Chronology of the Life of Jesus Christ耶穌基督的生命年表

Catholic Information 天主教信息

In the following paragraphs we shall endeavour to establish the absolute and relative chronology of our Lord's life, ie we shall show first how certain facts connected with the history of Jesus Christ fit in with the course of universal history, and secondly how the rest of the life of Jesus must be arranged according to the inter-relation of its single elements.在下面的段落中,我們應努力建立的絕對和相對年表我們的主的生活,即我們應顯示第一如何一定的事實與耶穌基督的歷史適合在世界歷史過程,並其次是如何剩下的耶穌的生命,必須按照其單個元素的相互關係。

I. ABSOLUTE CHRONOLOGY一,絕對年代

The incidents whose absolute chronology may be determined with more or less probability are the year of Christ's nativity, of the beginning of His public life, and of His death.其絕對年代,可以有更多或更少的概率的事件是基督的誕生年,開始他的公共生活,以及他的死亡。 As we cannot fully examine the data entering into these several problems, the reader ought to compare what has been said on these points in the article BIBLICAL CHRONOLOGY.正如我們不能完全檢查數據進入這幾個問題,讀者應該,比較聖經年表的文章中說了些什麼就這幾點。

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A. The Nativity A.耶穌誕生

St. Matthew (2:1) tells us that Jesus was born "in the days of King Herod".馬太(2:1)告訴我們,耶穌誕生“在希律王的日子”。 Josephus (Ant., XVII, viii, 1) informs us that Herod died after ruling thirty four years de facto, thirty seven years de jure.約瑟夫(Ant.,十七,八,1)告訴我們,希律王去世後,執政34年事實上,37年法律上的。 Now Herod was made rightful king of Judea AUC 714, while he began his actual rule after taking Jerusalem AUC 717.現在希律王是合法的猶太AUC 714,而他開始了他的實際統治後,耶路撒冷AUC 717。 As the Jews reckoned their years from Nisan to Nisan, and counted fractional parts as an entire year, the above data will place the death of Herod in AUC 749, 750, 751.的猶太人認為自己多年從尼散月至尼散月,並計入了整整一年的小數部分,上面的數據會希律死了。AUC 749,750,751。 Again, Josephus tells us from that an eclipse of the moon occurred not long before Herod's death; such an eclipse occurred from 12 to 13 March, AUC 750, so that Herod must have died before the Passover of that year which fell on 12 April (Josephus, "Ant"., iv, 4; viii, 4).同樣,約瑟夫告訴我們,一個日蝕的月亮出現時間不長前希律王的死亡,這樣的日食發生,從12日至13年3月,AUC 750,因此,希律必須已經死了逾越節前的那年它下降了4月12日(約瑟夫,“螞蟻”,四,4;八,4)。 As Herod killed the children up to two years old, in order to destroy the new born King of the Jews, we are led to believe that Jesus may have been born AUC 747, 748, 749.希律王殺害了兒童2歲,以破壞新出生的猶太人的王,我們被引導相信耶穌已經誕生AUC 747,748,749。 The enrollment under Cyrinus mentioned by St. Luke in connection with the nativity of Jesus Christ, and the remarkable astronomical conjunction of Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn in Pisces, in the spring of AUC 748, will not lead us to any more definite result.提到的聖盧克在與耶穌基督誕生的Cyrinus下的招生,火星,木星和土星在雙魚座的顯著天文數字的結合,在春天的AUC 748,會不會導致我們任何明確的結果。

B. Beginning of the Public Ministry B.公共事務部開始

The date of the beginning of Christ's ministry may be calculated from three different data found respectively in Luke 3:23; Josephus, "Bel. Jud."基督的事工開始的日期可以計算出三種不同的數據分別在路加福音3:23;約瑟夫,“美士”。 I, xxi, 1; or "Ant.", XV, ii, 1; and Luke 3:1.我,21,1,或“蟻族”,XV,二,一;和盧克3:1。

The first of these passages reads: "And Jesus himself was beginning about the age of thirty years".第一,這些通道上寫著:“耶穌是三十歲左右開始”。 The phrase "was beginning" does not qualify the following expression "about the age of thirty years", but rather indicates the commencement of the public life.短語“開始”不符合“的三十歲以下表達式”,而是表示的公共生活的開始。 As we have found that the birth of Jesus falls within the period 747-749 AUC, His public life must begin about 777-779 AUC我們發現,耶穌誕生的範圍內期747-749 AUC,他的公共生活必須開始約777-779 AUC

Second, when, shortly before the first Pasch of His public life, Jesus had cast the buyers and sellers out of the Temple, the Jews said: "Six and forty years was this temple in building" (John 2:20).二是,不久之前,先PASCH他的公共生活,耶穌曾投了買家和賣家從殿裡出來的,猶太人說:“小六及40年這座寺廟的建築”(約翰福音2:20)。 Now, according to the testimony of Josephus (loc. cit.), the building of the Temple began in the fifteenth year of Herod's actual reign or in the eighteenth of his reign de jure, ie 732 AUC; hence, adding the forty six years of actual building, the Pasch of Christ's first year of public life must have fallen in 778 AUC現在,根據約瑟夫(如上)的證詞,寺的建設開始於十五年,希律王的實際統治或在18,他的統治在法律上,即732 AUC,因此,加入46年的實際建設中,基督的公共生活的第一年已經下降的Pasch 778 AUC

Third, the Gospel of St. Luke (3:1) assigns the beginning of St. John the Baptist's mission to the "fifteenth year of the Tiberius Caesar".三,福音的聖盧克(3:1),聖施洗約翰的使命,以“15年提庇留凱撒”指定的開始。 Augustus, the predecessor of Tiberius, died 19 August, 767 AUC, so that the fifteenth year of Tiberius's independent reign is 782 AUC; but then Tiberius began to be associate of Augustus in AUC 764, so that the fifteenth year reckoned from this date falls in AUC 778.奧古斯都,提比略的前身,死亡19 767 AUC,這樣的第十五年提庇留的獨立統治是782 AUC;但隨後提比略開始聯營公司的奧古斯都在AUC 764,所以,十五年估計從本日起下降在AUC 778。 Jesus Christ's public life began a few months later, ie about AUC 779.耶穌基督的公共生活開始了數個月後,即約779 AUC。

C. The Year of the Death of Christ C.基督之死的年份

According to the Evangelists, Jesus suffered under the high priest Caiphas (AUC 772-90, or AD 18-36), during the governorship of Pontius Pilate AUC 780-90).耶穌的福音,遭受下的大祭司caiphas的(AUC 772-90,公元18-36年),在總督本丟彼拉多AUC 780-90)。 But this leaves the time rather indefinite.但是,這剩下的時間,而不是無限期的。 Tradition, the patristic testimonies for which have been collected by Patrizi (De Evangeliis), places the death of Jesus in the fifteenth (or sixteenth) year of Tiberius, in the consulship of the Gemini, forty-two years before the destruction of Jerusalem, and twelve years before the preaching of the Gospel to the Gentiles.傳統,教父的證詞已收集柏德(德Evangeliis),把耶穌的死在第十五或十六年的留在執政官的雙子座,42年耶路撒冷的毀滅之前,和12年前的外邦人所傳的福音。 We have already seen that the fifteenth year of Tiberius is either 778 or 782, according to its computation from the beginning of Tiberius's associate or sole reign; the consulship of the Gemini (Fufius and Rubellius) fell in AUC 782; the forty second year before the destruction of Jerusalem is AD 29, or AUC 782, twelve years before the preaching of the Gospel to the Gentiles brings us to the same year, AD 29 or AUC 782, since the conversion of Cornelius, which marks the opening of the Gentile missions, fell probably in AD 40 or 41.我們已經看到,在第十五一年的提比略是無論是778或782,根據其計算從開始提庇留的聯營公司或唯一的統治;在執政官的雙子座(Fufius和Rubellius)下跌AUC 782;前的四十第二個年公元29年耶路撒冷的毀滅,或AUC 782,十二年前向外邦人傳福音給我們帶來的同一年,公元29年或AUC 782,因為科尼利厄斯的轉換,這標誌著開幕的詹蒂萊任務,同比下降大概是在公元40年或41。

D. The Day of the Death of Christ D.基督的死日

Jesus died on Friday, the fifteenth day of Nisan.耶穌死亡的尼散月十五日(星期五)。 That He died on Friday is clearly stated by Mark 15:42, Luke 23:54, and John 19:31.他死了上週五明確地說明了馬克15:42,路加福音23:54,約翰19:31。 The few writers who assign another day for Christ's death are practically lost in the multitude of authorities who place it on Friday.在眾多的機關,將其放置在週五幾乎失去一些作家,指定另一天基督的死。 What is more, they do not even agree among themselves: Epiphanius, eg, places the Crucifixion on Tuesday; Lactantius, on Saturday; Westcott, on Thursday; Cassiodorus and Gregory of Tours, not on Friday.更重要的是,他們甚至不同意他們之間:埃皮法尼烏斯,例如,被釘死在十字架上週二,潭修斯,上週六韋斯科特,上週四Cassiodorus和格雷戈里的旅行團,上週五。

