The Rite of Constantinople君士坦丁堡之祭

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(Also BYZANTINE RITE.) (拜占庭儀式。)

The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments and for various blessings, sacramentals, and exorcisms, of the Church of Constantinople, which is now, after the Roman Rite, by far the most widely spread in the world.禮儀,神聖的辦公室,管理聖禮的形式和不同的的祝福,sacramentals,和驅魔,君士坦丁堡的教會,這是現在,羅馬的儀式後,由遠在世界上流傳最廣的。 With one insignificant exception -- the Liturgy of St. James is used once a year at Jerusalem and Zakynthos (Zacynthus) -- it is followed exclusively by all Orthodox Churches, by the Melkites (Melchites) in Syria and Egypt, the Uniats in the Balkans and the Italo-Greeks in Calabria, Apulia, Sicily, and Corsica.有一個微不足道的例外 - 禮儀中的聖雅各福群會每年一次在耶路撒冷和扎金索斯(Zacynthus)的 - 完全由它後面所有的東正教教堂,在敘利亞和埃及的Melkites(Melchites),在Uniats巴爾幹地區和普利亞,卡拉布里亞,西西里島和科西嘉島,意大利 - 希臘人。 So that more than a hundred millions of Christians perform their devotions according to the Rite of Constantinople.所以,一百多百萬計的基督徒履行他們的靈修,根據君士坦丁堡的祭。

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I. HISTORY一,歷史

This is not one of the original parent-rites.這是不是一個原始的父儀式。 It is derived from that of Antioch.這是來自的安提阿。 Even apart from the external evidence a comparison of the two liturgies will show that Constantinople follows Antioch in the disposition of the parts.甚至除了從外部證據的兩個禮儀的比較表明君士坦丁堡如下安提在配置的部分。 There are two original Eastern types of liturgy: that of Alexandria, in which the great Intercession comes before the Consecration, and that of Antioch, in which it follows after the Epiklesis.有兩個原東方禮儀的亞歷山德里亞,在這偉大的代禱之前的奉獻,和安提阿,在它的epiklesis後的。 The Byzantine use in both its Liturgies (of St. Basil and St. John Chrysostom) follows exactly the order of Antioch.拜占庭式的使用在禮儀(聖羅勒和聖約翰金口)如下完全的順序安提阿。 A number of other parallels make the fact of this derivation clear from internal evidence, as it is from external witness.許多其他Parallels使內部證據清楚這個推導的事實,因為它是從外部的見證。 The tradition of the Church of Constantinople ascribes the oldest of its two Liturgies to St. Basil the Great (d. 379), Metropolitan of Cæsarea in Cappadocia.它的兩個禮儀的君士坦丁堡教會的傳統賦予的最古老的聖羅勒大(卒於379年),大都會的cæsarea在Cappadocia。 This tradition is confirmed by contemporary evidence.這個傳統是由當代證據證實。 It is certain that St. Basil made a reformation of the Liturgy of his Church, and that the Byzantine service called after him represents his reformed Liturgy in its chief parts, although it has undergone further modification since his time.可以肯定的是,聖羅勒做了他的教會的禮儀改革,拜占庭式的服務要求後,他表示他的改革禮儀中,它的主要部分,雖然它已經歷了進一步的修改,因為他的時間。 St. Basil himself speaks on several occasions of the changes he made in the services of Cæsarea.聖羅勒自己講好幾次,他在服務的cæsarea的變化。 He writes to the clergy of Neo-Cæsarea in Pontus to complain of opposition against himself on account of the new way of singing psalms introduced by his authority (Ep. Basilii, cvii, Patr. Gr., XXXII, 763).他寫信給神職人員的新愷撒在龐抱怨反對自己唱詩歌的新途徑,介紹了他的權威(插曲Basilii CVII,PATR。,二年級,三十二,763頁)。 St. Gregory of Nazianzos (Nazianzen, d. 390) says that Basil had reformed the order of prayers (euchon diataxis -- Orat. xx, PG, XXXV, 761). ::,聖格雷戈里的Nazianzos(。Nazianzen,390)說,羅勒改革的順序禱告(euchon diataxis - XX,ORAT。PG,XXXV,761)。 Gregory of Nyssa (died c. 395) compares his brother Basil with Samuel because he "carefully arranged the form of the Service" (Hierourgia, In laudem fr. Bas., PG, XLVI, 808).格雷戈里的nyssa(死於395)。比較羅勒與塞繆爾他的兄弟,因為他“精心佈置的形式服務”(Hierourgia,在laudem FR基礎。,PG,四十六,808)。 Prokios (Proclus) of Constantinople (d. 446) writes: "When the great Basil . . . saw the carelessness and degeneracy of men who feared the length of the Liturgy -- not as if he thought it too long -- he shortened its form, so as to remove the weariness of the clergy and assistants" (De traditione divinæ Missæ, PG, XLV, 849).普羅基奧斯(普羅克洛斯)的君士坦丁堡(卒於446年)中寫道:“當大羅勒看到的疏忽和墮落的男人擔心的長度的禮儀 - 不作為,如果他認為它太長時間 - 他縮短形式,以消除厭學的神職人員和助手“(德traditionedivinæMissæ,PG,XLV,849)。

The first question that presents itself is: What rite was it that Basil modified and shortened?提出了自己的第一個問題是:什麼儀式了,羅勒修改,縮短? Certainly it was that used at Cæsarea before his time.當然,這是在愷撒在他的時間。 And this was a local form of the great Antiochene use, doubtless with many local variations and additions.這是一個本地偉大的安提阿學派使用的形式,毫無疑問,與許多地方的變化和補充。 That the original rite that stands at the head of this line of development is that of Antioch is proved from the disposition of the present Liturgy of St. Basil, to which we have already referred; from the fact that, before the rise of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, Antioch was the head of the Churches of Asia Minor as well as of Syria (and invariably in the East the patriarchal see gives the norm in liturgical matters, followed and then gradually modified by its suffragan Churches); and lastly by the absence of any other source.這原始的儀式,代表在這行發展的頭是從處置本禮儀,聖羅勒,這是我們已經提到的安提阿證明的事實,在此之前的東正教會的崛起君士坦丁堡,安提阿是小亞細亞的教會負責人以及敘利亞的(總是在東方宗法見給出了規範的禮儀事項,然後逐漸修改其輔佐教會)和最後的缺失任何其他來源。 At the head of all Eastern rites stand the uses of Antioch and Alexandria.在所有東方禮儀的頭站安提阿和亞歷山大的用途。 Lesser and later Churches do not invent an entirely new service for themselves, but form their practice on the model of one of these two.小,後來教會不為自己創造一個全新的服務,但形成自己的實踐之一,這兩個模型。 Syria, Palestine, and Asia Minor in liturgical matters derive from Antioch, just as Egypt, Abyssinia, and Nubia do from Alexandria. ,在禮儀方面獲得敘利亞,巴勒斯坦和小亞細亞的安提阿,就像埃及,阿比西尼亞,和努比亞從亞歷山大。 The two Antiochene liturgies now extant are;目前現存的兩個安提阿學派禮儀是;

(1) that of the Eighth Book of the Apostolic Constitutions and (1)第八本書的使徒憲法和

(2) parallel to it in every way, the Greek Liturgy of St. James (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY). (2)平行的,它在各方面,希臘禮儀中的聖雅各福群會(見安提阿學派禮儀)。

These are the starting-points of the development we can follow.這些都是出發點的發展,我們可以遵循。 But it is not to be supposed that St. Basil had before him either of these services, as they now stand, when he made the changes in question.但它不應該是聖巴西爾在他面前的這些服務,因為他們現在的立場,當他做了變化問題。 In the first place, his source is rather the Liturgy of St. James than that of the Apostolic Constitutions.第一,他的消息來源是相當的禮儀中的聖雅各福群會的使徒憲法。 There are parallels to both in the Basilian Rite; but the likeness is much greater to that of St. James.在Basilian成年禮有相似之處,但​​是大得多的聖雅各福群會的形像。 From the beginning of the Eucharistic prayer (Vere dignum et justum est, our Preface) to the dismissal, Basil's order is almost exactly that of James.從一開始的聖體聖事的祈禱(維爾dignum等justum美國東部時間,我們的前言)解僱,羅勒的命令幾乎是一模一樣的詹姆斯。 But the now extant Liturgy of St. James (in Brightman, "Liturgies Eastern and Western", 31-68) has itself been considerably modified in later years.但目前現存的禮儀中的聖雅各福群會(布萊曼,禮儀東部和西部,31-68)本身已大大改進在以後的歲月裡。 Its earlier part especially (the Liturgy of the Catechumens and the Offertory) is certainly later than the time of St. Basil.特別是其早先的部分(禮儀的慕道者和奉獻儀式(Offertory))肯定是最遲的時間,聖羅勒。 In any case, then, we must go back to the original Antiochene Rite as the source.然後,在任何情況下,我們必須返回到原來的安提阿學派成年禮源。 But neither was this the immediate origin of the reform.但也不是改革的直接來源。 It must be remembered that all living rites are subject to gradual modification through use.必須記住,所有的生活的儀式是通過使用逐步修正。 The outline and frame remain; into this frame new prayers are fitted.的輪廓和框架依然存在;這個框架安裝新的祈禱。 As a general rule liturgies keep the disposition of their parts, but tend to change the text of the prayers.作為一般規則禮儀保持其部分配置,但往往會改變文本的祈禱。 St. Basil took as the basis of his reform the use of Cæsarea in the fourth century.聖羅勒了他的改革使用cæsarea在第四世紀的基礎。 There is reason to believe that that use, while retaining the essential order of the original Antiochene service, had already considerably modified various parts, especially the actual prayers.有充分的理由相信,使用,同時保留必要的原安提阿服務的為了,已經大大改進的各個部分,特別是實際的祈禱。 We have seen, for instance, that Basil shortened the Liturgy. ,例如,我們已經看到,羅勒縮短禮儀。 But the service that bears his name is not at all shorter than the present one of St. James.但他的名字命名的服務是不是在所有的聖雅各福群會比現在的短。 We may, then, suppose that by his time the Liturgy of Cæsarea had been considerably lengthened by additional prayers (this is the common development of Liturgies).可能的話,我們假設,在他那個時代的禮儀中的cæsarea已大大加長額外祈禱(這是禮儀的共同發展)。 When we say, then, that the rite of Constantinople that bears his name is the Liturgy of St. James as modified by St. Basil, it must be understood that Basil is rather the chief turning-point in its development than the only author of the change.當我們說,那麼,他的名字命名的成年禮的君士坦丁堡禮儀中的聖雅各福群會修改聖羅勒,我們必須明白,羅勒,而其發展的主要轉折點在比的唯一作者的變化。 It had already passed through a period of development before his time, and it has developed further since.它已經通過他的時代之前,通過一段時間的發展,它的進一步發展,因為。 Nevertheless, St. Basil and his reform of the rite of his own city are the starting-point of the special use of Constantinople.然而,聖羅勒和他的成年禮自己的城市改革的出發點,君士坦丁堡的特殊使用。

A comparison of the present Liturgy of St. Basil with earlier allusions shows that in its chief parts it is really the service composed by him.本禮儀,聖羅勒與早期典故的比較表明,它的主要部分,它是真正的由他組成的服務。 Peter the Deacon, who was sent by the Scythian monks to Pope Hormisdas to defend a famous formula they had drawn up ("One of the Trinity was crucified") about the year 512, writes: "The blessed Basil, Bishop of Cæsarea, says in the prayer of the holy altar which is used by nearly the whole East: Give, oh Lord, strength and protection; make the bad good, we pray, keep the good in their virtue; for Thou canst do all things, and no one can withstand Thee; Thou dost save whom Thou wilt and no one can hinder Thy will" (Petri diac. Ep. ad Fulgent, vii, 25, in PL, LXV, 449).彼得執事,誰被送往教皇卡爾米斯達斯捍衛一個著名的公式,他們制定了(“被釘在十字架上的三位一體”),對今年512的西徐亞人僧侶,他寫道:“有福了羅勒,主教cæsarea,說在神聖的祭壇,這是幾乎整個東:給的禱告,主啊,強度和保護;壞的好,我們祈禱,保持良好的,在他們的美德,為你若能做所有的事情,也沒有人可以抵擋你,你自己還保存人,你必沒有人可以阻礙你的意志“(廣告晶的Petri DIAC。EP,七,25,PL,LXV,449)。 This is a compilation of three texts in the Basilian Liturgy: Keep the good in their virtue; make the bad good by thy mercy (Brightman, op. cit., pp. 333-334); the words: Give, O Lord, strength and protection come several times at the beginning of prayers; and the last words are an acclamation made by the choir or people at the end of several (Renaudot, I, p. xxxvii).這是一個彙編的三種文本在Basilian禮儀,保持良好的,在他們的美德,壞好你的慈愛(布萊曼,前引書,第333-334)的話,主啊,給實力和保護來好幾次,開始時的祈禱;和最後的話是一個以鼓掌方式由合唱團的人或幾個(勒諾多,我。三十七)結束。 The Life of St. Basil ascribed to Amphilochios (PG, XXIX, 301, 302) quotes as composed by him the beginning of the Introduction-prayer and that of the Elevation exactly as they are in the existing Liturgy (Brightman, 319, 341).生命的聖羅勒歸因於Amphilochios(PG,XXIX,301,302)引用組成,由他開始的簡介 - 祈禱的高度,正是因為他們是在現有的禮儀(布萊曼,319,341) 。 The Second Council of Nicæa (787) says: "As all priests of the holy Liturgy know, Basil says in the prayer of the Divine Anaphora: We approach with confidence to the holy altar . . .".第二屆理事會尼西亞(787)說:“由於所有的祭司神聖的禮儀都知道,瓦西裡在祈禱的神聖照應說:我們有信心接近神聖的祭壇......”。 The prayer is the one that follows the Anamnesis in St. Basil's Liturgy (Brightman, p. 329. Cf. Hardouin, IV, p. 371).禱告是一個如下病歷在聖羅勒的禮儀(布萊曼,P 329。比照。HARDOUIN,IV,第371頁)。

