Averroes, Averroës阿威羅伊,阿威羅伊

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(Abul Walid Mahommed Ibn Achmed, Ibn Mahommed Ibn Roschd). (伊本·艾哈邁德·阿布·瓦利德·Mahommed,伊本·Mahommed伊本·Roschd)。

Arabian philosopher, astronomer, and writer on jurisprudence; born at Cordova, 1126; died at Morocco, 1198.在摩洛哥,1198的阿拉伯哲學家,天文學家,作家的判例,科爾多瓦,1126年出生於死亡。

Ibn Roschd, or Averroës, as he was called by the Latins, was educated in his native city, where his father and grandfather had held the office of cadi (judge in civil affairs) and had played an important part in the political history of Andalusia.伊本·Roschd,或阿威羅伊,因為他被稱為拉丁人,在他的家鄉城市,在那裡舉行了他的父親和祖父在民政辦公室卡迪(法官)的教育方面發揮了重要的政治歷史的安達盧西亞。 He devoted himself to jurisprudence, medicine, and mathematics, as well as to philosophy and theology.他獻身於法學,醫學,數學,哲學和神學以及。 Under the Califs Abu Jacub Jusuf and his son, Jacub Al Mansur, he enjoyed extraordinary favor at court and was entrusted with several important civil offices at Morocco, Seville, and Cordova.在Califs阿布Jacub優素福和他的的兒子,Jacub鋁曼蘇爾,他在法庭上享有非凡的青睞,並委託有幾個重要的民事辦公室在摩洛哥,塞維利亞和科爾多瓦。 Later he fell into disfavor and was banished with other representatives of learning.後來,他失寵,被貶與其他代表學習。 Shortly before his death, the edict against philosophers was recalled.不久之前他的死亡,哲學家的法令,對被召回。 Many of his works in logic and metaphysics had, however, been consigned to the flames, so that he left no school, and the end of the dominion of the Moors in Spain, which occurred shortly afterwards, turned the current of Averroism completely into Hebrew and Latin channels, through which it influenced the thought of Christian Europe down to the dawn of the modern era.他的作品在邏輯學和形而上學,但是,已經燃起熊熊大火,使他離開學校,和發生後不久,西班牙,摩爾人的統治的結束變成了目前的Averroism完全成希伯來文和拉丁美洲的渠道,通過它影響了思想,信仰基督教的歐洲是當今時代的曙光。

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Averroes' great medical work, "Culliyyat" (of which the Latin title "Colliget" is a corruption) was published as the tenth volume in the Latin edition of Aristotle's works, Venice, 1527.阿威羅伊巨大的醫療工作,“Culliyyat”(拉丁文的標題的“Colliget”是一個腐敗)出版的第10卷在亞里士多德的著作的拉丁文版,威尼斯,1527。 His "Commentaries" on Aristotle, his original philosophical works, and his treatises on theology have come down to us either in Latin or Hebrew translations.他的“評”亞里士多德,他原來的哲學著作,他的論文在神學已回落到我們在拉丁文或希伯來文翻譯的。 His "Commentaries", which earned for him the title of the "Commentator", were of three kinds: a short paraphrase or analysis, a brief exposition of the text, and a more extended exposition.他的“評”,“特約評論員”的稱號,為他賺取三種:一個簡短的解釋或分析,簡要闡述的文字,以及更廣泛的闡述。 These are known as the Minor, the Middle, and the Major Commentary, respectively.這些被稱為未成年人,中東,主要解說,分別。 None of them is of any value for the textual criticisms of Aristotle, since Averroes, being unacquainted with Greek and Syriac, based his exposition on a very imperfect Arabic translation of the Syriac version of the Greek text.他們是沒有任何價值的文本批評亞里士多德,因為阿威羅伊,不熟悉希臘和敘利亞的一個非常完美的阿拉伯語翻譯的希臘文,敘利亞文版本的,根據他的論述。 They were, however, of great influence in determining the philosophical and scientific interpretation of Aristotle.然而,他們的巨大影響力在確定亞里士多德的哲學和科學的解釋。 His original philosophical treatises include: a work entitled "Tehafot al Tchafot", or "Destructio Destructiones" (a refutation of Algazel's "Destructio Philosophorum") published in the Latin edition, Venice 1497 and 1527, two treatises on the union of the Active and Passive intellects, also published in latin in the Venice edition; logical treatises on the different parts of the "Organon", published in the Venice edition under the title "Quaesita in Libros Logicae Aristotelis"; physical treatises based on Aristotle's "Physics" (also in the Venice edition); a treatise in refutation of Avicenna, and another on the agreement between philosophy and theology.他原始的哲學論文,包括:一個工作題為“Tehafot人Tchafot”,或“殺傷性Destructiones”(一個反駁的Algazel的“Destructio Philosophorum”)的拉丁版的出版,威尼斯1497和1527,2論文上的工會主動和被動的智力,還出版在拉美在威尼斯出版;邏輯論文的“歐加農”的不同部分,在威尼斯出版的標題“Quaesita在LIBROS Logicae Aristotelis”下發表的物理論文基於亞里士多德的“物理學”(也在威尼斯版);駁斥阿維森納,另有一篇論文在哲學和神學之間的協議。 Of the last two, only Hebrew and Arabic texts exist.在過去兩年中,只有希伯來文和阿拉伯文文本存在。

