meal is called a seder , from a Hebrew root word meaning "order," because there is a specific set of information that must be discussed in a specific order. 這頓飯稱為seder,從希伯來文詞根,意思是“為了”,因為有一組特定的信息,必須在一個特定的順序討論。 It is the same root from which we derive the word "siddur" , (prayer book).它是同根生,從我們所衍生的字“siddur”,(祈禱書)。 An overview of a traditional seder is included below.包括一個傳統seder告圓滿的概述如下。

Pesach lasts for seven days (eight days outside of Israel).逾越節持續時間為7天(8天,以色列以外)。 The first and last days of the holiday (first two and last two outside of Israel) are days on which no work is permitted.第一個和最後幾天的假期(前兩個和最後兩個以色列以外)的日子,而沒有工作許可。 See Extra Day of Holidays for more information.看到一天的假期更多信息。 Work is permitted on the intermediate days.允許在中間的日子裡工作。 These intermediate days on which work is permitted are referred to as Chol Ha-Mo'ed, as are the intermediate days of Sukkot.這些天所允許的工作被稱為中間,澈哈Mo'ed,中間住棚節。

When Pesach Begins on a Saturday Night ,當逾越節起始於一個星期六的晚上

Occasionally, Pesach begins on a motzaei Shabbat, that is, on Saturday night after the sabbath has concluded.有時候,逾越節開始上一個motzaei的安息日,是,上週六晚在安息日結束。 This occured in the year 5761 (2001).這發生在5761年(2001年)。 This complicates the process of preparing for Pesach, because many of the preparations normally undertaken on the day before Pesach cannot be performed on Shabbat.這個複雜的過程,準備逾越節,因為有很多的準備工作通常是在逾越節的前一天,安息日不能進行。

The Fast of the Firstborn, normally observed on the day before Pesach, is observed on Thursday instead.快速的長子,通常觀察到的前一天pesach,是於週四代替。 The search for chametz, normally performed on the night before Pesach, is performed on Thursday night.搜索chametz,通常演出的前一天晚上逾越節,上週四晚進行。 The seder should be prepared for as much as possible before Shabbat begins, because time should not be taken away from Shabbat to prepare for Pesach.該seder應有所準備,盡可能地在安息日開始之前,因為時間不應被帶走安息日準備逾越節。 In addition, there are severe complications dealing with the conflict between the requirement of removing chametz no later than mid-morning on Saturday, the prohibition against eating matzah on the day before the seder, and the requirement of eating three meals with bread during Shabbat!此外,有嚴重並發症,處理的要求,消除chametz不遲於中旬上午(星期六),禁止吃無酵餅的前一天seder之間的衝突,並要求吃三餐與麵包在安息日! For further details, see an excellent summary from the Orthodox Union, the world's largest, oldest and perhaps most respected kosher certification agency.有關詳細信息,請參閱從正統的聯盟,是世界上最大,最古老,也許是最受人尊敬的kosher認證機構的一個很好的總結。

The Pesach Seder逾越節家宴

The text of the Pesach seder is written in a book called the haggadah.的逾越節家宴的文字是寫在一本書叫哈加達。 Suggestions for buying a haggadah are included below.建議購買一個哈加達包括在下面。 The content of the seder can be summed up by the following Hebrew rhyme:內容的seder可以概括為以下希伯來文韻:
Kaddesh, Urechatz, Kaddesh,Urechatz,
Karpas, Yachatz,卡帕斯,Yachatz,
Maggid, Rachtzah, Maggid,Rachtzah,
Motzi, Matzah, Motzi,無酵餅,
Maror, Korech,苦菜,Korech,
Shulchan Orech, Shulchan Orech,
Tzafun, Barech, Tzafun,Barech,
Hallel, Nirtzah Hallel,Nirtzah

Now, what does that mean?現在,這是什麼意思呢?

1. 1。 Kaddesh: Sanctification Kaddesh:成聖
A blessing over wine in honor of the holiday.一個祝福過的節日是為了紀念酒。 The wine is drunk, and a second cup is poured.酒是喝醉了,倒第二杯。

2. 2。 Urechatz: Washing Urechatz:洗衣機 A washing of the hands without a blessing, in preparation for eating the Karpas.洗衣機的手中,沒有一個祝福,準備吃卡帕斯。

3. 3。 Karpas: Vegetable 卡帕斯:蔬菜 A vegetable (usually parsley) is dipped in salt water and eaten.浸在食鹽水和吃的蔬菜(香菜)。 The vegetable symbolizes the lowly origins of the Jewish people; the salt water symbolizes the tears shed as a result of our slavery.蔬菜象徵著卑微的起源猶太人民的鹹水象徵著淚水流下,由於我們的奴役。 Parsley is a good vegetable to use for this purpose, because when you shake off the salt water, it looks like tears. Parsley是用於此目的的一個很好的蔬菜,因為當你擺脫食鹽水,它看起來像眼淚。

4. 4。 Yachatz: Breaking Yachatz:打破 One of the three matzahs on the table is broken.在桌子上的三個matzahs​​擺之一被打破。 Part is returned to the pile, the other part is set aside for the afikomen (see below).部分退給樁,另一部分則是預留的afikomen(見下文)。

5. 5。 Maggid: The Story Maggid的故事 A retelling of the story of the Exodus from Egypt and the first Pesach.改寫本的出埃及記的故事從埃及和第一逾越節。 This begins with the youngest person asking The Four Questions, a set of questions about the proceedings designed to encourage participation in the seder.這是從最年輕的人問了四個問題,一組問題的家宴,以鼓勵參與訴訟程序的設計。 The Four Questions are also known as Mah Nishtanah (Why is it different?), which are the first words of the Four Questions.這四個問題也被稱為馬Nishtanah(為什麼是不同的),它是第一個字的四個問題。 This is often sung.這通常是為傳唱。 See below.見下文。

The maggid is designed to satisfy the needs of four different types of people: the wise one, who wants to know the technical details; the wicked one, who excludes himself (and learns the penalty for doing so); the simple one, who needs to know the basics; and the one who is unable to ask, who doesn't even know enough to know what he needs to know. maggid的設計,以滿足需求的四種不同類型的人:明智的,誰想要知道的技術細節;惡人之一,他排除了自己(和學會的罰款,這樣做),簡單的一個,誰需要知道的基礎知識,以及一個人是無法問,誰不知道,知道他需要知道。

At the end of the maggid, a blessing is recited over the second cup of wine and it is drunk.一個祝福在結束的maggid,是背誦了第二杯酒,這是喝醉了。

6. 6。 Rachtzah: Washing Rachtzah:洗衣機 A second washing of the hands, this time with a blessing, in preparation for eating the matzah第二個洗衣機的手中,這一次的祝福,準備吃無酵餅

7. 7。 Motzi: Blessing over Grain Products 對糧食產品的Motzi:祝福 The ha-motzi blessing, a generic blessing for bread or grain products used as a meal, is recited over the matzah.的HA-motzi的福,一個通用的祝福麵包或穀物產品作為一餐,是背誦過的無酵餅。

8. 8。 Matzah: Blessing over Matzah 祝福超過matzah的無酵餅: A blessing specific to matzah is recited, and a bit of matzah is eaten.是背誦的祝福特有的無酵餅,和無酵餅一點點被吃掉。

9. 9。 Maror: Bitter Herbs 苦菜:苦菜 A blessing is recited over a bitter vegetable (usually raw horseradish; sometimes romaine lettuce), and it is eaten.福是背誦過慘痛的蔬菜(通常為原料辣根,有時生菜),它被吃掉。 This symbolizes the bitterness of slavery.這象徵著苦澀的奴役。 The maror is dipped charoset, a mixture of apples, nuts, cinnamon and wine, which symbolizes the mortar used by the Jews in building during their slavery.苦菜是。浸charoset,蘋果的混合物,堅果,桂皮和酒,象徵著迫擊砲所使用的猶太人在他們的奴隸制度建設。

Note that there are two bitter herbs on the seder plate: one labeled Maror and one labeled Chazeret.有兩個苦菜就seder板塊:一個標記苦菜和一個標記Chazeret的的。 The one labeled Maror should be used for Maror and the one labeled Chazeret should be used in the Korech, below.一個標記苦菜應用於苦菜及,一個標記Chazeret,應採用下面的Korech。