From these and similar indications we conclude that the Liturgy of St. Basil in its oldest extant form is substantially authentic, namely, from the beginning of the Anaphora to the Communion.從這些和其他類似的跡象,我們的結論是禮儀中,聖羅勒在其現存最古老的形式是基本真實的,即,從一開始的照應到共融。 The Mass of the Catechumens and the Offertory prayers have developed since his death.質量的慕道者和offertory祈禱,因為他的死亡。 St. Gregory Nazianzen, in describing the saint's famous encounter with Valens at Cæsarea, in 372, describes the Offertory as a simpler rite, accompanied with psalms sung by the people but without an audible Offertory prayer (Greg. Naz., Or., xliii, 52, PG, XXXVI, 561).聖格雷戈里Nazianzen,描述了聖人的著名遇到瓦倫斯在該撒利亞,在372,說明作為一個簡單的儀式,伴隨著為人們所傳唱的詩篇,但沒有一的聲音奉獻儀式(Offertory)祈禱(格雷格。納茲,或者,四十三的奉獻儀式(Offertory) 52,PG,三十六,561)。 This oldest form of the Basilian Liturgy is contained in a manuscript of the Barberini Library of about the year 800 (manuscript, III, 55, reprinted in Brightman, 309-344).這個最古老的形式的Basilian禮儀中含有約800年的barberini圖書館的手稿(手稿,III,55歲,轉載布萊曼,309-344)。 The Liturgy of St. Basil now used in the Orthodox and Melkite (or Melchite) Churches (Euchologion, Venice, 1898, pp. 75-97; Brightman, 400-411) is printed after that of St. Chrysostom and differs from it only in the prayers said by the priest, chiefly in the Anaphora; it has received further unimportant modifications.現在使用的東正教教堂(Euchologion,威尼斯,1898年,第75-97頁;布萊曼,400-411)Melkite(,或Melchite)的打印禮儀中,聖羅勒,聖金口,不同於它在祈禱的神父,主要是在照應說,它已收到進一步不重要的修改。 It is probable that even before the time of St. John Chrysostom the Liturgy of Basil was used at Constantinople.這是可能的,即使在聖約翰金口的時間是用在禮儀中的羅勒君士坦丁堡。 We have seen that Peter the Deacon mentions that it was "used by nearly the whole East".我們已經看到,彼得執事提到,這是“用了幾乎整個東亞”。 It would seem that the importance of the See of Cæsarea (even beyond its own exarchy), the fame of St. Basil, and the practical convenience of this short Liturgy led to its adoption by many Churches in Asia and Syria.這似乎的重要性的見的愷撒(甚至超越自己的exarchy)的,在亞洲和敘利亞的許多教會的名聲,聖羅勒,這短短的禮儀實用方便的通過。 The "East" in Peter the Deacon's remark would probably mean the Roman Prefecture of the East (Præfectura Orientis) that included Thrace. “東”在彼得執事的話,可能意味著羅馬縣的東(PræfecturaOrientis),其中包括色雷斯。 Moreover, when St. Gregory of Nazianzos came to Constantinople to administer that diocese (381) he found in use there a Liturgy that was practically the same as the one he had known at home in Cappadocia.此外,當,聖格雷戈里的Nazianzos來到君士坦丁堡管理,教區(381),他發現在使用中出現的禮拜,這是作為一個在家裡,他知道卡帕多西亞(Cappadocia)幾乎相同的。 His Sixth Oration (PG, XXXV, 721 sq.) was held in Cappadocia, his Thirty-eighth (PG, XXXVI, 311) at Constantinople.他的第六致辭(PG,XXXV,721平方米)舉行的卡帕多西亞(Cappadocia),他的第三十八屆(PG,三十六,311)在君士坦丁堡。 In both he refers to and quotes the Eucharistic prayer that his hearers know.他指的是在這兩個引用了聖體祈禱,他的聽眾都知道。 A comparison of the two texts shows that the prayer is the same.兩個文本的比較表明,祈禱是相同的。 This proves that, at any rate in its most important element, the liturgy used at the capital was that of Cappadocia -- the one that St. Basil used as a basis of his reform.這證明,無論如何,在其最重要的元素,禮儀的卡帕多西亞的是,在資本 - 一個聖羅勒作為他的改革的基礎。 It would therefore be most natural that the reform too should in time be adopted at Constantinople.因此,將最自然的改革,也應及時採取在君士坦丁堡。 But it would seem that before Chrysostom this Basilian Rite (according to the universal rule) had received further development and additions at Constantinople.但它似乎前金口Basilian的成年禮(根據通用的規則)曾在君士坦丁堡得到進一步的發展和補充。 It has been suggested that the oldest form of the Nestorian Liturgy is the original Byzantine Rite, the one that St. Chrysostom found in use when he became patriarch (Probst, "Lit. des IV. Jahrhts.", 413).有人認為,最古老的景教禮儀是原來的拜占庭禮儀,聖金口在使用中發現,當他成為族長(普羅布斯特,“點亮。德。Jahrhts。”,413)。

The next epoch in the history of the Byzantine Rite is the reform of St. John Chrysostom (d. 407).下一個時代在歷史上的拜占庭成年禮是改革的聖約翰金口(四407)。 He not only further modified the Rite of Basil, but left both his own reformed Liturgy and the unreformed Basilian one itself, as the exclusive uses of Constantinople.他不僅進一步修改的羅勒儀式,但都留給了自己的改革禮儀和未改革的Basilian本身,君士坦丁堡作為唯一的用途。 St. John became Patriarch of Constantinople in 397; he reigned there till 403, was then banished, but came back in the same year; was banished again in 404, and died in exile in 407.聖約翰成為君士坦丁堡牧首,397;他那裡,直到403年在位,然後被驅逐,但回來後在同一年,再次被放逐在404,死於流放在407。 The tradition of his Church says that during the time of his patriarchate he composed from the Basilian Liturgy a shorter form that is the one still in common use throughout the Orthodox Church.說,他的教會的時候,他的主教的職位期間,他創作的Basilian禮儀較短的形式,仍然是一個普遍使用的整個東正教的傳統。 The same text of Proklos (Proclus) quoted above continues: "Not long afterwards our father, John Chrysostom, zealous for the salvation of his flock as a shepherd should be, considering the carelessness of human nature, thoroughly rooted up every diabolical objection. He therefore left out a great part and shortened all the forms lest anyone . . . stay away from this Apostolic and Divine Institution", etc. He would, then, have treated St. Basil's rite exactly as Basil treated the older rite of Cæsarea.相同的文字的Proklos(普羅克洛)報價繼續說:“沒多久我們的父親,約翰金口,熱心為拯救他的​​羊群作為一個牧羊人,考慮人的本性,徹底的疏忽,植根於每一個惡魔般的反對。因此離開了很大一部分,並縮短的形式,以免有人遠離這個使徒和神聖的機構“,等等,然後,他會處理聖羅勒的儀式完全羅勒治療儀式的cæsarea。 There is no reason to doubt this tradition in the main issue.我們沒有理由懷疑這一傳統的主要問題。 A comparison of the Liturgy of Chrysostom with that of Basil will show that it follows the same order and is shortened considerably in the text of the prayers; a further comparison of its text with the numerous allusions to the rite of the Holy Eucharist in Chrysostom's homilies will show that the oldest form we have of the Liturgy agrees substantially with the one he describes (Brightman, 530-534).的禮儀金口與羅勒的比較將表明,它遵循相同的順序和被縮短了相當的祈禱的文字;一個進一步比較,其文字的無數典故的儀式的聖體聖事在金口的頌歌將顯示最古老的形式,我們的禮儀同意大幅一個他描述(布萊曼,530-534)。 But it is also certain that the modern Liturgy of St. Chrysostom has received considerable modifications and additions since his time.但它也有一定的現代禮儀聖金口已獲得了相當多的修改和補充,因為他的時間。 In order to reconstruct the rite used by him we must take away from the present Liturgy all the Preparation of the Offerings (Proskomide), the ritual of the Little and Great Entrances, and the Creed.為了重建他所使用的儀式,我們必須從目前的禮儀帶走了所有的準備的供品(Proskomide),小和大入口的儀式,和信條。 The service began with the bishop's greeting, "Peace to all", and the answer, "And with thy spirit."服務開始與主教的問候語,“和平的所有”,得到的回答,“你的精神。” The lessons followed from the Prophets and Apostles, and the deacon read the Gospel.其次,從先知和使徒,和執事的經驗教訓讀的福音。 After the Gospel the bishop or a priest preached a homily, and the prayer over the catechumens was said.福音後,主教或神父講道講道,禱告的慕道者說。

Originally it had been followed by a prayer over penitents, but Nektarios (381-397) had abolished the discipline of public penance, so in St. Chrysostom's Liturgy this prayer is left out.原來它一直跟著做禱告,懺悔,但Nektarios(381-397)已廢除的紀律,公開懺悔,因此在聖金口的禮儀祈禱離開了。 Then came a prayer for the faithful (baptized) and the dismissal of the catechumens.後來來了一個祈禱的信徒(施洗)和解僱的慕道者。 St. Chrysostom mentions a new ritual for the Offertory: the choir accompanied the bishop and formed a solemn procession to bring the bread and wine from the prothesis to the altar (Hom. xxxvi, in I Cor., vi, PG, LXI, 313).聖金口提到了一個新的奉獻儀式(Offertory):合唱團的陪同主教的儀式,並形成了一個莊嚴的遊行帶來的麵包和葡萄酒的假體壇(三十六Hom. 3時,在我肺心病。,六,PG,LXI,313 )。 Nevertheless the present ceremonies and the Cherubic Chant that accompany the Great Entrance are a later development (Brightman, op. cit., 530).然而,目前的儀式和天真無邪的聖歌伴隨大門口是一個更高的發展(布萊曼,前引書,530)。 The Kiss of Peace apparently preceded the Offertory in Chrysostom's time (Brightman, op. cit., 522, Probst, op. cit., 208).和平之吻顯然之前的奉獻儀式(Offertory)在金口的時間(布萊曼,前引書,522,普羅布斯特,同上,208)。 The Eucharistic prayer began, as everywhere, with the dialogue: "Lift up your hearts" etc. This prayer, which is clearly an abbreviated form of that in the Basilian Rite, is certainly authentically of St. Chrysostom.聖體祈禱開始,因為到處的對話:“抬起你的心”等,這祈禱,這顯然是一個縮寫形式,在Basilian祭,肯定是真實的聖金口。 It is apparently chiefly in reference to it that Proklos says that he has shortened the older rite.這顯然是主要的參考Proklos說,他已經縮短了儀式。 The Sanctus was sung by the people as now.眾神所唱的人現在。 The ceremonies performed by the deacon at the words of Institution are a later addition.儀式由執事在的話,機構是一個後來此外。 Probst thinks that the original Epiklesis of St. Chrysostom ended at the words "Send thy Holy Spirit down on us and on these gifts spread before us" (Brightman, op. cit., 386), and that the continuation (especially the disconnected interruption: God be merciful to me a sinner, now inserted into the Epiklesis; Maltzew, "Die Liturgien" etc., Berlin, 1894, p. 88) are a later addition (op. cit., 414).普羅布斯特認為聖金口,原來的epiklesis的結束的話“發送你的聖靈在我們和傳播這些禮物擺在我們面前的”(布萊曼,前引書,386),而延續(尤其是斷開的中斷上帝是仁慈的對我是一個罪人,插入到的epiklesis; Maltzew,“Liturgien”等,柏林,1894年,頁88)是後來添加(同上,414)。 The Intercession followed at once, beginning with a memory of the saints.的調解,然後在一次,開始與內存的聖人。 The prayer for the dead came before that for the living (ibid., 216-415).在此之前,為死者祈禱的生活(同上,第216-415)。 The Eucharistic prayer ended with a doxology to which the people answered, Amen; and then the bishop greeted them with the text, "The mercy of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ be with all of you" (Tit., ii, 13), to which they answered: "And with thy spirit", as usual.聖體聖事的祈禱結束與讚美詩的人回答說,阿門,然後主教迎接他們的文本,“我們偉大的上帝和救主耶穌基督的憐憫與所有的你”(提多書二13)他們回答說:“你的精神”,像往常一樣。 The Lord's Prayer followed, introduced by a short litany spoken by the deacon and followed by the well-known doxology: "For thine is the kingdom" etc. This ending was added to the Our Father in the Codex of the New Testament used by St. Chrysostom (cf. Hom. xix in PG, LVII, 282).主禱文,推出的短一連串的執事說,其次是著名的讚美詩:“全是你的王國”等,這結局加入我們的父親在食品法典委員會的新約聖經的聖金口(參見坎。十九PG LVII 282)。 Another greeting (Peace to all) with its answer introduced the manual acts, first an Elevation with the words "Holy things for the holy" etc., the Breaking of Bread and the Communion under both kinds.另一種問候語(和平所有),其答案介紹了本手冊的行為,首先是高程的話“神聖的東西,神聖的”等,打破麵包和共融下兩種。 In Chrysostom's time it seems that people received either kind separately, drinking from the chalice.在金口的時候,似乎人們接受一種單獨的聖杯飲酒。 A short prayer of thanksgiving ended the Liturgy.一個簡短的禱告,感恩節結束禮儀。 That is the rite as we see it in the saint's homilies (cf. Probst., op. cit., 156-202, 202-226).這是儀式,因為我們看到它在聖人的講道詞(參見普羅布斯特,前引書,156-202,202-226)。 It is true that most of these homilies were preached at Antioch (387-397) before he went to Constantinople.這是事實,這些講道講道在安提阿(387-397)之前,他去了君士坦丁堡。 It would seem, then, that the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom was in great part that of his time at Antioch, and that he introduced it at the capital when he became patriarch. ,那麼,這似乎禮儀中的聖金口中的很大一部分,他的時間在安提阿,他介紹了它的資本,當他成為族長。 We have seen from Peter the Deacon that St. Basil's Rite was used by "nearly the whole East".我們已經看到彼得執事聖羅勒的成年禮是“幾乎整個東”。 There is, then, no difficulty in supposing that it had penetrated to Antioch and was already abridged there into the "Liturgy of Chrysostom" before that saint brought this abridged form to Constantinople. ,然後,沒有任何困難的假設,它已經滲透到了安提阿,已經有刪節“禮儀中的金口”在此之前,聖把這個刪節的形式,以君士坦丁堡。

It was this Chrysostom Liturgy that gradually became the common Eucharistic service of Constantinople, and that spread throughout the Orthodox world, as the city that had adopted it became more and more the acknowledged head of Eastern Christendom.這是金口禮儀,逐漸成為共同的君士坦丁堡的聖體聖事服務,並傳遍了整個東正教世界,已採取的城市,它成為越來越多的承認,頭東基督教。 It did not completely displace the older rite of St. Basil, but reduced its use to a very few days in the year on which it is still said (see below, under II).它並沒有完全取代舊的儀式,聖羅勒,但將它的使用極少數的日子在今年它仍然表示(見下文第II)。 Meanwhile the Liturgy of St. Chrysostom itself underwent further modification.同時,禮儀聖金口本身進行進一步的修改。 The oldest form of it now extant is in the same manuscript of the Barberini Library that contains St. Basil's Liturgy.目前現存的最古老的形式,它是在同一稿件的barberini圖書館包含聖羅勒的禮拜儀式。 In this the elaborate rite of the Proskomide has not yet been added, but it has already received additions since the time of the saint whose name it bears.精心製作的儀式的Proskomide尚未被添加,但它已經收到補充自承擔的聖人,他的名字的時候,。 The Trisagion (Holy God, Holy Strong One, Holy Immortal One, have mercy on us) at the Little Entrance is said to have been revealed to Proklos of Constantinople (434-47, St. John Dam., De Fide Orth., III, 10); this probably gives the date of its insertion into the Liturgy.在小入口Trisagion(神聖的上帝,聖靈強,一個神聖不朽的,憐憫我們)已被揭露出來的君士坦丁堡(434-47,Proklos聖約翰大壩,德信部奧爾特,III ,10),這可能給其插入到之日起的禮儀。 The Cherubikon that accompanies the Great Entrance was apparently added by Justin II (565-78, Brightman, op. cit., 532), and the Creed that follows, just before the beginning of the Anaphora, is also ascribed to him (Joannis Biclarensis Chronicon, PL, LXXII, 863).顯然,伴隨著大門口的Cherubikon加入由Justin II(565-78,布萊曼,同前引書,532),和信條,只是開始前的照應,也為其他(若阿尼斯Biclarensis的Chronicon,PL,LXXII,863)。 Since the Barberini Euchologion (ninth cent.) the Preparation of the Offerings (proskomide) at the credence-table (called prothesis) gradually developed into the elaborate rite that now accompanies it.由於第九百分之是Barberini Euchologion()。編制的供品(proskomide)的信任表(稱為假體),逐步發展到精心製作的儀式,現在伴隨著。 Brightman (op. cit., 539-552) gives a series of documents from which the evolution of this rite may be traced from the ninth to the sixteenth century.布萊曼(同上,539-552)給出了一系列的文件,從這個儀式的演變可追溯到從第九至第十六個世紀。

