Simony西摩尼

General Information 一般資料

Simony is the buying or selling of spiritual things. Simony的是買進或賣出的精神層面的東西。 The word is derived from the biblical sorcerer Simon Magus, who attempted to buy spiritual powers from the apostle Peter (see Acts 8:18-24).這個詞是來自“聖經”魔法師西蒙magus,誰買的精神力量從使徒彼得(見使徒行傳8:18-24)。

Simony was a problem in the Christian church from the time of the Edict of Milan (313), when the church began to accumulate wealth and power, until modern times.西摩尼是一個問題,在基督教教會的法令米蘭(313),當教會開始積累財富和權力,直到近代的時間。 This is evident from the frequent legislation against it.這是顯而易見的,從頻繁的立法禁止。 In 451, the Council of Chalcedon proscribed ordination for money; this prohibition was reaffirmed by the Third Lateran Council in 1179 and by the Council of Trent (1545-63).在451,安理會的chalcedon被禁統籌的錢,這禁止重申了1179年第三次拉特蘭會議和安理會的遄達(1545年至1563年)。 Simony was rampant from the 9th to the 11th century.從9日到11世紀Simony的猖獗。 During that period simony pervaded church life on every level, from the lower clergy to the papacy.在這期間買賣聖職瀰漫著教堂生活的各個層面上,從較低的神職人員向教宗。 At the time of the Reformation, major abuses centered on the sale of indulgences and relics.當時的改革,主要濫用的寬容和文物的銷售中心。

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Ecclesiastical law forbids simony and condemns it as a sinful practice that bespeaks a shallow understanding of spiritual values.教會法禁止買賣聖職,並譴責它作為一個罪惡的實踐表明工作精神價值的一個粗淺的認識。 Prohibited are all monetary transactions surrounding blessed or consecrated religious objects, prayers and masses (excluding ecclesiastically authorized offerings for the support of the clergy), and church offices and promotions.禁止宗教物品,祈禱和群眾(不包括教會的神職人員的支持授權產品),以及教會辦公室和促銷活動的祝福,祝所有貨幣交易。


Simony西摩尼

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(From Simon Magus; Acts 8:18-24) (從西門magus;使徒行傳8:18-24)

Simony is usually defined "a deliberate intention of buying or selling for a temporal price such things as are spiritual of annexed unto spirituals".西摩尼通常被定義為“所附的買入或賣出時間的價格,這樣的事情是精神的蓄意對靈歌”。 While this definition only speaks of purchase and sale, any exchange of spiritual for temporal things is simoniacal.這個定義只說購買和銷售任何世俗事物的精神交流是simoniacal。 Nor is the giving of the temporal as the price of the spiritual required for the existence of simony; according to a proposition condemned by Innocent XI (Denzinger-Bannwart, no. 1195) it suffices that the determining motive of the action of one party be the obtaining of compensation from the other.也不是給的價格存在的西摩尼的精神需要的時間,根據命題譴責無辜的XI(登青格bannwart,12月31日1652 1195)就足夠了一方的作用是決定性動機從其他獲得賠償。

The various temporal advantages which may be offered for a spiritual favour are, after Gregory the Great, usually divided in three classes.不同時間的優勢,可能會提供一種精神的青睞後,格里高利大,通常分為三個等級。 These are: (1) the munus a manu (material advantage), which comprises money, all movable and immovable property, and all rights appreciable in pecuniary value; (2) the munus a lingua (oral advantage) which includes oral commendation, public expressions of approval, moral support in high places; (3) the munus ab obsequio (homage) which consists in subserviency, the rendering of undue services, etc.它們是:(1)munus一個MANU(材料優勢),包括貨幣,所有的動產和不動產,其所有權利可觀的金錢價值;(2)munus的一個通用語言(口頭的優勢),其中包括口頭表揚,公共組織批准在高的地方,道義上的支持;(3)AB的munus obsequio(參拜)其中包括在subserviency,渲染不必要的服務等。