10. 10。 Korech: The Sandwich Korech:三明治 Rabbi Hillel was of the opinion that the maror should be eaten together with matzah and the paschal offering in a sandwich.拉比希勒爾的意見,的苦菜應matzah和逾越提供一個三明治一起吃。 In his honor, we eat some maror on a piece of matzah, with some charoset (we don't do animal sacrifice anymore, so there is no paschal offering to eat).在他的榮譽,我們一塊matzah多吃一些苦菜,與一些charoset(我們不這樣做動物犧牲了,所以沒有逾越提供吃)。

11. 11。 Shulchan Orech: Dinner Shulchan Orech:晚餐 A festive meal is eaten.是吃了一頓慶祝宴。 There is no particular requirement regarding what to eat at this meal (except, of course, that chametz cannot be eaten).有沒有特別的要求,在這餐吃什麼(除非,當然,這chametz不能吃)。 Among Ashkenazic Jews, gefilte fish and matzah ball soup are traditionally eaten at the beginning of the meal.在德裔猶太人,魚丸和matzah球湯是傳統吃在開始吃飯。 Roast chicken or turkey are common as a main course, as is beef brisket.作為主菜,烤雞肉或火雞肉是常見的是牛腩。

12. 12。 Tzafun: The Afikomen Tzafun:Afikomen The piece of matzah set aside earlier is eaten as "desert," the last food of the meal.一塊matzah預留的“沙漠”的最後的食物了一頓吃。 Different families have different traditions relating to the afikomen.不同的家庭有不同的傳統,涉及到afikomen。 Some have the children hide it, while the parents have to either find it or ransom it back.有些孩子把它隱藏,而家長也必須要么找到它或贖金回來。 Others have the parents hide it.有的家長把它隱藏。 The idea is to keep the children awake and attentive throughout the pre-meal proceedings, waiting for this part.我們的想法是讓孩子甦醒,並重視在整個餐前法律程序,等待這一部分。

13. 13。 Barech: Grace after Meals Barech:飯後念祝文 The third cup of wine is poured, and birkat ha-mazon (grace after meals) is recited.第三杯酒澆,背誦的Birkat公頃,MAZON(寬限期後,餐)。 This is similar to the grace that would be said on any Shabbat.這是類似的恩典,將表示,對任何安息日。 At the end, a blessing is said over the third cup and it is drunk.年底,福是說,超過第三杯,這是喝醉了。 The fourth cup is poured, including a cup set aside for the prophet Elijah, who is supposed to herald the Messiah, and is supposed to come on Pesach to do this.倒第四杯,其中包括一名杯撥作先知以利亞,應該是為了迎接救世主,是來逾越節做到這一點。 The door is opened for a while at this point (supposedly for Elijah, but historically because Jews were accused of nonsense like putting the blood of Christian babies in matzah, and we wanted to show our Christian neighbors that we weren't doing anything unseemly).門被打開了,而在這一點上(假定為以利亞,但歷史上,因為猶太人被指控的廢話一樣把鮮血基督教嬰兒matzah的,和我們想展示我們的基督教鄰居說,我們根本沒有做什麼不體面) 。

14. 14。 Hallel: Praises Hallel:讚美 Several psalms are recited.背誦幾個詩篇。 A blessing is recited over the last cup of wine and it is drunk.福是吟誦超過的最後一杯葡萄酒,它是喝醉了。

15. 15。 Nirtzah: Closing Nirtzah:關閉 A simple statement that the seder has been completed, with a wish that next year, we may celebrate Pesach in Jerusalem (ie, that the Messiah will come within the next year).在seder已完成,用一個簡單的聲明,希望明年,我們可能會在耶路撒冷慶祝逾越節(即彌賽亞將在未來一年內)。 This is followed by various hymns and stories.這是其次的各種聖歌和故事。

The Music of Pesach逾越節的音樂

Many people think of Pesach as a time of deprivation: a time when we cannot eat bread or other leavened foods.許多人認為逾越節作為一個時間的剝奪的時候,我們不能吃麵包或其他酵的食物。 This is not the traditional way of viewing the holiday.這不是傳統的方式觀看的節日。 Pesach is Zeman Herutenu, the Time of Our Freedom, and the joy of that time is evident in the music of the season.逾越節的時間,我們的自由,的是澤曼Herutenu,在音樂的季節,快樂的,時間是顯而易見的。 There are many joyous songs sung during the seder.有許多喜事,演唱的歌曲在家宴。 Mah Nishtanah (Why is it Different?)馬Nishtanah(為什麼不一樣?)

This is the tune sung during the youngest participant's recitation of the Four Questions.這是首旋律過程中最年輕的參賽者背誦的四個問題。

Why is this night different from all other nights, from all other nights?這是為什麼晚不同於所有其他夜,從所有其他夜嗎? Mah nishtanah ha-lahylah ha-zeh mi-kol ha-layloht, mi-kol ha-layloht?馬nishtanah公頃lahylah HA-ZEH MI-KOL HA-layloht,MI-KOL HA-layloht?

On all other nights, we may eat chametz and matzah, chametz and matzah.在所有其他的夜晚,我們可以吃chametz和matzah,chametz和matzah。 On this night, on this night, only matzah.She-b'khol ha-layloht anu okhlin chameytz u-matzah, chameytz u-matzah.在這個夜晚,在這個夜晚,只有matzah.She-B'科爾公頃layloht澳大利亞國立大學okhlin chameytz U-matzah的,chameytz U-無酵餅。 Ha-lahylah ha-zeh, ha-lahylah ha-zeh, kooloh matzah.的HA-lahylah公頃ZEH,的HA-lahylah公頃,ZEH,kooloh無酵餅。 On all other nights, we eat many vegetables, many vegetables.在所有其他夜,我們吃很多的蔬菜,許多蔬菜。 On this night, on this night, maror.She-b'khol ha-layloht anu okhlin sh'ar y'rakot, sh'ar y'rakot.在這個夜晚,在這個夜晚,maror.She-B'科爾:HA-layloht澳大利亞國立大學okhlin sh'ar y'rakot,sh'ar y'rakot。 Ha-lahylah ha-zeh, ha-lahylah ha-zeh, maror.的HA-lahylah公頃ZEH,的HA-lahylah公頃ZEH,苦菜。

On all other nights, we do not dip even once.在所有其他夜,我們不浸,甚至一度。 On this night, on this night, twice.She-b'khol ha-layloht ayn anu mat'bilin afilu pa'am echat, afilu pa'am echat.在這個夜晚,在這個夜晚,twice.She-B'科爾:的HA-layloht艾因澳大利亞國立大學mat'bilin afilu pa'am echat,afilu pa'am echat。 Ha-lahylah ha-zeh, ha-lahylah ha-zeh, sh'tay p'amim.的Ha-lahylah公頃的ZEH,的HA-lahylah公頃,ZEH,sh'tay p'amim。

On all other nights, we eat either sitting or reclining, either sitting or reclining.在所有其他夜,我們吃或坐或臥,無論是坐或躺。 On this night, on this night, we all recline.She-b'khol ha-layloht anu okhlin bayn yosh'bin u'vayn m'soobin, bayn yosh'bin u'vayn m'soobin.在這個夜晚,在這個夜晚,我們:所有recline.She-B'科爾的HA-layloht澳大利亞國立大學okhlin BAYN yosh'bin u'vayn m'soobin,BAYN yosh'bin u'vayn m'soobin。 Ha-lahylah ha-zeh, ha-lahylah ha-zeh, koolanu m'soobin.的Ha-lahylah公頃的ZEH,的HA-lahylah公頃,ZEH,koolanu m'soobin。

Dahyenu (It Would Have Been Enough For Us) Dahyenu(這本來已經足夠我們)

This is one of the most popular tunes of the seder, a very up-beat song about the many favors that Gd bestowed upon us when He brought us out of Egypt.這是一個最流行的曲調的seder,很了拍歌很多人情钆賦予我們的時候,他給我們帶來了埃及。 The song appears in the haggadah after the telling of the story of the exodus, just before the explanation of Pesach, Matzah and Maror.這首歌出現在haggadah後講故事的外逃,就在他的解釋逾越節無酵餅和苦菜。 I provide just two sample verses from a rather long song.我只是其中兩個樣本小詩從一個比較長的歌曲。 The English does not include all of the repetition that is in the Hebrew.英文並不包括所有的重複,那就是在希伯來文。

Had He brought us out of Egypt and not judged them, it would have been enough for us.Ilu hotzi-hotzianu hotzianu mi-Mitzrayim, v'lo asah bahem s'fateem dahyenu.有他給我們帶來了從埃及領出來,而不是判斷,它會一直足夠的us.Ilu hotzi hotzianu hotzianu英里Mitzrayim,v'lo ASAH bahem s'fateem dahyenu的。