These are the two Liturgies of Constantinople, the older one of St. Basil, now said on only a few days, and the later shortened one of St. Chrysostom that is in common use.這是兩個liturgies的君士坦丁堡,舊的聖羅勒,只有幾天,現在說以後縮短聖金口,是最常用的。 There remains the third, the Liturgy of the Presanctified (ton proegiasmenon).目前仍有第三,禮儀的presanctified(噸proegiasmenon)。 This service, that in the Latin Church now occurs only on Good Friday, was at one time used on the aliturgical days of Lent everywhere (see ALITURGICAL DAYS and Duchesne, Origines, 222, 238).這項服務,在拉丁美洲教會現在只發生在耶穌受難日,是在同一時間,使用的aliturgical天的大齋無處不在(見天與杜申ALITURGICAL,Origines,222,238)。 This is still the practice of the Eastern Churches.這仍然是東方教會的做法。 The Paschal Chronicle (see CHRONICON PASCHALE) of the year 645 (PG, XCII) mentions the Presanctified Liturgy, and the fifty-second canon of the Second Trullan Council (692) orders: "On all days of the fast of forty days, except Saturdays and Sundays and the day of the Holy Annunciation, the Liturgy of the Presanctified shall be celebrated."在今年645(PG,XCII)的逾越節的的紀事(見CHRONICON PASCHALE),提到的presanctified的禮儀,第五十二佳能的第二Trullan會(692)的訂單:“在所有的快速四十天,除了週六,週日和聖天使報喜之日起,應在慶祝禮儀中的presanctified。“ The essence of this Liturgy is simply that the Blessed Sacrament that has been consecrated on the preceding Sunday, and is reserved in the tabernacle (artophorion) under both kinds, is taken out and distributed as Communion.這個禮儀的本質很簡單,就是聖體聖事已在之前的星期日奉獻,並保留在的帳幕(artophorion)下兩種,取出並分發聖餐。 It is now always celebrated at the end of Vespers (hesperinos), which form its first part.現在是慶祝活動結束時晚禱(hesperinos)的,構成它的第一部分。 The lessons are read as usual, and the litanies sung; the catechumens are dismissed, and then, the whole Anaphora being naturally omitted, Communion is given; the blessing and dismissal follow.的經驗教訓看像往常一樣,和禱唱,被解僱的慕道者,而且,整個照應,自然省略,共融;的祝福和解僱。 A great part of the rite is simply taken from the corresponding parts of St. Chrysostom's Liturgy.簡單地從相應部位的聖金口的禮儀很大一部分的成年禮。 The present form, then, is a comparatively late one that supposes the normal Liturgies of Constantinople.目前的形式,然後,是一個相對較晚的一個假設的正常liturgies的君士坦丁堡。 It has been attributed to various persons -- St. James, St. Peter, St. Basil, St. Germanos I of Constantinople (715-30), and so on (Brightman, op. cit., p. xciii).它已被歸因於各種各樣的人 - 聖羅勒,聖彼得大教堂,聖雅各福群會,:聖Germanos我的君士坦丁堡(715-30),等(布萊曼,前引書,頁XCIII)。 But in the service books it is now officially ascribed to St. Gregory Dialogos (Pope Gregory I).但在服務的書籍,它是現在正式歸因於聖:格雷戈里Dialogos(羅馬教皇格雷戈里I)的。 It is impossible to say how this certainly mistaken ascription began.這是不可能的,說這肯定是錯誤的歸屬如何開始。 The Greek legend is that, when he was apocrisiarius at Constantinople (578), seeing that the Greeks had no fixed rite for this Communion-service, he composed this one for them.希臘傳說中,當他apocrisiarius在君士坦丁堡(578),看到此共融服務,希臘人沒有固定的儀式,他創作了這個。

The origin of the Divine Office and of the rites for sacraments and sacramentals in the Byzantine Church is more difficult to trace.神聖的辦公室,在拜占庭式的教堂的儀式,聖禮和sacramentals的起源是更加難以追查。 Here too we have now the result of a long and gradual development; and the starting-point of that development is certainly the use of Antioch.這裡,我們現在有一個漫長而逐步發展的結果,發展的出發點肯定是使用的安提阿。 But there are no names that stand out as clearly as do those of St. Basil and St. Chrysostom in the history of the Liturgy.但是,有沒有名字中脫穎而出,清楚地做那些聖羅勒和聖金口歷史的禮儀。 We may perhaps find the trace of a similar action on their part in the case of the Office.也許我們可以找到的一絲類似行動辦公室的情況下,對他們的一部分。 The new way of singing psalms introduced by St. Basil (Ep. cvii, see above) would in the first place affect the canonical Hours.唱詩歌的新方法,介紹了插曲CVII,聖羅勒(見上文),將在第一時間影響的典型小時。 It was the manner of singing psalms antiphonally, that is alternately by two choirs, to which we are accustomed, that had already been introduced at Antioch in the time of the Patriarch Leontios (Leontius, 344-57; Theodoret, HE, II, xxiv).它的方式的唱詩歌antiphonally,是由兩個合唱團交替,我們都習慣了,已經在安提阿的時候的祖師萊昂蒂奧斯的(Leontius,344-57; theodoret公司,HE,二,二十四)。 We find one or two other allusions to reforms in various rites among the works of St. Chrysostom; thus he desires people to accompany funerals by singing psalms (Hom. iv, in Ep. ad Hebr., PG, LXIII, 43) etc.我們發現一個或兩個典故等各種儀式的改革,聖金口的作品中,因此他希望人們陪唱詩歌(四Hom. 3時,在EP廣告黑布爾。,PG,LXIII,43)等的葬禮

With regard to the Divine Office especially, it has the same general principles in East and West from a very early age (see BREVIARY).對於神聖的辦公室尤其是,它具有相同的一般原則,在東,西,從很小的時候就(祈禱)。 Essentially it consists in psalm-singing.本質上,它包括在詩篇唱歌。 Its first and most important part is the Night-watch (pannychis, our Nocturns); at dawn the orthros (Lauds) was sung; during the day the people met again at the third, sixth, and ninth hours, and at sunset for the hesperinos (Vespers).它的第一個和最重要的部分是夜晚的手錶(pannychis,我們的Nocturns);在黎明的orthros的(讚揚)為傳唱;白天遇到的人,再在第三,第六,第九小時,在夕陽的hesperinos(晚禱)。 Besides the psalms these Offices contained lessons from the Bible and collects.除了詩篇這些辦事處,從聖經和收集的經驗教訓。 A peculiarity of the Antiochene use was the "Gloria in excelsis" sung at the Orthros (Ps.-Athan., De Virg., xx, PG, XXVIII, 276); the evening hymn, Phos ilaron, still sung in the Byzantine Rite at the Hesperinos and attributed to Athenogenes (in the second cent.), is quoted by St. Basil (De Spir. Sancto, lxxiii, PG, XXXII, 205).安提阿學派使用的一個特點是“凱萊在excelsis”演唱時的Orthros(詩,ATHAN。,德VIRG,XX,PG,XXVIII,276);黃昏的讚美歌,磷ilaron,還在唱,在拜占庭成年禮在Hesperinos和的Athenogenes(在第二一分錢)。,是引用聖羅勒(Spir的。Sancto,LXXIII,PG,三十二,205)。 Egeria of Aquitaine, the pilgrim to Jerusalem, gives a vivid description of the Office as sung there according to Antioch in the fourth century ["S. Silviæ (sic) peregrin.", ed.細葉阿基坦大區,到耶路撒冷的朝聖者,提供了一個生動的描述辦公室唱有根據的安提阿,在第四世紀[的“S.Silviæ(原文如此)佩雷格林。”,編輯。 Gamurrini, Rome, 1887]. Gamurrini,羅馬,1887]。 To this series of Hours two were added in the fourth century.這一系列的小時兩個在第四世紀。 John Cassian (Instit., III, iv) describes the addition of Prime by the monks of Palestine, and St. Basil refers (loc. cit.) to Complin (apodeipnon) as the monks' evening prayer.約翰·卡西安(Instit.,III,IV)描述了另外的總理的僧侶的巴勒斯坦,和聖羅勒指(如上)Complin(apodeipnon)的僧侶的晚上祈禱。 Prime and Complin, then, were originally private prayers said by monks in addition to the official Hours.總理和Complin的話,原本是私人祈禱的僧侶說,除了正式小時。 The Antiochene manner of keeping this Office was famous all over the East.保持該辦事處的的安提阿方式的是著名的東方。 Flavian of Antioch in 387 softened the heart of Theodosius (after the outrage to the statues) by making his clerks sing to him "the suppliant chants of Antioch" (Sozomen, HE, VII, xxiii).弗拉維安安提在387軟化心狄奧多西後,憤怒的雕像,他的文員唱歌給他聽“的懇求聖歌安提”(Sozomen,七,二十三)。 And St. John Chrysostom, as soon as he comes to Constantinople, introduces the methods of Antioch in keeping the canonical Hours (16, VIII, 8).聖約翰金口,只要他來了到君士坦丁堡,介紹了在安提阿的方法,保持典型小時(16,VIII,8)。 Eventually the eastern Office admits short services (mesoorai) between the day Hours, and between Vespers and Complin.最終的東部辦公室承認短期服務(mesoorai)之間的天時間,和晚禱和Complin。 Into this frame a number of famous poets have fitted a long succession of canons (unmetrical hymns); of these poets St. Romanos the singer (sixth cent.), St. Cosmas the singer (eighth cent.), St. John Damascene (c. 780), St. Theodore of Studion (d. 826), etc., are the most famous (see BYZANTINE LITERATURE, sub-title IV. Ecclesiastical etc.).到這個幀一些著名詩人都裝有長期繼承的的大砲(unmetrical讚美詩),這些詩人聖羅曼諾斯歌手(第六次以上。),聖科斯馬斯歌手(第八美分),聖約翰大馬士革( (三)780),聖,西奧多的Studion(卒於826年),等等,都是最有名的(見拜占庭文學,子標題IV。教會等)。 St. Sabas (d. 532) and St. John Damascene eventually arranged the Office for the whole year, though, like the Liturgy, it has undergone further development since, till it acquired its present form (see below). ,:聖Sabas(卒於532年),聖約翰大馬士革最終安排全年的辦公室,不過,像禮儀,它已經歷了進一步的發展,因為,直到它收購其目前的形式(見下文)。

II. II。 THE BYZANTINE RITE AT THE PRESENT TIME拜占庭成年禮在目前的時間

The Rite of Constantinople now used throughout the Orthodox Church does not maintain any principle of uniformity in language.現在整個東正教君士坦丁堡之祭不維護任何語言的統一原則。 In various countries the same prayers and forms are translated (with unimportant variations) into what is supposed to be more or less the vulgar tongue.在許多國家,同樣的祈禱和形式是翻譯一些無關緊要的變化應該是或多或少的通俗語言。 As a matter of fact, however, it is only in Rumania that the liturgical language is the same as that of the people.然而,事實上,它是只在羅馬尼亞禮儀語言的人的相同。 Greek (from which all the others are translated) is used at Constantinople, in Macedonia (by the Patriarchists), Greece, by Greek monks in Palestine and Syria, by nearly all Orthodox in Egypt; Arabic in parts of Syria, Palestine, and by a few churches in Egypt; Old Slavonic throughout Russia, in Bulgaria, and by all Exarchists, in Czernagora, Servia, and by the Orthodox in Austria and Hungary; and Rumanian by the Church of that country.在君士坦丁堡,在馬其頓的(由Patriarchists),希臘,希臘(,所有的人都翻譯)幾乎所有的東正教埃及在巴勒斯坦和敘利亞,希臘的僧侶,部分敘利亞,巴勒斯坦,阿拉伯和一些教會在埃及舊斯拉夫整個俄羅斯,保加利亞,,和所有Exarchists,中Servia,Czernagora,的,由東正教在奧地利和匈牙利和羅馬尼亞由該國的教會。 These four are the principal languages.這四個主要語言。 Later Russian missions use Esthonian, Lettish, and German in the Baltic provinces, Finnish and Tatar in Finland and Siberia, Chinese, and Japanese.在波羅的海各省,芬蘭和韃靼在芬蘭和西伯利亞,中國和日本,後來俄羅斯的任務使用Esthonian,列托語和德語。 (Brightman, op. cit., LXXXI-LXXXII). (布萊曼,前引書,LXXXI LXXXII)。 Although the Liturgy has been translated into English (see Hapgood, op. cit. in bibliography), a translation is never used in any church of the Greek Rite.雖然禮儀已被翻譯成英語(哈普古德,前引書。參考書目),翻譯中從未使用過任何教會的希臘成年禮。 The Uniats use Greek at Constantinople, in Italy, and partially in Syria and Egypt, Arabic chiefly in these countries, Old Slavonic in Slav lands, and Rumanian in Rumania. Uniats使用在君士坦丁堡,在意大利,希臘部分在敘利亞和埃及,阿拉伯,主要是在這些國家,在斯拉夫土地上的舊斯拉夫,在羅馬尼亞和羅馬尼亞。 It is curious to note that in spite of this great diversity of languages the ordinary Orthodox layman no more understands his Liturgy than if it were in Greek.它是好奇地注意到,儘管這個偉大的語言多樣化的普通東正教門外漢,沒有更多的了解他的的禮儀比,如果它是在希臘。 Old Slavonic and the semi-classical Arabic in which it is sung are dead languages.舊斯拉夫和半經典唱阿拉伯語中,它是死的語言。

The Calendar “日曆”

The Calendar “日曆”