Averroes professed the greatest esteem for Aristotle.阿威羅伊自稱亞里士多德的最大的尊重。 The word of the Stagirite was for him the highest expression of truth in matters of science and philosophy.這個詞是為他的Stagirite真理,科學和哲學方面的最高表現。 In this exaggerated veneration for the philosopher he went farther than any of the Schoolmen.這種誇張的崇拜的哲學家,他去更遠的schoolmen。 Indeed, in the later stages of Scholastic philosophy it was the Averroists and not the followers of Aquinas and Scotus who, when accused of subservience to the authority of a master, gloried in the title of "Aristotle's monkey".事實上,在經院哲學的後期階段,這是Averroists,而不是追隨者阿奎那和司各脫,當被指屈從的權威主,得意於“亞里士多德的猴子”的標題。 Averroes advocated the principle of twofold truth, maintaining that religion has one sphere and philosophy another.阿威羅伊的雙重事實主張的原則,維護,宗教領域和哲學的另一種。 Religion, he said, is for the unlettered multitude; philosophy for the chosen few.宗教,他說,不識字的許多理念,為寥寥。 Religion teaches by signs and symbols; philosophy presents the truth itself.宗教的標誌和符號,哲學提出了真理本身。 In the mind, therefore, of the truly enlightened, philosophy supersedes religion.因此,在他心中,真正的開明,哲學取代宗教。 But, though the philosopher sees that what is true in theology is false in philosophy, he should not on that account condemn religious instruction, because he would thereby deprive the multitude of the only means which it has of attaining a (symbolic) knowledge of the truth.不過,儘管哲學家認為,什麼是真正的神學是虛假的哲學,他不應該在該帳戶上譴責宗教指令,因為他會從而剝奪了許多的唯一手段,它有獲得知識(符號)真理。 Averroe's philosophy, like that of all other Arabians, is Aristoteleanism tinged with neo-Platonism. Aristoteleanism Averroe的理念,所有其他阿拉伯人一樣,是帶有新柏拉圖主義。 In it we find the doctrine of the eternity of matter as a positive principle of being; the concept of a multitude of spirits ranged hierarchically between God and matter and mediating between them; the denial of Providence in the commonly accepted sense; the doctrine that each of the heavenly spheres is animated; the notion of emanation or extraction, as a substitute for creation; and, finally, the glorification of (rational) mystical knowledge as the ultimate aspiration of the human soul -- in a word, all the distinctively neo-Platonic elements which Arabians added to pure Aristoteleanism.我們發現在它的教義永恆的問題是一個積極的原則,精神的概念,眾多的範圍之間的上帝和問題,調解他們之間的層次;拒絕普羅維登斯普遍接受的意義;的原則,即每個天球動畫,釋放或提取的概念,作為替代品的創作;,最後,頌揚神秘的知識(理性)作為人類靈魂的最終願望 - 一句話,所有的獨特的新柏拉圖式的元素,阿拉伯馬添加到純Aristoteleanism的。

