Saint John Chrysostom聖約翰金口

Advanced Information 先進的信息

(c.346-407 AD) (c.346-407 AD)

John Chrysostom, c.346-407, was patriarch of Constantinople and one of the four great Eastern Fathers of the Church.約翰金口,c.346-407,是元老的君士坦丁堡和其中的4個大東方的父親教會。 The son of Christian parents, John was educated in rhetoric and later in theology by Diodore of Tarsus.基督徒父母的兒子,約翰曾就讀於修辭學和後來在神學大數的所diodore的塔爾蘇斯。 Feeling a call to the monastic life, he practiced a strict asceticism at home and later retreated to a mountainous area, after suffering damage to his health.他感覺打電話給修道生活,在家裡實行了嚴格的禁慾主義,後來撤退到山區後,遭受損害了他的健康。 On his return to Antioch, he was ordained deacon (381) and priest (386).他回到安提,他被任命執事(381)和牧師(386)。 His bishop, Flavian, appointed him to preach, a duty that he discharged with skill, and he acquired a large popular following in the next 12 years.他的主教,弗拉維安,聘請他的講道,有責任,他出院與技巧,他獲得了大受歡迎後,在接下來的12年。

In 398, John was consecrated as patriarch of Constantinople.在398,是神聖的,君士坦丁堡牧首約翰。 He administered the diocese with fidelity and courage, especially in a series of reforms.他管理的教區,忠誠和勇氣,尤其是在一系列的改革。 An ascetic in an age of luxury, John was unable to be subservient to the emperor Arcadius and his wife, Eudoxia.在這樣一個時代的奢侈品,約翰是一個禁慾主義者不能屈從於皇帝的arcadius和他的妻子,迦。 His tactlessness and idealism united the opposition against him, and he was condemned and deposed at the illegal Synod of the Oaks in 403.他的木納和唯心論,聯合國會反對他,他被譴責和被廢黜上的非法主教的橡樹403。 After a brief return to Constantinople, he angered the empress again and was forced to leave the city in 404.在簡要的回歸到君士坦丁堡,他激怒了慈禧再次被迫離開這個城市在404。 He died on an enforced journey to Pontus.他死於上執行的旅程龐。 Feast day: Nov. 13 (Eastern); Sept. 13 (Western).盛宴的日子:11月13日(東區),9月13日(西方)。

A writer of pure, almost Attic style, John is one of the most attractive of the Greek preachers, and his eloquence gained him the name of Chrysostom (Golden Mouth).純淨,幾乎閣樓風格的作家,他是一個最有吸引力的希臘傳教士,他的口才使他獲得了金口(黃金口)的名稱。 Most of his writings are in sermon form.他的著作是在說教的形式。 Homilies survive on Genesis, Psalms, Isaiah, Matthew, John, Romans, Galatians, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy, Titus, and Philemon.頌歌生存的成因,詩篇,以賽亞,馬太,約翰,羅馬,加拉太書,1和哥林多後書,以弗所書,腓立比書,歌羅西書,提摩太後書,提多書,和腓利門書。

Ross Mackenzie羅斯麥肯齊

Bibliography: Baur, Chrysostomus, John Chrysostom and His Times, trans.參考書目:鮑爾,里索斯托姆斯,約翰金口和他的時代,跨。 by M. Gonzaga, 2 vols.由M.岡薩加,第2卷。 (1960-61). (1960-61年)。

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St. John Chrysostom聖約翰金口

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(Chrysostomos, "golden-mouthed" so called on account of his eloquence). (赫里索斯托莫斯,“黃金口”,所謂的帳戶他的口才)。 Doctor of the Church, born at Antioch, c.醫生的教會在安提阿,C出生。 347; died at Commana in Pontus, 14 September, 407. 347;在本都,9月14日,407在Commana死了。

John -- whose surname "Chrysostom" occurs for the first time in the "Constitution" of Pope Vigilius (cf. PL, LX, 217) in the year 553 -- is generally considered the most prominent doctor of the Greek Church and the greatest preacher ever heard in a Christian pulpit.約翰 - 其姓“金口”第一次出現在“憲法”的教皇Vigilius(參見PL,LX,217)在今年553 - 通常被認為是最突出的博士,希臘教會和最大的佈道者一次聽到,在一個基督教的講壇上。 His natural gifts, as well as exterior circumstances, helped him to become what he was.他的天賦,以及外觀的情況下,使他成為他是什麼。

I. LIFE I. LIFE

(1) Boyhood (1)少年時代

At the time of Chrysostom's birth, Antioch was the second city of the Eastern part of the Roman Empire.當時的金口的誕生,安提阿是羅馬帝國東部的第二大城市。 During the whole of the fourth century religious struggles had troubled the empire and had found their echo at Antioch.在整個第四世紀的宗教鬥爭困擾的帝國,並在安提阿發現自己的迴聲。 Pagans, Manichaeans, Gnostics, Arians, Apollinarians, Jews, made their proselytes at Antioch, and the Catholics were themselves separated by the schism between the bishops Meletius and Paulinus.異教徒,摩尼教,諾斯替教,白羊座的,Apollinarians,猶太人,使他們的proselytes在安提阿,和天主教徒之間的分裂,分離的的的主教Meletius和Paulinus。 Thus Chrysostom's youth fell in troubled times.因此金口的青年下跌亂世。 His father, Secundus, was an officer of high rank in the Syrian army.他的的父親,secundus,是一名官員的職級高,在敘利亞軍隊。 On his death soon after the birth of John, Anthusa, his wife, only twenty years of age, took the sole charge of her two children, John and an elder sister.在他去世後不久誕生,約翰,Anthusa,他的妻子,年齡只有26歲,她的兩個孩子,約翰和一個姐姐全權負責。 Fortunately she was a woman of intelligence and character.幸運的是,她是一個女人的智力和性格。 She not only instructed her son in piety, but also sent him to the best schools of Antioch, though with regard to morals and religion many objections could be urged against them.她不僅指示,她的兒子在虔誠,但也送他到最好的學校安提,雖然可以敦促對他們的道德與宗教的許多反對。 Beside the lectures of Andragatius, a philosopher not otherwise known, Chrysostom followed also those of Libanius, at once the most famous orator of that period and the most tenacious adherent of the declining paganism of Rome.旁邊聽講的andragatius,哲學家,否則不知道,金口之後,也的巴尼烏斯,在一次的下降異教羅馬那個時期最有名的演說家,最頑強的堅持。 As we may see from the later writings of Chrysostom, he attained then considerable Greek scholarship and classical culture, which he by no means disowned in his later days.我們可以看到,從後來的著作金口,他獲得了相當希臘語獎學金和古典文化,他絕不是六親不認,在他以後的日子裡。 His alleged hostility to classical learning is in reality but a misunderstanding of certain passages in which he defends the philosophia of Christianity against the myths of the heathen gods, of which the chief defenders in his time were the representatives and teachers of the sophia ellenike (see A. Naegele in "Byzantin. Zeitschrift", XIII, 73-113; Idem, "Chrysostomus und Libanius" in Chrysostomika, I, Rome, 1908, 81-142).據稱他的敵意,以經典學習是在現實中,一個誤會的某些段落,其中他辯護philosophia的基督教對神的異教徒的神話,其中行政捍衛他的時間分別是代表和教師的索菲亞ellenike(見A.內格勒“Byzantin。(雜誌)”,第十三,73-113;同上,“里索斯托姆斯和巴尼烏斯”在Chrysostomika,I,羅馬,1908年,81-142)。

(2) Chrysostom as Lector and Monk (2)金口作為講師和僧

It was a very decisive turning-point in the life of Chrysostom when he met one day (about 367) the bishop Meletius.這是一個非常決定性的轉折點時,他遇到了在生活中的金口一天(約367)主教Meletius。 The earnest, mild, and winning character of this man captivated Chrysostom in such a measure that he soon began to withdraw from classical and profane studies and to devote himself to an ascetic and religious life.認真,溫和,而且贏得了這個人的性格迷住了金口,在採取這樣的措施,他很快就開始撤出從古典和褻瀆的研究和投身到一個禁慾主義者和宗教生活。 He studied Holy Scripture and frequented the sermons of Meletius.他研究聖經,並經常布道Meletius。 About three years later he received Holy Baptism and was ordained lector.大約三年後,他收到了神聖的洗禮和是受戒講師。 But the young cleric, seized by the desire of a more perfect life, soon afterwards entered one of the ascetic societies near Antioch, which was under the spiritual direction of Carterius and especially of the famous Diodorus, later Bishop of Tarsus (see Palladius, "Dialogus", v; Sozomenus, "Hist. eccles.", VIII, 2).但年輕的神職人員,檢獲的願望,更完美的生活,不久之後進入近安提的禁慾主義的社會之一,這是的精神方向carterius下,尤其是著名的狄奧多羅斯,後來主教塔爾蘇斯(見palladius的,“ Dialogus“,V; Sozomenus,”歷史。埃克爾斯。“,VIII,2)。 Prayer, manual labour and the study of Holy Scripture were his chief occupations, and we may safely suppose that his first literary works date from this time, for nearly all his earlier writings deal with ascetic and monastic subjects [cf.祈禱,體力勞動和研究的聖經是他的主要職業,我們可以假設他的第一個文學作品日期從這個時間,幾乎所有他以前的著作,處理苦行和寺院科目[比照。 below Chrysostom writings: (1) "Opuscuia"].在下面的金口的作品:(1)“Opuscuia”。 Four years later, Chrysostom resolved to live as an anchorite in one of the caves near Antioch.四年後,金口解決生活作為一個隱士在洞穴附近安提之一。 He remained there two years, but then as his health was quite ruined by indiscreet watchings and fastings in frost and cold, he prudently returned to Antioch to regain his health, and resumed his office as lector in the church.他在那裡停留了兩年,但他的健康狀況是相當葬送在無意中watchings和霜凍和寒冷的禁食,他謹慎地回到安提恢復他的健康,並恢復了他在教會中擔任講師。

