The Words Inscribed on the Cross, INRI字刻在十字架上,INRI

General Information 一般資料

Many paintings of the Crucifixion of Jesus include the letters INRI somewhere on or near the Cross.十字架上的耶穌的許多繪畫作品包括字母INRI上的某個地方或附近的十字架。 People often ask what that means.人們經常會問這是什麼意思。

The Bible actually tells us. Matthew 27:37 says that, on the Cross, over the head of Jesus, was a sign that said "This is Jesus the King of the Jews." “聖經”告訴我們。 馬太福音27:37說,在十字架上的耶穌的頭,是個好兆頭,說:“這是耶穌,猶太人的王。” (KJAV) Mark 15:26 and John 19:19 say essentially the same thing. (KJAV) 馬克15:26約翰福音19:19說,本質上是相同的東西。

Keep in mind that the Romans had crucified many thousands of people in the 70 years before the Crucifixion.請記住,羅馬人釘在十字架上成千上萬的人在70年前被釘死在十字架上。 They had established patterns for much of the procedure.他們所建立的模式的過程非常重要的。 It was common for those who were about to be executed / crucified to be part of a procession, moving from the court in the city to the place of crucifixion outside of the city.對於那些即將被執行/被釘在十字架上的遊行,從法院在城市以外的城市釘十字架的地方,這是常見的。 As part of the procession, one of the guards commonly carried a sign that announced the crime that the person was condemned for.作為遊行的一部分,一般的侍衛,宣布​​被譴責為犯罪的人的標誌。 In the case of Jesus, no actual crime had been determined, so His official crime was in claiming to be the King of the Jews, even though He never actually made that claim.在耶穌的情況下,沒有實際的犯罪已經確定,所以他自稱是猶太人的王,儘管他從來沒有真正提出,要求公務罪。

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In any case, it appears that that sign was then affixed to His Cross, and that is the source of those words.在任何情況下,它出現的那個標誌,然後貼到他的十字架,那就是這些詞的來源。

The painters who painted the Crucifixion worked more than a thousand years after the fact.是誰畫的畫家被釘死在十字架上的工作超過了一千多年後的事實。 Therefore, they each had a substantial amount of artistic freedom in expressing the scene.因此,他們每個人都有一個藝術自由大量表達的場景。 At that time (the Middle Ages), all (Roman Catholic) Church Masses were conducted in Latin, and nearly everything associated with Christianity was written and spoken in Latin.當時(中世紀),(羅馬天主教)教會群眾在拉美,在拉美幾乎所有與基督教的書面和口語。 VERY few books existed (before the printing press was invented) and only the Church and government normally had them, so virtually no people in a Congregation had any books, including the Bible.書籍很少存在(發明印刷機之前),通常只有教會和政府,所以幾乎沒有人在畢業典禮上任何書籍,其中包括“聖經”。 However, a number of Christian phrases WERE commonly known by the people, and one was Jesus' official crime, commonly referred to by four Latin words, IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM然而,一些基督教短語俗稱的人,一個是耶穌的公務罪,通常被稱為拉美四的話,IESVS NAZARENVS REX IVDAEORVM

Since anyone who would actually see the paintings of the Crucifixion in the Middle Ages (inside a Church) would then already be familiar with the phrase (in Latin), the painters all apparently chose to simplify their paintings by only including the initials of the four Latin words, INR I. The early Church had also apparently used that abbreviation.因為任何人都誰真正在十字架上釘死在中世紀教堂裡看到的畫,然後將已經熟悉的短語(拉丁語),畫家顯然選擇,以簡化他們的繪畫作品僅包括英文縮寫的四個拉丁詞,INR一,早期教會也明顯地使用該縮寫。

Luke 23:38 also mentions the sign on the Cross, and he mentions that the sign was written in three languages, Greek, Latin and Hebrew. 路加福音23:38還提到在十字架上的標誌,他提到的標誌三種語言,希臘語,拉丁語和希伯來語。 Scholars then chose to follow the wording presented in John, as it is more complete by including the reference to Nazareth, and as it might be presenting the Latin version of the text on the Cross.學者然後選擇跟隨在約翰的措辭,因為它是更完整的包括拿撒勒,因為它可能提出的拉丁美洲版本的文本在十字架上。 In all three languages the first word was Jesus, but since Greek and Hebrew don't use the letter J, His Name was spelled beginning with an I .在所有這三種語言的第一個字是耶穌,但由於希臘文和希伯來文不使用字母J,他的名字被拼寫的開始。 The Roman (Latin) spelling followed that, ( IESVS ) even though their language included a J. The second word represented Nazareth, or Nazarene, N .羅馬(拉丁)拼寫其次,儘管他們的語言包括J.第二個字代表拿撒勒,拿撒勒,N(IESVS)。 The third word represented king, which in Latin ( REX ) begins with an R .第三個詞代表的王,在拉丁美洲(REX)的 R開始。 The fourth word represented Jews, ( IVDAEORVM ) again spelled beginning with an I .第四個字代表猶太人,(IVDAEORVM)開始與再次闡述。 You can see that the INRI then says "Jesus Nazareth King Jews".你可以看到,INRI然後說:“耶穌的拿撒勒國王的猶太人”。