The first three Evangelists are equally clear about the date of the Crucifixion.同樣清楚的被釘死在十字架上的日期前三個福音。 They place the Last Supper on the fourteenth day of Nisan, as may be seen from Matthew 26:17-20, Mark 14:12-17 and Luke 22:7-14.他們把尼散月十四日,作為“最後的晚餐”可以看出,從馬太福音26:17-20,馬可福音14:12-17,路加福音22:7-14。 Nor can there be any doubt about St. John's agreement with the Synoptic Evangelists on the question of the Last Supper and the Crucifixion.也不可能有任何疑問聖約翰最後的晚餐和被釘死在十字架上的問題與對觀福音。 The supper was held "before the festival day of the Pasch" (John 13:1), ie on 14 Nisan, as may be seen from Matthew 22:7-14.晚飯舉辦了“節前一天的Pasch”(約翰福音13:1),即14尼散月,可以看出,從馬太福音22:7-14。 Nor can there be any doubt about St. John's agreement with the Synoptic Evangelists on the question of the Last Supper and the Crucifixion.也不可能有任何疑問聖約翰最後的晚餐和被釘死在十字架上的問題與對觀福音。 The Supper was held "before the festival day of the pasch" (John 13:1), ie on 14 Nisan, since the sacrificial day was computed according to the Roman method (Jovino, 123 sqq., 139 sqq.).晚飯舉行“節前一天的Pasch”(約翰福音13:1),即14尼散月,根據羅馬法(Jovino,123 SQQ,139 SQQ)。計算以來犧牲的日子。

Again, some disciples thought that Judas left the supper table because Jesus had said to him: "Buy those things which we have need of for the festival day: or that he should give something to the poor" (John 13:29).同樣,一些信徒認為猶大留下了晚飯表,因為耶穌對他說:“買的那些東西,我們需要的節日:他應該給窮人的東西”(約翰福音13:29)。 If the Supper had been held on 13 Nisan this belief of the disciples can hardly be understood, since Judas might have made his purchases and distributed his alms on 14 Nisan; there would have been no need for his rushing into the city in the middle of the night.如果晚餐13尼散月舉行了這樣的信念的弟子也很難理解,因為猶大可能已做了他的購買和分發他的施捨14尼散月就已經沒有必要為他衝進城市的中間夜。 On the day of Christ's Crucifixion the Jews "went not into the hall, that they might not be defiled, but that they might eat the pasch" (John 18:28).在當天基督在十字架上的猶太人“不進了大廳,他們可能不會被玷污,但不能吃的Pasch”(約翰福音18:28)。 The pasch which the Jews wished to eat could not have been the paschal lamb, which was eaten on 14 Nisan, for the pollution contracted by entering the hall would have ceased at sundown, so that it would not have prevented them from sharing in the paschal supper. PASCH的猶太人希望吃不逾越節的羔羊,這是吃了14尼散月,承包進入大廳的污染已停止在日落時分,因此,它不會阻止他們分享在逾越節的吃晚飯。 The pasch which the Jews had in view must have been the sacrificial offerings (Chagighah), which were called also pasch and were eaten on 15 Nisan.猶太人有鑑於必須的Pasch一直是的祭品(Chagighah),也被稱為PASCH被吃掉了15尼散月。 Hence this passage places the death of Jesus Christ on the fifteenth day of Nisan.因此,這個通道將耶穌基督死亡的尼散月十五日。

Again, Jesus is said to have suffered and died on the "parasceve of the pasch", or simply on the "parasceve" (John 19:14, 31); as "parasceve" meant Friday, the expression "parasceve" denotes Friday on which the pasch happened to fall, not the before the pasch.同樣,耶穌是說已經遭受痛苦和死亡的Pasch“parasceve”,或者乾脆就“parasceve”(約翰福音19:14,31);“parasceve”的意思是週五,的“parasceve”是指上週五發生的Pasch下降,而不是之前的Pasch。 Finally, the day following the parasceve on which Jesus died is called "a great sabbath day" (John 19:31), either to denote its occurrence in the paschal week or to distinguish it from the preceding pasch, or day of minor rest.最後,次日,耶穌死的parasceve被稱為“一個偉大的安息日”(約翰福音19:31),以表示其發生在逾越節的一周,以區別於前的PASCH,或一天的未成年人的休息。

II. II。 RELATIVE CHRONOLOGY相對年代

No student of the life of Jesus will question the chronological order of its principal divisions: infancy, hidden life, public life, passion, glory.沒有一個學生的生命,耶穌會質疑其主要部門處於起步階段,隱藏的生活,公共生活,激情,榮耀的時間順序。 But the order of events in the single divisions is not always clear beyond dispute.但在單一部門的事件的順序是不爭的事實並不總是很清楚。

A. The Infancy of Jesus A.嬰兒耶穌

The history of the infancy, for instance, is recorded only in the First Gospel and in the Third.歷史上的嬰兒,例如,僅記錄在第一福音,並在第三。 Each Evangelist contents himself with five pictures:每個傳播者的內容自己的五張圖片:

St. Matthew describes the birth of Jesus, the adoration of the Magi, the flight into Egypt, the slaughter of the Holy Innocents, and the return to Nazareth.聖馬太介紹,朝拜的賢士,飛行到埃及,屠殺無辜的神聖,返回拿撒勒人耶穌的誕生。

St. Luke gives a sketch of the birth, of the adoration of the shepherds, of the circumcision, of the purification of the Virgin, and of the return to Nazareth.聖路加給出了一個草圖的誕生,牧羊人的崇拜,割禮的,淨化的處女,和拿撒勒的回報。

The two Evangelists agree in the first and the last of these two series of incidents (moreover, all scholars place the birth, adoration of the shepherds, and the circumcision before the Magi), but how are we to arrange the intervening three events related by St. Matthew with the order of St. Luke?這兩個福音同意在第一個和最後這兩個系列的事件(而且,所有的學者都將誕生,牧羊人的崇拜,和割禮的前賢士),但我們如何安排的三個事件相關的聖馬太與聖路加的順序嗎? We indicate a few of the many ways in which the chronological sequence of these facts has been arranged.我們的許多方法,這些事實已安排的時間順序表示。

1. 1。 The birth, the adoration of the shepherds, the circumcision, the adoration of the Magi, the flight into Egypt, the slaughter of the Innocents, the purification, the return to Nazareth.的誕生,牧羊人的崇拜,受割禮的,崇拜的賢士,飛行到埃及,屠殺無辜者,淨化,拿撒勒的回報。

This order implies that either the purification was delayed beyond the fortieth day, which seems to contradict Luke 2:22 sqq., or that Jesus was born shortly before Herod's death.這個順序意味著,淨化延遲之外的第四十天,這似乎矛盾路加福音2:22 SQQ。,或耶穌出生不久之前希律王的死亡。 so that the Holy Family could return from Egypt within forty days after the birth of Jesus.使神聖家族內從埃及返回四十天後,耶穌誕生的。 Tradition does not seem to favour this speedy return.傳統似乎並不贊成這種迅速的回報。

2. 2。 The birth, the adoration of the shepherds, the circumcision, the adoration of the Magi, the purification, the flight into Egypt, the slaughter of the Innocents, the return to Nazareth.的誕生,牧羊人的崇拜,受割禮的,崇拜的賢士,淨化,飛行到埃及,屠殺無辜者,拿撒勒的回報。

According to this order the Magi either arrived a few days before the purification or they came on 6 January; but in neither case can we understand why the Holy Family should have offered the sacrifice of the poor, after receiving the offerings of the Magi.根據這個順序賢士要么抵達前幾天的淨化或他們來到在1月6日;但在兩種情況下,我們才能理解為什麼神聖的家庭提供了犧牲的窮人,在收到產品的賢士。 Moreover, the first Evangelist intimates that the angel appeared to St. Joseph soon after the departure of the Magi, and it is not at all probable that Herod should have waited long before inquiring concerning the whereabouts of the new born king.此外,第一傳播者內衣,天使出現聖若瑟很快離開後的賢士,它不是在所有可能的希律王應詢問有關新出生的王的下落之前,已經等了很久。 The difficulties are not overcome by placing the adoration of the Magi on the day before the purification; it would be more unlikely in that case that the Holy Family should offer the sacrifice of the poor.無法克服的困難朝拜的賢士,通過將前一天的淨化,那將是不可能在這種情況下,聖應以家庭提供了犧牲的窮人。