(Chorus) It would have been enough for us. (副歌)這對我們來說已經足夠。 Dahy-dahyenu, dahy-dahyenu, dahy-dahyenu, dahyenu, dahyenu, dahyenu. Dahy dahyenu,dahy dahyenu,dahy dahyenu,dahyenu,dahyenu,dahyenu。 Dahy-dahyenu, dahy-dahyenu, dahy-dahyenu, dahyenu, dahyenu! Dahy dahyenu,dahy dahyenu,dahy dahyenu,dahyenu,dahyenu! Had He judged them and not done so to their idols, it would have been enough for us.Ilu asah bahem s'fateem, v'lo asah beyloheyhem, v'lo asah beyloheyhem dahyenu. ,他判斷他們並沒有這樣做,他們的偶像,就已經足夠了為us.Ilu ASAH bahem s'fateem,v'lo ASAH beyloheyhem,v'lo ASAH beyloheyhem dahyenu。

Chorus, etc.合唱團等。

Eliyahu Ha-Navi (Elijah, the Prophet)埃利亞胡夏導航(以利亞先知)

Many people sing this song when the Cup of Elijah is poured and the door is opened in anticipation of his return.很多人唱這首歌的時候,以利亞杯倒在期待他的回歸門被打開。

Elijah the Prophet, Elijah the Tishbite, Elijah, Elijah, Elijah the GileaditeEliyahu ha-Navi, Eliyahu ha-Tishbi, Eliyahu, Eliyahu, Eliyahu ha-Giladi.先知以利亞,以利亞提斯比人以利亞,以利亞,以利亞,埃利亞胡HA-Tishbi,埃利亞胡,埃利亞胡,GileaditeEliyahu HA-NAVI,埃利亞胡HA-GILADI。

Speedily and in our days, come to us, with the messiah, son of David, with the messiah, son of David.Bimhayrah v'yamenu, yavo aleynu, im Moshiach ben David, im Moshiach ben David.迅速,在我們這個時代,到我們這裡來,與彌賽亞的兒子大衛,與彌賽亞,兒子,即時通訊,即時通訊Moshiach本·大衛David.Bimhayrah v'yamenu,yavo aleynu Moshiach本·大衛。 Adir Hu (He is Mighty) :ADIR胡(他是全能)

Adir Hu is a great sing-along song, because it has a lot of repetition. ADIR胡伴唱的歌曲,是一個偉大的,因為它有很多的重複。 You don't need to know much Hebrew to get by with this one!您不需要了解不多,希伯來語,以得到這個! It's also got a catchy tune.這也得到了一個朗朗上口的曲調。 It's sung as the seder comes to a close.它的傳唱,在seder即將結束。 It expresses our hope that the messianic age will begin soon, and the Temple will be rebuilt.它表達了我們希望的救世主的時代將很快開始,寺將重建。 Each line of praise begins with a different letter of the Hebrew alphabet, in alphabetical order, a common gimmick in Jewish hymns.每一行的讚譽開始與不同的字母的希伯來字母,按字母順序排列,一個普通的手段,在猶太聖歌。

He is mighty, He is mightyAdir hu, adir hu他是強大的,他是mightyAdir的胡胡錦濤,ADIR

Chorus:合唱:
May He soon rebuild his house願他早日重建自己的房子
Speedily, speedily and in our days, soon.迅速,迅速,在我們這個時代的到來。
Gd, rebuild! GD,重建! Gd, rebuild! GD,重建!
Rebuild your house soon!盡快重建你的房子! Chorus:合唱:
Yivneh vayto b'karov Yivneh vayto b'karov
Bim'hayrah, bim'hayrah, b'yamenu b'karov Bim'hayrah,bim'hayrah,b'yamenu b'karov
E-yl b'nay! E-基b'nay的! E-yl b'nay! E-基b'nay的!
B'nay vayt'kha b'karov B'nay vayt'kha b'karov
He is distinguished, He is great, He is exhalted他是傑出的,他是偉大的,他是exhalted
(Chorus)Bachur hu, gadol hu, dagul hu, (合唱)Bachur“胡,胡,紅景天dagul胡,
(Chorus) (合唱)
He is glorious, He is faithful, He is faultless, He is righteous他是光榮的,他是信實的,他是完美的,他是公義
(Chorus)Hadur hu, vatik hu, zakay hu, chasid hu, (合唱團)Hadur“胡,vatik胡,zakay胡,chasid胡,
(Chorus) (合唱)
He is pure, He is unique, He is powerful,他是純潔的,他是獨一無二的,他是強大的,
He is wise, He is King, He is awesome,他是明智的,他是國王,他是真棒,
He is sublime, He is all-powerful, He is the redeemer, He is他是崇高的,他是全能的,他是救世主,他是
all-righteous自以為是
(Chorus)Tahor hu, yachid hu, kabir hu, (合唱)Tahor“胡,胡,yachid一詞卡比爾胡,
Lamud hu, melekh hu, nora hu, Lamud諾拉melekh胡,胡,胡,
Sagiv hu, izuz hu, podeh hu, tzadik hu Sagiv胡,izuz胡,podeh胡,胡TZADIK
(Chorus) (合唱)
He is holy, He is compassionate, He is almighty, He is omnipotent他是聖潔的,他是值得同情的,他是全能的,他是萬能的
(Chorus)Kadosh hu, rachum hu, shaddai hu, (合唱團)卡多什“胡,胡,胡薩代rachum,
takif hu takif胡
(Chorus) (合唱)

Recipe for Charoset配方Charoset

This fruit, nut and wine mix is eaten during the seder.這是吃水果,堅果和葡萄酒混合在家宴。 It is meant to remind us of the mortar used by the Jews to build during the period of slavery.它的目的是要提醒我們的迫擊砲所使用的猶太人建造期間的奴役。 It should have a coarse texture.它應該有一個粗糙的質地。 The ingredient quantities listed here are at best a rough estimate; I usually just eye-ball it.成分批量上市這裡正處於最好的一個粗略的估計,我通常只眼球。 The recipe below makes a very large quantity, but we usually wind up making more before the holiday is over.下面的配方,使一個很大的數量,但我們通常風力起來,使更多的前假期結束。 Other fruits or nuts can be used.其他水果或堅果都可以使用。

4 medium apples, 2 tart and 2 sweet 4個中型蘋果,2個蛋撻和2甜
1/2 cup finely chopped almonds 1/2杯切碎的杏仁
1/4 cup sweet wine 1/4杯甜葡萄酒
1/4 cup dry wine 1/4杯幹型葡萄酒
1 Tbs. 1湯匙。 cinnamon肉桂

Shred the apples.粉碎的蘋果。 Add all other ingredients.添加其他材料。 Allow to sit for 3-6 hours, until the wine is absorbed by the other ingredients.可坐3-6個小時,直到酒的其他成分被吸收。 Serve on matzah.服務上無酵餅。 Goes very well with horseradish.非常好,辣根。

Buying a Haggadah購買哈加達

If you want to know more about Pesach, the best place to start is with the haggadah.如果你想知道更多關於逾越節,最好的地方,開始是與haggadah。 The haggadah was written as a teaching tool, to allow people at all levels to learn the significance of Pesach and its symbols.該haggadah寫作作為一種教學工具,讓各階層人民學習的意義pesach及其符號。 There are a wide variety of Haggadahs available for every political and religious point of view: traditional haggadahs, liberal haggadahs, mystical haggadahs, feminist haggadahs, and others.有各種各樣的東西haggadahs可用於各種政治和宗教的角度來看:的傳統東西haggadahs,通東西haggadahs,神秘的東西haggadahs,女權主義的東西haggadahs,和其他人。 I have even seen what might be described as an atheist haggadah: one that does not mention the role of Gd in the Exodus.我什至看到有什麼可描述為一個無神論者haggadah:一個不遑作用钆在“出埃及記”。

If you're buying a haggadah for study or collection, there are many haggadahs with extensive commentary or with pictures from illuminated medieval haggadahs.如果你正在求學或收藏,買一個哈加達有很多東西haggadahs,廣泛的評論或圖片從燈火通明的中世紀東西haggadahs與與。 However, if you're buying haggadahs for actual use at a seder, you're best off with an inexpensive paperback.但是,如果你買東西haggadahs,實際使用於seder,你最好與廉價的平裝。 Keep in mind that you'll need one for everybody, you're likely to get food and wine on these things, and you'll be using them year after year.請記住,你需要一個對每個人,你很可能會獲得食物和酒對這些東西,你會使用它們年復一年。