So the actual Latin words were: Iesvs Nazarenvs Rex Ivdaeorvm.因此,實際的拉丁詞“:Iesvs Nazarenvs雷克斯Ivdaeorvm。 Latin did not include a 'u' and 'v's appear where we would read 'u's.拉丁並沒有包括“U”和“V的出現,我們將在那裡讀”U“。

In Greek, the four actual words were: Iesous Nazoraios Basileus Ioudaios在希臘文中的原話是:Iesous Nazoraios巴賽列斯Ioudaios

There does not presently seem to be solid documentation for the precise Hebrew text.目前不似乎是堅實的精確希伯來文的文件。 Opinions exist on what the wording was, but they vary.意見上存在的措辭是什麼,但他們各有不同。 Modern Hebrew is somewhat different from the Hebrew that was used in the time of Jesus, so a modern back-translation would probably be close but possibly not precise.現代在耶穌的時代,從希伯來文,希伯來文是有所不同的,所以一個現代化的翻譯很可能會接近,但可能不準確。

The wording of the Latin seems solid due to the fairly early creation of the Vulgate (Latin) Bible by Saint Jerome.措辭的拉丁似乎固體由於圣杰羅姆的武加大(拉丁)聖經的相當早的創作。 The wording of the Greek seems solid due to the New Testament Books all having originally been written in Greek, and those texts were used as the sources for the translations into several languages of Bibles (which still exist), so comparison should assure accuracy of the original wording.對希臘的措辭似乎固體由於所有的新約書卷最初用希臘文寫成,並作為光源使用這些文本翻譯成幾種語言的“聖經”(它仍然存在),所以比較應該保證準確性,原來的措辭。

Another Important Thing to Note另一個重要的注意事項

Many (hopefully, most) Christians acknowledge that the Bible is "inerrant", that is, it contains NO errors.很多(希望,最)基督徒承認聖經是無誤的“,也就是說,它不包含任何錯誤。 The reason for this belief is obvious.這種想法的原因是顯而易見的。 If one accepts that God participated in the writing of the Bible, it is beyond possibility that He would either intentionally or unintentionally permit errors or misleading statements to have been included in it.如果一個人接受,上帝參與寫作的“聖經”,它是超越的可能性,他會有意或無意地允許已包含在它的錯誤或誤導性陳述。

Most Christians make an incorrect assumption that modern English translations are therefore inerrant.大多數基督徒不正確的假設,因此,現代的英文翻譯是無誤的。 They are not, even though their various translators make enormous efforts to try to make them inerrant.他們都沒有,即使他們的各種翻譯做出了巨大的努力,力圖使他們無誤。

There are several reasons for this.有幾個方面的原因。 In both the case of the Old Testament and the New Testament, the contents of many of the Books were originally passed down from generation to generation VERBALLY.舊約和新約聖經在這兩種情況下,許多圖書的內容最初傳下來的一代代口頭上。 Most people of the time were illiterate, but books as we know them were extremely rare anyway.大多數人的時間是文盲,但書,因為我們知道他們是極其罕見的反正。 Virtually no one other than governments and wealthy people had any.幾乎沒有人以外的其他各國政府和有錢的人。 Keep in mind that a "book" had to be created in a very difficult way.請記住,“書”要建立在一個非常困難的方式。 The papyrus or parchment had to first be created, along with the ink.紙莎草或羊皮紙不得不先創建,沿與墨水。 Then a person had to copy an existing book, letter by letter, to create a new book.然後,一個人有複製現有的書,一個字母一個字母,創建一個新的書。 And a 'book' was not the convenient thing we imagine. “書”是不是我們想像的方便的事情。 It was generally a collection of rolls of papyrus or parchment which unrolled to strips that were many feet long.這是一般的集合,成卷的紙莎草紙或羊皮紙攤開多英尺長的條。 Given all this, it is pretty obvious why the great majority of people gained essentially ALL of their knowledge verbally.鑑於這一切,這是很明顯的,為什麼絕大多數人獲得了基本上所有他們的知識口頭上。