(3) Chrysostom as Deacon and Priest at Antioch (3)金口執事和牧師在安提阿

As the sources of the life of Chrysostom give an incomplete chronology, we can but approximately determine the dates for this Aniochene period.由於金口的生活來源,一個不完整的年代,我們只能大致確定的日期此Aniochene時期。 Very probably in the beginning of 381 Meletius made him deacon, just before his own departure to Constantinople, where he died as president of the Second Ecumenical Council.很可能在381 Meletius開始他執事,就在他自己的離開君士坦丁堡,在那裡他死於總統的第二次大公會議。 The successor of Meletius was Flavian (concerning whose succession see F. Cavallera, "Le Schime d'Antioche", Paris, 1905).繼任者Meletius弗拉維安(關於其繼任見F. Cavallera,“樂Schime的Antioche”,巴黎,1905年)。 Ties of sympathy and friendship connected Chrysostom with his new bishop.同情和友誼的紐帶連接金口,與他的新主教。 As deacon he had to assist at the liturgical functions, to look after the sick and poor, and was probably charged also in some degree with teaching catechumens.作為執事,他的禮儀功能,協助照顧病人和窮人,並可能在一定程度上與教學慕道充電。 At the same time he continued his literary work, and we may suppose that he composed his most famous book, "On the Priesthood", towards the end of this period (c. 386, see Socrates, "Hist. eccl.", VI, 3), or at latest in the beginning of his priesthood (c. 387, as Nairn with good reasons puts it, in his edition of "De Sacerd.", xii-xv).在相同的時間裡,他繼續他的文學作品中,我們可以假設,他組成了他最著名的一本書,“在聖職”,對這一時期(公元前386,蘇格拉底,“歷史。傳道書。”,VI 3),或在最近開始在他的聖職(約387奈恩有充分的理由所說的那樣,在他的版本的“德Sacerd。”,XII-15)。 There may be some doubt if it was occasioned by a real historical fact, viz., that Chrysostom and his friend Basil were requested to accept bishoprics (c. 372).可能會有一些疑問,如果它是一個真實的歷史事實,即所引起的。,金口和他的朋友羅勒被要求接受主教(約372)。 All the earliest Greek biographers seem not to have taken it in that sense.所有的最早的希臘傳記作家似乎並沒有在這個意義上。 In the year 386 Chrysostom was ordained priest by Flavian, and from that dates his real importance in ecclesiastical history.在今年386金口祝聖司鐸由弗拉維安,可以追溯到他在教會的歷史的真正重要的。 His chief task during the next twelve years was that of preaching, which he had to exercise either instead of or with Bishop Flavian.在未來的12年,他的主要任務是說教,這是他行使要么不是,或與主教弗拉維安。 But no doubt the larger part of the popular religious instruction and education devolved upon him.但毫無疑問的流行宗教的指導和教育,下放後,他的更大的部分。 The earliest notable occasion which showed his power of speaking and his great authority was the Lent of 387, when he delivered his sermons "On the Statues" (PG, XLVIII, 15, xxx.).最早值得注意的場合表達了他對權力的發言和他的偉大的權力是借給387時,他發表了他講道,“關於雕像”公司(PG,48,15,XXX)。 The people of Antioch, excited by the levy of new taxes, had thrown down the statues of Emperor Theodosius.把人民的安提阿,興奮的開徵新稅,狄奧多西皇帝的雕像。 In the panic and fear of punishment which followed, Chrysostom delivered a series of twenty or twenty-one (the nineteenth is probably not authentic) sermons, full of vigour, consolatory, exhortative, tranquilizing, until Flavian, the bishop, brought back from Constantinople the emperor's pardon.在一片恐慌和恐懼的處罰,金口發表了一系列的20或21(十九的可能不是正宗的)講道,充滿活力,安慰,勸勉,安神,直到弗拉維安,主教,從君士坦丁堡帶回來的皇帝的赦免。 But the usual preaching of Chrysostom consisted in consecutive explanations of Holy Scripture.但通常說教的金口,在連續的解釋聖經。 To that custom, unhappily no longer in use, we owe his famous and magnificent commentaries, which offer us such an inexhaustible treasure of dogmatic, moral, and historical knowledge of the transition from the fourth to the fifth century.這一習俗,不幸不再使用的,我們欠他的著名的和波瀾壯闊的評論,為我們提供了這樣一個取之不盡,用之不竭的寶藏,從第四至第五世紀的教條,道德,知識和歷史知識的過渡。 These years, 386-98, were the period of the greatest theological productivity of Chrysostom, a period which alone would have assured him for ever a place among the first Doctors of the Church.這些年來,386-98,期間最大的神學生產力的金口,其中,僅會向他保證過的地方,其中第一醫生的教會一段時間。 A sign of this may be seen in the fact that in the year 392 St. Jerome already accorded to the preacher of Antioch a place among his Viri illustres ("De Viris ill.", 129, in PL, XXIII, 754), referring expressly to the great and successful activity of Chrysostom as a theological writer.一個跡象,這可能被視為一個事實,即在今年392圣杰羅姆已經提供給佈道者安提一個地方在他的資源illustres(“德Viris生病了。”,129,PL,XXIII,754),指明確金口作為一個神學作家的偉大和成功的活動。 From this same fact we may infer that during this time his fame had spread far beyond the limits of Antioch, and that he was well known in the Byzantine Empire, especially in the capital.在這同一個事實,我們可以推斷,在此期間,他的名聲越傳越遠超出限額的安提,並在拜占庭帝國,尤其是在首都,他是眾所周知的。

(4) St. Chrysostom as Bishop of Constantinople (4)聖金口作為主教,君士坦丁堡

In the ordinary course of things Chrysostom might have become the successor of Flavian at Antioch.在日常的東西金口有可能成為繼任者的弗拉維安在安提。 But on 27 September 397, Nectarius, Bishop of Constantinople, died.但在9月27日397,Nectarius,主教,君士坦丁堡,死亡。 There was a general rivalry in the capital, openly or in secret, for the vacant see.有一種普遍的競爭,在資金,公開或秘密,為空置看到的。 After some months it was known, to the great disappointment of the competitors, that Emperor Areadius, at the suggestion of his minister Eutropius, had sent to the Prefect of Antioch to call John Chrysostom out of the town without the knowledge of the people, and to send him straight to Constantinople.月後,這是眾所周知的,向偉大失望的競爭者,即皇帝areadius,在他的特羅皮烏斯的建議,曾派人到紀的安提請約翰金口出城,沒有知識的人,和直送他到君士坦丁堡。 In this sudden way Chrysostom was hurried to the capital, and ordained Bishop of Constantinople on 26 February, 398, in the presence of a great assembly of bishops, by Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, who had been obliged to renounce the idea of securing the appointment of Isidore, his own candidate.在這突如其來的方式是金口,急忙向資本,2月26日,398,和祝聖主教,君士坦丁堡中存在的一個大集會的主教,由西奧菲勒斯,牧首亞歷山大,誰曾不得不放棄的思想保證任命伊西多爾,他自己的候選人。 The change for Chrysostom was as great as it was unexpected.轉變為金口一樣大,因為這是意外。 His new position was not an easy one, placed as he was in the midst of an upstart metropolis, half Western, half Oriental, in the neighbourhood of a court in which luxury and intrigue always played the most prominent parts, and at the head of the clergy composed of most heterogeneous elements, and even (if not canonically, at least practically) at the head of the whole Byzantine episcopate.他的新職務是不容易的,放在他的是一個暴發戶大都市,有一半西方,東方的一半,在附近的一家法院,其中奢侈品和陰謀一直扮演著最突出的部分在中間的,並在頭神職人員組成的最異質元素,甚至(如不canonically,至少幾乎)在頭部的整個拜占庭主教。 The first act of the new bishop was to bring about a reconciliation between Flavian and Rome.新主教的第一個行動是帶來弗拉維安和羅馬之間的和解。 Constantinople itself soon began to feel the impulse of a new ecclesiastical life.君士坦丁堡本身即將開始感受到衝擊的一個新的教會生活。