What is peculiar in Averroes' interpretation of Aristotle is the meaning he gives to the Aristotelean doctrine of the Active and Passive Intellect.什麼是獨特的阿威羅伊“解釋亞里士多德的意思是他給的主動和被動的智力亞里斯多德的學說。 His predecessor, Avicenna, taught that, while the Active Intellect is universal and separate, the Passive Intellect is individual and inherent in the soul.他的前任,阿維森納,教導,而積極的智慧是普遍的,獨立的,被動的智力是個體的和內在的靈魂。 Averroes holds that both the Active and the Passive Intellect are separate from the individual soul and are universal, that is, one in all men.阿威羅伊認為,無論是主動和被動智力是獨立的個體靈魂的,是通用的,也就是說,在所有的人之一。 He thinks that Alexander of Aphrodisias was wrong in reducing the Passive Intellect to a mere disposition, and that the "other Commentators" (perhaps Themistius and Theophrastus) were wrong in describing it as an individual substance endowed with a disposition; he maintains that it is, rather, a disposition in us, but belonging to an intellect outside us.他認為亞歷山大性慾是錯誤的,減少被動智力的一個單純的性格,“其他評論”(也許Themistius和Theophrastus)是錯誤的,它作為一個單獨的物質,具有處置,他認為,這是,而在我們的處置,但屬於我們之外的智慧。 The terms Passive, Possible, Material are successively used by Averroes to designate this species of intellect, which, in ultimate analysis, if we prescind from the dispositions of which he speaks, is the Active Intellect itself.被動,可能的情況下,材料的連續使用由的阿威羅伊指定這個物種的智慧,在最終的分析中,,如果我們prescind的配置,其中他談到,本身是積極的智慧。 In other words, the same intellect which, when in the act of actually abstracting intelligible species is called active, is called passive, possible or material so far as it is acted upon, is potential, and furnishes that out of which ideas are fabricated.換句話說,同樣的智力,抽象理解的物種的行為時,被稱為主動,被動,可能或材料採取行動,因為它是到目前為止,是潛在的,並提供他的想法是製造出來的。 Besides, Averroes speaks of the Acquired Intellect (intellectus acquisitus, adeptus), by which he means the individual mind in communication with the Active Intellect.此外,阿威羅伊講的後天智力(智洋acquisitus,adeptus),由他指的是個體心靈的溝通與積極的智慧。 Thus, while the Active Intellect is numerically one, there are as many acquired intellects as there are individual souls with which the Active Intellect has come in contact.因此,雖然積極的智慧是數字1,有盡可能多的後天的智力活動智力接觸,也有個別的靈魂。 (The Scholastics speak of continuatio of the universal with the individual mind, translating literally the Arabic word which here means contiguity rather than union.) The sun, for instance, while it is and remains one source of light, may be said to be multiplied and to become many sources of light, in so far as it illuminates many bodies from which its light is distributed; so it is with the universal mind and the individual minds which come in contact with it. (該scholastics說話的延續性的普遍與個人的心,從字面上翻譯阿拉伯語詞在這裡的意思,而不是工會的連續性。)太陽,例如,同時它仍然是光源,可以說要乘以成為光的來源有很多,到目前為止,因為它照亮許多機構從它的光線分佈,所以它是帶有普遍性的頭腦和個體心靈來與它接觸的。