3. 3。 As Luke 2:39 appears to exclude the possibility of placing the adoration of the Magi between the presentation and return to Nazareth, there are interpreters who have located the advent of the wise men, the flight to Egypt, the slaughter of the Innocents, and the return from Egypt after the events as told in St. Luke.路加福音2:39似乎排除這種可能性,將朝拜的賢士之間的介紹,並返回拿撒勒,有口譯位於來臨的智者,逃往埃及,屠殺無辜者,在聖路加告訴埃及在事件發生後的回報。 They agree in the opinion that the Holy Family returned to Nazareth after the purification, and then left Nazareth in order to make their home in Bethlehem.他們同意在淨化後返回拿撒勒的聖家,然後離開拿撒勒,以使他們的家庭在伯利恆的意見。 Eusebius, Epiphanius, and some other ancient writers are willing to place the adoration of the Magi about two years after Christ's birth; Paperbroch and his followers allow about a year and thirteen days between the birth and the advent of the Magi; while Patrizi agrees with those who fix the advent of the Magi at about two weeks after the purification.尤西比烏斯,埃皮法尼烏斯,和一些其他古代作家都願意到放置的崇拜的賢士約兩個年來基督誕生後,Paperbroch和他的追隨者允許約一一年和十三個天之間的誕生和賢士的到來,而柏德力斯同意與解決出現的賢士在大約兩個星期後的淨化。 The text of Matthew 2:1-2 hardly permits an interval of more than a year between the purification and the coming of the wise men; Patrizi's opinion appears to satisfy all the data furnished by the gospels, while it does not contradict the particulars added by tradition.馬太福音2:1-2的文字幾乎沒有允許的純化和未來的智者一年多的時間之間的時間間隔;柏德力斯的意見,以滿足所有的福音書所提供的數據,而在不違反有關詳情添加的傳統。

B. The Hidden Life of Jesus B.隱藏的耶穌生活

It was in the seclusion of Nazareth that Jesus spent the greatest part of His earthly life.這是在隱居的拿撒勒,耶穌用他的塵世生活中的最大部分。 The inspired records are very reticent about this period: Luke 2:40-52; Mark 6:3; John 6:42; 7:15, are about the only passages which refer to the hidden life.靈感記錄是非常沉默寡言的有關這一時期:路加福音2:40-52,馬可福音6:3;約翰6:42,7:15,是指隱藏的生活的唯一通道。

Some of them give us a general view of Christ's life: "The child grew, and grew in strength and wisdom; and the grace of God was in him" is the brief summary of the years following the return of the Holy Family after the ceremonial purification in the Temple.其中有些人給我們一個一般的看法,基督的生命:“孩子漸漸長大,成長中的力量和智慧和上帝的恩典是在他”是的簡要總結多年的回報的聖家在儀式後淨化在寺廟中。 "Jesus advanced in wisdom, and age, and grace with God and men", and He "was subject to them" form the inspired outline of Christ's life in Nazareth after He had attained the age of twelve. “耶穌先進的智慧,和年齡,和恩典與上帝和男人”,和他“受到他們的啟發輪廓基督的生命在拿撒勒後,他已年滿12歲。

"When he was twelve years old" Jesus accompanied His parents to Jerusalem, 'according to the custom of the feast'; When they returned, the child Jesus remained in Jerusalem; and his parents knew it not." After three days, they found him in the Temple, sitting in the midst of the doctors, hearing them, and asking them questions." “當他12歲的”耶穌伴隨著他的父母到耶路撒冷,根據自定義的盛宴“,當他們回來時,孩子仍然是耶穌在耶路撒冷和他的父母知道這不是。”三天後,他們發現他在殿裡,坐在中間的醫生,聽他們,問他們的問題。“ It was on this occasion that Jesus spoke the only words that have come down from the period of His hidden life: "How is it that you sought me? Did you not know, that I must be about my Father's business [or, "in my Father's house"]?"這是在此之際,耶穌講的唯一的話,都來下降從他隱藏的生命期:“怎麼回事,你要求我嗎?難道你不知道,那我一定是關於我父親的業務[或,”在我父親的家“]?”

The Jews tell us that Jesus had not passed through the training of the Rabbinic schools: "How doth this man know letters, having never learned?".猶太人告訴我們,耶穌未通過的拉比學校的培訓:“如何doth這名男子知道字母,沒有學過嗎?”。 The same question is asked by the people of Nazareth, who add, "Is not this the carpenter?"同樣的問題被問的人的拿撒勒,添加,“是不是那木匠嗎?” St. Justin is authority for the statement that Jesus specially made "ploughs and yokes' (Contra Tryph., 88). Though it is not certain that at the time of Jesus elementary schools existed in the Jewish villages, it may be inferred from the Gospels that Jesus knew how to read (Luke 4:16) and write (John 8:6). At an early age He must have learned the so called Shema (Deuteronomy 6:4), and the Hallel, or Psalms 113-118 (Hebrew); He must have been familiar with the other parts of the Scriptures too, especially the Psalms and the Prophetic Books, as He constantly refers to them in His public life. It is also asserted that Palestine at the time of Jesus Christ was practically bilingual, so that Christ must have spoken Aramaic and Greek; the indications that He was acquainted with Hebrew and Latin are rather slight. The public teaching of Jesus shows that He was a close observer of the sights and sounds of nature, and of the habits of all classes of men. For these are the usual sources of His illustrations.聖賈斯汀是權威的聲明說,耶穌特製的“犁與軛”(魂斗羅Tryph,88),雖然現在還不能確定,耶穌在猶太村小學存在的時候,它可能會推斷出來的福音書,耶穌知道如何閱讀(路加福音4:16)和write(約翰福音8:6)。在幼年時,他一定學到所謂的瑪(申6:4),和Hallel,或詩篇113-118 (希伯來文),他必須是熟悉“聖經”的其他部分,尤其是詩篇和先知書,因為他不斷地在他的公共生活,它也聲稱,巴勒斯坦的時候,耶穌基督是實際上雙語,使基督必須說阿拉姆語和希臘語的跡象表明,他結識了希伯來文和拉丁文是相當輕微的。公眾耶穌的教訓表明,他是一個親密的觀察員的景象和聲音的性質,以及習慣,所有階層的人,這些人是他的插圖的通常來源。

To conclude, the hidden life of Jesus extending through thirty years is far different from what one should have expected in the case of a Person Who is adored by His followers as their God and revered as their Saviour; this is an indirect proof for the credibility of the Gospel story.總括而言,隱藏耶穌的生命延伸到第三年是完全不同的,從什麼人都應該有預期的情況下,如果一個人由他的追隨者崇拜他們的神,尊為他們的救主,這是一個間接證據,以信譽福音故事。

C. The Public Life of Jesus: Its Duration C.耶穌的公共生活:它的持續時間

The chronology of the public life offers a number of problems to the interpreter; we shall touch upon only two, the duration of the public life, and the successive journeys it contains.公共生活的年表提供了大量的解釋的問題,我們將觸及只有兩個,持續的公共生活,它包含連續的旅程。