The necessity for reform was undeniable.改革的必要性是不容置疑的。 Chrysostom began "sweeping the stairs from the top" (Palladius, op. cit., v).金口開始“掃樓梯的頂部”(帕拉,前引書,V)。 He called his oeconomus, and ordered him to reduce the expenses of the episcopal household; he put an end to the frequent banquets, and lived little less strictly than he had formerly lived as a priest and monk.他把他的根田鼠,並命令他的主教家庭減少開支,他結束了頻繁的宴會,並住少嚴格比他以前住作為一個牧師和僧侶。 With regard to the clergy, Chrysostom had at first to forbid them to keep in their houses syneisactoe, ie women housekeepers who had vowed virginity.關於神職人員,金口曾在第一次禁止他們繼續在他們的的房屋syneisactoe,即婦女管家曾發誓童貞。 He also proceeded against others who, by avarice or luxury, had given scandal.他還起訴人,貪欲還是奢侈品,醜聞。 He had even to exclude from the ranks of the clergy two deacons, the one for murder and the other for adultery.他甚至排除神職人員兩個執事,一個謀殺案和其他通姦的行列。 Of the monks, too, who were very numerous even at that time at Constantinople, some had preferred to roam about aimlessly and without discipline.的僧侶,也非常多,即使在這個時候,在君士坦丁堡,有的寧可漫無目的的漫遊,無紀律。 Chrysostom confined them to their monasteries.金口只限於他們自己的寺廟。 Finally he took care of the ecclesiastical widows.最後,他照顧的教會寡婦。 Some of them were living in a worldly manner: he obliged them either to marry again, or to observe the rules of decorum demanded by their state.他們中有些人生活在一個世俗化的方式:他有義務他們要么結婚了,或遵守規則的禮儀要求他們的狀態。 After the clergy, Chrysostom turned his attention to his flock.經過神職人員,金口把注意力轉向了他的羊群。 As he had done at Antioch, so at Constantinople and with more reason, he frequently preached against the unreasonable extravagances of the rich, and especially against the ridiculous finery in the matter of dress affected by women whose age should have put them beyond such vanities.像他那樣,在安提阿,在君士坦丁堡,並與更多的理由,他經常鼓吹反對的不合理extravagances豐富的,尤其是對荒謬的服飾在這個問題上的服飾受影響的婦女,其年齡應該把他們超越這樣的面盆。 Some of them, the widows Marsa, Castricia, Eugraphia, known for such preposterous tastes, belonged to the court circle.其中有些人,的遺孀marsa,Castricia,Eugraphia,這種荒謬的口味,屬於法院圈。 It seems that the upper classes of Constantinople had not previously been accustomed to such language.這似乎是上流社會的君士坦丁堡以前已經習慣了這樣的語言。 Doubtless some felt the rebuke to be intended for themselves, and the offence given was the greater in proportion as the rebuke was the more deserved.毫無疑問,有些認為,該責備打算為自己的罪行被賦予更大的比例的責備是當之無愧的。 On the other hand, the people showed themselves delighted with the sermons of their new bishop, and frequently applauded him in the church (Socrates, "Hist. eccl." VI).另一方面,人們表明自己的高興與布道他們的新主教,並多次熱烈鼓掌,他在教會(蘇格拉底,“歷史。傳道書。”VI)。 They never forgot his care for the poor and miserable, and that in his first year he had built a great hospital with the money he had saved in his household.他們沒有忘記過他的照顧,窮人和悲慘的,在他的第一年中,他塑造了一個偉大醫院的錢,他拯救了他的家庭。 But Chrysostom had also very intimate friends among the rich and noble classes.但金口也非常親密的朋友之間的豐富與崇高類。 The most famous of these was Olympias, widow and deaconess, a relation of Emperor Theodosius, while in the Court itself there was Brison, first usher of Eudoxia, who assisted Chrysostom in instructing his choirs, and always maintained a true friendship for him.其中最有名的是奧林匹亞,的遺孀和deaconess,狄奧多西皇帝的關係,而在法院本身有布里森,首先迎來的多迦,協助金口,指示他的合唱團,並始終保持著對他的真正的友誼。 The empress herself was at first most friendly towards the new bishop.的的慈禧她是在第一次最友好邁向新的主教。 She followed the religious processions, attended his sermons, and presented silver candlesticks for the use of the churches (Socrates, op. cit., VI, 8; Sozomenus, op. cit., VIII, 8).接下來她的宗教遊行,參加了他的布道,並介紹了銀燭台,使用該教堂(蘇格拉底,前引書,VI,8; Sozomenus,前引書,VIII,8)。

Unfortunately, the feelings of amity did not last.不幸的是,友好的感情並沒有持續。 At first Eutropius, the former slave, now minister and consul, abused his influence.前奴隸,現在的部長和領事,在第一特羅皮烏斯,濫用自己的影響力。 He deprived some wealthy persons of their property, and prosecuted others whom he suspected of being adversaries of rivals.他剝奪了他們的財產,一些有錢的人,並起訴其他人,他懷疑是對手的對手。 More than once Chrysostom went himself to the minister (see "Oratio ad Eutropium" in PG, Chrys. Op., III, 392) to remonstrate with him, and to warn him of the results of his own acts, but without success.不止一次金口去了自己的部長(在PG“,地址的廣告Eutropium”,Chrys作品,III,392)勸諫他,並警告他自己的行為的結果,但沒有成功。 Then the above-named ladies, who immediately surrounded the empress, probably did not hide their resentment against the strict bishop.上述命名女士們,立即包圍了皇后,大概沒有掩飾自己的反感,對嚴格的主教。 Finally, the empress herself committed an injustice in depriving a widow of her vineyard (Marcus Diac., "Vita Porphyrii", V, no. 37, in PG, LXV, 1229).最後,慈禧自己犯下了不公平地剝奪了一名寡婦,她的葡萄園(馬庫斯diac,“履歷表porphyrii”,V,沒有37,PG,LXV,1229)。 Chrysostom interceded for the latter.金口交錯的為後者。 But Eudoxia showed herself offended.但迦表明自己得罪了。 Henceforth there was a certain coolness between the imperial Court and the episcopal palace, which, growing little by little, led to a catastrophe.從此以後,有一定的涼意之間的朝廷和主教宮殿,其中,一點一點地增加,導致一場大災難。 It is impossible to ascertain exactly at what period this alienation first began; very probably it dated from the beginning of the year 401.這是不可能的,以確定到底在什麼時期,這種異化首先開始,很可能它的日期從一開始的一年401。 But before this state of things became known to the public there happened events of the highest political importance, and Chrysostom, without seeking it, was implicated in them.但在這種狀態下為公眾所知的事情,成為發生事件的最高政治上的重要性,金口,如果沒有申請,被牽連在其中。 These were the fall of Eutropius and the revolt of Gainas.這些都是秋天的特羅皮烏斯和反抗的GaInAs。