I'm particularly partial to the Artscroll/Mesorah series' The Family Haggadah.我特別偏愛的Artscroll系列/ Mesorah系列“家庭哈加達。 It has the full, Orthodox text of the haggadah in English side-by-side with Hebrew and Aramaic, with complete instructions for preparing for and performing the seder.它有充分的,正統文本的haggadah在英語的希伯來文和阿拉姆語,完整的說明,準備和執行家宴。 The translations are very readable and the book includes marginal notes explaining the significance of each paragraph of the text.翻譯是很可讀,該書還收錄旁注解釋意義的每一個段落的文字。 This book is usually only available at Jewish gift or book stores, and usually sells for about $2.50.這本書是通常只適用於猶太人的禮物或書店,通常售價為2.50美元。

Another good traditional one is Nathan Goldberg's Passover Haggadah.另一個好傳統,一個是彌敦道戈德堡的逾越節哈加達。 This is the familiar "yellow and red cover" haggadah that so many of us grew up with.這是大家熟悉的“黃色和紅色封面的”haggadah這麼多,我們從小一起長大的。 Believe it or not, it is frequently available in grocery stores in the Passover aisle.不管你相信與否,這是經常可在雜貨店,在逾越節的過道。 It usually sells for less than $5, and is often given away free with certain grocery purchases.它通常售價低於5美元,並常常放棄自由與某雜貨店購買。

Watch out for Christianized versions of the haggadah. The Christian "last supper" is generally believed to have been a Pesach seder, so many Christians recreate the ritual of the seder, and the haggadahs that they use for this purpose tend to reinterpret the significance of the holiday and its symbols to fit into their Christian theology.關注的haggadah的基督教化的版本。 基督教的“最後的晚餐”一直是一個逾越節家宴一般認為,這麼多的基督徒再現祭祀的seder,用於此目的的haggadahs說,他們傾向於重新詮釋的意義假日及其符號,以適應他們的基督教神學。 For example, they say that the three matzahs represent the Trinity, with the broken one representing Jesus on the cross (in Judaism, the three matzahs represent the three Temples, two of which have been destroyed, and the third of which will be built when the moshiach comes).例如,他們說,這三個matzahs​​擺在代表三一,斷裂的代表耶穌基督在十字架上(猶太教,三個matzahs​​擺在代表三個廟宇,其中兩個已被銷毀,而其中三分之一時,將建成moshiach來)。 They speak of the paschal lamb as a prophecy of Jesus, rather than a remembrance of the lamb's blood on the doorposts in Egypt.他們說耶穌的預言,而不是一個紀念的羔羊的血,在埃及的門框上,逾越節的羔羊。 If you want to learn what Pesach means to Jews, then these "messianic" haggadahs aren't for you.如果你想學什麼逾越節對猶太人,那麼這些“救世主”haggadahs的是不適合你。

Key Terms主要條款

Note: Pronunciations are intended to reflect the way these terms are most commonly pronounced by Jews in the United States, and may not be strictly technically correct.注:讀音是為了反映這些條款是最常見的遽猶太人在美國,並可能不嚴格技術上是正確的。

Term術語 Meaning意思 Pronunciation發音
Hebrew希伯來文
Pesach逾越節 Passover逾越節 PAY-sahkh or PEH-sahkh支付sahkh或PEH-sahkh
Matzah無酵餅 Unleavened bread無酵餅 MAHTZ-uh MAHTZ?
Chametz Chametz Leavened things發酵的東西 KHUH-mitz KHUH-mitz
Seder家宴 Home ritual performed on the首頁儀式上進行
first two nights of Pesach前兩個晚上的逾越節
SAY-d'r SAY-d'r
Haggadah哈加達 The book read during the seder在seder在讀這本書 huh-GAH-duh呵呵-GAH-咄的

List of Dates清單的日期

Pesach will occur on the following days of the Gregorian calendar:逾越節將出現在隨後的日子裡,公曆:

Jewish Year 5764: sunset April 5, 2004 - nightfall April 13, 2004猶太人一年5764:夕陽4月5日,2004 - 夜幕降臨,2004年4月13日
Jewish Year 5765: sunset April 23, 2005 - nightfall May 1, 2005猶太人一年5765:夕陽4月23日,2005 - 夜幕降臨,2005年5月1日
Jewish Year 5766: sunset April 12, 2006 - nightfall April 20, 2006猶太人一年5766:夕陽4月12日 - 夜幕降臨,二○○六年四月二十〇日
Jewish Year 5767: sunset April 2, 2007 - nightfall April 10, 2007猶太人一年5767:夕陽4月2日 - 夜幕降臨,2007年4月10日
Jewish Year 5768: sunset April 19, 2008 - nightfall April 27, 2008猶太人一年5768:夕陽4月19日,2008 - 夜幕降臨,2008年4月27日

Tracey R Rich特蕾西ŕ富


A Seder Outline一個家宴大綱

General Information 一般資料

The Seder can perhaps best be described as a "talk-feast."該seder或許可以最好地形容為“清談宴”。 Conducted around a table laden with the bounty of the earth, it is people spending a leisurely evening engaged in good talk and good food. 。圍繞著一張桌子拉丹與富饒的地球,這是人們度過一個悠閒的傍晚從事談得很好,和良好的食物。 For the rabbis who formalized its procedures, Seder was the pre-eminent vehicle of cultural transmission from one generation to the next.拉比們誰形式化的程序,seder是前著名汽車的文化從一代傳送到下一個。 Long before printed books and formal schools, the yearly Seder night transformed every Jewish home into a classroom, with the Haggadah (from the Hebrew root "to tell") as the text.很久以前,印刷書籍和正規學校,每年seder夜轉化每一個猶太家庭到一間教室,與haggadah(從希伯來文根“告訴”)作為文本。

The word "Seder" means order. “seder”是指訂單。 The tradition understands the Passover table ritual as a fixed progression, 15 steps, a logical unfolding of the single most important Jewish lesson from the retelling of the single most significant Jewish experience.傳統理解作為一個固定的進展,15個步驟,一個合乎邏輯的展開,從複述的一個最顯著的猶太經驗教訓的一個最重要的猶太逾越節表禮儀。 In actuality, the Pesach Seder is one of the most carefully constructed learning experiences ever created.在現實中,逾越節家宴是最精心的學習經驗,不斷創造之一。 In an amazing combination of aural and tactile learning tasks, the Seder has something for everybody--drink, food, symbols, prayers, songs, stories, philosophy, text study, simulations, ritual actions--all designed with one overall goal: to take each person at the Seder back to Egypt, to re-enact the dramatic Exodus story, to make each one of us feel as she or he had actually been redeemed from Mitzrayim (Egypt).在一個了不起的結合聽覺和觸覺學習任務,seder讓人人都能各取所需 - 飲料,食品,符號,祈禱,歌曲,故事,哲學,文字的研究,模擬,禮儀行動 - 所有設計的一個總的目標:每個人在seder回到埃及,重新制定了戲劇性的出埃及記“的故事中,讓我們每個人都覺得她或他實際上已被贖回從Mitzrayim,(埃及)。 The Pesach Seder is a talk-feast in four acts.逾越節seder是一個清談盛宴的四幕。 Four is an all-important number in understanding the Haggadah.四是一個非常重要的認識哈加達。 And so, here is the "script," the Seder outline.所以,在這裡是“腳本”的seder綱要。

Act I: The Beginning第一幕:起點

The Prologue序言

Even before the Seder begins, there are a number of activities which create the setting.即使在seder開始,有設置的活動,其中創建了一些。 A production of this magnitude cannot be staged without adequate preparation.一個生產這種規模的,不能上演,沒有充足的準備。 Formal preparations can include ridding the house of chametz, "kashering" the kitchen for Passover, setting the Passover table, and preparing the meal.正式籌備情況,可以包括擺脫眾議院chametz,“kashering”廚房為逾越節,設置逾越節表,並準備了一頓。

Hadlakat ha-Nerot (Lighting the Festival Candles) Hadlakat HA-Nerot(節蠟燭照明)

Before the seder begins, the Yom Tov (festival) candles are lit, signifying the begining of the holiday.在seder開始,贖罪托夫(節)蠟燭被點亮,標誌著期初的假期。

Scene 1: Kadeish (The First Cup of Wine)場景1:第一杯葡萄酒Kadeish()

The festival Kiddush is chanted, praising God who sanctifies the people Israel and the Festival seasons, and thanking God for enabling us to reach this time of celebration.節的Kiddush被歌頌,讚美神成聖的人民以色列和節日來臨,並感謝上帝使我們能夠達到這一次的慶祝活動。