There are two extreme views as to the length of the ministry of Jesus: St. Irenæus (Contra Haer., II, xxii, 3-6) appears to suggest a period of fifteen years; the prophetic phrases, "the year of recompenses", "the year of my redemption" (Isaiah 34:8; 63:4), appear to have induced Clement of Alexandria, Julius Africanus, Philastrius, Hilarion, and two or three other patristic writers to allow only one year for the public life.有兩種極端的觀點耶穌事工的長度:聖irenæus(魂斗羅Haer。,II,二十二,3-6)提出一個十五年的預言短語,“今年的償” “今年我的救贖”(以賽亞書34:8,63:4),似乎有誘導克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,朱利葉斯·非洲種,Philastrius,希拉,以及兩個或三個其他教父作家,只允許一年為市民生活。 This latter opinion has found advocates among certain recent students: von Soden, for instance, defends it in Cheyne's "Encyclopaedia Biblica".這後一種意見的倡導者之間最近發生的一些學生:馮索登,例如,捍衛它在進益的“百科全書”Biblica“。 But the text of the Gospels demands a more extensive duration.但是,文本的福音需要一個更廣泛的持續時間。 St. John's Gospel distinctly mentions three distinct paschs in the history of Christ's ministry (2:13; 6:4; 11:55).約翰福音明顯基督的事工的歷史提及三個不同paschs,(2:13; 6:4; 11:55)。 The first of the three occurs shortly after the baptism of Jesus, the last coincides with His Passion, so that at least two years must have intervened between the two events to give us the necessary room for the passover mentioned in 6:4. Westcott and Hort omit the expression "the pasch" in 6:4 to compress the ministry of Jesus within the space of one year; but all the manuscripts, the versions, and nearly all the Fathers testify for the reading "En de eggysto pascha heeorteton Ioudaion": "Now the pasch, the festival day of the Jews, was near at hand".第一的三大發生後不久,耶穌的洗禮,最後與他的激情不謀而合,所以, 至少兩年內必須進行干預之間的兩個事件給我們的逾越節中提到的6:4的必要的空間。Westcott和園藝省略“的Pasch”在6時04一年的空間內壓縮耶穌事工,但所有的手稿,版本,和幾乎所有的父親作證閱讀“eggysto復活節heeorteton Ioudaion” :“現在的Pasch,是猶太人的節日,已在眼前”。 Thus far then everything tends to favour the view of those writers and more recent commentators who extend the period of Christ's ministry a little over two years. But a comparison of St. John's Gospel with the Synoptic Evangelists seems to introduce another pasch, indicated in the Fourth Gospel, into Christ's public life. John 4:45, relates the return of Jesus into Galilee after the first pasch of His public life in Jerusalem, and the same event is told by Mark 1:14, and Luke 4:14.迄今為止然後一切往往以有利於這些作家和更近期的評論員誰延長基督的有點過2年部期間認為。但一個比較聖約翰福音天氣福音似乎引入另一個PASCH,表示在 PASCH他的公共生活在耶路撒冷後, 第四福音,基督的公共生活。約翰4:45,涉及到了加利利耶穌的回報,同樣的事件告訴馬可福音1:14,路加福音4:14。 Again the pasch mentioned in John 6:4 has its parallel in the "green grass" of Mark 6:39, and in the multiplication of loaves as told in Luke 9:12 sqq.在約翰福音6:4提到同樣的Pasch其並行的“綠色草”的馬克6:39,在乘法的麵包告訴在路加福音9:12 SQQ的。 But the plucking of ears mentioned in Mark 2:23, and Luke 6:1, implies another paschal season intervening between those expressly mentioned in John 2:13 and 6:4. This shows that the public life of Jesus must have extended over four paschs, so that it must have lasted three years and a few months. Though the Fourth Gospel does not indicate this fourth pasch as clearly as the other three, it is not wholly silent on the question.但採摘的耳朵中提到的馬克2:23,路加福音6:1,意味著在約翰福音2:13和6:4之間的明確提到的另一個逾越節的季節干預。 這表明耶穌的公共生活必須擴展到4個paschs,以便它必須已經持續了三年及一期的幾個月。第四個福音,雖然並不表示這第四個的PASCH清楚其他三個,這是不完全沉默的問題。 The "festival day of the Jews" mentioned in John 5:1, has been identified with the Feast of Pentecost, the Feast of Tabernacles, the Feast of Expiation, the Feast of the New Moon, the Feast of Purim, the Feast of Dedication, by various commentators; others openly confess that they cannot determine to which of the Jewish feasts this festival day refers. “猶太人的節日”,在約翰福音5:1,已被認定與五旬節,住棚節,贖罪節,新月節,普珥節的盛宴,盛宴奉獻,各種評論人公開承認,他們的猶太節日,這個節日是指不能確定。 Nearly all difficulties will disappear if the festival day be regarded as the pasch, as both the text (heorte) and John 4:35 seem to demand (cf. Dublin Review, XXIII, 351 sqq.).幾乎所有的困難就會消失,如果被視為節日的Pasch,文本(heorte)和約翰4:35似乎要求(參見都柏林審查,XXIII,351 SQQ)。

D. The Public Life of Jesus: His Journeys D.耶穌的公共生活:他的行程

The journeys made during His public life may be grouped under nine heads: the first six were mainly performed in Galilee and had Capharnaum for their central point; the last three bring Jesus into Judea without any pronounced central point.在他的公共生活的旅程,可以歸為九個頭:前六個主要表現在加利利和葛法翁為他們的中心點,過去三年把耶穌到朱迪亞,沒有任何明顯的中心點。 We cannot enter into the disputed questions connected with the single incidents of the various groups.我們不能進入有爭議的問題,與各組的單一事件。

1. 1。 First Journey.第一程。

December, AUC 778 - Spring, 779. 12月,AUC 778 - 春天,779。 (Cf. John 1:2; Matthew 3:4; Mark 1; Luke 3:4) (參約1:2;馬太福音3:4;馬可福音1;路加福音3:4)

Jesus abandons His hidden life in Nazareth, and goes to Bethania across the Jordan, where He is baptized by John and receives the Baptist's first testimony to His Divine mission.在拿撒勒耶穌放棄他的隱居生活,去Bethania過約但河,在那裡他施洗約翰和接受施洗約翰的第一次證明了他的神聖使命。 He then withdraws into the desert of Judea, where He fasts for forty days and is tempted by the devil.然後,他撤回到朱迪亞沙漠,在那裡他封齋,四十天受魔鬼的試探。 After this He dwells in the neighbourhood of the Baptist's ministry, and receives the latter's second and third testimony; here too He wins His first disciples, with whom He journeys to the wedding feast at Cana in Galilee, where He performs His first miracle.在此之後,他住在施洗約翰的部附近,並接受後者的第二個和第三個見證,這裡太他贏得他的第一個弟子,他的旅程的婚禮盛宴在迦南的加利利,在那裡他進行他的第一個奇蹟。 Finally He transfers His residence, so far as there can be question of a residence in His public life, to Capharnaum, one of the principal thoroughfares of commerce and travel in Galilee.最後,他將他的住所,所以可以有問題,他的公共生活,居住在葛法翁,在加利利的商務和旅遊的主要交通要道之一。

2. 2。 Second Journey.第二程。

Passover, AUC 779 - about Pentecost, 780.逾越節,AUC 779 - 約五旬,780。 (Cf. John 2-5; Mark 1-3; Luke 4-7; Matthew 4-9) (約2-5 1-3馬克,盧克4-7,馬太4-9)

Jesus goes from Capharnaum to Jerusalem for the Feast of the Passover; here he expels the buyers and sellers from the Temple, and is questioned by the Jewish authorities.耶穌從葛法翁,耶路撒冷的逾越節,在這裡,他排出的買家和賣家,並從寺廟的猶太當局的質疑。 Many believed in Jesus, and Nicodemus came to converse with Him during the night.許多人相信耶穌,並,尼哥底母在夜間來與他交談。 After the festival days He remained in Judea till about the following December, during which period He received the fourth testimony from John who was baptizing at Ennon (AV Aenon).節日後,他留在猶太至約12月,在此期間,他獲得了第四的證詞從約翰施洗Ennon(AV Aenon)。 When the Baptist had been imprisoned in Machaerus, Jesus returned to Galilee by way of Samaria where He met the Samaritan woman at Jacob's well near Sichar; He delayed two days in this place, and many believed in Him.當浸會被關押在Machaerus的,耶穌回到加利利,撒瑪利亞在那裡他遇到了撒瑪利亞婦人在雅各井附近Sichar,他推遲了兩個在這個地方,許多人認為他的。

Soon after His return into Galilee we find Jesus again in Cana, where He heard the prayer who pleaded for the recovery of his dying son in Capharnaum.不久後,他返回到加利利,我們發現耶穌又在迦拿,在那裡他聽到了祈禱,懇求他垂危的兒子在葛法翁的恢復。 The rejection of Jesus by the people of Nazareth, whether at this time as, St. Luke intimates, or at a later period, as St. Mark seems to demand, or again both now and about eight months later, is an exegetical problem we cannot solve here.拒絕耶穌的拿撒勒的人,無論是在這個時候,St。盧克親密的,或在以後的時期,聖馬克似乎要求,或現在,大約8個月後再次,是我們的訓詁問題可無法解決此處。 At any rate, shortly afterwards Jesus is mostly actively engaged in Capharnaum in teaching and healing the sick, restoring among others Peter's mother-in-law and a demoniac.無論如何,不久之後,耶穌在葛法翁大多是積極參與的教學和醫治病人,恢復以及其他彼得的岳母和魔鬼般的。 On this occasion He called Peter and Andrew, James and John.在此之際,他叫彼得和安德魯,詹姆斯和約翰。 Then followed a missionary tour through Galilee during which Jesus cured a leper; soon he again taught in Capharnaum, and was surrounded by such a multitude that a man sick of the palsy had to be let down through the roof in order to reach the Sacred Presence.接著一個傳教士通過加利利之旅,在此期間,耶穌治好了痲瘋病人,很快,他又在葛法翁教,被包圍等多種,對癱子,一個人必須通過屋頂,以達到神聖的存在讓。 After calling Matthew to the Apostleship, He went to Jerusalem for the second pasch occurring during His public life, it was on this occasion that He healed the man who been sick for thirty-eight years near the pool at Jerusalem.在調用馬修作使徒,他到耶路撒冷的第二個的PASCH發生在他的公共生活,它是在這個場合,他就治好了的人誰病了,在耶路撒冷附近的游泳池38年。 The charge of violating the Sabbath and Christ's answer were the natural effects of the miracle.該負責人違反了安息日,耶穌的回答是自然的奇蹟。 The same charge is repeated shortly after the pasch; Jesus had returned to Galilee, and the disciples plucked some ripe ears in the corn fields.重複相同的電荷的Pasch後不久,耶穌回到加利利,和門徒掐在玉米領域的一些成熟的耳朵。 The question became more acute in the immediate future; Jesus had returned to Capharnaum, and there healed on the Sabbath day a man who had a withered hand.在不久的將來,這個問題變得更加尖銳;,耶穌已經回到了葛法翁,有一個人枯乾了一隻手在安息日癒合。 The Pharisees now make common cause with the Herodians in order to "destroy him".法利賽人現在同希律黨的共同事業,以“毀了他”。 Jesus withdraws first to the Sea of Galilee, where He teaches and performs numerous miracles; then retires to the Mountain of Beatitudes, where He prays during the night, chooses His Twelve Apostles in the morning, and preaches the Sermon on the Mount.耶穌撤回海上的加利利,在那裡他教導和執行了無數的奇蹟;然後退休的山八福,他在夜間祈禱的地方,選擇他的十二使徒岩(Twelve Apostles)的早晨,和宣揚的登山寶訓的。 He is brought back to Capharnaum by the prayers of the centurion who asks and obtains the of his servant.他帶回葛法翁的百夫長的要求,並獲得他的僕人的祈禱。