In January, 399, Eutropius, for a reason not exactly known, fell into disgrace.今年一月,399,特羅皮烏斯,是有原因的不完全的,下跌的恥辱。 Knowing the feelings of the people and of his personal enemies, he fled to the church.知道的人的感情和他個人的敵人,他逃到了教堂。 As he had himself attempted to abolish the immunity of the ecclesiastical asylums not long before, the people seemed little disposed to spare him.正如他自己試圖取消豁免權的教會收容所沒多久,人們似乎沒有出售饒恕他。 But Chrysostom interfered, delivering his famous sermon on Eutropius, and the fallen minister was saved for the moment.但金口干涉,發表著名的說教,就特羅皮烏斯,落葉部長被保存的時刻。 As, however, he tried to escape during the night, he was seized, exiled, and some time later put to death.作為,不過,他企圖逃走,在夜間,他被扣押,流放,一段時間後,把死亡。 Immediately another more exciting and more dangerous event followed.隨後馬上還有一個更令人興奮的和更危險的事件。 Gainas, one of the imperial generals, had been sent out to subdue Tribigild, who had revolted.的帝國將領gainas之一,已派出制服tribigild,誰曾反抗。 In the summer of 399 Gainas united openly with Tribigild, and, to restore peace, Arcadius had to submit to the most humiliating conditions. 399 gainas美國,與tribigild公開,並恢復和平的夏天,arcadius已提交到最屈辱的條件。 Gainas was named commander-in-chief of the imperial army, and even had Aurelian and Saturninus, two men of the highest rank at Constantinople, delivered over to him. gainas被任命為統帥的帝國軍隊,甚至有aurelian和saturninus,兩名男子的最高排名在君士坦丁堡,交付給他。 It seems that Chrysostom accepted a mission to Gainas, and that, owing to his intervention, Aurelian and Saturninus were spared by Gainas, and even set at liberty.看來,金口接受了一個代表團前往gainas,而且,由於他的干預,,奧雷利安和saturninus的也難倖免的GaInAs,甚至在自由。 Soon afterwards, Gainas, who was an Arian Goth, demanded one of the Catholic churches at Constantinople for himself and his soldiers.不久之後,gainas,誰是阿里安哥特,要求天主教教會在君士坦丁堡為他自己和他的士兵之一。 Again Chrysostom made so energetic an opposition that Gainas yielded.再次取得了金口,使精力充沛反對的GaInAs產生。 Meanwhile the people of Constantinople had become excited, and in one night several thousand Goths were slain.同時,人們的君士坦丁堡已成為興奮,一晚幾千哥特人被殺害。 Gainas however escaped, was defeated, and slain by the Huns. gainas不過逃跑,被打敗了,被殺害,被匈奴。 Such was the end within a few years of three consuls of the Byzantine Empire.這是結束的3個領事的拜占庭帝國在幾年之內。 There is no doubt that Chrysostom's authority had been greatly strengthened by the magnanimity and firmness of character he had shown during all these troubles.這是毫無疑問的胸襟和堅定的性格,他曾表明,在所有這些麻煩,金口的權力已被大大加強了。 It may have been this that augmented the jealousy of those who now governed the empire -- a clique of courtiers, with the empress at their head.它可能已被充實了嫉妒那些現在誰治的帝國 - 一個集團的臣子,慈禧在他們的頭。 These were now joined by new allies issuing from the ecclesiastical ranks and including some provincial bishops -- Severian of Gabala, Antiochus of Ptolemais, and, for some time, Acacius of Beroea -- who preferred the attractions of the capital to residence in their own cities (Socrates, op. cit., VI, 11; Sozomenus, op. cit., VIII, 10).這些人現在加入了新的盟友發出,從教會的行列,包括一些省級主教 - 的托勒梅斯的加巴拉謝韋里安,安,和,一段時間後,cacius的b eroea - 誰的首選景點的資本,以居住在自己的城市(蘇格拉底,前引書,VI,11; Sozomenus,前引書,VIII,10)。 The most intriguing among them was Severian, who flattered himself that he was the rival of Chrysostom in eloquence.其中最有趣的是塞韋里安,他自以為他是對手的金口口才。 But so far nothing had transpired in public.但到目前為止,什麼也沒有蒸發在公眾面前。 A great change occurred during the absence of Chrysostom for several months from Constantinople.在金口了好幾個月,從君士坦丁堡的情況下發生了巨大的變化。 This absence was necessitated by an ecclesiastical affair in Asia Minor, in which he was involved.在小亞細亞,他在其中參與教會事務,這是缺乏必要的。 Following the express invitation of several bishops, Chrysostom, in the first months of 401, had come to Ephesus, where he appointed a new archbishop, and with the consent of the assembled bishops deposed six bishops for simony.明確邀請的幾位主教,金口,在第一個月的401,已經到了以弗所,在那裡,他任命了一名新主教,和組裝主教的同意廢黜六名主教為西摩尼。 After having passed the same sentence on Bishop Gerontius of Nicomedia, he returned to Constantinople.通過上主教基朗提奧斯的Nicomedia相同的句子後,他回到了君士坦丁堡。 Meanwhile disagreeable things had happened there.同時,不愉快的事情發生了。 Bishop Severian, to whom Chrysostom seems to have entrusted the performance of some ecclesiastical functions, had entered into open enmity with Serapion, the archdeacon and oeconomus of the cathedral and the episcopal palace.與謝拉皮翁,archdeacon和oeconomus的大教堂和主教宮殿,主教塞韋里安,向誰金口似乎有一些教會的職能委託的表現,已進入公開敵意。 Whatever the real reason may have been, Chrysostom, found the case so serious that he invited Severian to return to his own see.無論真正的原因可能是,金口,發現情況十分嚴重,以至於他邀請謝韋里安回到自己的。 It was solely owing to the personal interference of Eudoxia, whose confidence Serapion possessed, that he was allowed to come back from Chalcedon, whither he had retired.這完全是由於個人的干涉多迦,其信心謝拉皮翁擁有的,即他被允許回來chalcedon,向何處去,他已經退休。 The reconciliation which followed was, at least on the part of Severian, not a sincere one, and the public scandal had excited much ill-feeling.隨後的和解,至少在部分塞韋里安,而不是一個真誠的一個,和公共醜聞興奮得多虐待的感覺。 The effects soon became visible.效果很快就變得清晰可見。 When in the spring of 402, Bishop Porphyrius of Gaza (see Marcus Diac., "Vita Porphyrii", V, ed. Nuth, Bonn, 1897, pp. 11-19) went to the Court at Constantinople to obtain a favour for his diocese, Chrysostom answered that he could do nothing for him, since he was himself in disgrace with the empress.在春季的402人,主教porphyrius加沙(見馬庫斯diac,“履歷表porphyrii”,V,Nuth版,波恩,1897年,頁11-19),前往該法院在君士坦丁堡,以獲得優惠,為他主教管區,金口回答說,他也沒有辦法為他,因為他是自己的恥辱與慈禧。 Nevertheless, the party of malcontents were not really dangerous, unless they could find some prominent and unscrupulous leader.然而,黨的不滿,是不是真的很危險,除非他們能找到一些突出的和不擇手段的領導者。 Such a person presented himself sooner than might have been expected.這樣的人介紹自己可能已經比預期的更快。 It was the well-known Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria.這是著名的西奧菲勒斯,牧首亞歷山大。 He appeared under rather curious circumstances, which in no way foreshadowed the final result.他下出現的,而不是好奇的情況下,在沒有辦法預示了最終的結果。 Theophilus, toward the end of the year 402, was summoned by the emperor to Constantinople to apologize before a synod, over which Chrysostom should preside, for several charges, which were brought against him by certain Egyptian monks, especially by the so-called four "tall brothers".西奧菲勒斯,在今年年底向402,被傳喚,由天皇向君士坦丁堡道歉之前,主教,其中金口應主持,數收費,這是對他提出的一些埃及僧侶,尤其是所謂的四“高兄弟”。 The patriarch, their former friend, had suddenly turned against them, and had them persecuted as Origenists (Palladius, "Dialogus", xvi; Socrates, op. cit., VI, 7; Sozomenus, op. cit., VIII, 12).族長,其前的朋友,突然轉向反對他們,使他們受到迫害,因為origenists(帕拉,“Dialogus”,十六,蘇格拉底,前引書,六,七; Sozomenus,前引書,八,12) 。

However, Theophilus was not easily frightened.然而,西奧菲勒斯是不容易害怕。 He had always agents and friends at Constantinople, and knew the state of things and the feelings at the court.他一直代理和朋友在君士坦丁堡,並在法庭上知道的事情和感情的狀態。 He now resolved to take advantage of them.他現在已經解決了利用。 He wrote at once to St. Epiphanius at Cyprus, requesting him to go to Constantinople and prevail upon Chrysostom at to condemn the Origenists.他寫道,在一次聖epiphanius在塞浦路斯,要求他到君士坦丁堡,並佔上風後,在金口至譴責的Origenists,。 Epiphanius went.埃皮法尼烏斯去了。 But when he found that Theophilus was merely using him for his own purposes, he left the capital, dying on his return in 403.但是,當他發現西奧菲勒斯僅僅是用他自己的目的,他離開首都,死在他的回歸在403。 At this time Chrysostom delivered a sermon against the vain luxury of women.這時,金口發表了對婦女的虛榮奢華的講道。 It was reported to the empress as though she had been personally alluded to.據報導,以慈禧,雖然她已親自提到。 In this way the ground was prepared.以這種方式,製備接地。 Theophilus at last appeared at Constantinople in June, 403, not alone, as he had been commanded, but with twenty-nine of his suffragan bishops, and, as Palladius (ch. viii) tells us, with a good deal of money and all sorts of gifts.西奧菲勒斯終於出現在君士坦丁堡在6月,403並不孤獨,因為他已被指揮,但他的suffragan主教29,和帕拉(第八章)告訴我們,用了大量的金錢和所有各種各樣的禮物。 He took his lodgings in one of the imperial palaces, and held conferences with all the adversaries of Chrysostom.他把他的住所的皇宮之一,並召開會議,與所有對手的金口。 Then he retired with his suffragans and seven other bishops to a villa near Constantinople, called epi dryn (see Ubaldi, "La Synodo ad Quercum", Turin, 1902).然後他退休了,他suffragans和其他七名主教別墅附近君士坦丁堡,稱為外延dryn(見Ubaldi,“Synodo廣告Quercum”,都靈,1902年)。 A long list of the most ridiculous accusations was drawn up against Chrysostom (see Photius, "Bibliotheca", 59, in PG, CIII, 105-113), who, surrounded by forty-two archbishops and bishops assembled to judge Theophilus in accordance with the orders of the emperor, was now summoned to present himself and apologize.一個長長的清單的最荒謬的指控是制定了對金口(photius,老人家“書目”,59,PG,CIII,105-113),周圍環繞著42大主教和主教組裝判斷西奧菲勒斯按照聽命於皇帝,現在卻被召到目前自己和道歉。 Chrysostom naturally refused to recognize the legality of a synod in which his open enemies were judges.金口自然拒絕承認合法性的一個主教在他的公開敵人法官。 After the third summons Chrysostom, with the consent of the emperor, was declared to be deposed.在第三張傳票金口,徵得皇帝,被宣布為被廢黜。 In order to avoid useless bloodshed, he surrendered himself on the third day to the soldiers who awaited him.為了避免無用的流血事件,他投案,在等待著他的士兵們的第三天。 But the threats of the excited people, and a sudden accident in the imperial palace, frightened the empress (Palladius, "Dialogus", ix).但威脅激發人,並在皇宮,一場突如其來的車禍嚇壞了皇后(帕拉中,“Dialogus”,第九章)。 She feared some punishment from heaven for Chrysostom's exile, and immediately ordered his recall.她擔心一些處罰從天堂金口的流亡,並立即下令將他召回。 After some hesitation Chrysostom re-entered the capital amid the great rejoicings of the people.經過一番猶豫金口重新進入資本中的巨大歡樂的人。 Theophilus and his party saved themselves by flying from Constantinople.西奧菲勒斯和他的黨救了自己的飛行,從君士坦丁堡。 Chrysostom's return was in itself a defeat for Eudoxia.金口的回報本身是一個失敗,迦。 When her alarms had gone, her rancour revived.當她報警了,她的怨恨復活了。 Two months afterwards a silver statue of the empress was unveiled in the square just before the cathedral.在大教堂廣場前的兩個月後,一個銀色的皇后雕像揭幕。 The public celebrations which attended this incident, and lasted several days, became so boisterous that the offices in the church were disturbed.公眾慶祝活動,參加了這次事件,並持續數天,該辦事處在教會感到不安,變得如此熱鬧。 Chrysostom complained of this to the prefect of the city, who reported to Eudoxia that the bishop had complained against her statue.金口抱怨這給紀的城市,誰報告迦說,主教曾抱怨對她的雕像。 This was enough to excite the empress beyond all bounds.這是足夠的,以刺激慈禧超越一切界限。 She summoned Theophilus and the other bishops to come back and to depose Chrysostom again.她召見西奧菲勒斯和其他主教回來,並再次廢黜金口。 The prudent patriarch, however, did not wish to run the same risk a second time.然而,謹慎的族長,不希望同樣的風險,第二次運行。 He only wrote to Constantinople that Chrysostom should be condemned for having re-entered his see in opposition to an article of the Synod of Antioch held in the year 341 (an Arian synod).他只寫了君士坦丁堡認為金口,重新進入他所看到的主教安提舉行,在今年的341個(阿里安主教)的一篇文章反對的,應該受到譴責。 The other bishops had neither the authority nor the courage to give a formal judgment.其他主教既沒有權力,也沒有勇氣,給一個正式判決。 All they could do was to urge the emperor to sign a new decree of exile.他們可以做的是敦促皇帝簽署一項新法令,流亡。 A double attempt on Chrysostom's life failed.失敗的雙重企圖金口的生活。 On Easter Eve, 404, when all the catechumens were to receive baptism, the adversaries of the bishop, with imperial soldiers, invaded the baptistery and dispersed the whole congregation. 404,在復活節前夕,當所有慕道者將接受洗禮,對手的主教,與帝國士兵,入侵了洗禮和分散整個聚集。 At last Arcadius signed the decree, and on 24 June, 404, the soldiers conducted Chrysostom a second time into exile.在最後arcadius簽署法令,並於6月24日,404,士兵們進行了金口,第二次流亡。