The spiritual object includes whatever is conducive to the eternal welfare of the soul, ie all supernatural things: sanctifying grace, the sacraments, sacramentals, etc. While according to the natural and Divine laws the term simony is applicable only to the exchange of supernatural treasures for temporal advantages, its meaning has been further extended through ecclesiastical legislation.屬靈的對象包括凡是有利於靈魂的永恆福祉的,即所有超自然的事情:sanctifying恩典,聖禮,sacramentals等,同時根據自然和神聖的法律術語買賣聖職是只適用於交流超自然的珍品時間的優勢,它的意義已經得到了進一步的擴展,通過宗教立法。 In order to preclude all danger of simony the Church has forbidden certain dealings which did not fall under Divine prohibition.為了排除所有危險的西摩尼,教會禁止某些交易並不屬於神聖禁止。 It is thus unlawful to exchange ecclesiastical benefices by private authority, to accept any payment whatever for holy oils, to sell blessed rosaries or crucifixes.因此,它是非法的交換教會benefices由民營機構負責,接受任何支付任何神聖的油,賣祝福念珠和十字架。 Such objects lose, if sold, all the indulgences previously attached to them (S. Cong. Of Indulg., 12 July, 1847).失去這樣的對象,如果出售的話,先前連接的所有indulgences(S.叢。Indulg,12 7月,1847年)。 Simony of ecclesiastical law is, of course a variable element, since the prohibitions of the Church may be abrogated or fall into disuse. Simony的教會法,當然變量元素,因為在教會的禁令可能被廢止或下降到廢棄。 Simony whether it be of ecclesiastical or Divine law, may be divided into mental, conventional, and real (simonia mentalis, conventionalis, et realis).西摩尼無論是宗教或神聖的法律,可劃分到頦,精神,傳統,和真正的(simonia conventionalis,等realis)。 In mental simony there is lacking the outward manifestation, or, according to others, the approval on the part of the person to whom a proposal is made.在心理西摩尼缺乏的外在表現,或根據其他一些國家,批准的人誰的建議。 In conventional simony an expressed or tacit agreement is entered upon.在傳統的買賣聖職的明示或默示的協議時輸入。 It is subdivided into merely conventional, when neither party has fulfilled any of the terms of the agreement, and mixed conventional, when one of the parties has at least partly complied with the assumed obligations.它分為只是傳統的,當任何一方達成任何協議的條款和混合傳統,當一方當事人至少有部分遵守承擔的義務。 To the latter subdivision may be referred what has been aptly termed "confidential simony", in which an ecclesiastical benefice is procured for a certain person with the understanding that later he will either resign in favour of the one through whom he obtained the position or divide with him the revenues.後者的細分可能是指已被恰當地稱為“機密買賣聖職”,其中一個教會采邑採購有一定的理解後,他將辭職贊成一個人通過他獲得的位置或鴻溝他的收入。 Simony is called real when the stipulations of the mutual agreement have been either partly or completely carried out by both parties.西摩尼時,被稱為真正的相互協議的規定,已經部分或完全由雙方進行的。