3. 3。 Third Journey.第三之旅。

About Pentecost, AUC 780- Autumn, 780.關於五旬節,AUC 780 - 秋季,780。 (Cf. Luke 7:8; Mark 3:4; Matthew 4, 8, 9, 12, 13) (參見路加福音7:8;馬可福音3:4;馬太福音4,8,9,12,13)

Jesus makes another missionary tour through Galilee; He resuscitates the son of the widow at Naim, and shortly afterwards receives the messengers sent by John from his prison in Machaerus.耶穌使另一個傳教士通過加利利之旅,他救活兒子的遺孀納伊姆,不久之後收到的使者發送的約翰從他的監獄中Machaerus。 Then follows the scene of the merciful reception of the sinful woman who anoints the feet of the Lord while He rests at table in Magdala or perhaps in Capharnaum; for the rest of His missionary tour Jesus is followed by a band of pious women who minister to the wants of the Apostles.然後按照現場的有罪的女人膏抹主的腳,而他停留在表中抹大拉的,或者在葛法翁仁慈的接收,其餘的他的傳教之旅耶穌其次是帶虔誠的婦女部長需要的使徒。 After returning to Capharnaum, Jesus expels the mute devil, is charged by the Pharisees with casting out devils by the prince of devils, and encounters the remonstrances of His kinsmen.耶穌驅逐後返回到葛法翁,靜音的魔鬼,被指控的法利賽人與鑄造出魔鬼的魔鬼王子,和他的族人中遇到的進諫。 Withdrawing to the sea, He preaches what may be called the "Lake Sermon", consisting of seven parables.敗退海,他鼓吹什麼可以被稱為“湖布道”,由七個比喻。

4. 4。 Fourth Journey.第四次的征途。

Autumn, AUC 780- about Passover, 781.秋季,AUC 780 - 約逾越節,781。 (Cf. Luke 8:9; Mark 4-6; Matthew 8, 9, 10, 13, 14) (參見路加福音8:9;馬克4-6馬太福音8,9,10,13,14)

After a laborious day of ministry in the city of Capharnaum and on the lake, Jesus with His Apostles crosses the waters.部在葛法翁城在湖上經過一個艱苦的一天,耶穌與他的門徒穿過的水域。 As a great storm overtakes them, the frightened Apostles awaken their sleeping Master, Who commands the winds and the waves.作為一個偉大的風暴追上他們,受驚的使徒喚醒他們沉睡的主人,誰指揮的風和浪。 Towards morning they meet in the country of the Gerasens, on the east of the lake, two demoniacs.將近中午的時候,他們在全國的Gerasens,滿足東部的湖中,兩個被鬼附的。 Jesus expels the evil spirits, but allows them to enter into a herd of swine.耶穌驅逐邪靈,但允許他們進入一個豬群。 The beasts destroy themselves in the waters of the lake, and frightened inhabitants beg Jesus not to remain among them.畜生毀了自己的湖水,受驚的居民不求耶穌留其中。 After returning to Capharnaum he heals the woman who had touched the hem of His garment, resuscitates the daughter of Jairus, and gives sight to two blind men.到葛法翁回國後,他醫治的女人感動了,他的服裝的下擺,救活睚魯的女兒和兩個瞎子重見光明。 The second Gospel places here Christ's last visit to and rejection by the people of Nazareth.第二基督的福音地方在這裡的最後一次訪問和拒絕的拿撒勒人。 Then follows the ministry of the Apostles who are sent two by two, while Jesus Himself makes another missionary tour through Galilee.然後如下的使徒派出兩名耶穌自己,而另一個傳​​教士通過加利利旅遊部。 It seems to have been the martyrdom of John the Baptist that occasioned the return of the Apostles and their gathering around the Master in Capharnaum.這似乎一直是施洗約翰的殉道,引起該回報的使徒和他們的周圍聚集在葛法翁主。 But, however depressing this event may have been, it did not damp the enthusiasm of the Apostles over their success.但是,無論按下此事件可能是,它並沒有潮濕的使徒在他們的成功的積極性。

5. 5。 Fifth Journey.第五旅。

Spring, AUC 781.春天,AUC 781。 (Cf. John 6; Luke 9; Mark 6; and Matthew 14) Jesus invites the Apostles, tired out from their missionary labours, to rest awhile. (參見約翰福音6章,路加福音9,馬克和馬太福音14)耶穌邀請的門徒,從他們的傳教士的勞動累了,休息一段時間。 They cross the northern part of the Sea of Galilee, but, instead of finding the desired solitude, they are met by multitudes of people who had preceded them by land or by boat, and who were eager for instruction.他們穿越北部的加利利海,但是,而不是找到所需的孤獨,它們是由許許多多的人之前,他們通過陸路或乘船,渴望指令。 Jesus taught them throughout the day, and towards evening did not wish to dismiss them hungry.耶穌教導他們一整天,傍晚時分,沒有想解僱他們餓了。 On the other hand, there were only five loaves and two fishes at the disposal of Jesus; after His blessing, these scanty supplies satisfied the hunger of five thousand men, besides women and children, and remnants filled twelve baskets of fragments.另一方面,只有五個餅,兩條魚在耶穌出售;祝福後,他的這些微薄的供應滿足飢餓的5000人,除了婦女和兒童,殘留的碎片裝滿了十二個籃子。 Jesus sent the Apostles back to their boats, and escaped from the enthusiastic multitudes, who wished to make Him king, into the mountain where He prayed till far into the night.耶穌差遣使徒回到他們的船,逃離熱情的群眾,希望他作王,他在那裡祈禱,直到到深夜進山。 Meanwhile the Apostles were facing a contrary wind till the fourth watch in the morning, when they saw Jesus walking upon the waters.同時使徒們面臨著逆風,直到第四手錶在早上,當他們看見耶穌在水面行走。 The Apostles first fear, and then recognize Jesus; Peter walks upon the water as long as his confidence lasts; the storm ceases when Jesus has entered the boat.使徒們第一次恐懼,然後認識耶穌,彼得在水面上走,只要他的信心持續的風暴停止時,耶穌已經進入了船。 The next day brings Jesus and His Apostles to Capharnaum, where He speaks to the assembly about the Bread of Life and promises the Holy Eucharist, with the result that some of His followers leave Him, while the faith of His true disciples is strengthened.第二天帶來了耶穌和他的門徒葛法翁說,在那裡他向大會提交關於生命的糧,並承諾在聖體聖事,結果,他的一些追隨者離開他,而他真正的門徒的信心增強。

6. 6。 Sixth Journey.第六屆旅。

About May, AUC 781- Sept., 781.關於5月,AUC 781 - 781 9月。 (Cf. Luke 9; Mark 7-9; Matthew 14-18; John 7) (參見路加福音9,馬克7-9馬太福音14日至18日;約翰福音第7章)