(5) Exile and Death (5)流放和死亡

They had scarcely left Constantinople when a huge conflagration destroyed the cathedral, the senate-house, and other buildings.他們幾乎沒有離開過君士坦丁堡時,一個巨大的大火摧毀了教堂,參議院內部,和其他建築物。 The followers of the exiled bishop were accused of the crime and prosecuted.的追隨者流亡的主教被指控的犯罪和起訴。 In haste Arsacius, an old man, was appointed successor of Chrysostom, but was soon succeeded by the cunning Atticus.一個老頭,在急速的Arsacius,被任命為繼任者的金口,但很快就被成功的詭計,阿提庫斯。 Whoever refused to enter into communion with them was punished by confiscation of property and exile.誰拒絕進入共融與他們被處以沒收財產和流放。 Chrysostom himself was conducted to Cucusus, a secluded and rugged place on the east frontier of Armenia, continually exposed to the invasions of the Isaurians.金口自己也在進行Cucusus,一個隱蔽和堅固的地方,對邊疆地區的亞美尼亞,不斷接觸到入侵的Isaurians。 In the following year he had even to fly for some time to the castle of Arabissus to protect himself from these barbarians.在接下來的一年,他甚至飛行了一段時間的Arabissus以保護自己免受這些野蠻人的城堡。 Meanwhile he always maintained a correspondence with his friends and never gave up the hope of return.與此同時,他一直保持著書信和他的朋友們從來沒有放棄希望的回報。 When the circumstances of his deposition were known in the West, the pope and the Italian bishops declared themselves in his favour.當他的證言的情況在西方,被稱為教皇和意大利主教團宣布自己對他有利。 Emperor Honorius and Pope Innocent I endeavoured to summon a new synod, but their legates were imprisoned and then sent home.的皇帝honorius教皇英諾森我努力召喚出一個新的主教,但其legates被囚禁,然後被送回家。 The pope broke off all communion with the Patriarchs of Alexandria, Antioch (where an enemy of Chrysostom had succeeded Flavian), and Constantinople, until (after the death of Chrysostom) they consented to admit his name into the diptychs of the Church.教宗斷絕所有的共融與亞歷山大,安提阿(敵人的金口已成功弗拉維安),和君士坦丁堡的始祖,直到去世後,金口,他們同意承認自己的名字,折疊式日晷​​的教會。 Finally all hopes for the exiled bishop had vanished.最後,所有的希望流亡的主教都已經消失了。 Apparently he was living too long for his adversaries.很顯然,他當時生活的太久了他的對手。 In the summer, 407, the order was given to carry him to Pithyus, a place at the extreme boundary of the empire, near the Caucasus.在夏季,407的,為了給他Pithyus,在極端邊界附近的帝國,高加索地區的地方進行。 One of the two soldiers who had to lead him caused him all possible sufferings.他曾帶領他的兩名士兵給他造成了所有可能的苦難。 He was forced to make long marches, was exposed to the rays of the sun, to the rains and the cold of the nights.他被迫長途跋涉,暴露於太陽的光線,雨水和寒冷的夜晚。 His body, already weakened by several severe illnesses, finally broke down.他的屍體,已經削弱了幾次嚴重的疾病,終於爆發了。 On 14 September the party were at Comanan in Pontus. 9月14日,黨在Comanan,龐。 In the morning Chrysostom had asked to rest there on the account of his state of health.在上午金口曾要求休息,所以就考慮他的健康狀況。 In vain; he was forced to continue his march.在徒勞的,他是被迫繼續他的行軍。 Very soon he felt so weak that they had to return to Comana.很快,他感到軟弱無力,他們不得不返回科馬納的。 Some hours later Chrysostom died.幾個小時後,金口死了。 His last words were: Doxa to theo panton eneken (Glory be to God for all things) (Palladius, xi, 38).他的最後一句話是:doxa以西奧panton eneken的(榮耀歸給神的一切事物)(palladius,十一,38)。 He was buried at Comana.他被葬在科馬納。 On 27 January, 438, his body was translated to Constantinople with great pomp, and entombed in the church of the Apostles where Eudoxia had been buried in the year 404 (see Socrates, VII, 45; Constantine Prophyrogen., "Cæremoniale Aul Byz.", II, 92, in PG, CXII, 1204 B). 1月27日,438,他的身體被翻譯到君士坦丁堡大排場,和埋葬在教會的使徒們那裡多迦已被埋葬在今年404名(見蘇格拉底,VII,45:康斯坦丁Prophyrogen。,“CæremonialeAUL BYZ。 “,II,92,PG,CXII,1204乙)。