Scene 2: Ur'chatz (Wash Hands)場景二:洗手,Ur'chatz()

In traditional homes it is the custom to wash hands before eating.在傳統的家園,這是習慣,飯前要洗手。 Here, we wash hands as if preparing to eat, but without reciting a blessing.在這裡,我們洗手,如果準備吃,但沒有背誦的祝福。

Scene 3: Karpas (Appetizer)場景3:卡帕斯(開胃菜)

A green vegetable is dipped in salt water, a reminder of the tears of our ancestors in Egypt.綠色蔬菜是浸在食鹽水,提醒我們的祖先在埃及的眼淚。 It is a kind of historic appetizer.它是一種歷史悠久的開胃菜。

Scene 4: Yachatz (Break the middle Matzah)場景4:Yachatz(打破中東matzah)

The matzah is introduced silently.默默無酵餅介紹。 We break the middle matzah in order to hide one portion as the afikomen, the "dessert" of our meal, a symbol of the redemption yet to come.我們打破中東matzah為了隱藏其中一部分作為afikomen,“甜品”我們的飯,象徵著贖回還在後頭。 Curtain: Ha Lachma Anya (Invitation): We uncover the matzot, calling them the "bread of affliction," for as we are about to begin our story, our ancestors are enslaved in Egypt.窗簾:,房委會lachma安雅(邀請):我們揭開matzot,稱他們為“麵包的通病”,為我們即將開始我們的故事,我們的祖先在埃及被奴役的。 We invite all who are hungry or needy to join in our Pesach service.我們敦促所有誰是餓了,或有需要人士加入我們的逾越節服務。 As Act I closes, we acknowledge our slavery, but hope for our freedom.法令我關閉的,我們承認我們的奴隸制,但希望我們的自由。

Act II: Maggid (The Telling)第二幕:Maggid(占卜)

Act II is the heart of the seder experience.第二幕是心臟的seder經驗。 We tell the story of our Exodus from slavery to freedom in four ways, in four different tellings.我們告訴我們的出埃及記的故事,從奴隸到自由的四種方式,四種不同的tellings。 Each telling begins with a question, to which an answer is given, and for which we praise God, the Hero of our story.每次告訴始於問題,其中一個答案是,我們讚美上帝,我們的英雄故事。

Scene 1: The First Telling場景1:第一天音

The first telling begins with the famous Four Questions (really one question with four statements), traditionally asked by the youngest member of the seder party.第一個有說服力的開始,著名的四個問題(真是一個問題,同四個報表),傳統上要求的seder黨的最年輕的成員。 The answer, which is to begin with the degradation of our people and end with the story of redemption, tells the story in one brilliant, concise sentence: "We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, but Adonai our God brought us forth with a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm."答案,這是開始的退化我國人民和結尾與救贖的故事,講述在一個輝煌的,簡潔的一句:“我們是埃及法老的奴隸,但adonai我們的上帝給我們帶來拿出了一個威武手和伸出來的膀臂。“ But this story deserves more than a one-sentence summary, so, we have three more versions to come.但是,這個故事更值得比用一句話總結,因此,我們有三個以上的版本來。 God is deserving of praise which we pronounce four times.上帝是值得讚美我們字正腔圓的4倍。

Scene 2: The Second Telling場景2:第二占卜

The second telling begins with the question of the Four Children.第二告訴始於問題的四個孩子。 Here, the Haggadah teaches us that to tell the story well, we must tell it differently to different types of learners.在這裡,哈加達告訴我們,講故事,我們必須告訴它區別不同類型的學習者。 Although the questions are different, they all relate to the same central question: "What is this Passover service all about?"雖然問題是不同的,它們都涉及到同一個問題:“這是什麼逾越節服務所有有關嗎?” The answer in this telling goes back even earlier in Jewish history, back to our idol-worshipping roots.在這告訴源遠流長的答案,甚至更早時候,在猶太人的歷史,回到我們的偶像崇拜的根源。 Yet, we recall the promise God made to Abraham to make his descendants a great nation.然而,我們回顧上帝許諾給亞伯拉罕,使他的子孫一個偉大的國家。 We praise God who kept a promise then and keeps the Covenant with us alive to this day.我們讚美神,誰守諾,然後,不斷盟約,與我們活著的這一天。

Scene 3: The Third Telling場景3:第三占卜

The third telling offers the learner the core story of the Exodus as related in four verses in Deuteronomy.第三個有說服力的提供學習者為核心的四節經文在申命記中的“出埃及記”的故事有關。 By exploring the meaning of these words, we embellish the answer, we flesh out the story of our liberation.通過探索這些話的意思,我們美化答案,我們也信心十足的故事,我們的解放。 The climax of this story is the awe-full series of Ten Plagues which God brought upon Egypt, convincing Pharaoh to let the people go.這個故事的高潮是令人驚嘆的全系列10瘟疫而上帝帶給埃及,有說服力的法老,讓百姓去。 We then praise God who, if God had performed only this one act of kindness, Dayeinu--it would have been enough!然後,我們讚美神,如果神表現,僅這一項善舉,Dayeinu - 它本來已經足夠了!

Scene 4: The Fourth Telling場景4:第四占卜

The fourth telling returns to concrete symbols with questions about the Pesach (paschal lamb), matzah, and maror, the central symbols on the seder table.第四講具體的符號與逾越節(逾越節的羔羊),無酵餅和苦菜在seder表,中央符號的問題。 The specific questions are answered, but once again, the key question is "Why do we do this ritual? Why do we tell this story?"現就具體問題回答,但再一次,關鍵的問題是“為什麼我們這樣做是禮儀?我們為什麼講這個故事呢?” The answer is directed to each person, individually: "Because in each generation, every individual should feel as if he or she had actually been redeemed from Egypt."針對每個人的答案是,單獨說:“由於在每一代,每個人都應該感到,如果他或她實際上已被贖回,從埃及。” We are redeemed and therefore, we acclaim God with a new song, Halleluyah, and we praise Adonai, Redeemer of Israel.我們贖回,因此,我們新的歌曲,halleluyah喝彩上帝,我們讚美adonai,救贖的以色列。

Curtain: Kos Sheini.窗簾::科斯Sheini。 (the second cup of wine) (第二杯酒)

Act II comes to a close with the sanctification of the second cup of wine, a reminder of God's promise to deliver us.第二幕結束的第二杯酒的聖,神的應許救我們的提醒。 We have told the Exodus story four times, we have relived the slavery and the liberation from bondage.出埃及記的故事告訴我們的四倍,我們眼前的奴隸制度和從束縛中解放。 We celebrate our redemption with a cup of wine.我們慶祝我們的救贖與一杯酒。

Act III: The Feast第三幕:盛宴

The third act of the talk-feast is the feast itself.第三幕的通話盛宴的節日本身。 As with all Jewish holiday meals, there are ritual actions before and after the meal.所有的猶太節日餐,有前,後吃飯的禮儀行動。 On Passover, some of these rituals are common to any Jewish meal (washing hands, motzi, birkat ha-mazon), while others are specific to the Passover celebration (maror, korech, tzafun).在逾越節,這些儀式是一些常見的任何猶太餐(洗滌的手,motzi,向Birkat HA-MAZON)的,而另一些特定的慶祝逾越節(苦菜,korech,tzafun),。 The importance of these rituals is to underscore the fact that this is no ordinary meal.這些禮儀的重要性,強調的是,這絕不是普通的餐。 In fact, it is no ordinary Festival meal.事實上,這絕不是普通的節日餐。 It is the Pesach feast which we reenact today as our ancestors did on that fateful night in Egypt.這是逾越節的盛宴,今天我們重演,我們的祖先在埃及命運之夜。 To some observers, this is the climax of the seder itself; we eat the matzah, the maror, and the korech--substitute for the paschal sacrifice, just as the Israelites did on the eve of Passover.一些觀察家認為,這是高潮的seder本身,我們吃無酵餅,苦菜,和korech - 取代逾越節的犧牲,就像以色列人的逾越節前夕。

Scene 1: Prepare to eat場景1:準備吃

We actually began the preparation for the meal at the very beginning of the seder with the kiddush.實際上,我們的kiddush的seder在開始的時候就開始準備了一頓。 Then, we washed without a blessing and ate an appetizer, the karpas.然後,我們洗,沒有一個祝福,吃了開胃,卡帕斯。 Now, we continue the preliminaries to the feast by performing the four ritual acts:現在,我們繼續預賽的盛宴,執行四個儀式的行為:

(rochtza) (Washing) --we wash our hands and recite the blessing for this act which precedes the breaking of bread at every traditional Jewish meal. (rochtza)(洗滌) - 我們洗手和背誦的祝福這一行為之前擘餅在每一個傳統的猶太餐。

Motzi/Matza (Motzi/Blessing of the Matzah)--we praise God, first for the general blessing of bringing forth the bread from the earth, and then for the specific blessing of matzah, the bread of freedom. Motzi / Matza“(Motzi /祝福的無酵餅) - 我們讚美神,第一次帶來了麵包從地球的祝福,然後為特定的無酵餅,麵包,自由的祝福。

Maror--we eat the bitter herbs, symbol of our former slavery.苦菜 - 我們吃的的苦菜,符號,我們以前的奴隸制。

Koreich--we bind the matzah and maror together, just as Rabbi Hillel did at his seder nearly 2000 years ago as a reminder of the paschal offering on Passover night. Koreich - 無酵餅和苦菜綁定在一起,就像拉比希勒爾近2000年前,在他的家宴提醒逾越提供逾越節的夜晚。

Scene 2: Schulchan Orech (Set the Table)場景2:Schulchan Orech(設置表)

The festive meal is eaten.節日餐吃。

Scene 3: Tzafun (Dessert)場景3:Tzafun(甜品)

We find or redeem that which is tzafun--hidden, the afikomen.我們發現,或贖回,這是tzafun - 隱藏,的afikomen。 It is our dessert, the last morsel of food eaten at the seder, a symbol of redemption.這是我們的甜點,最後一口飯,吃在seder,贖回的象徵。

Scene 4: Bareich (Blessing after the food)場景4:Bareich(食品後的祝福)

We praise God for providing us food, the Promised Land, the Feast of Unleavened Bread, Jerusalem, and all the goodness we have in our lives.感謝神為我們提供食物,應許之地,除酵節,耶路撒冷,和所有的善良,我們在我們的生活。

Curtain:Kos Shli'shee (The third cup of wine)窗簾:Shli'shee科斯(第三杯酒)

The meal concludes with the third cup of wine, another reminder of God's promise of redemption.這頓飯結束的第三杯酒,再次提醒人們,神的應許贖回。

Act IV: Redemption第四幕:救贖

We have told the story of the Exodus.我們已告訴“出埃及記”的故事。 We have eaten the symbolic foods and the festive meal.我們吃了象徵性的食物和節日餐。 Now, we celebrate our redemption, with praise for God the Redeemer and prayers for our ultimate redemption in Messianic times.現在,我們慶祝我們的救贖,為我們的最終贖回彌賽亞次讚美上帝的救贖和祈禱。 We sing songs of praise, songs of joy, we recognize the harvest season, and we conclude with the final cup of wine and the prayer for our return to Jerusalem.我們唱讚美之歌,歡樂的歌,我們認識到了收穫的季節,我們可以得出結論的最後一杯葡萄酒,我們返回耶路撒冷祈禱。

Scene 1: Eliahu ha-Navi (Elijah the Prophet)場景1:Eliahu HA-NAVI(先知以利亞)

The redemption theme is sounded by the lilting, hopeful strains of "Elliahu ha-Navi," welcoming to the table Elijah the Prophet, harbinger of the Messiah.贖回的主題是響起輕快,充滿希望的菌株“Elliahu HA-NAVI,”歡迎到表中以利亞先知,預示著彌賽亞的。

Scene 2: Hallel (Songs of Praise)場景2:Hallel(讚美之歌)

The recitation of Hallel which began before the meal with Halleluyah, now continues with the remaining psalms of praise for God who redeems the people Israel.朗誦的Hallel前開始與Halleluyah餐,現在繼續用剩下的詩篇讚美上帝救贖的民以色列。

Scene 3:Songs場景3:歌曲

With the formal requirement of the seder completed, the mood turns more festive with the singing of songs which celebrate our rejoicing.形式要求的seder完成,心情會唱的歌曲,慶祝我們欣喜的節日。

Curtain: Kos R'vi'i/Nirtzah (The fourth cup of wine/acceptance)窗簾:科斯R'vi'i / Nirtzah(第四杯葡萄酒/接受)

The seder now draws to a conclusion, marked by the fourth cup of wine and a prayer that our seder be accepted and the promise of our redemption be fulfilled.現在該seder繪製一個結論,標誌著第四杯葡萄酒和祈禱,我們的家宴接受和履行的承諾,我們的贖回。 We end with the messianic hope spoken by generations of Jews: "Next year in Jerusalem!"我們結束了救世主的希望一代又一代的猶太人說:“明年在耶路撒冷!”

This seder outline was adapted from The Art of Jewish Living: The Passover Seder by Dr. Ron Wolfson, published by the Federation of Jewish Men's Clubs and the University of Judaism, 1988.家宴大綱改編自猶太生活的藝術:羅恩·沃爾夫森博士,逾越節家宴的猶太男子俱樂部和大學猶太教,1988年聯合會公佈的。


A Christian Version of the Seder一個基督徒版本的seder

General Information 一般資料

A Messianic Passover Seder彌賽亞的逾越節家宴

Introduction介紹

The leader should read thru the Leader's Haggadah book in advance, before the eve of the Seder.領導者應讀通過領導者的哈加達書提前,之前前夕的家宴。 He should prepare himself spiritually and his home for the Seder.他應該自己精神上的準備,他的家庭的家宴。 This is to be a time of joy.這是一個歡樂的時間。 The Seder may be celebrated by just the immediate family as in Jewish home or as a teaching ministry.只是在直系親屬在一個猶太家庭,或作為教學部,可舉行的家宴。 Either way, it will glorify the Lord Jesus and draw everyone closer to Him.無論哪種方式,榮耀主耶穌,並繪製所有接近他的人。 Don't worry about your Seder being "perfect."不要擔心你的家宴是“完美的”。 This is a celebration not a performance.這是一個慶祝而不是性能。 The leader is the coordinator of the Seder not a performer.領導者是家宴不是表演的協調。

While reading the Haggadah book in advance, select which optional text you want to include.閱讀哈加達提前預訂,選擇要包括可選的文本。 Also select which Bible verses you want read and by whom.還可以選擇你想讀的聖經經文及由何人。 Feel free to add your own observations and comments.隨意添加自己的意見和評論。 You may want to add comments and corrections in the margins.您可能要添加註釋和更正的邊緣。

The Seder is divided into three parts, I have noted the approximate time of each portion: the time before the meal (1 hour), the festival meal (1 hour) and the time after the meal (45 min.).家宴分為三個部分,我注意到各部分的大致時間:飯前(1小時)的時間,節日餐(1小時),用餐後的時間(45分鐘)。 So provide 2 to 3 hours for the Seder depending on the amount of optional text and Scripture read and the number of courses of the meal.所以提供2到3個小時的的家宴取決於量的可選文本和聖經讀了一頓課程的。

Jews for Jesus, holds an annual Seder banquet where you can learn and enjoy.對耶穌的猶太人,每年舉行一次家宴的宴會,在那裡你可以學習和享受。 You can write or call them if you are interested in their Seder.您可以寫信或打電話,如果你有興趣在他們的家宴。

References Material參考文獻材料

Haggadah for the American Family: by Rabbi Martin Berkowitz, ©1975, Martin Berkowitz, Merio, PA.哈加達美國家庭由拉比馬丁·貝爾科維奇,©1975年,馬丁·貝爾科維奇,Merio,PA。 (simple short version in Modern English) (在現代英語中的簡單的短版)

Passover Haggadah: A Messianic Celebration: by Eric Peter Lipson, ©1986, Jews for Jesus逾越節哈加達:一個救世主慶祝:由埃里克·彼得·利普森©1986,猶太人為耶穌

Celebrate Passover Haggadah, by John Lipis, Jews for Jesus慶祝逾越節哈加達,由約翰·拉立卑,猶太人為耶穌

The Messianic Passover Haggadah: by Barry and Steffi Rubin, The Lederer Foundation彌賽亞的逾越節哈加達:巴里和Steffi魯賓,萊德勒基金會

Comments評論

A comment on removing all leaven.註釋刪除所有酵。 Since the following is said and we are not under the Ceremonial law, (but under grace) we do not have to remove all leaven from our houses.由於以下是說,我們是沒有根據的禮儀法,(但在恩典之下),我們從我們的房子沒有刪除所有的酵。