By the time the words were actually committed to papyrus or parchment, therefore, a number of generations of verbal description, and human memories, were involved.的時間實際上是致力於紙莎草紙或羊皮紙,因此,一代又一代的口頭說明,人的記憶,一些​​參與。 Where the ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS were certainly inerrant, these written copies could possibly have contained some minor flaws.肯定無誤的原始手稿,這些副本可能包含一些小的缺陷。

Next, consider that writing materials have a limited lifetime before they fade or disintegrate.其次,考慮書面材料的使用壽命有限,在它們消失之前或瓦解。 At regular intervals, it was necessary for scribes to copy the entire texts, letter by letter, to make a new copy.每隔一段固定的時間間隔,這是必要的,文士複製整個文本,一個字母一個字母,一個新的副本。 Of course, all the scribes were extremely careful, but keep in mind that our full Bible contains 773,746 words, or over three million individual characters!當然,所有的文士都非常小心,但請記住,我們的完整的聖經包含773746個單詞,或超過300萬的單個字符! Scribes generally had to work from the most recent copy.文士一般有工作的最新副本。 The result is that by around 900 AD (the oldest common documents that still exist of the Bible), those texts are copies of copies of copies.其結果是,公元900年左右(最古老的仍然存在的“聖經”的共同文件),這些文本是副本的副本的副本。 If a single character of those three million was mis-copied by any scribe, all later scribes would unknowingly copy that flaw.如果單個字符的那些3000000划痕的任何錯誤複製,其隨後所有的文士會在不知不覺中複製的缺陷。

Another complication arose when the texts were translated from one language to another, and eventually to English.另一種並發症出現時的文本從一種語言翻譯到另一種,最終以英語。 Most words in nearly every language have several possible meanings.幾乎每一種語言的大多數的話,有幾個可能的意義。 A translator is faced, for nearly every single word, with selecting the "best" translation.翻譯是面臨的幾乎每一個字,選擇“最好”的翻譯。 Different translators make different choices, which has resulted in our variety of modern Bible translations, all of which generally agree (since they were all created from the same source texts) but which have minor differences due to the translating choices.不同的翻譯做出不同的選擇,這導致我們的各種現代聖經翻譯,所有這一切都普遍同意(因為他們都從相同的源文本)創建,但有細微的差別,由於翻譯選擇。 How would you translate the English word 'shift'?你會如何翻譯的英語單詞“轉移”? As an action when driving a car?作為一個行動時,駕駛汽車嗎? As a key on a computer keyboard?作為一個電腦鍵盤上的一個鍵? As an eight-hour work period?作為一個8小時的工作週期? As what you do when you slightly move in a movie theater seat?當你做了什麼,當你稍微移動在電影院座位? See the problem?看這個問題? A translator needs to determine the context of the text, to determine just which translation is most correct.譯者需要確定文本的背景下,確定翻譯是最正確的。 Therefore, individual human judgment is unavoidably involved in the translation process.因此,在翻譯過程中,不可避免地涉及個別人的判斷。


The point being made here is that, even though the ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS were certainly inerrant, having been directed by God Himself, our modern Bibles can have minor flaws.正在這裡提出的是,即使原始手稿肯定無誤後,直接由神自己,我們的現代聖經可以有小瑕疵的。 This is mentioned here because the sign over Jesus on the Cross obvious had some single specific wording.這是這裡所說的因為耶穌在十字架上明顯的牌子,上面有一些單一的具體措辭。 However, the four Gospels vary slightly on exactly what is said.然而到底是什麼說,四福音略有不同。

Matthew 27:37 馬太福音27:37
This is Jesus the King of the Jews這是耶穌的猶太人的王。

[Hebrew] (symbols that cannot be displayed here) [希伯來語](不能顯示在這裡的符號)
[Greek] houtos esti Iesous basileus Ioudaios [希臘] houtos估計Iesous巴賽勒斯Ioudaios

Mark 15:26 馬克15:26
The King of the Jews猶太人的王。

[Greek] basileus Ioudaios [希臘]巴賽勒斯Ioudaios

John 19:19 約翰福音19:19
Jesus of Nazareth the King of the Jews拿撒勒人耶穌,猶太人的王。

[Latin] Iesvs Nazarenvs Rex Ivdaeorvm [拉丁Iesvs Nazarenvs雷克斯Ivdaeorvm。
[Greek] Iesous Nazoraios basileus Ioudaios [希臘] Iesous Nazoraios巴賽勒斯Ioudaios。