II. II。 THE WRITINGS OF ST. ST的著作。 CHRYSOSTOM金口

Chrysostom has deserved a place in ecclesiastical history, not simply as Bishop of Constantinople, but chiefly as a Doctor of the Church.金口已當之無愧的地方在教會的歷史,而不是僅僅作為主教,君士坦丁堡,但主要是作為一個醫生的教會。 Of none of the other Greek Fathers do we possess so many writings.沒有其他的希臘教父,我們擁有這麼多的著作。 We may divide them into three portions, the "opuscula", the "homilies", and the "letters".我們可以將其劃分為三個部分,的“的opuscula”,“頌歌”,“信”。 (1) The chief "opuscula" all date from the earlier days of his literary activity. (1)行政“的opuscula”所有日期由早前的日子他的文學活動。 The following deal with monastical subjects: "Comparatio Regis cum Monacho" ("Opera", I, 387-93, in PG, XLVII-LXIII), "Adhortatio ad Theodorum (Mopsuestensem?) lapsum" (ibid., 277-319), "Adversus oppugnatores vitae monasticae" (ibid., 319-87).的以下處理monastical主題:“Comparatio Regis酒店暨Monacho”(“戲”,我,387-93,PG,XLVII-63),“Adhortatio廣告Theodorum(Mopsuestensem?)lapsum”(同上,第277-319) “Adversus oppugnatores簡歷monasticae”(同上,第319-87)。 Those dealing with ascetical subjects in general are the treatise "De Compunctione" in two books (ibid., 393-423), "Adhortatio ad Stagirium" in three books (ibid., 433-94), "Adversus Subintroductas" (ibid., 495-532), "De Virginitate" (ibid., 533-93), "De Sacerdotio" (ibid., 623-93).處理與苦修的主題一般是論文“Compunctione”兩本書(同上,第393-423),“Adhortatio廣告Stagirium”三本書(同上,第433-94),“Adversus Subintroductas”(同上495-532),“德Virginitate”(同上,第533-93),“的Sacerdotio”(同上,第623-93)。 (2) Among the "homilies" we have to distinguish commentaries on books of Holy Scripture, groups of homilies (sermons) on special subjects, and a great number of single homilies. (2)在“頌歌”,我們必須區分評論的書籍的聖經,團體的頌歌(說教),專題講座,和大量的單講道。 (a) The chief "commentaries" on the Old Testament are the sixty-seven homilies "On Genesis" (with eight sermons on Genesis, which are probably a first recension) (IV, 21 sqq., and ibid., 607 sqq.); fifty-nine homilies "On the Psalms" (4-12, 41, 43-49, 108-117, 119-150) (V, 39-498), concerning which see Chrys. (一)“舊約”的“評論”的主要是67講道“創世紀”(八布道成因,可能是第一個校訂)(IV,21時12 sqq,同上,607 SQQ。 ); 59講道“的詩篇”(4-12,41,43-49,108-117,119-150)(V,39-498)就看到Chrys的。 Baur, "Der urspr ngliche Umfang des Kommentars des hl. Joh. Chrysostomus zu den Psalmen" in Chrysostomika, fase.鮑爾,:“明鏡urspr ngliche Umfang德Kommentars德升。約。里索斯托姆斯祖書房Psalmen”,FASE Chrysostomika的。 i (Rome, 1908), 235-42, a commentary on the first chapters of "Isaias" (VI, 11 sqq.). (羅馬,1908年),235-42,“伊薩亞斯”(VI,11時12 sqq)的第一章的評注。 The fragments on Job (XIII, 503-65) are spurious (see Haidacher, "Chrysostomus Fragmente" in Chrysostomika, I, 217 sq.); the authenticity of the fragments on the Proverbs (XIII, 659-740), on Jeremias and Daniel (VI, 193-246), and the Synopsis of the Old and the New Testament (ibid., 313 sqq.), is doubtful. (13,503-65)工作的片段是假的(見Haidacher,的“里索斯托姆斯Fragmente”在Chrysostomika,I,217平方米)的碎片就諺語的真實性(13,659-740),對jeremias丹尼爾(六,193-246),以及簡介的舊約和新約聖經(同上,313 SQQ。),是值得懷疑的。 The chief commentaries on the New Testament are first the ninety homilies on "St. Matthew" (about the year 390; VII), eighty-eight homilies on "St. John" (c. 389; VIII, 23 sqq. -- probably from a later edition), fifty-five homilies on "the Acts" (as preserved by stenographers, IX, 13 sqq.), and homilies "On all Epistles of St. Paul" (IX, 391 sqq.).首席評論文章“新約”是第一第九頌歌“聖馬太”(約一年390 VII),88頌歌“聖約翰”(長389八,23 SQQ - 可能從後來的版本),55頌歌“使徒行傳”(作為速記員,IX,13 SQQ保存。),和講道“在所有書信的聖保祿”(IX,3​​91 SQQ)。 The best and most important commentaries are those on the Psalms, on St. Matthew, and on the Epistle to the Romans (written c. 391).最好的和最重要的評論是對詩篇,聖馬太,和書信,以羅馬(。391)。 The thirty-four homilies on the Epistle to the Galatians also very probably comes to us from the hand of a second editor. 34頌歌對書信向加拉太書也很可能是我們從第二個編輯器的手。 (b) Among the "homilies forming connected groups", we may especially mention the five homilies "On Anna" (IV, 631-76), three "On David" (ibid., 675-708), six "On Ozias" (VI, 97-142), eight "Against the Jews" (II, 843-942), twelve "De Incomprehensibili Dei Naturæ" (ibid., 701-812), and the seven famous homilies "On St. Paul" (III, 473-514). (b)在“頌歌形成連接的組”,我們可以特別提到“頌歌”安娜“(IV,631-76),三個”大衛“(同上,第675-708),6”烏西雅“ (VI,97-142),八個反對猶太人“(II,843-942),12”Incomprehensibili DEINaturæ“(同上,第701-812),和七個著名頌歌”在聖保羅“(三,473-514)。 (c) A great number of "single homilies" deal with moral subjects, with certain feasts or saints. (三)大量的“單一頌歌”處理道德主體,具有一定的節日或聖人。 (3) The "Letters" of Chrysostom (about 238 in number: III, 547 sqq.) were all written during his exile. (3)“快報”金口(約238:III,547 SQQ)。都寫在他流亡。 Of special value for their contents and intimate nature are the seventeen letters to the deaconess Olympias.其內容和親密性的特殊價值的17個字母的執事奧林匹亞。 Among the numerous "Apocrypha" we may mention the liturgy attributed to Chrysostom, who perhaps modified, but did not compose the ancient text.在眾多“偽經”,我們可以提及禮儀歸因於金口,也許修飾,但沒有構成的古文字。 The most famous apocryphon is the "Letter to C sarius" (III, 755-760).最有名的apocryphon是“信C sarius”(III,755-760)。 It contains a passage on the holy Eucharist which seems to favour the theory of "impanatio", and the disputes about it have continued for more than two centuries.它還包含一個通過對聖體聖事,這似乎有利於理論“impanatio”,關於它的爭議已經持續了兩個多世紀。 The most important spurious work in Latin is the "Opus imperfectum", written by an Arian in the first half of the fifth century (see Th. Paas, "Das Opus impefectum in Matthæum", Tübingen, 1907).最重要的雜散工作拉丁語,是的“一部imperfectum”,寫的一個阿里安在上半年的第五世紀(見次。PAAS,“達斯作品impefectum在Matthæum”,蒂賓根大學,1907年)。

III. III。 CHRYSOSTOM'S THEOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE金口的神學思想建設的重要性

(1) Chrysostom as Orator (1)金口作為一名演說家

The success of Chrysostom's preaching is chiefly due to his great natural facility of speech, which was extraordinary even to Greeks, to the abundance of his thoughts as well as the popular way of presenting and illustrating them, and, last but not least, the whole-hearted earnestness and conviction with which he delivered the message which he felt had been given to him.金口的說教的成功是主要是由於他的偉大的自然設施的講話,這是非凡的甚至希臘人的豐富他的思想以及的流行方式呈現,並說明他們的,和,最後但不是最少,整個善良的認真和信念,他提供的消息,他覺得已經給了他。 Speculative explanation did not attract his mind, nor would they have suited the tastes of his hearers.投機性的解釋並不能吸引他的心思,他們也不會適合他的聽眾的口味。 He ordinarily preferred moral subjects, and very seldom in his sermons followed a regular plan, nor did he care to avoid digressions when any opportunity suggested them.他通常傾向於道德科目,並很少在他的布道後的正常計劃,他也沒有在意,以避免離題時,建議他們任何機會。 In this way, he is by no means a model for our modern thematic preaching, which, however we may regret it, has to such a great extent supplanted the old homiletic method.這樣一來,他絕不是我國現代專題說教,它,但是我們可能會後悔,有這麼大的程度上取代了舊的說教方法的典範。 But the frequent outbursts of applause among his congregation may have told Chrysostom that he was on the right path.但頻繁爆發的掌聲,在他的會眾可能會告訴金口,他是在正確的道路上。

(2) Chrysostom as an exegete (2)作為一個的exegete金口

As an exegete Chrysostom is of the highest importance, for he is the chief and almost the only successful representative of the exegetical principles of the School of Antioch.作為一個的exegete金口是最重要的,因為他是主要的和成功的代表幾乎是唯一的安提阿學院,訓詁原則。 Diodorus of Tarsus had initiated him into the grammatico-historical method of that school, which was in strong opposition to the eccentric, allegorical, and mystical interpretation of Origen and the Alexandrian School.狄奧多羅斯的塔爾蘇斯他進那所學校的格拉馬蒂科歷史的方法,這是強烈反對偏心,寓言,而神秘的解釋淵源和亞歷山大學校已開始。 But Chrysostom rightly avoided pushing his principles to that extreme to which, later on, his friend Theodore of Mopsuestia, the teacher of Nestorius, carried them.但金口正確地避免極端的,後來,他的朋友西奧多的Mopsuestia的老師聶斯脫裡,他們推著他的原則。 He did not even exclude all allegorical or mystical explanations, but confined them to the cases in which the inspired author himself suggests this meaning.他甚至不排除一切寓言或神秘的解釋,但是只限於他們在何種情況下激發的作者自己提出了這個意義。

(3) Chrysostom as Dogmatic Theologian (3)金口作為教條神學

As has already been said, Chrysostom's was not a speculative mind, nor was he involved in his lifetime in great dogmatic controversies.由於前面已經說過,金口的是不是一個投機心態,也不是他參與在他的一生中偉大的教條式的爭論。 Nevertheless it would be a mistake to underrate the great theological treasures hidden in his writings.然而,這將是一個錯誤的低估了偉大的神學寶藏隱藏在他的著作中。 From the very first he was considered by the Greeks and Latins as a most important witness to the Faith.從一開始,他被認為是由希臘人和拉丁人的信仰作為最重要的證人。 Even at the Council of Ephesus (431) both parties, St. Cyril and the Antiochians, already invoked him on behalf of their opinions, and at the Seventh Ecumenical Council, when a passage of Chrysostom had been read in favour of the veneration of images, Bishop Peter of Nicomedia cried out: "If John Chrysostom speaks in the way of the images, who would dare to speak against them?"在安理會的以弗所(431)雙方,圣西里爾的antiochians的,已經援引他代表他們的意見,並在第七次大公會議,當一個通道的金口已經宣讀贊成崇拜的圖像主教彼得的Nicomedia哭了出來:“如果約翰金口說話方式的圖像,誰還敢對他們說話嗎?” which shows clearly the progress his authority had made up to that date.這清楚地表明他的權力已作出了在該日期的進展。