ANY LEAVEN THAT MAY STILL BE IN THE HOUSE, WHICH I HAVE OR HAVE NOT SEEN, WHICH I HAVE OR HAVE NOT REMOVED, SHALL BE AS IF IT DOES NOT EXIST, AND AS THE DUST OF THE EARTH.任何的仍可能LEAVEN的房子裡,這是我沒有見過,我有或沒有消除,應就好像是不存在的,與地球的灰塵。

David Sargent大衛·薩金特


Seder家宴

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Passover at Jerusalem.逾越節在耶路撒冷。

The term used by the Ashkenazic Jews to denote the home service on the first night of the Passover, which, by those who keep the second day of the festivals, is repeated on the second night.長期使用的德裔猶太人的逾越節,保持第二天的節日,重複第二晚的第一個晚上表示的家居服。 The Sephardic Jews call this service the "Haggadah" (story); and the little book which is read on the occasion is likewise known to all Jews as the "Haggadah," more fully as "Haggadah shel Pesaḥ" (Story for the Passover).西班牙系猶太人調用該服務的“哈加達”(故事)和“哈加達”,更全面地為“哈加達SHELPesaḥ”(逾越節的故事,這是一本小書閱讀之際,同樣已知的所有猶太人) 。 The original Passover service, as enjoined in Ex.原來的逾越節的服務,作為受命在防爆。 xii.十二。 1 et seq., contemplates an ordinary meal of the household, in which man and wife, parents and children, participate. 1起。,設想一個普通的家庭用餐,其中丈夫和妻子,父母和子女參與。 The historical books of Scripture do not record how and where the Passover lamb was eaten during the many centuries before the reform of King Josiah, referred to in II Kings xxiii.; it is related only that during all that long period the Passover was not celebrated according to the laws laid down in the Torah.聖經的歷史書籍不記錄如何以及在何處被吃逾越節的羊羔在許多世紀以前約西亞王的改革,在“列王紀下二十三。它僅涉及,在所有長的時間內沒有慶祝逾越節根據法律,在誦讀經文。 In the days of the Second Temple, when these laws were observed literally, the supper of the Passover night must have lost much of its character as a family festival; for only the men were bidden to attend at the chosen place; and the Passover lamb might not be killed elsewhere (Deut. xvi. 5-6).在逾越節的晚上吃晚飯的第二聖殿的日子裡,這些法律的字面,必須已經失去了太多的字符作為一個家庭節日;只有男人受命參加在地點的選擇和逾越節的羔羊其他地方可能不會被殺死(申十六5-6)。 Thus, only those dwelling at Jerusalem could enjoy the nation's birthday as a family festival.因此,只有那些住在耶路撒冷作為一個家庭的節日,可以享受國家的生日。 There is no information as to how the night was celebrated during Temple times by the Jews outside the Holy Land, who did not "go up to the feast."目前沒有資料,以夜的慶祝活動如何在寺倍以外的猶太人的聖地,誰不“的盛宴。” The destruction of the Temple, while reducing the Passover-night service into little more than a survival or memorial of its old self, again brought husbands, wives, and children together around the same table, and thus enabled the father to comply more closely with the Scriptural command: "Thou shalt tell thy son on that day."聖殿被毀,同時減少多一點的舊的自我的生存或紀念逾越節的晚上服務,再次引起了丈夫,妻子,孩子一起圍繞同一個表,從而使的父親,以符合更緊密地與聖經的命令:“你要告訴你的兒子在這一天。”

Before the schools of Hillel and Shammai arose in the days of King Herod, a service of thanks, of which the six "psalms of praise" (Ps. cxiii.-cxviii.) formed the nucleus, had already clustered around the meal of the Passover night; of this meal the roasted lamb, unleavened bread, and bitter herbs were necessary elements (Ex. lc; Num. ix. 11).產生希勒爾和shammai的希律王,服務的感謝,其中六個“詩篇讚美”(詩cxiii. CXVIII)形成的核心,在未來的日子之前,學校的飯菜已經圍繞著逾越節的夜晚,這頓飯的烤羊肉,無酵餅和苦菜,是必要的元素(例如:立法會;數字。九,11)。 The service began with the sanctification of the day as at other festivals, hence with a cup of wine (See Ḳiddush); another cup followed the after-supper grace as on other festive occasions.的服務於其他節日,神聖的一天的開始,因此一杯酒,(見Ḳiddush);另一杯後吃晚飯的寬限期等喜慶場合。 But to mark the evening as the most joyous in the year, two other cups were added: one after the "story" and before the meal, and one at the conclusion of the whole service.但是,以紀念在一年中最快樂的晚上,其他兩個杯子補充說:一前一後的“故事”,並在用餐前和結束時的全程服務。 The Mishnah says (Pes. x. 1) that even the poorest man in Israel should not drink less than four cups of wine on this occasion, this number being justified by the four words employed in Ex.該mishnah說(Pes.。1),即使是最窮的人,在以色列應不小於喝四杯葡萄酒在此之際,這個號碼中的前四個字採用合理的。 vi.六。 6-7 for the delivery of Israel from Egypt. 6-7以色列從埃及運送。

The Seder Table. seder表。

Both in the arrangement of the table and in the psalms, benedictions, and other recited matter the Seder of the present day agrees substantially with the program laid down in the Mishnah.無論是在安排表和記載的詩篇,祝福,以及其他重要的家宴本日大幅同意在mishnah的程序。 Three thick unleavened cakes, wrapped in napkins, are laid upon the Seder dish; parsley and a bowl of salt water are placed next, to represent the hyssop and blood of the Passover of Egypt; further, watercress or horse-radish-tops, to serve as bitter herbs, and a mixture of nuts and apples, to imitate the clay which the Israelites worked into bricks; also slices of horseradish.三本厚厚的無酵餅,包裹在餐巾,奠定了家宴菜,香菜和鹽一碗水放在旁邊,代表埃及的逾越節的牛膝草和血;進一步,豆瓣菜或辣根上衣,苦菜,和混合堅果和蘋果作為模仿的以色列人成磚粘土,辣根片。 A roasted bone as a memorial of the paschal lamb, a roasted egg in memory of the free-will offering of the feast, and jugs or bottles of wine, with a glass or silver cup for each member of the family and each guest, likewise are placed on the table.一隻烤骨紀念逾越節的羔羊,烤雞蛋在內存中的免費提供的盛宴,罐子或瓶子的酒,每個家庭成員的,每間用玻璃或銀杯,同樣被放置在桌子上。 It is customary to fill an extra cup for the prophet Elijah.這是習慣,以填補額外的先知以利亞杯。 Ḳiddush is recited first, as at other festivals; then the master of the house (as priest of the occasion), having washed his hands, dips the parsley in the water, and, with the short prayer of thanks usual before partaking of a vegetable, hands some of it to those around him. Ḳiddush是背誦,在其他節日的家主(牧師之際),然後洗他的手,在水中蘸香菜,通常簡短的禱告,感謝分享的蔬菜一些,雙手向他周圍的人。 He then breaks off one-half of the middle cake, which is laid aside for Afiḳomen, to be distributed and eaten at the end of the supper.然後,他折斷中間的蛋糕,這是奠定,預留Afiḳomen,分發和結束時的晚飯吃的二分之一。 Then all stand and lift up the Seder dish, chanting slowly in Aramaic: "This is the bread of affliction which our fathers ate in Egypt: whoever is hungry come and eat: whoever is in need celebrate Passover with us," etc.然後全體起立,抬起的家宴菜,慢慢地高呼阿拉姆語:“這是我們的祖宗吃在埃及的麵包的痛苦:誰是餓了,吃:不管是誰,我們需要慶祝逾越節”等。

Thereupon the youngest child at the table asks: "Why is this night different from other nights?"於是,最小的孩子在餐桌上問:“這是為什麼晚不同於其他夜嗎?” etc., referring to the absence of leavened bread, to the bitter herbs, and to the preparations for dipping.等,指的是沒有發酵的麵包,苦菜,和浸漬的準備工作。 In the days of the Temple, and for some time after its downfall, there was also a question, "Why is the meat all roasted, and none sodden or broiled?"在天寺,並在一段時間後,它的倒台,也有一個問題,“為什麼是所有肉類烘烤,沒有爛或煮的?” For this no longer appropriate question another was substituted, now also obsolete: "Why do all of us 'lean around'?"這不再恰當的問題,另一個取代,現在也已過時:“為什麼我們所有的”精益圍繞'嗎?“ in allusion to the Roman custom at banquets-which became current among the Jews-of reclining on couches around the festive board.在宴會上,在羅馬的自定義典故,電流之間的猶太人斜倚在沙發各地的節日板。 The father or master of the house then answers: "We were slaves to Pharaoh in Egypt, and the Lord delivered us thence," etc. This question and its answer are meant as a literal compliance with the Biblical command, found thrice in Exodus and once in Deuteronomy, that the father shall take occasion at the Passover ceremonies to tell his children of the wonderful delivery from Egypt.他的父親或主人的房子,然後回答說:“我們向法老的奴隸,在埃及,主救我們那裡,”這個問題的答案是作為文字符合聖經的命令,三次出埃及記一次在申命記,應採取的父親在逾越節儀式場合告訴他的孩子們的精彩交付從埃及。