It is well known that the Orthodox still use the Julian Calendar (Old Style).眾所周知,東正教仍然使用儒略歷(老款)。 By this time (1908) they are thirteen days behind us.到了這個時候(1908年),他們是我們的13天身後。 Their liturgical year begins on 1 September, "the beginning of the Indict, that is of the new year".他們的禮儀年9月1日開始,“開始的起訴,這是在新的一年”。 On 15 November begins the first of their four great fasts, the "fast of Christ's birth" that lasts till Christmas (25 December). 11月15日開始的他們的四大齋戒,基督的誕生“快”,一直持續到聖誕節(25月)。 The fast of Easter begins on the Monday after the sixth Sunday before Easter, and they abstain from flesh-meat after the seventh Sunday before the feast (our Sexagesima).快速的復活節後的星期一開始的第六週日在復活節之前,他們放棄後的第七個週日之前的盛宴(我們的Sexagesima)的肉,肉。 The fast of the Apostles lasts from the day after the first Sunday after Pentecost (their All Saints' Day) till 28 June, the fast of the Mother of God from 1 August to 14 August.快速的使徒持續五旬節之後他們的萬聖節之日起後的第一個星期日至6月28日,快速的天主之母,從8月1日至8月14日。 Throughout this year fall a great number of feasts.縱觀今年下跌了大量的節日。 The great cycles are the same as ours -- Christmas, followed by a Memory of the Mother of God on 26 December, then St. Stephen on 27 December, etc. Easter, Ascension Day, and Whitsunday follow as with us.偉大的週期是和我們一樣的 - 聖誕節,其次是記憶的天主之母,12月26日,12月27聖士提反,復活節,耶穌升天節,聖靈降臨節跟隨我們。 Many of the other feasts are the same as ours, though often with different names.許多其他的節日是和我們一樣的,雖然經常以不同的名稱。 They divide them into three categories, feasts of our Lord (heortai despotikai), of the Mother of God (theometrikai), and of the saints (ton hagion).他們將其劃分為三大類,節日,我們主(heortai despotikai),(theometrikai),和聖人(噸hagion),上帝的母親。 They count the "Holy meeting" (with St. Simeon, 2 February), the Annunciation (25 March), the Awakening of Lazarus (Saturday before Palm Sunday), etc., as feasts of Our Lord.他們計算的“聖會”(與聖西緬2月2日),報喜(25日),拉撒路的覺醒(星期六聖枝主日(復活節前的星期日)日前)等,為節日我們的主。 The chief feasts of Our Lady are her birthday (8 September), Presentation in the Temple (21 November), Conception (9 December), Falling-asleep (koimesis, 15 August), and the Keeping of her Robe at the Blachernæ (at Constantinople, 2 July).我們的夫人是她的生日(9月8日),演示文稿,在廟(11月21日),概念(12月9日),下降睡著了(koimesis,8月15日)的主要節日,並保持她的長袍在Blachernæ(在君士坦丁堡,7月2日)。 Feasts are further divided according to their solemnity into three classes: great, middle, and less days.節氣是根據他們的嚴肅進一步劃分為三大類:大,中,天數較少。 Easter of course stands alone as greatest of all.復活節當然獨自站在最偉大的。 It is "The Feast" (he heorte, al-id); there are twelve other very great days and twelve great ones.它是“盛宴”(他,人編號heorte),有12個非常偉大的日子和12個偉大的。 Certain chief saints (the Apostles, the three holy hierarchs -- Sts. Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, and John Chrysostom -- 30 January, the holy and equal-to-the-Apostles Sovereigns, Constantine and Helen, etc.) have middle feasts; all the others are lesser ones.某些首席聖徒(使徒,三個神聖的大主教 - STS。巴茲爾,格雷戈里的高利,和約翰金口 - 1月30日,神聖的和平等的使徒的君主,君士坦丁和海倫等)有中節日,所有其他較小的。 The Sundays are named after the subject of their Gospel; the first Sunday of Lent is the feast of Orthodoxy (after Iconoclasm), the Saturdays before Meatless Sunday (our Sexagesima) and Whitsunday are All Souls' days.被命名後的星期日的主題,他們的福音,封齋期的第一個星期日是盛宴的正統(後聖像破壞運動),,週六前無肉星期一(我們的Sexagesima)和聖靈降臨節是所有靈魂的日子。 Our Trinity Sunday is their All Saints.我們的三位一體星期天是他們的所有的聖徒。 Wednesdays and Fridays throughout the year are days of abstinence (Fortescue, "Orth. Eastern Church", 398-401).一年四季都是週三和週五天的禁慾(Fortescue的,Ortho的。東方教會“,398-401)。

Service-books服務的圖書

The Byzantine Rite has no such compendiums as our Missal and Breviary; it is contained in a number of loosely arranged books.拜占庭成年禮沒有這樣的彙編,我們的彌撒和祈禱,它被包含在一些鬆散排列的書。 They are: the Typikon), a perpetual calendar containing full directions for all feasts and all possible coincidences.它們是:Typikon),萬年曆,包含完整的方向,所有的節日和所有可能的巧合。 The (Euchologion) contains the priest's part of the Hesperinos, Orthros, the three Liturgies, and other sacraments and sacramentals. (Euchologion)牧師的部分,的Hesperinos,Orthros,三個禮拜儀式,和其他聖禮和sacramentals。 The Triodion contains the variable parts of the Liturgy and Divine Office (except the psalms, Epistles, and Gospels) for the movable days from the tenth Sunday before Easter to Holy Saturday. Triodion包含可變部分,禮儀和神聖的辦公室,除了詩篇,書信,和福音的可動天的第十一個星期日復活節前的聖週六。 Tbe Pentekostarion continues the Triodion from Easter Day to the first Sunday after Pentecost (All Saints' Sunday). TBE Pentekostarion繼續在Triodion,復活節,五旬節之後的第一個星期日萬聖節(星期日)。 The Oktoechos gives the Offices of the Sundays for the rest of the year (arranged according to the eight modes to which they are sung -- okto echoi) and the Parakletike is for the weekdays.週日Oktoechos辦公室在今年餘下時間(按照他們唱的八種模式 - 確定“echoi)和的Parakletike是為平日。 The twelve Menaias, one for each month, contain the Proper of Saints; the Menologion is a shortened version of the Menaia, and the Horologion contains the choir's part of the day Hours.的12 Menaias的,每月,包含適當的聖人;的Menologion是一個縮短的版本的梅納亞,,並在Horologion包含合唱團的一部分,白天。 The Psalter (psalterion), Gospel (enaggelion), and Apostle (apostolos -- Epistles and Acts) contain the parts of the Bible read (Fortescue, "Orth. E. Ch.", 401-402; Nilles, "Kal. Man.", XLIV-LVI; Kattenbusch, "Confessionskunde", I, 478-486).文:的詩篇(psalterion),福音(enaggelion),和使徒(阿波斯托 - 書信和使徒行)包含的部分“聖經”讀(Fortescue的,Ortho的。E.通道“,401-402;尼勒斯,”卡爾。 “XLIV-LVI Kattenbusch酒店,”Confessionskunde“,I,478-486)。

The altar, vestments and sacred vessels壇,外衣和神聖的船隻

A church of the Byzantine Rite should have only one altar.一所教堂的拜占庭禮儀應該只有一個祭壇。 In a few very large ones there are side-chapels with altars, and the Uniats sometimes copy the Latin multitude of altars in one church; this in an abuse that is not consistent with their rite.在一些非常大的,有副作用小教堂祭壇,的Uniats有時複製的拉丁許多人在一個教堂的祭壇,這是不是符合自己的成年禮,濫用。 The altar (he hagia trapeza) stands in the middle of the sanctuary (ierateion); it is covered to the ground with a linen cloth over which is laid a silk or velvet covering.壇(聖trapeza)站在中間的聖所(ierateion),它是超過奠定了絲綢或絲絨覆蓋的亞麻布蓋在地上。 The Euchologion, a folded antimension, and perhaps one or two other instruments used in the Liturgy are laid on it; nothing else.在Euchologion,一個折疊antimension,也許放在一個或兩個,在禮儀中所使用的其他工具,僅此而已。 [See ALTAR (IN THE GREEK CHURCH).] Behind the altar, round the apse, are seats for priests with the bishop's throne in the middle (in every church). [查看背後的祭壇,祭壇(在希臘教會)。24後殿,神父與主教的寶座在中間(在每一個教會)的席位。 On the north side of the altar stands a large credence-table (prothesis); the first part of the Liturgy is said here.在北邊的祭壇上矗立著一座大型的信任表(假體),這裡說的是第一部分的禮儀。 On the south side is the diakonikon, a sort of sacristy where vessels and vestments are kept; but it is in no way walled off from the rest of the sanctuary.南側是diakonikon,船舶和法衣保持一種聖器收藏室,但它是沒有辦法用牆隔開了其餘的庇護所。 The sanctuary is divided from the rest of the church by the ikonostasis (eikonostasis, picture-screen), a great screen stretching across the whole width and reaching high up to the roof (see sub-title The Iconostasis sv HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN ALTAR).該保護區的ikonostasis其餘的教會(eikonostasis,圖片屏幕),屏幕大跨越整個寬度達到高到屋頂(見子標題的聖像屏幃SV歷史的基督教壇) 。 On the outside it is covered with a great number of pictures of Christ and the saints, arranged in a more or less determined order (Christ always to the right of the royal doors and the Bl. Virgin on the left), before which rows of lamps are hung.在外面覆蓋著大量的基督和聖徒的照片,佈置在一個或多或少確定的順序(基督總是王室的門和BL英屬維爾京群島的左邊右邊的),前行燈掛了。 The ikonostasis has three doors, the "royal door" in the middle, the deacon's door to the south (right hand as one enters the church), and another door to the north. ikonostasis有三個門,在中間的“皇家門”,執事的南大門(右手進入教堂),以及另一門北。 Between the royal door and the deacon's door the bishop has another throne facing the people.在皇家門,執事的大門主教和人民面臨的另一個寶座。 Immediately outside the ikonostasis is the choir.立即外的ikonostasis是合唱團。 A great part of the services take place here.一個偉大的服務在這裡舉行。 In the body of the church the people stand (there are no seats as a rule); then comes the narthex, a passage across the church at the west end, from which one enters by doors into the nave.在體內教會的人站(作為一項規則,有沒有座位),然後是的前廳,一個通道,整個教堂的西端,從一個進入教堂中殿的大門就會向你敞開。 Most of the funeral rites and other services take place in the narthex.在前廳的葬禮和其他服務。 Churches are roofed as a rule by a succession of low cupolas, often five (if the church is cross-shaped).作為一項規則,由一個連續的低圓頂屋頂的教堂是,往往五(如果是十字形的教堂)。 In Russia there is generally a belfry.在俄羅斯通常是一個鐘樓。 The vestments were once the same as the Latin ones, though now they look very different.法衣是一樣的拉丁一次,雖然現在他們看起來非常不同。 It is a curious case of parallel evolution.這是一個奇怪的情況下,平行進化。 The bishop wears over his cassock the sticharion our alb; it is often of silk and coloured; then the epitrachelion, a stole of which the two ends are sewn together and hang straight down in front, with a loop through which the head is passed.主教戴在他的袈裟的sticharion我們ALB,它往往是絲綢和彩色,然後epitrachelion,偷的兩端縫在一起,掛在前面,直降頭通過一個循環的。 The sticharion and epitrachelion are held together by the zone (girdle), a narrow belt of stuff with clasps. sticharion和epitrachelion是一起舉行的區(帶),一根狹窄皮帶帶有別針的東西。 Over the wrists he wears the epimanikia, cuffs or gloves with the part for the hand cut off.在手腕上,他穿的epimanikia,袖口或手套的手切斷。 From the girdle the epigonation, a diamond-shaped piece of stuff, stiffened with cardboard, hangs down to the right knee.從腰帶epigonation,菱形的東西,加筋與紙板,下垂,右膝蓋。 Lastly, he wears over all the sakkos, a vestment like our dalmatic.最後,他戴過的所有sakkos,法衣像我們dalmatic的。 Over the sakkos comes the omophorion.超過的sakkos來omophorion。 This is a great pallium of silk embroidered with crosses.這是一個偉大的大腦皮層的絲綢,上面繡有十字架。 There is also a smaller omophorion for some rites.也有一些儀式一個較小的omophorion的。 He has a pectoral cross, an enkolpion (a medal containing a relic), a mitre formed of metal and shaped like an imperial crown, and a dikanikion, or crosier, shorter than ours and ending in two serpents between which is a cross.他胸鰭交叉,enkolpion(獎牌包含的遺物),形成一個斜切的金屬,形如皇冠,一個dika​​nikion,或權杖,短於我們之間這是一個跨在兩條毒蛇結束。 To give his blessing in the Liturgy he uses the trikerion in his right and the dikerion in his left hand.為了給他的祝福,在禮儀中,他使用了trikerion在他的右手,在他的左手dikerion。 These are a triple and double candlestick with candles.這是一個三人間和雙燭台,蠟燭。 The priest wears the sticharion, epitrachelion, zone, and epimanikia.牧師穿sticharion,epitrachelion,區,epimanikia。 If he is a dignitary he wears the epigonation and (in Russia) the mitre also.如果他是一個高官,他身上epigonation和(俄羅斯)斜切。 Instead of a sakkos he has a phainolion, our chasuble, but reaching to the feet behind and at the sides, and cut away in front (see CHASUBLE and illustrations).而不是一個sakkos的他有一個phainolion,我們的chasuble,但到達落後,在雙方的腳,並切去前面(見CHASUBLE和插圖)。 The deacon wears the sticharion and epimanikia, but no girdle.的執事穿的sticharion的的和epimanikia,但沒有帶子。 His stole is called an orarion; it is pinned to the left shoulder and hangs straight down, except that he winds it around his body and over the right shoulder at the Communion.他偷走了稱為一個orarion“;它固定到左肩和挂機直降,除了他纏在他身上,在右肩的共融。 It is embroidered with the word "HAGIOS" three times.繡字“HAGIOS”三次。 A very common abuse (among Melkites too) is for other servers to wear the orarion.一個非常常見的的的濫用(其中也Melkites)是為其他服務器穿orarion。 This is expressly forbidden by the Council of Laodicea (c. 360, can. xxii).理事會老底嘉(約360。二十二)這是明確禁止的。 The Byzantine Rite has no sequence of liturgical colours.拜占庭成年禮沒有序列的禮儀色彩。 They generally use black for funerals, otherwise any colours for any day.他們一般採用黑色的葬禮,否則任何顏色的任何一天。 The vessels used for the holy Liturgy are the chalice and paten (diskos), which latter is much larger than ours and has a foot to stand it (it is never put on the chalice), the asteriskos (a cross of bent metal that stands over the paten to prevent the veil from touching the holy bread), the spoon (labis) for giving Communion, the spear (logche) to cut up the bread, and the fan (hripidion) which the deacon waves over the Blessed Sacrament -- this is a flat piece of metal shaped like an angel's head with six wings and a handle.神聖的禮儀中使用的船隻是聖杯和專利(DISKOS),後者是遠遠大於我們的立足點(這是從來沒有的聖杯),asteriskos(一個彎曲的金屬十字架的代表在搭配專利,以防止面紗,從觸摸神聖的麵包),勺子(拉美士)給聖餐,矛(logche)削減了麵包,並在聖體聖事的執事波的風扇(hripidion) - 這是一塊平坦的形狀像一個天使的頭六個翅膀和一個手柄的金屬。 The antimension) is a kind of corporal containing relics that is spread out at the beginning of the Liturgy. “antimension”)是一種體罰文物攤開的禮儀開始。 It is really a portable altar.這確實是一個便攜式的祭壇。 The Holy Bread (always leavened of course) is made as a flat loaf marked in squares to be cut up during the Proskomide with the letters IC.聖餅(當然總是有酵)作為一個單位在Proskomide以字母IC在廣場被切開的麵包標記。 XC. XC。 NI. NI。 KA. KA。 (Iesous Christos nika). (iesous克里斯托尼卡)。 In the diakonikon a vessel is kept with hot water for the Liturgy (Fortescue, op. cit., 403-409; "Echos d'Orient", V, 129-139; R. Storff, "Die griech. Liturg.", 13-14).在diakonikon的船隻保持與熱水的禮儀(Fortescue的,前引書,403-409;“迴聲報”D'東方“,V,129-139; R. Storff,:”模具griech。Liturg。“, 13-14)。