The weakness of this doctrine, as a psychological explanation of the origin of knowledge, is its failure to take account of the facts of consciousness, which, as the Scholastics were not slow to point out, indicate that not merely an individual disposition but an active individual principle enters into the action which ones expresses by the words "I think".這一學說的弱點,作為一個心理知識的起源的解釋,是其失敗的事實的意識,經院哲學家不慢,指出,考慮到表示,不只是一種個人性格,而是積極的個別的原則訂立的表達的話:“我認為”的行動。 Another weakness of the doctrine of monopsychism, or the doctrine that there is but one mind, a weakness at least in the eyes of the Scholastics, is that it leaves unanswered the question of the immortality of the individual soul.的教義的monopsychism,或學說認為,只有一個心靈的弱點,至少在眼睛的scholastics,另一個弱點是,它讓個人的靈魂,不朽的懸而未決的問題。 Indeed, Averroes openly admitted his inability to hold on philosophic grounds the doctrine of individual immortality, being content to maintain it as a religious tenet.事實上,阿威羅伊公開承認他無法保持個人不朽的學說的哲學理由,即內容,以保持它作為一個宗教的宗旨。 Averroes' greatest influence was as a commentator.阿威羅伊“影響最大的是作為一個評論員。 His doctrines had a varying fortune in Christian schools.他的學說在基督教學校有不同的財富。 At first they secured a certain amount of adherence, then, gradually, their incompatibility with Christian teaching became apparent, and finally, owing to the revolt of the Renaissance from everything Scholastic, they secured once more a temporary hearing.起初,他們獲得了一定的堅持,然後,漸漸地,顯然不符合基督教教義的,最後,由於文藝復興時期的一切學術的反抗,他們獲得再次的臨時聽證會。 His commentaries, however, had immediate and lasting success.他的評論,然而,有短期和長期的成功。 St. Thomas Aquinas used the "Grand Commentary" of Averroes as his model, being, apparently, the first Scholastic to adopt that style of exposition; and though he refuted the errors of Averroes, and devoted special treatises to that purpose, he always spoke of the Arabian commentator as one who had, indeed, perverted the Peripatetic tradition, but whose words, nevertheless, should be treated with respect and consideration.聖托馬斯阿奎那的阿威羅伊採用的是“大評論”作為他的模型,顯然,採用這種風格的論述;第一士林,雖然他駁斥了錯誤的阿威羅伊,特別論文,目的,他說話的時候總是阿拉伯評論員了,確實,變態的逍遙學派的傳統,但他的話,不過,應該被視為與尊重和考慮。 The same may be said of Dante's references to him.同樣可以說,但丁對他的引用。 It was after the time of St. Thomas and Dante that Averroes came to be represented as "the arch-enemy of the faith".阿威羅伊聖托馬斯和但丁的時間後,後來被表示為“頭號敵人”的信念。

Publication information Written by William Turner.出版信息的書面由威廉·特納。 Transcribed by Geoffrey K. Mondello.轉錄由杰弗裡K.蒙德羅。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907.發布時間1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
AVERROES' works in the Venice edition, 1497, 1527, and, in part, in MUNK'S Melanges &c.在威尼斯出版,1497年,1527年,和,AVERROES作品中的一部分,在MUNK混雜岩&C。 (Paris, 18569); MUNK, in Dict. (巴黎,18569);芒克,在字典。 des sciences philosophiques (Paris, 1844-52), art. DES SCIENCES philosophiques(巴黎,1844年至1852年),藝術。 Ibn Roschd; RENAN, Averroes et l'Averroisme (Paris, 9th ed., 1882); MANDONNET, Siger de Brabant et l'Averroisme latin au XIII siecle (Fribourg, 1899); EUBERWEG-HEINZE, Gesch.伊本·Roschd雷南,阿威羅伊和Averroisme(巴黎,第9版,1882年);芒多,西熱珊和Averroisme拉丁太子港十三世紀末(弗里堡,1899年); EUBERWEG HEINZE,Gesch。 der Phil., (9th ed., Berlin, 1905), VI 250 sqq.得菲爾(第9版,柏林,1905年),VI 250 SQQ。 (tr. I); TURNER, Hist. (編輯部I)TURNER,歷史。 of Phil.菲爾。 (Boston, 1903), 313 sqq.; STOCKL, Gesch. (波士頓,1903年),313 SQQ。STOCKL,Gesch。 der Phil.得菲爾。 des Mittelalters, (Mainz, 1865), II. DES Mittelalters,(美因茨,1865年),II。



Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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