It may be owing to the enmity stirred up against Jesus by His Eucharistic discourse in Capharnaum that He began now a more extensive missionary tour than He had made in the preceding years of His life.這可能是由於對耶穌的敵意激起了他的聖體聖事的話語,他現在比前幾年他的生活,他在一個更廣泛的傳教之旅開始在葛法翁。 Passing through the country of Genesar, He expressed His disapproval of the Pharisaic practices of legal purity.通過通過國家的Genesar,他表示,他反對的法律純度pharisaic的做法。 Within the boarders of Tyre and Sidon He exorcized the daughter of the Syrophoenician woman.在提爾和西頓的寄宿生,他驅走迦南婦人女子的女兒。 From here Jesus travelled first towards the north, then towards the east, then south-eastward through the northern part of Decapolis, probably along the foot of the Lebanon, till He came to the eastern part of Galilee.耶穌從這裡走過第一個往北部,再向東,南向東北部的低加波利,可能是沿著山腳的黎巴嫩,直到他來到東部的加利利。 While in Decapolis Jesus healed a deaf-mute, employing a ceremonial more elaborate than He had used at any of His previous miracles; in the eastern part of Galilee, probably not far from Dalmanutha and Magedan, He fed four thousand men, besides children and women, with seven loaves and a few little fishes, the remaining fragments filling seven baskets.而在低加波利耶穌治好了一個又聾又啞,採用儀式更詳細的比他用他以前的任何奇蹟,在東部的加利利,可能不遠處從Dalmanutha和Magedan,他吃飽了4000人,除了兒童和女性,七個餅和幾條小魚,餘下的碎片填充了七個筐子。 The multitudes had listened for three days to the teaching of Jesus, previously to the miracle.群眾聆聽了耶穌的教導,以前三天的奇蹟。 In spite of the many cures performed by Jesus, during this journey, on the blind, the dumb, the lame, the maimed, and on many others, the Pharisees and Sadducees asked Him for a sign from heaven, tempting Him.儘管許多治療的耶穌,在這個征途上,就盲目,是喑啞的,瘸腿的,殘廢的,和許多人一樣,法利賽人和撒都該人,問他從天上的一個標誌,誘惑他。 He promised them the sign of Jonas the Prophet.他答應他們的先知約拿的標誌。 After Jesus and the Apostles had crossed the lake, He warned them to beware of the leaven of the Pharisees; then they passed through Bethsaida Julias where Jesus gave sight to a blind man.在耶穌和使徒們已經越過了湖,他警告要提防法利賽人的酵,然後他們通過伯賽大Julias耶穌給一個瞎子重見光明。 Next we find Jesus in the confines of Caesarea Philippi, where Peter professes his faith in Christ, the Son of the living God, and in his turn receives from Jesus the promise of the power of the keys.接下來,我們找到耶穌的限制,該撒利亞腓立比,彼得自稱他的信仰基督,是永生神的兒子,在輪到他收到來自耶穌的承諾的權力的鑰匙。 Jesus here predicts His passion, and about a week later is transfigured before Peter, James, and John, probably on the top of Mt.Thabor.耶穌在這裡預測他的激情,大約一個星期後面前變了彼得,雅各,約翰,可能Mt.Thabor的頂部。 On descending from the mountain, Jesus exorcizes the mute devil whom His disciples had not been able to expel.在降從山上中,耶穌exorcizes的靜音魔鬼,他的門徒們一直沒能驅逐。 Bending his way towards Capharnaum, Jesus predicts His Passion for the second time, and in the city pays the tribute-money for Himself and Peter.彎曲他的方式往葛法翁,耶穌預言他的激情,第二次,並在全市支付的敬意錢為自己和彼得。 This occasions the discussion as to the greater in the kingdom of heaven, and the allied discourses.這種場合的討論,因為在天國的,和盟軍的話語。 Finally, Jesus refuses His brethren's invitation to go publicly to the Feast of Tabernacles in Jerusalem.最後,耶穌拒絕他的弟兄在耶路撒冷住棚節的邀請去公開。

7. 7。 Seventh Journey.第七旅。

Sept., AUC 781- December, 781. 9月,AUC 781 - 12,781。 (Cf. Luke 9-13; Mark 10; Matthew 6, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 24; John 7-10) (參見路加福音9-13;馬克10馬太福音6,7,8,10,11,12,24,約翰7月10日)

Jesus now "steadfastly set His face to go Jerusalem", and as the Samaritans refused Him hospitality, He had to take the east of the Jordan.耶穌現在是“堅定不移地樹立他的臉去耶路撒冷”,和撒瑪利亞人拒絕他的熱情好客,他不得不坐西朝東的喬丹。 While still in Galilee, He refused the discipleship of several half-hearted candidates, and about the same time He sent other seventy-two, two by two, before His face into every city and place whither He Himself was to come.雖然仍然在加利利,他拒絕了一些半心半意的候選人的門徒,大約在同一時間,他送72,兩個兩個的,在他的臉前到每一個城市和地方往自己來。 Probably in the lower part of Peraea, the seventy-two returned with joy, rejoicing in the miraculous power that had been exercised by them. 72可能在下部Peraea,返回的喜悅,欣喜於自己的神奇力量,他們已行使。 It must have been in the vicinity of Jericho that Jesus answered the lawyer's question, "Who is my neighbour?"它必須是在傑里科附近,耶穌回答律師的問題,“誰是我的鄰舍呢?” by the parable of the Good Samaritan. “好撒瑪利亞人的比喻。 Next Jesus was received in the hospitable home of Mary and Martha, where He declares Mary to have chosen the better part.接下來耶穌收到了熱情好客的家庭,馬大和馬利亞,在那裡他宣布瑪麗選擇了更好的一部分。 From Bethania He went to Jerusalem for the Feast of Tabernacles, where he became involved in discussions with the Jews.從Bethania他往耶路撒冷去,在那裡他參與討論與猶太人的住棚節的盛宴。 The Scribes and Pharisees endeavoured to catch Him in the sentence which they asked Him to pronounce in the case of the woman taken in adultery.文士和法利賽人努力趕上他的句子,他們就問他發音的情況下,採取通姦的女人。 When Jesus had avoided this snare, He continued His discussions with the hostile Jews.當耶穌避免了這個圈套,他繼續他的討論與敵對的猶太人。 Their enmity was intensified because Jesus restored sight to a blind man on the Sabbath day.他們的敵意加劇,因為耶穌一個盲人恢復視力的安息日。 Jesus appears to have His stay in Jerusalem with the beautiful discourse on the Good Shepherd.耶穌似乎有他留在耶路撒冷,好牧人美麗的話語。 A little later He teaches His Apostles the Our Father, probably somewhere on Mt.過了一會兒,他教導他的門徒,我們的父親,大約有山。 Olivet.橄欖山。 On a subsequent missionary tour through Judea and Peraea He defends Himself against the charges of Pharisees, and reproves their hypocrisy.在隨後的傳教士通過朱迪亞和Peraea之旅,他為自己辯護的法利賽人反對收費,並譴責他們的虛偽。 On the same journey Jesus warned against hypocrisy, covetousness, worldly care; He exhorted to watchfulness, patience under contradictions, and to penance.在同樣的旅程,耶穌警告,反對虛偽,貪婪,世俗關懷,他告誡下的矛盾,細心,耐心和懺悔。 About this time, too, He healed the woman who had the spirit of infirmity.大約在這個時候,他就治好了,也有精神虛弱的女人。

8. 8。 Eighth Journey.第八旅。

December, AUC 781-February, 782. 12月,AUC 781,782。 (Cf. Luke 13-17; John 10:11) The Feast of Dedication brought Jesus again to Jerusalem, and occasioned another discussion with the Jews. (參路13-17;約10:11)帶來的盛宴奉獻耶穌又到了耶路撒冷,並引致另一個討論的猶太人。 This is followed by another missionary tour through Peraea, during which Jesus explained a number of important points of doctrine: the number of the elect, the choice of one's place at table, the guests to be invited, the parable of the great supper, resoluteness in the service of God, the parables of the hundred sheep, the lost groat, and the prodigal son, of the unjust steward, of Dives and Lazarus, of the unmerciful servant, besides the duty of fraternal correction, and the efficacy of faith.這是其次的另一個傳教士旅遊通過Peraea,在此期間,耶穌解釋一個數的重要學說:選民的數量,選擇一個人的地方在表的客人被邀請,寓言的巨大晚飯,堅定在服務的上帝的一百隻羊,失去的麵包類的比喻,和浪子,不義的管家,富豪和拉撒路,的無情僕人,除了工作兄弟般的校正,和信仰的療效。 During this period, too, the Pharisees attempted to frighten Jesus with the menance of Herod's persecution; on his part, Jesus healed a man who had dropsy, on a Sabbath day, while at table in the house of a certain prince of the Pharisees.在此期間,法利賽人試圖以嚇唬耶穌的menance的希律王的迫害,他的一部分,耶穌醫治一個誰曾水腫的人,在一個安息日天,而在表中的一個一定王子的法利賽人的房子。 Finally Mary and Martha send messengers to Jesus, asking Him to come and cure their brother Lazarus; Jesus went after two days, and resuscitated His friend who had been several days in the grave.最後,馬大和馬利亞打發人到耶穌,問他來治好自己的弟弟拉撒路,耶穌就在兩天之後,復甦他的朋友們已經幾天在墳墓裡。 The Jews are exasperated over this miracle, and they decree Jesus must die for the people.猶太人在這個奇蹟是被激怒了,和他們的法令耶穌必須為人民而死。 Hence He withdrew "into a country near the desert, unto a city that is called Ephrem".因此,他退出了“附近的沙漠到一個國家,對一個城市,被稱為Ephrem”。