Church music教會音樂

The singing in the Byzantine Rite is always unaccompanied.在拜占庭成年禮的歌聲總是陪伴。 No musical instrument of any kind may be used in their churches.沒有任何形式的樂器,可以使用他們的教會。 They have a plain chant of eight modes that correspond to ours, except that they are numbered differently; the four authentic modes (Doric, Phrygian, Lydian, and Mixolydian -- our 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th) come first, then the Plagal modes (our 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th).他們有一個平原高唱的模式,對應於我們,但他們的編號不同的四種有效模式(多立克,弗里吉亞,呂底亞和米索利地安調 - 我們的第1,第3,第5,和7日)是第一位的,然後Plagal模式(第2,第4,第6和第8)。 But their scales are different.但是,他們的尺度是不同的。 Whereas our plainsong is strictly diatonic, theirs is enharmonic with variable intervals.而我們的聖歌是嚴格的全音階,是他們的等響度與可變間隔。 They always sing in unison and frequently change the mode in the middle of a chant.他們總是異口同聲地唱,並經常改變工作模式,中間一個唄。 One singer (generally a boy) sings the dominant (to ison) of the mode to the sound of A continuously, while the rest execute their elaborate pneums (see PLAIN CHANT).一個歌手(通常是男孩)唱的模式佔主導地位的(以ISON)的一個連續的聲音,而其餘的執行他們的的精心pneums(見平原高唱)。 The result is generally -- to our ears -- unmelodious and strange, though in some cases a carefully trained choir produces a fine effect.結果是 - 我們的耳朵 - unmelodious奇怪,雖然在某些情況下,仔細訓練有素的合唱團,產生了良好的效果。 One of the best is that of St. Anne's (Melkite) College at Jerusalem, trained by the French Pères Blancs.其中最好的是聖安妮(Melkite)的學院在耶路撒冷,由法國佩雷斯Blancs的訓練。 One of these, Père Rebours, has written an exhaustive and practical treatise of their chant ("Traité de psaltique" etc.; see bibliography).其中之一,麋鹿Rebours,寫了一本詳盡,實用的論文,他們的唄(“論psaltique”等;見參考書目)。 In Russia and lately, to some extent, in the metropolitan church of Athens they sing figured music in parts of a very stately and beautiful kind.在俄羅斯,最近,在一定程度上,在大都會教堂雅典,他們唱想通部分地區的一種非常莊嚴和美麗的音樂。 It is probably the most beautiful and suitable church music in the world.這可能是在世界上最美麗,最合適的教堂音樂。

The Holy Liturgy神聖的禮儀

The present use of the Byzantine Rite confines the older Liturgy of St. Basil to the Sundays in Lent (except Palm Sunday), Maundy Thursday, and Holy Saturday, also the eves of Christmas and the Epiphany, and St. Basil's feast (1 January).目前的使用的拜占庭成年禮局限,舊禮儀聖羅勒在封齋期的星期日(棕櫚週日除外),濯足節,和聖週六,聖誕節和主顯節的前夕,聖羅勒的盛宴(1月1日)。 On all other days on which the Liturgy is celebrated they use that of St. Chrysostom.在所有其他的禮儀慶祝的日子,而他們使用的聖金口。 But on the weekdays in Lent (except Saturdays) they may not consecrate, so they use for them the Liturgy of the Presanctified.但在平日裡封齋期(星期六除外),他們可能不奉獻,所以,他們使用他們禮儀中的presanctified的。 An Orthodox priest does not celebrate every day, but as a rule only on Sundays and feast-days.東正教牧師不慶祝每一天,但作為一項規則,只有在星期日和節日天。 the Uniats, however, in this, as in many other ways, imitate the Latin custom.然而,Uniats,在此,在其他許多方面,模仿拉丁定制的。 They also have a curious principle that the altar as well as the celebrant must be fasting, that is to say that it must not have been used already on the same day.他們也有一個奇怪的原則,祭壇以及監禮人必須是空腹喝,也就是說,它不能被使用過的同一天。 So there is only one Liturgy a day in an Orthodox Church.因此,每天只有一個禮儀的東正教。 Where many priests are present they concelebrate, all saying the Anaphora together over the same offerings.在許多祭司是目前共祭,說的照應,一起在同一個產品。 This happens nearly always when a bishop celebrates; he is surrounded by his priests, who celebrate with him.這幾乎總是發生時,主教慶祝他一起慶祝他的祭司,他的周圍。 The Liturgy of St. Chrysostom, as being the one commonly used, is always printed first in the Euchologia.作為一個常用的禮儀聖金口,總是先打印在Euchologia。 It is the framework into which the others are fitted and the greater part of the Liturgy is always said according to this form.它是一個框架,其中的安裝和其他大部份的禮儀總是說,根據這種形式。 After it are printed the prayers of St. Basil (always much longer) which are substituted for some of the usual ones when his rite is used, and then the variants of the Liturgy of the Presanctified.後印刷的禱告,聖羅勒(總是更長的時間)被取代時,他的儀式是一些常用的,然後,禮儀中的presanctified的變種。 The Liturgies of Basil and Chrysostom, then, differing only in a certain number of the prayers, may be described together. liturgies的羅勒和金口中,然後,僅在一定數目的祈禱不同,可以一起描述。

The first rubric directs that the celebrant must be reconciled to all men, keep his heart from evil thoughts, and be fasting since midnight.監禮人的第一個專欄指示,必須協調所有的人,從邪惡的想法,讓他的心臟,並從午夜開始禁食。 At the appointed hour (usually immediately after None) the celebrant and deacon (who communicates and must therefore also be fasting) say the preparatory prayers before the ikonostasis (Brightman, op. cit., 353-354), kiss the holy ikons, and go into the diakonikon.在約定的時間(通常是後立即無)監禮人及執事(誰通信,因此必須禁食)說,籌備祈禱前的ikonostasis(布萊曼,前引書,353-354),親吻神聖的聖像,進入的diakonikon。 Here they vest, the celebrant blessing each vestment as it is put on, say certain prayers, and wash their hands, saying verses 6-12 of Psalm 25 ("Lavabo inter innocentes" etc., op. cit., 354-356).在這裡,他們背心,監禮人的祝福,因為它是把每個法衣,說某些祈禱,勤洗手,說詩句6-12詩篇25(“洗手盆其中innocentes”等,前引書,354-356) 。 Then the first part of the Liturgy, the Preparation of the Offering (proskomide) begins at the credence table (prothesis).然後第一部分的禮儀中,開始準備發售(proskomide)在的信任表(假體)。 The loaves of bread (generally five) are marked in divisions as described above under the caption Altar, etc. The celebrant cuts away with the holy lance the parts marked IC.麵包(一般為5)被標記為師,作為上述標題下的祭壇,該監禮人削減的聖槍的零件標記IC。 XC. XC。 NI. NI。 KA., and says: "The Lamb of God is sacrificed." KA,並說:“神的羔羊,是犧牲。” These parts are then called the Lamb.然後,這些部件的羔羊。 The deacon pours wine and warm water into the chalice.執事盆滿缽滿的葡萄酒和溫水調成的聖杯。 Other parts of the bread are cut away in honour of the All-holy Theotokos, nine for various saints, and others for the bishop, Orthodox clergy, and various people for whom he wishes to pray.其他部分的麵包被切掉,在榮譽的所有聖子,九,各種聖人,和其他的主教,東正教神職人員,和不同的人,對他們來說,他希望祈禱。 This rite is accompanied by many prayers, the particles (prosphorai) are arranged on the diskos (paten) by the Lamb (that of the Theotokos on the right, because of the verse "The Queen stands at thy right hand". A long rubric explains all this), covered with the asteriskos and veils, and the offerings are repeatedly incensed.這是伴隨著許多的禱告儀式,的粒子(prosphorai)被安排在(專利)DISKOS的羔羊(即東正的權利,因為詩歌“女王在你的右手”。長專欄解釋了這一切),覆蓋的asteriskos和面紗,並一再激怒的產品。 The deacon then incenses the prothesis, altar, sanctuary, nave, and the celebrant.執事然後燒香的假體,祭壇,聖所,中殿,監禮人。 (A detailed account of the now elaborate rite of the Proskomide is given in the "Echos d'Orient", III, 65-78.) They then go to the altar, kiss the Gospel on it and the deacon holding up his orarion says: It is time to sacrifice to the Lord. (詳細講述了現在的Proskomide精心製作的儀式是在“迴聲報”D'東方“,III,65-78)。然後,他們去的祭壇,親吻和執事舉起orarion說的福音這是祭祀耶和華。 Here begin the Litanies (ektenai or synaptai).在這裡開始的連禱(ektenai或synaptai)。 The doors of the ikonostasis are opened, and the deacon goes out through the north door.的ikonostasis的門被打開,通過北門的執事。 Standing before the royal doors he chants the Great Litany, praying for peace, the Church, the patriarch or synod (in Orthodox countries for the sovereign and his family), the city, travellers, etc., etc. To each clause the choir answer "Kyrie eleison".站在前王室的門,他歌頌了偉大的禱文,祈求和平,教會,族長或主教(東正教國家的主權和他的家人),城市,旅遊,等等,等等。每個子句合唱團的答案“垂憐”。 Then follows the first antiphon (on Sundays Ps. cii), and the celebrant at the altar says a prayer.然後如下安提(週日詩CII),監禮人在祭壇上說的祈禱。 The Short Litany is sung in the same way (the clauses are different, Brightman, op. cit., 362-375) with an antiphon and prayer, and then a third litany; on Sundays the third antiphon is the Beatitudes.以同樣的方式(條款是不同的,布萊曼,前引書,362-375)安提和祈禱,然後是第三個一連串的短禱唱的,上週日第三antiphon是“八福”。

The Little Entrance小入口

Here follows the Little Entrance.下面的小入口。 The deacon has gone back to the celebrant's side.執事已經回到監禮人的身邊。 They come out through the north door in procession, the deacon holding the book of the Gospels, with acolytes bearing candles.他們通過北門出來在遊行,執事捧著書的福音,追隨者軸承蠟燭。 The troparia (short hymns) are sung, ending with the Trisagion: "Holy God, Holy Strong One, Holy Immortal One, have mercy on us" (three times) ; then "Glory be to the Father", etc. "As it was in the beginning", etc. -- and again "Holy God", etc. Meanwhile the celebrant says other prayers.聖頌(短聖歌)所唱,結束Trisagion:“神聖的上帝,聖靈強,神聖不朽的一個,可憐我們吧!”(3次),然後選擇“榮耀歸於父那裡去”等“,因為它在開始“,等等 - ”神聖的上帝“,等等。同時監禮說,其他的祈禱。 A reader sings the Epistle; a Gradual is sung; the deacon sings the Gospel, having incensed the book; more prayers follow.一位讀者唱的書信;一個漸進唱執事唱的福音,不快的是,本書更多的祈禱遵循。 Then come prayers for the catechumens, and they are dismissed by the deacon: "All catechumens go out. Catechumens go out. All catechumens go away. Not one of the catechumens [shall stay]."然後來祈禱,為慕道者,他們被解僱的執事:“所有慕道走出去。慕道者走出去。所有慕道者離開。沒有一個人的慕道[留]。” -- Of course nowadays there are no catechumens. - 當然,現在有沒有慕道者。 The prayers for the catechumens bring us to the first variant between the two Liturgies.的慕道者的祈禱帶給我們的第一個變種兩者之間的禮儀。 The one said by the celebrant is different (and, as an exception, shorter) in St. Basil's rite (Brightman, op. cit., 374 and 401).一說由監禮人是不同的(並且,作為例外,較短)聖巴西爾儀式(布萊曼,前引書,374和401)。 The deacon says, "All the faithful again and again pray to the Lord in peace", and repeats several times the curious exclamation "Wisdom!"執事說,“所有信徒一而再,再祈禱和平”的主,並重複幾次好奇的感嘆“智慧!” (sophia) that occurs repeatedly in the Byzantine Rite -- before the Gospel he says "Wisdom! Upright!" (索菲婭),反复出現在拜占庭成年禮 - 之前的福音,他說:“智慧!直立!” -- sophia. - 索菲亞。 orthoi., meaning that the people should stand up. orthoi,這意味著市民應該站起來。

The Liturgy of the Faithful禮儀的忠實

The Liturgy of the Faithful begins here.的禮儀的忠實從這裡開始的。 Prayers for the faithful follow (different in the two rites, Brightman, op. cit., 375-377 and 400-401); and then comes the dramatic moment of the Liturgy, the Great Entrance.忠實的後續禱告(不同的兩個儀式的禮儀中,在大門口,布萊曼,同前引書,375-377和400-401);然後是激動人心的時刻。 The celebrant and deacon go to the prothesis, the offerings are incensed.監禮人及執事去假體,被激怒的產品。 The deacon covers his shoulders with the great veil (see ÆR) and takes the diskos (paten) with the bread; the thurible hangs from his hand; the celebrant follows with the chalice.執事與偉大的面紗(AER),涵蓋了他的肩膀需要的DISKOS的(專利)的麵包,thurible掛在他的手;監禮人以下的聖杯。 Acolytes go in front and form a solemn procession.寺僧走在前面,形成一個莊嚴的遊行。 Meanwhile the choir sings the Cherubic Hymn (Cheroubikos hymnos): "Let us, who mystically represent the Cherubim, and who sing to the Life-giving Trinity the thrice holy hymn, put away all earthly cares so as to receive the King of all things [here the procession comes out through the north door] escorted by the army of angels. Alleluia, alleluia, alleluia."同時,合唱團唱的天真無邪的的讚美詩(Cheroubikos hymnos):“讓我們神秘地表示基路伯,和誰唱的三位一體的生命至聖的讚歌,把所有塵世的關心,以便接受了國王所有的東西這裡的遊行出來,通過北門陪同下,軍隊的天使。哈里路亞,哈里路亞,哈里路亞。“ The procession goes meanwhile all round the church and enters the sanctuary by the royal doors.同時遊行“全面教會和王室的門進入庇護所。 The Cherubic Hymn has a very elaborate and effective melody (Rebours, op. cit., 156-164) with almost endless pneums.天真無邪的歌有一個非常複雜的和有效的旋律(Rebours,前引書,156-164),幾乎是無止境的pneums。 This ceremony, with its allusion to the entrance of the "King of all things" before the offerings are consecrated, is a curious instance of a dramatic representation that anticipates the real moment of the Consecration.這個儀式,其典故的“國王”之前的產品奉獻一切事物的入口,是一個奇怪的實例一個戲劇性表示,預期的奉獻真正的時刻。 After some more prayers at the altar, different in the two liturgies, the deacon cries out, "The doors! The doors! Let us attend in wisdom", and the doors of the ikonostasis are shut.在祭壇上,不同的兩個禮儀的祈禱後,主祭人在哭泣,“門!門!讓我們參加的智慧”,和的ikonostasis的大門被關閉。 The Creed is then sung.然後唱的信條。