Luke 23:38 路加福音23:38
This is the King of the Jews這是猶太人的王。

[Greek] houtos esti basileus Ioudaios [希臘] houtos估計巴賽勒斯Ioudaios。
also sometimes given as:有時也給定為:
[Greek] outos estin o basileus twn ioudaiwn [希臘] outos estinØ巴賽勒斯TWN iou​​daiwn


None of those languages used spaces between words.沒有這些語言使用單詞之間的空格。 Since the Latin language was that of the official government, it was almost certainly presented at the top, which gives extra cause for INRI later becoming the (Latin) abbreviation regarding the Crucifixion.因為拉丁語是正式的政府,它幾乎可以肯定的頂部,提供額外的原因INRI後來成為(拉丁)的縮寫,被釘死在十字架上。 That means the top line on the sign would have had 26 letters and no spaces, in Latin.這意味著,最上面一行的符號有26個字母,沒有空格,在拉丁美洲。

Regarding the Greek, Luke's probable Greek text is already around 26 letters long, which might explain why no reference to Nazareth or even Jesus is included, to fit on the width of the sign.關於希臘,盧克希臘文的可能是已經大約26個字母長的,這或許可以解釋為什麼沒有提到拿撒勒,甚至耶穌,以適應寬度的標誌。

If Matthew gives us the Hebrew text, it only involves 19 Hebrew characters, so there is a potential mystery as to why Nazareth was not included.如果馬修為我們提供了希伯來文,只涉及19個希伯來文字符,所以是一個潛在的謎,為什麼拿撒勒人沒有被列入。 However, only the Latin text was legally appropriate, so both the Greek and Hebrew might have been appended, to make sure that the local people would certainly understand the "crime" of Jesus.然而,只有拉丁文字在法律上是適當的,因此無論是希臘文和希伯來文有可能被追加,以確保當地人民一定會理解耶穌的“罪行”。


Yes, this seems like an irrelevantly minor point!是的,這似乎是一個毫無來由的小點! We all know what the sign meant!我們都知道的符號意味著什麼! And there is the possibility that each of the four Gospel writers might have actually phrased it in these various ways.有每個四個福音作家可能實際上措辭在這些各種方法的可能性。 Some modern students feel that the precise wording of the three languages were slightly different on the sign, and that John was referring to the 'official' Latin; Luke, writing to a Greek Nobleman (Theophilus), was referring to the Greek; Matthew generally wrote for the Jews, and might have been referring to the Hebrew; and Mark just presented a brief overview.一些現代的學生覺得,這三種語言的準確措辭略有不同的符號,並且約翰指的是“官方”的拉丁,路,寫一個的希臘貴族(西奧菲勒斯),指的是在希臘,馬太福音一般寫為猶太人,並有可能被提到的希伯來文和馬克只是提出了一個簡要的概述。 But still, the actual sign had some specific wording, and so three of these (modern translations) might be at least technically incorrect or incomplete.但實際登錄的是,有一些具體的措辭,等三(現代譯本)可能至少在技術上是不正確或不完整的。

I choose to believe that the four ORIGINAL MANUSCRIPTS each precisely and correctly expressed the exact wording, and that the various effects mentioned above have resulted in the four slightly different current wordings.我選擇相信的原始手稿準確,正確地表達了確切的措辭,導致略有不同電流字眼,上面提到的各種影響。 Where some Christians want to believe in the precise inerrancy of the King James or other modern Bible, such evidence suggests that that might be inappropriate.一些基督徒要相信在國王詹姆斯或其他現代聖經的精確無誤的,這樣的證據表明,這可能是不合適的。 Modern Bibles are certainly very close, and they certainly get all the main Lessons correct, but on minor items, the possibility exists that they are flawed.現代聖經肯定是非常密切的,他們一定會得到所有的主要教訓是正確的,但在小件物品,可能性是存在的,他們是有缺陷的。 In the case of the King James, after its original 1611 publication, there were a number of "revised" Versions which corrected many such small flaws that had been found.國王詹姆斯的情況下,1611發布後,其原有的“修正”版本,糾正了很多這樣的小缺陷被發現,有一些。 But with over three million characters in it, even today, the most carefully checked KJAV Bible still must contain flaws.但是,與超過300萬字符的,即使在今天,最仔細的檢查KJAV聖經仍然必須包含的缺陷。 Even though the Original Manuscripts didn't!即使原始手稿都沒有!



Also, see:此外,見:
Seven Words on the Cross 七字交叉

Cross 兩岸關係
Crucifix 十字架
The Arising of Jesus 產生的耶穌


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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