Strangely enough, in the Latin Church, Chrysostom was still earlier invoked as an authority on matters of faith.奇怪的是,在拉丁美洲教會,金口仍早些時候援引作為一個權威的信仰方面的。 The first writer who quoted him was Pelagius, when he wrote his lost book "De Naturæ" against St. Augustine (c. 415).作家援引他的人是伯拉糾,當他寫他失落的書“的Naturæ”對聖奧古斯丁(公元前415)。 The Bishop of Hippo himself very soon afterwards (421) claimed Chrysostom for the Catholic teaching in his controversy with Julian of Eclanum, who had opposed to him a passage of Chrysostom (from the "Hom. ad Neophytos", preserved only in Latin) as being against original sin (see Chrys. Baur, "L'entrée littéraire de St. Jean Chrys. dans le monde latin" in the "Revue d'histoire ecclés.", VIII, 1907, 249-65).金口天主教教義的主教河馬自己很不久之後(421)聲稱,在他的爭議與朱利安的eclanum,誰反對他的一個通道的金口(從“坎廣告Neophytos”,只保留在拉丁美洲)對原罪(見Chrys。鮑爾“L'主菜littéraire聖讓Chrys。”舞蹈“世界拉丁”,“雜誌的故事埃克爾斯。”,VIII,1907年,249-65)。 Again, at the time of the Reformation there arose long and acrid discussions as to whether Chrysostom was a Protestant or a Catholic, and these polemics have never wholly ceased.同樣,在改革的時候,便出現長和嗆人的討論,以決定是否金口是一個新教徒還是天主教徒,這些論戰從來沒有完全停止。 It is true that Chrysostom has some strange passages on our Blessed Lady (see Newman, "Certain difficulties felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teachings", London, 1876, pp. 130 sqq.), that he seems to ignore private confession to a priest, that there is no clear and any direct passage in favour of the primacy of the pope.這是事實,金口有一些奇怪的通道,對我們的祝福夫人(見紐曼,“一定的困難感到聖公會天主教教義”,倫敦,1876年,第130 SQQ),但他似乎忽略私人向神父懺悔,有沒有明確的,並沒有直接的通路贊成至高無上的教宗。 But it must be remembered that all the respective passages contain nothing positive against the actual Catholic doctrine.但必須記住,所有的各個通道含有任何積極針對實際的天主教教義。 On the other side Chrysostom explicitly acknowledges as a rule of faith tradition (XI, 488), as laid down by the authoritative teaching of the Church (I, 813).在另一邊金口明確地承認作為一個法治的信仰傳統(XI,488),所訂定的權威教導的教會(I,813)。 This Church, he says, is but one, by the unity of her doctrine (V, 244; XI, 554); she is spread over the whole world, she is the one Bride of Christ (III, 229, 403; V, 62; VIII, 170).他說,這個教會,只有一個,她學說的統一(V,244; XI,554);,她是遍布整個世界,她是一個基督的新娘(III,229,403,V, 62 VIII,170)。 As to Christology, Chrysostom holds clearly that Christ is God and man in one person, but he never enters into deeper examination of the manner of this union.至於christology,金口持有明確表示,耶穌是神,人在一人,但他從來沒有進入到更深的考試,這個聯盟的方式。 Of great importance is his doctrine regarding the Eucharist.非常重要的是他的學說有關聖體聖事。 There cannot be the slightest doubt that he teaches the Real Presence, and his expressions on the change wrought by the words of the priest are equivalent to the doctrine of transubstantiation (see Naegle, "Die Eucharistielehre des hl. Joh. Chry.", 74 sq.).有沒有了絲毫的懷疑,他教的真實存在,他的表達上的變化造成的牧師的話是相當於學說陷於變體(見Naegle,“Eucharistielehre德HL。約。Chry。”,74平方米)。

Publication information Written by Chrysostom Baur.出版信息寫金口鮑爾。 Transcribed by Mike Humphrey.轉錄由麥克·漢弗萊。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

A complete analysis and critique of the enormous literature on Chrysostom (from the sixteenth century to the twentieth) is given in BAUR, S. Jean Chrysostome et ses oeuvres dans l'histoire litt raire (Paris and Louvain, 1907), 223-297.一個完整的分析和批判的巨大文學對金口(從十六世紀到二十)BAUR,讓Chrysostome S.等SES小菜DANS L'HISTOIRE利特raire(巴黎和比利時魯汶,1907),223-297。

(1) LIFE OF CHRYSOSTOM. (1)生活的金口。

(a) Sources. (一)資料來源。 -- PALLADIUS, Dialogue cum Theodoro, Ecclesioe Romanoe Diacono, de vit et conversatione b. - 帕拉,的對話暨Theodoro,Ecclesioe Romanoe Diacono,去維生素等conversatione b。 Joh.約。 Chrysostomi(written c. 408; best source; ed. BIGOT, Paris, 1680; PG, XLVII, 5-82) MARTYRIUS, Panegyricus in S. Joh. Chrysostomi。408;最好的來源;的。BIGOT,巴黎,1680,PG,四十七,5-82 S.約MARTYRIUS,Panegyricus。 Chrysostomum (written c. 408; ed. PG, loc. cit., XLI-LII); SOCRATES, Hist. Chrysostomum(。408;的。PG,LOC。企業所得稅。,XLI-LII);蘇格拉底,歷史。 Eccl., VI, 2-23, and VII, 23, 45 (PG, LXVII, 661 sqq.); SOZOMENUS, Hist.傳2-23 VI,VII,23,45(PG,LXVII,661 SQQ。);,歷史SOZOMENUS。 eccl., VIII, 2-28 (PG,ibid., 1513 sqq.), more complete than Socrates, on whom he is dependent; THEODORET, Hist.傳道書。,VIII,2-28(PG,同上,1513 SQQ),比蘇格拉底更完整的,對他是依賴; theodoret公司,歷史。 eccl., V, 27-36; PG, LXXXII, 1256-68, not always reliable; ZOSIMUS, V, 23-4 (ed. BEKKER, p. 278-80, Bonn. 1837), not trustworthy.傳道書。,V,27-36,PG,LXXXII,1256年至1268年,並不總是可靠的,卓西姆,V,23-4(的編輯bekker,頁278-80,波恩1837年),不值得信任。

(b) Later Authors. (二)後來的作者。 -- THEODORE OF THRIMITUS, (PG, XLVII, col. 51-88), without value, written about the end of the seventh century; (PSEUDO-) GEORGIUS ALEXANDRINUS, ed. - 西奧多的THRIMITUS,(PG,四十七,山口51-88),沒有價值的,書面公元七世紀即將結束的(偽)GEORGIUS頸,編輯。 SAVILE, Chrys.薩維爾街,Chrys。 opera omnia (Eton, 1612), VIII, 157-265 (8th - 9th century); LEO IMPERATOR, Laudatio Chrys.歌劇OMNIA(伊頓公學,1612),157-265,VIII(8 - 9世紀),LEO IMPERATOR,頌詞Chrys。 (PG, CVII, 228 sqq.); ANONYMUS, (ed. SAVILE, loc. cit., 293-371); SYMEON METAPHRASTES, (PG, CXIV, 1045-1209). (PG,CVII,228 SQQ); anonymus,(編薩維爾街,前引書,293-371); SYMEON METAPHRASTES,(PG,CXIV,1045年至一二〇九年)。