To estimate accurately the gravity of simony, which some medieval ecclesiastical writers denounced as the most abominable of crimes, a distinction must be made between the violations of the Divine law, and the dealings contrary to ecclesiastical legislation.準確地估計重力的西摩尼,一些中世紀的教會作家指責為最惡劣的罪行,必須區分之間的侵犯神聖的法律,的交易違背宗教立法。 Any transgression of the law of God in this matter is, objectively considered, grievous in every instance (mortalis ex toto genere suo).任何違背上帝的律法在這個問題上,客觀地認為,嚴重的每一個實例(mortalis前多多genere鎖)。 For this kind of simony places on a par things supernatural and things natural, things eternal and things temporal, and constitutes a sacrilegious depreciation of Divine treasures.這種西摩尼地方面值的事情超自然的東西自然,永恆的東西和活動的時間,並構成褻瀆的神聖的寶物折舊。 The sin can become venial only through the absence of the subjective dispositions required for the commission of a grievous offense.可以原諒的,只有通過的情況下犯下的嚴重罪行的主觀處置所需的罪惡。 The merely ecclesiastical prohibitions, however, do not all and under all circumstances impose a grave obligation.只是教會的禁令,然而,並非所有的和在任何情況下都造成嚴重的責任。 The presumption is that the church authority, which, in this connection, sometimes prohibits actions in themselves indifferent, did not intend the law to be grievously binding in minor details.的假設是,教會的權威,在這方面,有時禁止對自己冷漠的行動,並不打算法律悲傷地結合在小細節。 As he who preaches the gospel "should live by the gospel" (1 Corinthians 9:14) but should also avoid even the appearance of receiving temporal payment for spiritual services, difficulties may arise concerning the propriety or sinfulness of remuneration in certain circumstances.當他宣揚福音“的福音”(哥林多前書9:14),但也應該避免出現的時​​間支付的精神服務,可能會出現困難,在某些情況下,恰當或罪惡的薪酬。 The ecclesiastic may certainly receive what is offered to him on the occasion of spiritual ministrations, but he cannot accept any payment for the same.教會可以肯定收到之際的精神服侍提供給他的是什麼,但他不能接受任何付款相同。 The celebration of Mass for money would, consequently, be sinful; but it is perfectly legitimate to accept a stipend offered on such occasion for the support of the celebrant.因此,慶祝彌撒的錢,是有罪的,但它是完全合法的接受津貼的監禮人的支持上提供這樣的機會。 The amount of the stipend, varying for different times and countries, is usually fixed by ecclesiastical authority (SEE STIPEND).教會的權威(津貼)的津貼金額的,不同的時代和國家的不同,通常是固定的。 It is allowed to accept it even should the priest be otherwise well-to-do; for he has a right to live from the altar and should avoid becoming obnoxious to other members of the gy.它接受它甚至應該牧師本來的任務,因為他從神壇上生存的權利,並應避免成為令人討厭的其他成員的GY。 It is simoniacal to accept payment for the exercise of ecclesiastical jurisdiction, eg, the granting of dispensations; but there is nothing improper in demanding from the applicants for matrimonial dispensations a contribution intended partly as a chancery fee and partly as a salutary fine calculated to prevent the too frequent recurrence of such requests.這是simoniacal接受付款教會管轄範圍內行使,例如,授予豁免,但在苛刻的婚姻豁免申請的貢獻的部分為尚書費有什麼不當,另一部分作為一個有益的罰款計算,以防止這樣的請求太頻繁復發。 It is likewise simony to accept temporal compensation for admission into a religious order; but contributions made by candidates to defray the expenses of their novitiate as well as the dowry required by some female orders are not included in this prohibition.同樣西摩尼接受一個宗教秩序,入讀時間補償;但候選人作出的貢獻,以支付他們的見習期,以及一些女性的訂單所要求的嫁妝的費用不包括在這項禁令。

In regard to the parish clergy, the poorer the church, the more urgent is the obligation incumbent upon the faithful to support them.方面的教區神職人員,貧窮的教會,更迫切的是,在忠實地支持他們的義務。 In the fulfilment of this duty local law and custom ought to be observed.在履行這一職責的當地法律和自定義應待觀察。 The Second Plenary Council of Baltimore has framed the following decrees for the United States: (1) The priest may accept what is freely offered after the administration of baptism or matrimony, but should refrain from asking anything (no. 221).第二次全體會議,會議的巴爾的摩下面的法令,美國已經制定:(1)牧師可以接受的洗禮後,管理或婚姻什麼是免費提供的,但應避免問“(第221號)。 (2) The confessor is never allowed to apply to his own use pecuniary penances, nor may he ask or accept anything from the penitent in compensation of his services. (2)懺悔絕不允許申請己用金錢苦行,也不得要求或接受任何補償的懺悔,在他的服務。 Even voluntary gifts must be refused, and the offering of Mass stipends in the sacred tribunal cannot be permitted (no. 289).即使是自願禮品,必須被拒絕,在神聖的法庭也不允許提供的彌撒獻(第289號)。 (3) The poor who cannot be buried at their own expense should receive free burial (no. 393). (3)窮人不能埋在自己的費用應得到免費的墓地(第393號)。 The Second and Third action of a compulsory contribution at the church entrance from the faithful who wish to hear Mass on Sundays and Holy Days (Conc. Plen. Balt. II, no 397; Conc. Plen. Balt. III, no 288).第二次和第三次行動的忠實誰希望聽到星期日彌撒和聖日(濃縮液PLEN。BALT II,沒有397;濃。PLEN。BALT III,288),在教堂門口的一個強制性的貢獻。 As this practice continued in existence in many churches until very recently, a circular letter addressed 29 Sept., 1911, by the Apostolic Delegate to the archbishops and bishops of the United States, again condemns the custom and requests the ordinaries to suppress it wherever found in existence.這種做法在許多教會繼續存在,直到最近,通函,討論了1911年9月29日,由宗座代表美國的大主教和主教,再次譴責的習慣和要求的普通股,以抑制它的地方發現存在。