9. 9。 Ninth Journey.九五之旅。

February, AUC 782- Passover, 782. 2月,AUC 782 - 逾越節,782。 (Cf. Luke 17-22; Mark 10, 14; Matthew 19-26; John 11, 12.) (參見路加福音17-22;馬克10,14;馬太福音19-26;約翰福音11章,12。)

This last journey took Jesus from Ephrem northward through Samaria, then eastward along the border of Galilee into Peraea, then southward through Peraea, westward across the Jordan, through Jericho, Bethania on Mt.這最後的旅程耶穌從厄弗雷姆的花向北穿過撒瑪利亞,然後向東沿邊界的加利利到Peraea,然後向南通過Peraea,向西穿過約旦,經過耶利哥,Bethania山。 Olivet, Bethphage, and finally to Jerusalem.橄欖山,伯法,終於到耶路撒冷。 While in the most northern part of the journey, He cured ten lepers; a little later, He answered the questions raised by the Pharisees concerning the kingdom of God.雖然在最北部的旅程,他治愈了十個痲瘋病人,過了一會兒,他回答法利賽人所提出的問題,關於神的國度。 Then He urged the need of incessant prayer by proposing the parable of the unjust judge; here too belong the parable of the Pharisee and Publican, the discourse on marriage, on the attitude of the Church towards the children, on the right use of riches as illustrated by the story of the rich young ruler, and the parable of the labourers in the vineyard.然後,他需要不斷的祈禱呼籲提出的不義之官的比喻,這裡也屬於比喻中的法利賽人和稅吏,對婚姻的話語的教會對孩子的態度上,作為財富的正確使用年輕富有的統治者的故事,而勞動者在葡萄園的比喻說明。 After beginning His route towards Jerusalem, He predicted His Passion for the third time; James and John betray their ambition, but they are taught the true standard of greatness in the Church.他向耶路撒冷的路線開始後,他的第三次預測他的激情,詹姆斯和約翰出賣自己的野心,但在教會中的偉大,教他們真正的標準。 At Jericho Jesus heals two blind men, and receives the repentance of Zacheus the publican; here He proposed also the parable of the pounds entrusted to the servants by the master.在傑里科的耶穌醫治兩​​個瞎子,收到的懺悔扎霍伊斯稅吏;他在這裡提出的比喻磅,委託主的僕人。

Six days before the pasch we find Jesus at Bethania on Mt. 6天前的Pasch我們找到耶穌在Bethania的山。 Olivet, as the guest of Simon the leper; Mary anoints His feet, and the disciples at the instigation of Judas are indignant at this seeming waste of ointment.科特,作為嘉賓西蒙的麻風病人;瑪麗膏抹他的腳下,在其唆使猶大的門徒憤慨,這似乎浪費軟膏。 A great multitude assembles at Bethania, not to see Jesus only but also Lazarus; hence the chief priests think of killing Lazarus too.一大群在Bethania組裝,而不是來見耶穌,但也拉撒路,因此祭司長認為殺害拉撒路也。 On the following day Jesus solemnly entered Jerusalem and was received by the Hosanna cries of all classes of people.在接下來的一天,耶穌嚴肅地進入耶路撒冷,和散那哭聲所有階層的人收到。 In the afternoon He met a delegation of Gentiles in the court of the Temple.當天下午,他會見了代表團在法院寺的外邦人。 On Monday Jesus curses the barren fig tree, and during the morning He drives the buyers and sellers from the Temple.週一耶穌詛咒無花果樹,並在今天上午,他開車從寺廟的買家和賣家。 On Tuesday the wonder of the disciples at the sudden withering of the fig tree provokes their Master's instruction on the efficacy of faith.週二,難怪突然枯萎的無花果樹的弟子挑起他們的主人的指令信心的功效。 Jesus answers the enemies' questions as to His authority; then He proposes the parable of the two sons, of the wicked husbandmen, and of the marriage feast.耶穌回答敵人的問題,他的權威,然後他提出的兩個兒子的比喻,的惡人戶,和婚姻的筵席。 Next follows a triple snare: the politicians ask whether it is lawful to pay tribute to Caesar; the scoffers inquire whose wife a woman, who has had several husbands, will be after resurrection; the Jewish theologians propose the question: Which is the first commandment, the great commandment of the law?接下來是三圈套:政治家致敬凱撒詢問是否是合法的,好譏誚的打聽他的妻子的女人,已經有好幾個丈夫,將復活後的猶太神學家提出的問題:這是第一條誡命大誡命的法律嗎? Then Jesus proposes His last question to the Jews: "What think you of Christ? whose son is he?"然後提出了最後一個問題耶穌向猶太人說:“你覺得基督的,他的兒子是他嗎?” This is followed by the eightfold woe against the Scribes and Pharisees, and by the denunciation of Jerusalem.其次是對文士和法利賽人有禍了,和八重的譴責耶路撒冷。 The last words of Christ in the Temple were expressions of praise for the poor widow who had made an offering of two mites in spite of her poverty.基督在聖殿的最後一句話表達的好評,為窮人提供了兩個小錢的寡婦,儘管她的貧窮。 Jesus ended this day by uttering the prophecies concerning the destruction of Jerusalem, His second coming, and the future judgement; these predictions are interrupted by the parable of the ten virgins and the talents.耶穌結束了這一天發出的預言耶路撒冷的毀滅,他第二次來,和未來的判斷,這些預言被打斷了十個童女的比喻和人才。 On Wednesday Jesus again predicted His Passion; probably it was on the same day that Judas made his agreement with the Jews to betray Jesus.週三耶穌又預言他的激情,可能是在同一天,猶大與猶太人出賣耶穌做了他的同意。

E. The Passion of Jesus: Its Preparation E.耶穌受難及其製備方法

Jesus prepares His disciples for the Passion, He prepares Himself for the ordeal and His enemies prepare themselves for the destruction of Jesus.耶穌的激情準備他的門徒,他準備為自己的考驗,他的敵人作好準備耶穌的破壞。

1. 1。 Preparation of the Apostles.製備的使徒。

Jesus prepares His Apostles for the Passion by the eating of the paschal lamb, the institution of the Holy Eucharist, the concomitant ceremonies, and His lengthy discourses held during and after the Last Supper.耶穌準備他的門徒吃逾越節的羔羊,聖體聖事的機構,隨之而來的儀式,和他的“最後的晚餐”舉行期間和之後的漫長的話語激情。 Special mention should be made of the prediction of the Passion, and of the betrayal one of the Apostles and the denial by another.特別值得一提的預測的激情,之一的使徒和拒絕由其他的背叛。 Peter, James, and John are prepared in a more particular manner by witnessing the sorrow of Jesus on Mt.彼得,雅各,約翰準備在一個更特別的方式見證耶穌的悲哀山。 Olivet.橄欖山。

2. 2。 Preparation of Jesus.製備耶穌。

Jesus must have found an indirect preparation in all He did and said to strengthen His Apostles.耶穌一定是發現了一個間接的準備,他所做的一切,並表示,加強他的門徒。 But the preparation that was peculiarly His own consisted in His prayer in the grotto of His Agony where the angel came to strengthen Him.但是獨有的,他自己的準備工作,包括在他的洞穴,他的痛苦天使來加強他的禱告。 The sleep of His favoured Apostles during the hours of His bitter struggle must have prepared Him too for the complete abandonment He was soon to experience.他喜歡的使徒睡眠的時間內,他苦戰也為他準備徹底拋棄他很快就體驗到了。

3. 3。 Preparation of the Enemies.製備的敵人。

Judas leaves the Master during the Last Supper.在“最後的晚餐”中,猶大離開主。 The chief priests and Pharisees hastily collect a detachment of the Roman cohort stationed in the castle of Antonia, of the Jewish temple-watch, and of the officials of the Temple.祭司長和法利賽人匆忙收集了支隊駐紮在城堡的安東妮亞,在猶太人的聖殿手錶的羅馬隊列,和聖殿的官員。 To these are added a number of the servants and dependents of the high-priest, and a miscellaneous multitude of fanatics with lanterns and torches, with swords and clubs, who were to follow the leadership of Judas.這些被添加了大量的高神父,和雜項眾多狂熱分子,拿著燈籠,火把,刀劍棍棒,誰是跟隨猶大的領導人員和家屬。 They took Christ, bound Him, and led Him to the high-priest's house.他們把基督,把他捆綁,導致他的高神父的房子。