The Anaphora (Canon)照應(佳能)

Here begins the Anaphora (Canon).在這裡開始的照應(佳能)。 There is first a dialogue, "Lift up your hearts" etc., as with us, and the celebrant begins the Eucharistic prayer: "It is meet and just to sing to Thee, to bless Thee, praise Thee and give thanks to Thee in all places. . . ."首先是有一個對話,“抬起你的心”等,與我們,與監禮人開始聖體祈禱:“這是滿足只是對你唱,祝福你,讚美你,並給予感謝與你所有的地方......“ The form in St. Basil's Rite is much longer.在聖羅勒的愛色麗的形式是更長的時間。 It is not said aloud, but at the end he lifts up his voice and says: "Crying, singing, proclaiming the hymn of victory and saying:" -- and the choir sings "Holy, Holy, Holy" etc., as in our Mass. Very soon, after a short prayer (considerably longer in St. Basil's Rite) the celebrant comes to the words of Institution.這不是說出聲來,但結束時,他舉起了他的聲音,說:“哭,唱歌,宣布勝利的讚美詩,並說:” - 和合唱團唱“聖哉,聖哉,聖哉”等,如我們的馬薩諸塞州很快,一個簡短的祈禱後(相當長在聖羅勒的祭)禮來的話,機構。 He lifts up his Voice and sings: "Take and eat: this is my Body that is broken for you for the forgiveness of sins"; and through the Ikonostasis the choir answers "Amen".他舉起了他的聲音唱道:“你們拿著吃,這是我的身體,為你們舍的,使罪得赦”;和Ikonostasis通過合唱團的回答:“阿門”。 Then: "Drink ye all of this, this is my Blood of the New Testament that is shed for you and for many for the forgiveness of sins."然後:“你們都喝這個,這是我的血,新約,是為你們流出來的,和許多人的罪得赦免。” R. Amen -- as before. R.阿門 - 如前。 The Orthodox, as is known, do not believe that these words consecrate, so they go straight on to the Anamnesis, and a special rubric in their Euchologion (ed. Venice, 1898, p. 63) warns them not to make any reverence here.東正教,眾所周知,不相信說這些話的奉獻,讓他們去直的病歷,和一個特殊的專欄在他們的Euchologion(編輯威尼斯,1898年,頁63),警告他們不要作出任何敬畏。 The Uniats, on the other hand, make a profound reverence after each form. Uniats,另一方面每個表格後,作出了深刻的崇敬。 The Anamnesis (our "Unde et memores") again is longer in the Basilian Liturgy. (我們的“UNDE等memores”)的病歷較長在Basilian禮儀。 The Epiklesis follows.以下的的epiklesis。 The deacon invites the celebrant in each case: "Bless, sir, the holy bread [or wine]."執事請監禮人在每一種情況下:“上帝保佑,先生,聖餅[或酒。” The two forms (of Basil and Chrysostom) may stand as specimens of the principle of abbreviation that distinguishes the later rite.站作為標本的原則,區分後儀式的縮寫,這兩種形式(羅勒和金口)。 In St. Basil's Liturgy it is: "We pray and beseech thee, O Holy of Holy ones, that according to the mercy of thy favour thy Holy Spirit come down on us and on these present gifts to bless them, sanctify them and to make...."在聖羅勒的禮儀,它是:“我們祈禱並懇求你,O神聖的,神聖的,根據你贊成你的聖靈的憐憫,對我們這些送禮祝福他們,使他們成聖,使......“ (Chrysostom: "Send down thy Holy Spirit on us and on these present gifts...."). (金口:“給你的聖靈在我們和這些送禮的......”)。 Then, after an irrelevant interpolation, with two verses from Ps.然後,一個不相干的插值後,兩節經文詩。 l about the celebrant's own soul, he continues (Basil): "this bread the precious Body itself of our Lord and God and Saviour Jesus Christ" (Chrys.: "and make this bread the precious Body of thy Christ"). l關於監禮人自己的靈魂,他繼續(羅勒):“這個麵包寶貴的身體,我們的主和上帝和救主耶穌基督”(Chrys.“,使這個麵包寶貴的身體你的基督”)。 Deacon: "Amen. Bless, Sir, the holy chalice."執事:“阿門,祝福,主席先生,神聖的聖杯。” Celebrant (Basil): "But this chalice the Precious Blood itself of our God and Saviour Jesus Christ" (Chrys.: "And what it is in this Chalice the precious Blood of Thy Christ").禮(羅勒)說:“但是,這杯我們的上帝和救主耶穌基督的寶血”(Chrys.:“它是什麼,這杯你的基督的寶血”)。 Deacon: "Amen. Bless, Sir, both."執事:“阿門,祝福,主席先生,無論是。” Celebrant (Basil): "That was shed for the life and salvation of the world" (Chrys.: "Changing it by thy Holy Spirit").禮(羅勒):“那是脫落的生命和拯救世界”(Chrys.:“改變你的聖靈”)。 Deacon: "Amen. Amen. Amen."執事:“阿門,阿門,阿門。” Both then make a deep prostration, and the deacon waves the ripidion (fan) over the Blessed Sacrament.對雙方都進行了深入的虛脫,和執事波ripidion(風扇)在聖體聖事。 This ceremony, now interpreted mystically as a symbol of adoring angels, was certainly once a practical precaution.這個儀式,現在被解釋神秘的崇拜天使的象徵,當然是一次實際的預防措施。 They have no pall over the chalice and there is a danger of flies.他們沒有籠罩著的聖杯,是一個危險的蒼蠅。 The waving of the ripidion occurs several times during the Liturgy.的揮舞的ripidion的多次出現在禮儀。 In the Byzantine Rite, as in all the Antiochene family of liturgies, the Intercession follows at this point.在拜占庭成年禮,在所有的安提阿家庭的禮儀,在這一點上的調解如下。 First comes a memory of saints; the deacon then reads the Diptychs of the Dead, and the celebrant says a prayer into which he may introduce the names of any of the faithful departed for whom he wishes to pray.首先是內存的聖人,執事,然後讀取的折疊式日晷​​的死,監禮說,到他的祈禱可能會引入任何的忠實離去了,他希望祈禱的名字。 Prayers for the living follow (in Russia for the second time occur the names of "Our Orthodox and Christ-loving Lord Nicholas, Czar and Autocrat of all the Russias" and of all his "right-believing and God-fearing" family), with the names of the patriarch (or Synod) and metropolitan, and the ending; "and all [masc.] and all [fem.]" kai panton kai pason.禱告的生活後續(在俄羅斯第二次出現的名字,“我們的東正教和基督慈愛的主尼古拉斯,全俄羅斯沙皇和獨裁者”,他的所有“正確的信仰和敬畏上帝的”家庭),族長(或主教)和城域網,和結束“的名稱和所有[MASC。和所有[有限元分析。”偕潘啟pason。 The deacon then reads the Diptychs of the Living; more prayers for them follow.執事,然後讀取的折疊式日晷​​的生活,多為他們禱告遵循。 Here ends the Anaphora.在這裡結束的照應。 The celebrant blesses the people: "The mercy of our great God and Saviour Jesus Christ be with all of you."監禮人祝福的人:“我們偉大的上帝和救主耶穌基督的憐憫與所有”。 Choir: "And with thy spirit."合唱團:“你的精神。” And the deacon goes out to his place before the ikonostasis and reads a litany, praying for various spiritual and temporal favours, to each clause of which the choir answers: "Kyrie eleison", and at the last clause -- "Having prayed in the union of faith and in the communion of the Holy Ghost, let us commend ourselves and one another and our whole life to Christ, our God."和執事出去他的前ikonostasis,並讀出了一長串,各種精神和時間,有利於祈禱,每個子句的合唱團回答:“垂憐”,並在去年第 - “祈禱工會的信心和聖靈的共融,讓我們讚揚自己,彼此和我們的整個生命,基督,我們的上帝。“ To Thee, O Lord (Soi, Kyrie).要對你說,主阿(巷,凱里)。 -- -

Meanwhile the celebrant says a long prayer silently.同時監禮說,默默地一個很長的禱告。 The people sing the Lord's Prayer, and the celebrant adds the clause: For Thine is the Kingdom" etc. The Inclination follows. The deacon says, "Bow your heads to the Lord" (our "Humiliate capita vestra Domino"); they answer, "To Thee, O Lord", and the celebrant says the Prayer of Inclination (different in the two Liturgies). The preparation for Communion begins here. The deacon winds his orarion (stole) around his body, the curtain of the royal doors (they have besides the doors a curtain that is continually drawn backward and forward during the Liturgy) is drawn back, and the celebrant elevates the Holy Eucharist saying, "Holy things for the holy", to which the answer is: "One only is holy, one only is Lord, Jesus Christ in the glory of God the Father.人唱主禱文,監禮人,增加了條款:為你的王國“等傾斜如下。執事說,”你的頭弓主“(”羞辱人均vestra多米諾“),他們回答,“我要對你說,主啊”,並監禮人說,禱告的傾角(不同的兩個禮儀)。聖餐的準備工作從這裡開始。執事蜿蜒他的orarion的(偷)在他身體周圍的皇家門,窗簾(除了門,窗簾,不斷向前和向後拉過程中的禮儀)被拉回,並監禮人說,“神聖的東西,神聖的”,這個問題的答案是:“不僅是提升了聖體聖事是聖潔的,不僅是主耶穌基督的父上帝的榮耀。 Amen." The Communion hymn (koinonikon) of the day is sung, and the Communion begins. While the clergy Communicate in the Sanctuary a sermon is sometimes preached. The celebrant breaks the Holy Bread into four parts, as it is marked, and arranges them on the diskos thus: --阿門。“聖餐的讚歌(koinonikon)當天唱,和共融的開始。雖然在保護區的布道的神職人員溝通有時宣揚。該監禮人打破了神聖的麵包,分為四部分,因為它被標記,並安排他們的DISKOS: -

      ISNIKAXS (Where I=Iota, S=Sigma) ISNIKAXS(I =絲毫,S =標準差)

He puts the fraction marked (IOTA-SIGMA) into the chalice, and the deacon again pours into it a little warm water (the use of warm water is a very old peculiarity of this rite).The part marked (CHI-SIGMA) is divided into as many parts as there are priests and deacons to Communicate.他把部分標記(IOTA-SIGMA)的聖杯,和執事再倒入少許溫水(溫水使用這個儀式是一個非常古老的特殊性)。標記的部分(CHI-SIGMA)作為許多地區分為有牧師和執事溝通。 Meanwhile, prayers are said; those about to Communicate ask pardon of their offences against each other.同時,祈禱說,,即將溝通,互相要求赦免他們的罪行。 The celebrant says, "Behold I draw near to our immortal King" etc., and receives Holy Communion in the form of bread, saying: The precious and all-holy Body of Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ is given to me N. priest [or bishop] for the forgiveness of my sins and for life everlasting." Then he says, "Deacon, approach". and gives him Communion with the same form (To thee N. deacon etc.). The celebrant then drinks of the chalice with a corresponding form -- The precious and all-holy Blood -- and communicates the deacon as before. After Communion each says silently a very beautiful prayer -- I believe, Lord, and I confess that Thou art in very truth Christ, the Son of the living God etc. (Brightman, op. cit., 394.) The rest of the clergy are Communicated from the portion marked (IOTA-SIGMA), that has been put into the chalice and is therefore soaked in the consecrated wine, with one form (The precious and all-holy Body and Blood). The celebrant divides the portions marked NI and KA, and the deacon puts them into the chalice with a sponge. The doors are opened and the deacon says, "Draw near in the fear of God and with faith". The celebrant comes down to the doors with the chalice and the spoon and communicates the people with the Holy Bread dipped in the chalice, and with one form, as before. The people stand to receive Communion (the Byzantine Rite knows practically no kneeling at all). Finally, the deacon puts all the remaining particles into the chalice and carries it back to the prothesis. Those other particles (prosphora) originally cut off from the bread have lain on the diskos (paten) since the proskomide. It has been a great question whether they are consecrated or not. The Orthodox now say that they are not, and the deacon puts them into the chalice after the Communion. It is obviously a question of the celebrant's intention. The Uniat priests are told to consecrate them too, and in their Liturgy the people receive in Communion (Fortescue, op. cit., 417; "Echos d'Orient", III, 71-73).該監禮人說,“看哪,我親近我們的不朽之王”等,並接受聖餐麵包的形式,他說:我們的主救主耶穌基督是寶貴的,神聖的身體給我N.牧師[或主教的寬恕我的罪過和永恆的生命。“他說,”執事辦法“,給他的聖餐相同的形式(我要對你N.執事等)。該監禮人的飲料chalice與相應的形式 - 寶石和神聖的血 - 和通信執事前,,在聖餐各說默默一個非常美麗的祈禱 - 我相信,主阿,我得承認,你的藝術,事實上,基督,兒子活著的上帝等(布萊曼,前引書,394。),其餘的神職人員帶有標記的部分(IOTA-SIGMA),已投入的聖杯,因此浸泡在神聖的溝通酒的一種形式(寶石和神聖的身體和血)。禮將標記為NI和KA的部分,和執事的聖杯,用海綿將其放入。門被打開和執事說,“畫附近對上帝的敬畏和信仰“。禮來聖杯與勺子的門與通信的人與神聖的麵包浸在酒杯,和人的立場得到的一種形式,和以前一樣。聖餐(拜占庭禮儀的人都知道,幾乎沒有跪在所有)。最後,執事把所有剩餘的粒子的聖杯,並進行假體。這些的顆粒(prosphora)最初的麵包切斷躺在上的DISKOS (搭配專利)以來的proskomide。它已被一個很大的問題,無論他們是神聖的或不。的正統現在說,他們不是,和執事,使它們成的高腳酒杯後的共融。這是明顯的監禮人的意圖的問題。Uniat祭司告訴他們也奉獻的人,他們的禮儀接受聖餐(Fortescue的,前引書,417“迴聲報德東方”,III,71-73)。