A number of detached passages in the language of the Mishnah-all referring in some way to the Exodus-follow, introducing Bible verses or commenting upon them, and "beginning with reproach and ending with praise," eg, the verses from Joshua xxiv.許多分離的通道,米示拿都指以某種方式出埃及記“的後續,介紹了聖經經文或在他們身上,和”受凌辱的開始和結束與讚美的語言“,例如,從約書亞記二十四節。 declaring that before Abraham men were all idolaters, but that he and Isaac and Jacob were chosen.宣布,前亞伯拉罕男人的,拜偶像的,但是,他和以撒和雅各選擇。 The longest of these passages is a running comment on Deut.這些段落最長的是申正在運行的評論。 xxvi.二十六。 5: "A wandering Syrian [AV "a Syrian ready to perish"] was my father," etc., almost every word of which is illustrated by a verse from some book of Scripture; the comment closing with the suggestion that the last words (ib. verse 8), "with a mighty hand and with an out-stretched arm, and with great terribleness, with signs and with wonders," refer to the Ten Plagues. 5:“一個流浪的敘利亞[AV”的敘利亞準備滅亡“我的父親”等,幾乎每一個字的說明了一首詩歌從一些“聖經”的書,評論閉幕的建議,最後的話(同上,第8節),“大能的手和外伸出的胳膊,並大可畏,有跡象和奇事,”十災。 Further on it is stated that none has done his duty on that night until he has given voice to the three words "pesaḥ" (paschal lamb), "maẓẓah" (unleavened bread), and, "maror" (bitter herb).進一步表示,還沒有完成他的職責那天晚上,直到他的聲音三個字“pesaḥ”(逾越節的羔羊),“maẓẓah”(無酵餅),和“苦菜”(苦澀的草藥)。 A more important remark follows, to the effect that it is the duty of every Israelite to feel as if he personally had been delivered from Egypt.一個更重要的話如下的效果,這是每一個以色列人覺得,如果他親自從埃及已交付的責任。 Then two of the "psalms of praise" (Ps. cxiii.-cxiv.) are read, in accordance with the teaching of Hillel's school; while Shammai's school read only one of these before supper.然後,兩個“詩篇讚美”(詩cxiii. cxiv)。閱讀,按照與希勒爾學校的教學;沙麥的學校只讀其中的一個晚飯前。 A benediction follows, in which the restoration of the Passover sacrifice is prayed for.如下,其中恢復逾越節的犧牲是祈禱的祝福。 A second cup of wine is drunk; and with this the first part of the Seder ends, all present washing their hands for supper.第二杯葡萄酒是喝醉了,這是第一部分的家宴結束,所有在場的洗手吃晚飯。

This meal is begun by handing around morsels of the first and third cakes, giving thanks first to Him "who brought forth bread from the earth," and then to Him "who sanctified us by the command to eat maẓẓah."這頓飯開始,遞給周圍的第一個和第三個蛋糕的點點滴滴,感謝第一次給他“帶來了麵包從地球上”,然後給他成聖我們的命令吃maẓẓah的。“ The bitter herb, dipped in the imitation clay, is eaten next, with thanks for the duty of eating bitter herbs; and then horseradish-slices are made into sandwiches with parts of the middle cake, in memory of Hillel's action in Temple times, when he ate pieces of paschal lamb literally "upon" unleavened cake and bitter herbs.的苦藥草,蘸的模仿粘土,吃,感謝食用苦菜的責任;和那麼辣根,片成三明治的中間蛋糕的部分,在內存中的希勒爾的行動中寺倍,當他吃逾越節的羔羊件字面意思是“在”無酵餅和苦菜。

The real meal then begins, its last morsels being broken from the afiḳomen.然後開始真正的大菜,最後的點點滴滴從afiḳomen打破。 Then follows the grace after meals with the insertion for the festival; and afterward the third cup is drunk.然後如下的寬限期後,插入的節日餐之後第三杯是喝醉了。 This grace, the remaining four psalms of praise (Ps. cxv.-cxviii.), the so-called "Great Hallel."這恩典,其餘四詩篇讚美(詩cxv. CXVIII),所謂的“大Hallel。” (Ps. cxxxvii.) with its recurring burden "Ki le'olam ḥasdo" (His mercy endureth forever), Nishmat, and the words of thanks after wine make up the second part of the Seder. (詩CXXXVII)經常性負擔“奇le'olamḥasdo”(他的慈愛永遠長存),Nishmat,和感謝的話後酒的第二部分的家宴。

Such was the order of exercises as far back as the middle of the third century.這是為了演習,早在中間的第三個世紀。 But as he "who talked the most of the departure from Egypt" was always deemed most worthy of praise, a few additions were made in various countries at different times.但是,在他的“誰跟大部分離開埃及”一直被視為最值得讚美,增加了在幾個不同的國家在不同時期。 Thus, the Jews of Yemen still insert in the ḳiddush on this night, after the words "who has chosen us above every people," a piece of rather grotesque self-praise, such as "He called us a community of saints, a precious vineyard, a pleasant plantation; compared to the host of heaven and set like stars in the firmament."因此,也門的猶太人仍然插入ḳiddush在這個夜晚,“誰選擇了我們每一個人以上的話後,”一片而怪誕的自我表揚,如“他叫我們社會的聖人,珍貴的葡萄園,一個愉快的種植園;到主機的天堂,集蒼穹的星星一樣。“ Such passages were at one time recited in other countries also.這種通道在同一時間,其在其他國家也。 Many of the Jews in Mohammedan countries have in their service-books legendary comments upon the Haggadah, mainly in Arabic, which the father reads by way of explanation and elaboration of the text.在伊斯蘭教的國家有許多猶太人在他們的服務書籍傳說中的意見的哈加達,主要是在阿拉伯語中,它的父親讀的文字解釋和闡述方式。 The Sephardic Jews in Turkey recite in Spanish some legends about the Exodus, not found in the Haggadah.在土耳其的西班牙系猶太人在西班牙的一些傳說有關的出埃及記背誦,未發現哈加達。 The German and Polish Jews add five poetic pieces at the end of the exercises: one arranged according to the alphabet, with the burden, "It was in the midst of the night" (referring to events in the past, or foretold in prophecy, which happened at that hour); another, an indescribablejingle ("Ki lo Na'eh") before the last cup.德國和波蘭的猶太人添加年底的練習5詩意件,一人包辦的字母表的負擔,“這是在中間的夜晚”(指的是在過去的事件,或預言的預言,發生在這一個小時),indescribablejingle(“奇LO Na'eh”)之前的最後一杯。 In Germany two other pieces were added which from old German nursery songs had first become festal songs and then were invested with a higher significance as if they typified specific Jewish ideas.在德國,其他部分增加了2歲的德國兒歌第一個成為節日的歌曲,然後投資具有更高的意義,如果他們典型的具體猶太人的觀念。 See Eḥad Mi Yodea' and Ḥad Gadya. EHAD宓Yodea“,並已Gadya。

Cyrus Adler, Lewis N. Dembitz賽勒斯·阿德勒,劉易斯N.登比茨
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書,1901年至1906年間發表的。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Pes.瘟。 x.; Maimonides, Yad, Ḥameẓ, vii.-viii.; Caro, Shulḥan 'Aruk, Oraḥ Ḥayyim, 472-484; Lauterbach, Minḥah Ḥadashah, Drohobicz, 1893; Friedmann, Das Festbuch Haggadah, Vienna, 1895; LN Dembitz, Jewish Services in Synagogue and Home, pp. 356-367, Philadelphia, 1898. X。;邁蒙尼德,屠殺,Ḥameẓ,vii.第八。棋,Oraḥ伊姆Shulḥan“Aruk,472-484;勞特巴赫,Minḥah哈大沙,Drohobicz,1893年弗里德曼,DAS Festbuch哈加達,維也納,1895年第登比茨猶太教堂和猶太服務在首頁,第356-367頁,費城,1898年。



Also, see:
(Protestant-oriented) Last Supper
(Catholic oriented) Mass
Eucharist (includes Orthodox perspective)


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