F. The Passion of Jesus: The Trial F.耶穌受難:“審判”

Jesus was tried first before an ecclesiastical and then before a civil tribunal.耶穌被審判之前,首先一個教會,然後在民事法庭。

1. 1。 Before Ecclesiastical Court.在教會法院。

The ecclesiastical trial includes Christ's appearance before Annas, before Caiphas, and again before Caiphas, who appears to have acted in each case as head of the Sanhedrin.教會的試驗包括基督的外觀,前亞那之前,caiphas的,和之前再次caiphas的,他似乎已經在每一種情況下採取行動,公會負責人。 The Jewish court found Jesus guilty of blasphemy, and condemned Him to death, though its proceedings were illegal from more than one point of view.猶太法庭發現,耶穌犯了褻瀆,並譴責他死刑,雖然從一個以上的角度來看,其程序是非法的。 During the trial took place Peter's triple denial of Jesus; Jesus is insulted and mocked, especially between the second and third session; and after His final condemnation Judas despaired and met his tragic death.在審判過程中地方彼得的三重否定耶穌,耶穌被侮辱和嘲笑,尤其是在第二次和第三次會議之間;後,他最終譴責猶大絕望,遇見了他的不幸逝世。

2. 2。 Before the Civil Court.在民事法庭。

The civil trial, too, comprised three sessions, the first before Pilate, the second before Herod, the third again before Pilate.民事審判中,包括了三次會議,第一次彼拉多面前,前希律王的第二,第三彼拉多面前。 Jesus is not charged with blasphemy before the court of Pilate, but with stirring up the people, forbidding to give tribute to Caesar, and claiming to be Christ the king.彼拉多在法庭上與褻瀆耶穌是不帶電,但與攪拌的人,禁止納稅給凱撒,並自稱是基督的王。 Pilate ignores the first two charges; the third he finds harmless when he sees that Jesus does not claim royalty in the Roman sense of the word.彼拉多忽略了前兩個收費;第三,他發現無害的,當他看到耶穌沒有權利要求在羅馬意義上的版稅。

But in order not to incur the odium of the Jewish leaders, the Roman governor sends his prisoner to Herod.但為了不招致惡評的猶太領袖,羅馬總督發送他的囚犯希律。 As Jesus did not humour the curiosity of Herod, He was mocked and set at naught by the Tetrarch of Galilee and his court, and sent back to Pilate.耶穌沒有幽默的希律王的好奇心,他被嘲笑和藐視加利利分封的王和他的法院,並送回彼拉多那裡去。

The Roman procurator declares the prisoner innocent for the second time, but, instead of setting Him free, gives the people the alternative to choose either Jesus or Barabbas for their paschal freedman.羅馬檢察院宣布第二次無辜的囚犯,但,而不是設置了他自由,給人們的替代選擇耶穌或巴拉巴他們的逾越節的自由民。 Pilate pronounced Jesus innocent for the third time with the more solemn ceremony of washing his hands; he had recourse to a third scheme of ridding himself of the burden of pronouncing an unjust sentence against his prisoner.彼拉多顯著耶穌無辜的第三次更莊嚴的儀式洗他的手,他不得不求助於第三個計劃擺脫自己的發音不公平的一句對他的囚犯的負擔。 He had the prisoner scourged, thus annihilating, as far as human means could do so, any hope that Jesus could ever attain to the royal dignity.他的囚犯鞭打,從而消滅,只要人的手段可以這樣做,任何希望,耶穌所能達到的皇室尊貴。 But even this device miscarried, and Pilate allowed his political ambition to prevail over his sense of evident justice; he condemned Jesus to be crucified.但是,即使這個設備流產,彼拉多使他的政治野心明顯的正義戰勝他的感覺,他譴責耶穌被釘在十字架上。

G. The Passion of Jesus: His Death G.耶穌受難:他的死亡

Jesus carried His Cross to the place of execution.耶穌背著他的十字架的地方執行。 Simon of Cyrene is forced to assist Him in bearing the heavy burden.西蒙的昔蘭尼被迫以協助他承載的沉重負擔。 On the way Jesus addresses his last words to the weeping women who sympathized with His suffering.在路上,耶穌談到他的最後一句話哭泣的婦女的同情,他的痛苦。 He is nailed to the Cross, his garments are divided, and an inscription is placed over His head.他被釘在十字架上,劃分了他的衣服,並題詞放在他的頭。 While His enemies mock Him, He pronounces the well-known "Seven Words".雖然他的敵人嘲笑他,他宣告了著名的“七字”。 Of the two robbers crucified with Jesus, one was converted, and the other died impenitent.與耶穌同釘十字架,兩個強盜,一個轉換,死了不知悔改。 The sun was darkened, and Jesus surrendered His soul into the hands of His Father.太陽變黑了,耶穌交出他的靈魂,他的父親的手中。 The veil of the Temple was rent into two, the earth quaked, the rocks were riven, and many bodies of the saints that had slept arose and appeared to many.寺的面紗是租一分為二,大地震動,岩石分裂的,和許多機構的聖人睡覺了站了起來,向許多人顯現。 The Roman centurion testified that Jesus was indeed the Son of God.羅馬百夫長作證,耶穌的確是神的兒子。 The Heart of Jesus was pierced so as to make sure of His death.耶穌的心臟被刺穿,以確保他的死亡。 The Sacred Body was taken from the Cross by Joseph of Arimathea and Nicodemus, and was buried in the new sepulchre of Joseph, and the Sabbath drew near.亞利馬太的約瑟和尼哥底母,神聖的身體從十字架上,被埋葬在新的約瑟的墳墓裡,和安息日臨近。

H. The Glory of Jesus H.耶穌的榮耀

After the burial of Jesus, the holy women returned and prepared spices and ointments.耶穌的埋葬後,返回的聖潔婦人,並準備了香料香膏。 The next day, the chief priests and Pharisees made the sepulchre secure with guards, sealing the stone.第二天,祭司長和法利賽人的墳墓裡的安全防護裝置,封了石頭。 When the Sabbath was passed, the holy women brought sweet spices that they might anoint Jesus.當安息日過去了,神聖的女性帶來了甜香料,他們可能膏耶穌。 But Jesus rose early the first day of the week, and there was a great earthquake, and an angel descended from heaven, and rolled back the stone.但耶穌復活早在一周的第一天,有一個很大的地震,一個天使從天而降,並回滾的石頭。 The guards were struck with terror, and became as dead men.侍衛們膽寒,和死人一樣。 On arriving at the sepulchre the holy women found the grave empty; Mary Magdalen ran to tell the Apostles Peter and John, while the other women were told by an angel that the Lord had arisen from the dead.在到達了墳墓聖潔的婦女找到了墳墓空;瑪麗Magdalen跑去告訴使徒彼得和約翰,而其他婦女告訴天使,主從死裡出現了。 Peter and John hasten to the sepulchre, and find everything as Magdalen has reported.彼得和約翰加速了墳墓,並找到一切馬格達倫報告。 Magdalen too returns, and, while weeping at the sepulchre, is approached by the arisen Saviour Who appears to her and speaks with her.抹大拉過返回,而哭泣的墳墓裡,接觸出現的救主似乎她和她說話。 On the same day Jesus appeared to the other holy women, to Peter, to the two disciples on their way to Emmaus, and to all the Apostles excepting Thomas.就在同一天,耶穌出現的其他聖潔的婦女,彼得,兩個弟子以馬忤斯的路上,所有的使徒,除了托馬斯。 A week later He appeared to all the Apostles, Thomas included; later still He appeared in Galilee near the Lake of Genesareth to seven disciples, on a mountain in Galilee to a multitude of disciples, to James, and finally to His disciples on the Mount Olivet whence He ascended into heaven.一個星期後,他似乎所有的使徒,托馬斯後,他仍然出現在加利利湖附近的Genesareth七個弟子,在加利利山的弟子眾多,詹姆斯,並最終對他的門徒山橄欖山那裡來,他升天。 But these apparitions do not exhaust the record of the Gospels, according to which Jesus showed Himself alive after His Passion by many proofs, for forty days appearing to the disciples and speaking of the kingdom of God.但這些幻影不耗盡記錄的福音,根據耶穌表明自己活著的許多證據後,他的激情,40天出現的門徒,神的國發言。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的書面AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。 In Memory of Archbishop Mathew Kavukatt The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.在內存大主教馬修Kavukatt的天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約



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