Dismissal解僱

Here begins the Dismissal.在這裡開始解僱。 The deacon unwinds his orarion, goes back to the choir before the ikonostasis, and says a short litany again with the choir.執事將展開他的orarion,可以追溯到前ikonostasis的合唱團,並與合唱團再次說,一個很短的一連串。 He then goes to the prothesis and consumes all that is left of the Holy Eucharist with the prosphora.他然後去假體和,消耗所有剩下的聖體聖事的prosphora。 Meanwhile, some of the bread originally cut up at the Prothesis has remained there all the time.與此同時,一些在假體切割的麵包在那裡停留的時間。 This is now brought to the celebrant, blessed by him, and given to the people as a sacramental (the French pain bénit -- see ANTIDORON).這是現在的禮,祝福他,和作為一個聖(法國疼痛bénit - ANTIDORON)的人。 After some more prayers the celebrant and deacon go to the diakonikon, the doors are shut, they take off their vestments, and the Liturgy is over.經過一些祈禱監禮人及執事去的diakonikon,門被關閉,他們需要他們的禮服,和在禮儀結束。 The whole service is very much longer than our Mass. It lasts about two hours.持續約兩個小時,整個服務是非常長於我們的馬薩諸塞州。 It should be noted that all the time that the choir are singing or litanies being said the priest is saying other prayers silently (mystikos).應該注意的是,所有的時間,合唱團唱禱是牧師說是說其他的祈禱默默(mystikos)。 The Byzantine Rite has no provision for low Mass. As they say the Liturgy only on Sundays and feast-days, they have less need for such a rite.拜占庭式的成年禮沒有提供低馬薩諸塞州的,正如他們所說的禮儀只在星期天和節日天,他們不太需要這樣的儀式。 In cases of necessity, where there is no deacon, the celebrant supplies his part as best he can.在有必要的情況下,有沒有執事,監禮人提供他最好的,他可以​​。 The Uniats, who have begun to celebrate every day, have evolved a kind of low Liturgy; and at the Greek College at Rome they have a number of little manuscript books containing an arrangement for celebrating with a priest and one lay server only.已經開始慶祝每一天,Uniats,形成了一種低禮儀,在希臘文學院在羅馬,他們有一些小的手稿書籍,裡面有一名神父為慶祝安排和一名非服務器只。 But in the Levant, at any rate, the Liturgy is always sung, and incense is always used; so that the minimum of persons required for the Liturgy is a celebrant, server, and one other man who forms the choir.但在地中海東部,無論如何,禮​​儀總是唱,香,總是使用,使最小的禮儀所需的人,是一個禮,服務器,和另外一個男人組成的合唱團。

Liturgy of the Presanctified禮儀的presanctified的

Liturgy of the Presanctified禮儀的presanctified的

The Liturgy of the Presanctified is fitted into the general framework of St. Chrysostom's Rite.的禮儀的presanctified會被裝入聖金口的愛色麗的總體框架。 It is usually celebrated on Wednesdays and Fridays in the first six weeks of Lent, and on all the days of Holy Week, except Maundy Thursday and Easter Eve which have the real Liturgy (of St. Basil).它通常是在週三和週五在首六個星期的大齋期,並在所有的聖週慶祝,除了濯足節和復活節前夕,有真正的禮儀(聖羅勒)。 On other days in Lent there is no liturgical service at all.在其他天的大齋期,有沒有在所有的禮儀服務。 On the Sunday before more loaves (prosphorai) are used than otherwise.更多的麵包(prosphorai前的星期日)用於比其他。 The same rite of preparation is made over all.同樣的儀式的準備工作是在所有。 After the Elevation the celebrant dips the other prosphoras into the chalice with the spoon, and places it in another chalice in the tabernacle (artophorion) kept for this purpose.後高程禮蘸prosphoras到聖杯與勺子,把它放在另一個聖杯在的帳幕(artophorion)一直用於這一目的。 The Liturgy of the Presanctified is said after Vespers (hesperinos), which forms its first part.該禮儀的presanctified會後說晚禱(hesperinos)的,從而形成了自己的第一部分。 There is of course no further Proskomide, but the preparatory prayers are said by celebrant and deacon as usual.當然是有沒有的進一步Proskomide,但像往常一樣,籌備祈禱說,由監禮人及執事。 The Great Litany is introduced into the middle of Vespers.偉大的禱文被引入到中間的晚禱。 The hymn phos ilaron (see below) is sung as usual, and the lessons are read.像往常一樣,唱的讚美詩:磷酸ilaron(見下文)和閱讀的經驗教訓。 The prayers for catechumens and their dismissal follow.祈禱,為慕道者和他們解僱。 The Great Entrance is made with the already consecrated offerings, and a changed form of the Cherubic Hymn is sung (Maltzew, "Die Liturgien", 149).大門口已經奉獻的產品,是用天真無邪的歌變了一個形式演唱(Maltzew,“模具Liturgien”,149)。 The curtain of the royal doors is half-drawn across, the whole Anaphora is omitted, and they go on at once to the Short Litany before the Lord's Prayer.窗簾的皇家門是半拉過,整個照應被省略,和他們去一次短禱文主禱文前。 The Lord's Prayer, Inclination, and Elevation with the form: "The presanctified Holy Things to the holy" follow.主禱文,傾角和海拔的形式:“的presanctified的聖物,以神聖的”跟隨。 Wine and warm water are poured into the chalice, but not, of course, consecrated.葡萄酒和溫水倒入酒杯,但沒有,當然,奉獻。 Communion is given with one form only.聖餐是唯一的一種形式。 The Blessed Sacrament already dipped in consecrated wine is now dipped in unconsecrated wine.聖體聖事已經浸在神聖的酒現在是浸在獻身酒。 The celebrant drinks of this wine after his Communion without any prayer.這種酒的飲料後,他的聖餐禮沒有任何祈禱。 The Liturgy ends as usual (with different forms in some parts), and the deacon consumes what is left of the Holy Eucharist (unless some of it is again reserved for the next Presanctified Liturgy and the wine in the Chalice. This is the merest outline of the rite. Its earlier part is inextricably joined to the Vespers (Maltzew, op. cit., 121-158).像往常一樣(在一些地區)的不同形式的禮儀結束,和執事消耗所剩無幾的聖體聖事(除非它再次被保留在chalice在未來Presanctified的禮儀和酒,這是微薄的輪廓的儀式,它的前面部分有著千絲萬縷的加入晚禱(Maltzew,前引書,121-158)。

The Divine Office神聖的辦公室

The Divine Office is very long and complicated.神聖的辦公室是很長的,複雜的。 When sung in choir it lasts about eight hours.當合唱團演唱,持續時間約8小時。 It is said entirely only by monks.這是說完全只能由僧侶。 Secular priests say part of it, as their devotion dictates.世俗教士說,它的一部分,他們的奉獻精神使然。 The Uniats frequently apply to Rome to know what to do, and the answer is always: Servetur consuetudo, by which is meant that their secular clergy should say as much of the Office as is customary. Uniats經常適用於羅馬不知道該怎麼辦,和的答案永遠是:Servetur consuetudo,這意味著,他們的世俗的神職人​​員應該說是習慣性的盡可能多的辦公室。 It is impossible for them to say it all.他們說這是不可能的。 The Office is divided into the hours named above (under Service-books) which correspond to ours, with additional short hours (mesoora) intermediate between Prime, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers.辦公室分為命名小時以上(根據服務的圖書),我們只需很短的時間(mesoora)之間的中間首相,泰爾塞,SEXT,“無”,和晚禱。 It is made up of psalms, lessons, prayers, and especially of a great number of hymns in rhythmical prose.它是由的詩篇,經驗教訓,祈禱,特別是大量的讚美詩節奏的散文。 The Psalter is divided into twenty parts called kathismata, each of which is made up of three sections (staseis).的Psalter分為20份稱為kathismata,其中每個是由三個部分(staseis)的。 The whole Psalter is sung every week.整個psalter唱每週。 The most important of the many kinds of hymns are the following: A canon (kanon) is made up of nine odes corresponding to the nine canticles (of Moses, Exodus 15:1-19; Deuteronomy 32:1-43; of Anna, 1 Samuel 2:1-10; Habakkuk 3:2-19; Isaiah 26:9-20; Jonah 2:2-10; the Benedicite, Magnificat, and Benedictus) sung at Lauds.多種讚美詩最重要的有以下幾種:一台佳能(KANON)是由九歌相應的九個canticles(摩西出埃及記15:1-19,申命記32:1-43;安娜,撒母耳記上2:1-10;哈巴谷書3:2-19;​​以賽亞書26:9-20;約拿書2:2-10; Benedicite,尊,並逐日者)唱讚美。 Of these canticles the second is sung only in Lent; therefore most canons have no second ode.這些canticles,二是唱,只在大齋期,因此,最大砲有沒有第二次的頌歌。 Each ode is supposed to correspond more or less to its canticle.每個頌歌應該是對應或多或少的頌歌。 Thus the sixth ode will generally contain a reference to Jona's whale.因此,第六頌歌約拿的鯨魚通常會包含一個參考。 Otherwise the canon is always about the feast on which it is sung, and much ingenuity is expended in forcing some connexion between the event of the day and the allusions in the canticles.否則,佳能一直是它唱的盛宴,許多別出心裁的支出迫使一些Connexion公司之間的一天,事件的典故在canticles。 The odes are further divided into a heirmos and troparia of any number, from three to twenty or more.頌進一步劃分成任何數目heirmos和聖頌,從3到20或更多。 The heirmos sets the tune for each ode (see PLAIN CHANT), and the troparia follow it. heirmos設置每個頌歌(見平原CHANT),和聖頌遵循的調。 The last troparion of each ode always refers to Our Lady and is called theotokion.最後troparion每個頌歌始終是我們的夫人,被稱為誕神女頌。 The odes often make an acrostic in their initial letters; sometimes they are alphabetic.的頌歌往往使離合詞的首字母,有時他們是按字母順序排列。 In long canons a poem is intercalated in the middle during which people may sit (they stand for nearly the whole Office); it is called theotokion.在漫長的大砲一首詩是插在中間,人們可以坐(他們的立場幾乎整個辦公室),它被稱為誕神女頌。 Three troparia form an kathisma ("house", cf. Italian stanza).三聖頌形式kathisma(“房子”,比照意大利節)。 The canons for the weekdays are in the Oktoechos, those for immovable feasts in the Menaias, for movable ones in the Triodion and Pentekostarion (see above under Service-books).平日裡的大砲是在Oktoechos,那些為不動產節日的Menaias,為可移動的的Triodion和Pentekostarion(見上文服務的圖書)。 One of the most famous of all is St. John Damascene's Golden Canon for Easter Day (translated by Dr. JM Neale in his "Hymns of the Eastern Church", 4th ed., London, pp. 30-44).其中最有名的是聖約翰大馬士革的黃金佳能復活節(翻譯JM尼爾博士在他的“讚美詩的東部教會”,第4版,倫敦,頁30-44)。 Other kinds of chant are the kontakion, a short poem about the feast, the stichos a versicle, generally from a psalm (like our antiphons), which introduces a sticheron, or hymn sung at Matins and Vespers.其他種類誦禱頌一首小詩的盛宴,stichos短詩,一般的詩篇(如我們的輪唱),引入了sticheron,或唱的讚美詩在晨禱和晚禱。 An idiomelon is a troparion that has its own melody, instead of following a heirmos (for other kinds of chant see Nilles, "Kalend. Man.", pp. lvii-lxix, and the example he gives from the feast of the Transfiguration, 6 August).的idiomelon是一個troparion,有它自己的旋律,而不是一個heirmos(其他種唄尼勒斯,“Kalend人”,第LVII,LXIX,和他的例子中給出從盛宴的變形, 8月6日)。 The Great Doxology (doxologia) is our "Gloria in excelsis", the small one our "Gloria Patri".大的讚美詩(doxologia)是我們的“凱萊在excelsis”,小一“凱萊帕特里”。 The Hymnos Akathistos ("standing hymn") is a complete Office in honour of Our Lady and of her Annunciation. “Hymnos Akathistos(”站立的讚歌“)是一個完整的Office的榮譽,我們的夫人和她的報喜。 It has all the Hours and is made up of psalms, odes, etc., like other Offices.它的全部時間和詩章,頌詞等,是由像其他辦事處。 It is sung very solemnly on the Saturday before the second Sunday before Easter; and they sing parts of it every Friday evening and Saturday morning in Lent.這是唱的非常鄭重地在星期六前的第二個星期日復活節前的,他們唱的部分,每星期五晚上和星期六的早晨,封齋。 It is always sung standing.它總是唱地位。 The Hymnos Akathistos is printed at the end of the Horologion. Hymnos Akathistos印結束時的Horologion。 P. de Meester, OSB, has edited it with an Italian translation (Akolouthia tou akathistou hymnou. -- Officio dell' inno acatisto, Rome, 1903). P.·梅斯特,OSB,編輯它意大利語翻譯(Akolouthia,頭akathistou hymnou。 - 成員戴爾的創新的acatisto,羅馬,1903年)。 At the end of Vespers every day is sung the famous phos ilaron, as the evening light disappears, and the lamps are lit: --在晚禱結束,每天唱了著名的磷酸ilaron,如傍晚的光線消失了,燈都亮: -

Hail, gladdening Light, of his pure glory poured冰雹,使歡喜的光,​​他的純榮耀的倒

Who is the immortal Father, heavenly, blest,誰是不朽的父親,神聖的,神聖的,

Holiest of Holies, Jesus Christ, Our Lord.神聖的至聖,我們的主耶穌基督,。

Now we are come to the sun's hour of rest,現在,我們來太陽的小時的休息,

The lights of evening round us shine,周圍的燈光晚上我們一起發光,

We hymn the Father, Son and Holy Spirit divine,我們的讚歌聖父,聖子和聖靈神聖的,

Worthiest art Thou at all times to be sung你在任何時候都必須唱有價值的藝術

With undefiled tongue,隨著玷污不爛之舌,

Son of our God, giver of life alone.我們的神的兒子,單獨生活的送禮者。

Therefore in all the world, thy glories, Lord, they own.因此,在這個世界上,你的光榮,主阿,他們所擁有的。

-- Keble's translation in the "Hymns, Ancient and Modern", No. 18. - 基布爾翻譯中的“讚美詩,古代與現代”,第18號。

The Seven Great Mysteries (Sacraments)七奧秘(聖禮)

There are, lastly, services for the administration of the Seven Great Mysteries (the Seven Sacraments) that are printed in the Euchologion after the liturgies (ed. cit., pp. 136-288).最後,有管理的7大秘(七聖禮),在Euchologion打印後的禮儀(編輯引書,第136-288)的服務。

Baptism洗禮

Baptism is always conferred by immersion (the Orthodox have grave doubts as to the validity of baptism by infusion. See Fortescue, Orth. E. Church, p. 420).總是賦予的洗禮沉浸(東正教深表懷疑為的洗禮輸液的有效性。見Fortescue的,Ortho的。E.教會,頁420)。 The child is anointed all over its body and dipped three times with its face towards the east.孩子是抹在它的身體,它的臉向東蘸三次。 The form is: "The servant of God N. is baptized in the name of the Father, Amen, and of the Son, Amen, and of the Holy Ghost, Amen."形式是:“神的僕人N.受洗的父親,阿門的名義,阿門的兒子,和聖靈,阿門。”

Confirmation確認

Confirmation follows at once and is conferred by priests (the Holy See recognizes this confirmation as valid and neither rebaptizes nor reconfirms converts from Orthodoxy).確認如下一次,並授予由祭司(羅馬教廷認識到這一點確認為有效,轉換既不是rebaptizes也再次確認了東正教)。 The whole body is again anointed with chrism (to hagion hyron) prepared very elaborately with fifty-five various substances by the cumenical patriarch on Maundy Thursday (Fortescue, op. cit., 425-426).全身又是抹與chrism(以hagion海海隆)的非常精心準備的55多個物質的cumenical族長濯足節(Fortescue的,前引書,425-426)。 The form is: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost" (Euch., 136-144).其形式是:“聖靈的恩賜的的”(Euch.,136-144)的印章。 The Orthodox never rebaptize when they are sure of the validity of former baptism; but they reconfirm continually.的正統時,他們從來沒有rebaptize前洗禮的有效性是肯定的,但他們重申,持續的。 Confirmation has become the usual rite of admittance into their Church, even in the case of apostates who have already been confirmed orthodoxly.確認已成為平常的入場儀式到他們的教會,即使是在誰已經被證實orthodoxly的情況下,變節者。