To uproot the evil of simony so prevalent during the Middle Ages, the Church decreed the severest penalties against its perpetrators.為了剷除邪惡的西摩尼如此普遍在中世紀,教會下令對肇事者嚴厲的懲罰。 Pope Julius II declared simoniacal papal elections invalid, an enactment which has since been rescinded, however, by Pope Pius X (Constitution "Vacante Sede", 25 Dec., 1904, tit. II, cap. Vi, in "Canoniste Contemp.", XXXII, 1909, 291).教皇朱利葉斯二世宣布simoniacal羅馬教皇的選舉無效,這已被廢除,但是,教皇Pius X(“憲法”Vacante塞代“,25,六帽,針鋒相對。,1904年12月,在”中國當代Canoniste的制定。“三十二,1909年,291)。 The collation of a benefice is void if, in obtaining it, the appointee either committed simony himself, or at least tacitly approved of its commission by a third party.采邑的排序規則是無效的,如果,獲得任命西摩尼自己的,或至少是默許批准其佣金由第三方。 Should he have taken possession, he is bound to resign and restore all the revenues received during his tenure.如果他接管,他一定會辭職,在他任職期間,所有收到的收入恢復。 Excommunication simply reserved to the Apostolic See is pronounced in the Constitution "Apostolicae Sedis" (12 Oct., 1869): (1) against persons guilty of real simony in any benefices and against their accomplices; (2) against any persons, whatsoever their dignity, guilty of confidential simony in any benefices; (3) against such as are guilty of simony by purchasing or selling admission into a religious order; (4) against all persons inferior to the bishops, who derive gain (quaestum facientes) from indulgences and other spiritual graces; (5) against those who, collecting stipends for Masses, realize a profit on them by having the Masses celebrated in places where smaller stipends are usually given.逐出教會簡單地保留使徒見顯著憲法“Apostolicae位置未定”(1869年10月12日):(1)反對的人真正的西摩尼在任何采邑和對他們的幫兇(2)對任何人,任何其尊嚴,犯的機密西摩尼在任何采邑(3)如對犯的西摩尼購買或出售入讀的宗教秩序;(4)對所有的人不如主教,誰派生收益(quaestum facientes)從放縱和其他精神青睞;(5)對那些人,收集生活津貼群眾,實現利潤,通過群眾慶祝的地方,通常是給定的,而較小的津貼。 The last-mentioned provision was supplemented by subsequent decrees of the Sacred Congregation of the Council.最後提到的規定進行了補充,隨後理事會法令的神聖的會眾。 The Decree "Vigilanti" (25 May, 1893) forbade the practice indulged in by some booksellers of receiving stipends and offering exclusively books and subscriptions to periodicals to the celebrant of the Masses.的的法令“Vigilanti”(1893年5月25日)沉迷於一些書商津貼,並提供專門的書籍和期刊的訂閱監禮人的群眾禁止的做法。 The Decree "Ut Debita" (11 May, 1904) condemned the arrangements according to which the guardians of shrines sometimes devoted the offerings originally intended for Masses partly to other pious purposes.該法令“UT Debita”的(1904年5月11日)譴責的安排,根據該聖地的守護者有時部分群眾到其他虔誠的目的原本是為專門的產品。 The offenders against the two decrees just mentioned incur suspension ipso facto from their functions if they are in sacred orders; inability to receive higher orders if they are clerics inferior to the priests; excommunication of pronounced sentence (latae sententiae) if they belong to the laity.針對剛才提到的兩項法令的罪犯從他們的功能產生懸浮事實本身,如果他們在神聖的訂單;屬於俗人的,如果他們不能獲得較高的訂單,如果他們是祭司神職人員劣質的;逐出教會的宣判(latae sententiae) 。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息作者:NA韋伯。 Transcribed by Lucia Tobin.轉錄聖盧西亞托賓。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat 7月1日,1912。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約



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