Holy Communion聖餐

The pious Orthodox layman Communicates as a rule only four times a year, at Christmas, Easter, Whitsunday, and the Falling Asleep of the Mother of God (15 August).虔誠的東正教門外漢通信作為一項規則,一年只有四次,在聖誕節,復活節,聖靈降臨節,入睡的天主之母(8月15日)。 The Blessed Sacrament is reserved for the sick in the artophorion, (or ierophylakion) under both kinds more or less, that is to say it has been dipped into the chalice and allowed to dry.聖體聖事是保留給生病的artophorion,(或ierophylakion)下的兩種多跌少,這是說,它已被浸入酒杯,使之乾燥。 It is given to the sick with a spoon and with the usual form (see above under Holy Liturgy).它是用勺子給生病的,與通常的形式(見上文教廷禮儀)。 They have no tradition of reverence for the reserved Eucharist.他們沒有傳統的崇敬之情,對保留的聖體聖事。

Penance懺悔

Penance (metanoia) is administered rarely, usually on the same occasions as Holy Communion.懺悔(悔改(metanoia))管理的很少,通常在同一場合聖餐。 They have no confessionals.他們有沒有懺悔。 The ghostly father (pneumatikos) sits before the ikonostasis under the picture of Our Lord, the penitent kneels before him (one of the rare cases of kneeling is in this rite), and several prayers are said, to which the choir answers "Kyrie eleison".那個幽靈般的的父親(pneumatikos)位於前的ikonostasis的圖片下我們的主,懺悔,跪在他面前(一跪在極少數情況下是在這個儀式),幾個禱告說,合唱團回答“垂憐“。 The "choir" is always the penitent himself. “合唱團”,懺悔自己。 Then the ghostly father is directed to say "in a Cheerful voice: Brother, be not ashamed that you come before God and before me, for you do not confess to me but to God who is present here."幽靈般的父親是導演說:“在一個歡快的聲音:兄弟,你來到神的面前,在我面前的是不以為恥,因為你不承認我,但神是誰在這裡。” He asks the penitent his sins, says that only God can forgive him, but that Christ gave this power to his Apostles saying: "Whose sins ye shall forgive", etc., and absolves him with a deprecatory form in a long prayer in which occur the words: "May this same God, through me a sinner, forgive you all now and for ever."他問他的罪懺悔,說,只有上帝可以原諒他,但就是基督給了這個權力,他的門徒說:“誰的罪過你們要原諒”等,並免除他用貶低的形式在一個很長的禱告發生的話:“這同一位神,通過我是一個罪人,原諒你所有現在和永遠。” (Euch., pp. 221-223.) (Euch.,第221-223頁。)

Holy Order聖階

Holy Order (cheirotonia) is given by laying on the right hand only.聖階(cheirotonia)給出只鋪設的右手。 The form is (for deacons): "The grace of God, that always strengthens the weak and fills the empty, appoints the most religious sub-deacon N. to be deacon. Let us then pray for him that the grace of the Holy Ghost may come to him." (執事)的形式是:“神的恩典,始終加強的薄弱,填補了空,任命是最虔誠的子執事N.執事。那麼,讓我們為他祈禱,聖靈的恩典可以來找他。“ Long prayers follow, with allusions to St. Stephen and the diaconate; the bishop vests the new deacon, giving him an orarion and a ripidion.很長的禱告跟隨,聖史蒂芬和執事,主教典故賦予新的執事,給他一個orarion和ripidion。 For priests and bishops there is the same form, with the obvious variants, "the most religious deacon N. to be priest", or "the most religious elect N. to be Metropolitan of the holy Metropolis N."神父和主教有相同的形式,具有明顯的變體,“最虔誠的執事N.牧師”,或“最虔誠的選擇N.大都會的神聖都會N.” (nearly all their bishops have the title Metropolitan), and the subjects receive their vestments and instruments. (他們的主教幾乎所有的標題大城市),受試者接受他們的禮服和工具。 Priests and bishops concelebrate at once with the ordainer (Euch., 160-181).神父和主教共祭一次命定(Euch.,160-181)。 The Orthodox believe that the grace of Holy orders may perish through heresy or schism, so they generally reordain converts (the Russian Church has officially refused to do this, Fortescue, op. cit., 423-424).東正教認為異端邪說或分裂的恩典,神聖的命令,可能會消亡,所以,他們一般reordain皈依(俄羅斯教會已正式拒絕這樣做,Fortescue的,同前。,423至424)。

Matrimony婚姻

Matrimony (gamos) is often called the "crowning" (stephanoma) from the practice of crowning the spouses (Euch., 238-252).婚姻(gamos)通常被稱為“加冕”(stephanoma)的加冕配偶(Euch.,238-252)的做法。 They wear these crowns for a week, and have a special service for taking them off again (Euch., 252).他們穿著這些冠了一個星期,有一個特殊的服務,為他們再次(Euch.,252)。

The Anointing of the Sick病人的恩膏

The Anointing of the Sick (euchelaion) is administered (when possible) by seven priests.病人的恩膏(euchelaion)進行管理(如果可能)由七個祭司。 The oil contains as a rule wine, in memory of the Good Samaritan.該油中含有一個統治酒,在內存中的“好撒瑪利亞人”。 It is blessed by a priest just before it is used.它擁有得天獨厚的牧師,只是在使用之前。 They use a very long form invoking the all-holy Theotokos, the "moneyless physicians" Sts.他們用一個很長的表格,調用所有的聖子,“沒錢的醫生”STS。 Cosmas and Damian, and other saints. Cosmas和Damian,和其他聖人。 They anoint the forehead, chin, cheeks, hands, nostrils, and breast with a brush.他們膏額頭,下巴,臉頰,雙手,鼻孔,並用刷子乳房。 Each priest present does the same (Euch., 260-288).每個牧師現在做同樣的(Euch.,260-288)。 The service is, as usual, very long.這項服務是,像往常一樣,很長。 They anoint people who are only slightly ill, (they very much resent our name: Extreme Unction), and in Russia on Maundy Thursday the Metropolitans of Moscow and Novgorod anoint everyone who presents himself, as a preparation for Holy Communion (Echos d'Orient, II, 193-203).他們膏的人,只有稍有不周,(他們很反感我們的名字:臨終),並在俄羅斯濯足節大都市的莫斯科,諾夫哥羅德膏的每個人都提出了自己的人,聖餐的準備(迴聲d'Orient酒店,II,193-203)。

Sacramentals Sacramentals

There are many Sacramentals.有很多Sacramentals。 People are sometimes anointed with the oil taken from a lamp that burns before a holy icon (occasionally with the form for confirmation: "The seal of the gift of the Holy Ghost").人們有時抹油,從一盞燈燃燒前一個神聖的圖標(偶爾的形式進行確認:“封印聖靈的禮物”)。 They have besides the antidoron another kind of blessed bread -- the kolyba eaten in honour of some saint or in memory of the dead.他們除了antidoron有另一種祝福麵包 - 一些聖人的榮譽吃的kolyba,或在內存中的死。 On the Epiphany ("The Holy Lights" -- ta hagia phota) there is a solemn blessing of the waters.在主顯節(“神聖之光” - た聖phota)的水域是一個嚴肅的祝福。 They have a great number of exorcisms, very stern laws of fasting (involving abstinence from many things besides flesh meat), and blessings for all manner of things.他們有大量的驅魔,非常嚴厲的法律禁食(包括禁慾很多事情,除了肉肉類),祝福所有的事情的方式。 These are to be found in the Euchologion.這些都是要在Euchologion發現。 Preaching was till lately almost a lost art in the Orthodox Church; now a revival of it has begun (Gelzer, Geistliches u. Weltliches, etc., 76-82).講道直到最近幾乎失傳的藝術,在東正教教堂,現在它已經開始復興(蓋爾澤,Geistliches U。Weltliches等,76-82)。 There is a long funeral service (Euch., ed. cit., 393-470).是一個長期的的葬禮服務(Euch.,編輯前,393-470)。 For all these rites (except the Liturgy) a priest does not wear all his vestments but (over his cassock) the epitrachelion and phainolion.對於所有這些儀式(除禮儀)一個牧師不穿他的法衣,但在他的袈裟epitrachelion phainolion。 The high black hat without a brim (kalemeukion) worn by all priests of this rite is well known.這個儀式的祭司穿的黑色高無帽沿的帽子(kalemeukion)是眾所周知的。 It is worn with vestments as well as in ordinary life.穿法衣,以及在平凡的生活。 Bishops and dignitaries have a black veil over it.主教和貴賓有一個黑色的面紗。 All clerks wear long hair and a beard.所有的文員戴長長的頭髮和鬍鬚。 For a more detailed account of all these rites see "Orth. Eastern Church", pp. 418-428.所有這些儀式一個更詳細的說明,請參閱“Ortho的。東方教會”,頁418-428。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息寫的阿德里安Fortescue的。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯·J.·波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.獻給耶穌基督的聖心天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908.發布時間1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
The Orthodox Service-books in Greek are published at their official press (ho phoinix) at Venice (various dates: the Euchologion quoted here, 1898); the Uniat ones at Rome (Propaganda).在希臘東正教服務的圖書出版在其官方新聞(豪phoinix)在威尼斯(各種日期:這裡引用的Euchologion,1898年); Uniat的在羅馬(宣傳)。 There is also an Athenian edition; and the Churches that use translations have published their versions.此外,還有一個雅典人版和教會使用翻譯發表了他們的版本。 Provost ALEXIOS MALTZEW (of the Russian Embassy church at Berlin) has edited all the books in Old Slavonic with a parallel German translation and notes (Berlin, 1892); RENAUDOT, Liturgiarum orientalium collectio (2d ed., 2 vols., Frankfort, 1847); NEALE, The Liturgies of St. Mark, St. James, St. Clement, St. Chrysostom, St Basil (London, 1875, in Greek); another volume contains The Translations of the Primitive Liturgies of St. Mark, etc.; ROBERTSON, The Divine Liturgies of Our Fathers among the Saints John Chrysostom, Basil the Great and that of the Presanctified (Greek and English, London 1894); DE MEESTER, La divine liturgie de S. Jean Chrysostome (Greek and French, Paris, 1907); iHe theia leitourgia, periechousa ton esperinon, ktl (Athens, 1894); CHARON, Les saintes et divines Liturgies, etc. (Beirut, 1904); STORFF, Die griechiechen Liturgien, XLI of THALHOFER, Bibliothek der Kirchenväter (Kempten, 1877); Kitãb al-liturgiãt al-ilahiyyeh (Melchite Use in Arabic, Beirut, 1899); GOAR, Euchologion, sive Rituale Gr corum (2nd ed., Venice, 1720); PROBST, Liturgie der drei ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte (Tübingen, 1870); ANON., Liturgie des vierten Jahrhunderts und deren Reform (Münster, 1893); KATTENBUSCH, Lehrbuch der vergleichenden Konfessionskunde: Die orthodoxe anatolische Kirche (Freiburg im Br., 1892); NILLES, Kalendarium manuale utriusque ecclesi (2nd ed., Innsbruck, 1896-97); PRINCE MAX OF SAXONY, Pr lectiones de Liturgiis orientalibus (Freiburg im Br., 1908), I; HAPGOOD, Service-Book of the Holy Orthodox-Catholic Apostolic (Gr co-Russian) Church (Boston and New York, 1906); ALLATIUS, De libris et rebus eccl.一個平行的德語翻譯和註釋(柏林,1892年);勒諾多,:Liturgiarum orientalium資料庫(第2版,第2卷,法蘭克福,1847年在柏林的俄國使館,教堂),教務長ALEXIOS MALTZEW(編輯所有的書,舊斯拉夫的原始liturgies的聖馬克,等); NEALE,liturgies的聖馬克,聖雅各福群會,聖克萊門特,聖金口,聖巴西爾(倫敦,1875年,在希臘);另一個卷的翻譯羅伯遜,神聖的禮儀,我們的父輩之間的聖徒約翰金口,羅勒大的presanctified(希臘文和英文,倫敦1894年);梅斯特,香格里拉神聖的liturgie的S.讓Chrysostome(希臘和法國,巴黎, IHE忒伊亞leitourgia,periechousa噸esperinon,KTL(雅典,1894年); CHARON,桑特等神學的禮儀,等等(貝魯特,1904年); STORFF,模具griechiechen Liturgien,XLI的THALHOFER,藏書德Kirchenväter(坎普頓,1907年); 1877年);基塔AL-liturgiãt的人ilahiyyeh(Melchite使用阿拉伯文,貝魯特,1899年);萊茵蘭 - 巴拉丁,Euchologion,的西伯Rituale GR喬魯姆(第2版,威尼斯,1720年); PROBST,Liturgie德DREI ersten christlichen Jahrhunderte(圖賓根, 1870年); ANON。,Liturgie德vierten Jahrhunderts和德仁改革(明斯特,1893年); Kattenbusch酒店,Lehrbuch DER vergleichenden Konfessionskunde的:模具東正教anatolische KIRCHE(佛萊BR,1892年); NILLES,:Kalendarium MANUALE utriusque ecclesi(第二版。因斯布魯克,1896年至1897年); MAX薩克森州王子,镨lectiones Liturgiis orientalibus(佛萊BR,1908年),我哈普古德,東正教天主教聖使徒(GR俄語)教堂(波士頓和服務的圖書紐約,1906年); ALLATIUS,藏書票等謎傳道書。 Gr corum (Cologne, 1646); CLUGNET, Dictionnaire grec-français des noms liturgiques en usage dans l'église grecque (Paris, 1895); ARCHATZIKAKI, Etudes sur les principales Fêtes chrétiennes dans l'ancienne Eglise d'Orient (Geneva, 1904); DE MEESTER, Officio dell' inno acatisto (Greek and Italian, Rome, 1903); GELZER, Geistliches und Weltliches aus dem türkisch-griechischen Orient (Leipzig, 1900); GAISSER, Le système musical de l'Eglise grecque (Maredsous, 1901); REBOURS, Traitê de psaltique.一年級喬魯姆(科隆,1646年); CLUGNET,Dictionnaire GREC,法語NOMS liturgiques連接使用舞蹈歐萊雅埃格grecque(巴黎,1895年); ARCHATZIKAKI,練習曲SUR LES principales節日chrétiennesDANS L'安西安娜教堂的東方(日內瓦,1904年);·梅斯特,成員戴爾的創新的acatisto(希臘和意大利,羅馬,1903年);蓋爾澤,Geistliches和Weltliches澳大利亞DEMtürkischgriechischen東方(萊比錫,1900年); GAISSER,樂SYSTEME音樂的l'Eglise地區grecque(馬利蘇斯, 1901年); REBOURS,利維坦的psaltique的。 Théorie et pratique du chant dans l'Eglise grecque (Paris, 1906); FORTESCUE, The Orthodox Eastern Church (London, 1907). Théorie等無疫通行證杜唄舞蹈l'Eglise地區grecque(巴黎,1906年); FORTESCUE,東正教(倫敦,1907年)。



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