(c) Modern Biographies. (三)現代傳記。 -- English: STEPHENS, Saint John Chrysostom, his life and times, a sketch of the Church and the empire in the fourth century (London, 1871; 2nd ed., London, 1880), the best English biography, but it anglicanizes the doctrine of Chrysostom; BUSH, The Life and Times of Chrysostom (London, 1885), a popular treatise. - 英語:STEPHENS,聖約翰金口,他的生活和時代,在第四世紀的教會和帝國的草圖(倫敦,1871年第2版,倫敦,1880年),最好的英文傳記,但它anglicanizes學說的金口,布什的生活和時代的金口(倫敦,1885年),一個流行的論文。 French: HERMANT, La Vie de Saint Jean Chrysostome .法語:La Vie的HERMANT,DE,聖讓Chrysostome。 . . divis e en 12 livres (Paris, 1664; 3rd ed., Paris, 1683), the first scientific biography; DE TILLEMONT, M moires pour servir l'histoire eccl siastique des six premiers si cles, XI, 1-405, 547-626 (important for the chronology); STILTING, De S. Jo. ËEN 12里弗DIVIS(巴黎,1664年第3版,巴黎,1683年),第一次科學傳記,DE蒂耶蒙,,M moires倒SERVIR L'HISTOIRE傳道書siastique 6總理SI CLES,XI,1-405,547 - 626(重要,為年表); STILTING,De S.趙的。 Chrysostomo . Chrysostomo。 . . Commentarius historicus in Acta SS., IV, Sept., 401-700 (1st ed., 1753), best scientific biography in Latin; THIERRY, S. Jean Chrysostome et l'imp ratrice Eudoxie (Paris, 1872; 3rd ed., Paris, 1889), "more romance than history"; PUECH, Saint Jean Chrysostome (Paris, 1900); 5th ed., Paris, 1905), popular and to be read with caution.在文獻Commentarius historicus SS,四,9月,401-700(第1版,1753年),在拉美最好的科學傳記; THIERRY,S.讓Chrysostome ET L'小鬼ratrice Eudoxie(巴黎,1872年,第3版。巴黎,1889年),“更浪漫,比歷史”;皮埃什,聖:讓Chrysostome(巴黎,1900年),第5版。,巴黎,1905年),流行和被讀取謹慎。 German: NEANDER, Der hl.德國尼安德,德HL。 Joh.約。 Chrysostomus und die Kirche, besonders des Orients, in dessen Zeitalter, 2 vols.里索斯托姆斯與KIRCHE,besonders之方向,在dessen Zeitalter,第2卷。 (Berlin, 1821 - 22; 4th ed., Berlin 1858); first vol., translated into English by STAPLETON (London, 1838), gives an account of the doctrine of Chrysostom with Protestant views; LUDWIG, Der hl. (柏林,1821 - 22,第4版。,柏林1858),第一卷,翻譯成英文,由斯特普爾頓(倫敦,1838年),敘述了該學說的金口,與新教的意見; LUDWIG,明鏡HL。 Joh.約。 Chrys. Chrys。 in seinem Verh liniss zum byzantinischen Hof.在seinem上皮疣狀增生則liniss的ZUM byzantinischen霍夫。 (Braunsberg, 1883), scientific. (Braunsberg,1883年),科學。 Chrysostom as orator: ALBERT, S. Jean Chrysostome consid r comme orateur populaire (Paris, 1858); ACKERMANN, Die Beredsamkeit des hl.作為一名演說家金口:ALBERT S.讓Chrysostome考慮ŕCOMME orateur人民報“(巴黎,1858年); ACKERMANN,模具Beredsamkeit HL。 Joh.約。 Chrys. Chrys。 (W rzburg, 1889); cf. (W rzburg,1889年);比照。 WILLEY, Chrysostom: The Orator (Cincinnati, 1908), popular essay. WILLEY演說家,金口:(辛辛那提,1908年),流行的文章。

(2) CHRYSOSTOM'S WRITINGS. (2)金口的WRITINGS。

(a) Chronology. (一)年表。 -- See TILLEMONT, STILTING, MONTFAUCON, Chrys. - 蒂耶蒙,STILTING,蒙福,Chrys。 Opera omnia; USENER, Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen, I (Bonn, 1889), 514-40; RAUSCHEN, Jahrb cher der christl.歌劇OMNIA;烏澤納,Religionsgeschichtliche Untersuchungen,I(波恩,1889),514-40; RAUSCHEN,,Jahrb雪兒德christl。 Kirche unter dem Kaiser Theodosius dem Grossen (Freiburg im Br., 1897), 251-3, 277-9, 495-9; BATIFFOL, Revue bibl., VIII, 566-72; PARGOIRE, Echos d'Orient, III 151-2; E. SCHARTZ, J dische und chrisl.皇帝狄奧多西KIRCHE溫特DEM數字高程模型Grossen“(弗賴堡一二。,1897年),251-3,277-9,495-9; BATIFFOL,諷刺時事的滑稽劇bibl。,VIII,566-72; PARGOIRE,迴聲d'Orient酒店,III 151 - 2 E.沙爾茨,Ĵdische和chrisl。 Ostertafeln (Berlin, 1905), 169-84. Ostertafeln(柏林,1905年),169-84。

(b) Authenticity. (二)真實性。 -- HAIDACHER, Zeitschr. - HAIDACHER,Zeitschr。 fr Kath. FR凱絲。 Theologie, XVIII-XXXII; IDEM, Deshl.神學,十八,三十二;同上,Deshl。 Joh.約。 Chrys. Chrys。 Buchlein ber Hoffart u. Buchlein BER Hoffart U。 Kindererziehung (Freiburg, im Br., 1907). Kindererziehung(弗賴堡,即時通訊溴,1907年)。

(3) CHRYSOSTOM'S DOCTRINE. (3)金口的學說。

MAYERUS, Chrysostomus Lutheranus (Grimma, 1680: Wittenberg, 1686); HACKI, D. Jo. MAYERUS,里索斯托姆斯Lutheranus(格里馬,1680:維滕貝格,1686年); HACKI,D.喬。 Chrysostomus .里索斯托姆斯。 . . a Lutheranismo .一個Lutheranismo。 . . vindicatus (Oliva, 1683); F RSTER, Chrysostomus in seinem Verh ltniss zur antiochen. vindicatus(奧利瓦1683),F福斯特,里索斯托姆斯在seinem Verh ltniss楚antiochen。 Schule (Gotha, 1869); CHASE, Chrysostom, A Study in the History of Biblical Interpretation (London, 1887); HAIDACHER, Die Lehre des hl.學派(哥達1869年);大通,金口,研究,在歷史的聖經釋義(倫敦,1887年); HAIDACHER,模具Lehre HL。 Joh.約。 Chrys. Chrys。 ber die Schriftinspiration (Salzburg, 1897); CHAPMAN, St. Chrysostom on St. Peter in Dublin Review (1903), 1-27; NAEGLE, Die Eucharistielehre des hl. BER模具Schriftinspiration(薩爾茨堡,1897年); CHAPMAN,聖金口聖彼得在都柏林審查(1903年),1-27; NAEGLE,模具Eucharistielehre HL。 Johannes Chrysostomus, des Doctor Eucharisti (Freiburg im Br., 1900).約翰內斯里索斯托姆斯,:DES:醫生Eucharisti(佛萊BR。,1900年)。

(4) EDITIONS. (4)版本。

(a) Complete. (a)完成。 -- SAVILE (Eton, 1612), 8 volumes (the best text); DUCAEUS, (Paris, 1609-1636), 12 vols.; DE MONTFAUCON, (Paris, 1718-1738), 13 vols.; MIGNE, PG, XLVII - LXIII. - 薩維爾街(伊頓公學,1612),(8卷,最好的文字); DUCAEUS,(巴黎,1609年至1636年),12卷; DE蒙福,(巴黎,1718年至1738年),13卷。米涅,PG, XLVII - 63。

(b) Partial. (b)部分。 -- FIELD, Homilies in Matth. - 現場,頌歌在Matth。 (Cambridge, 1839), 3 vols., best actual text reprinted in MIGNE, LVII - LVIII; IDEM, Homilioe in omnes epistolas Pauli (Oxford, 1845-62), VII. (劍橋,1839年),第3卷,最好的實際文本重印米涅,LVII - 58,同上,Homilioe義務epistolas保利(牛津,1845年至1862年),VII。 The last critical edition of the De Sacerdotio was edited by NAIRN (Cambridge, 1906).的最後一個關鍵版的De Sacerdotio的編輯由NAIRN(劍橋,1906年)。 There exist about 54 complete editions (in five languages), 86 percent special editions of De Sacerdotio (in twelve languages), and the whole number of all (complete and special) editions is greatly over 1000.存在約54完整版(5種語言),86%的特別版本的德Sacerdotio(在12種語言),和所有的整數(完整的和特殊)的版本是大大超過1000個。 The oldest editions are the Latin; of which forty-six different incunabula editions (before the year 1500) exist.最古老的版本是拉丁語,其中有46種不同的古版書的版本(1500年之前)。 See DIODORUS OF TARSUS, METETIUS OF ANTIOCH, ORIGENISTS, PALLADIUS, THEODORE OF MOPSUESTIA.狄奧多羅斯的塔爾蘇斯,METETIUS的安提阿,ORIGENISTS,帕拉,西奧多的Mopsuestia。


Joannes Chrysostomus喬安妮斯里索斯托姆斯

Catholic Information 天主教信息

JewishEncyclopedia.com Patriarch of Constantinople, one of the most celebrated of the Church Fathers, and the most eminent orator of the early Christian period; born in 347 at Antioch; died Sept. 14, 407, near Comana, in Pontus. JewishEncyclopedia.com君士坦丁堡牧首,其中一個最有名的教父,和早期基督教時期最傑出的演說家,出生於347在安提阿,死於9月14日,407名,近科馬納,本都。 Chrysostom originally devoted himself to the law, but soon felt dissatisfied with this vocation, and at the age of twenty-three was made a deacon.金口原本一直致力於自己的法律,但不久即感到不滿意這個職業,並在23歲被任命為執事。 About fifteen years later (386) he advanced to the rank of presbyter, and in 398 was appointed by the emperor Bishop of Constantinople. (386)大約15年後,他以先進的行列presbyter,並在398名被任命的主教,君士坦丁堡皇帝。 Having attacked the empress Eudoxia in his sermons, he was banished (403), but was recalled soon after, upon the unanimous demand of his congregation.具有攻擊慈禧多迦在他的布道,他被放逐(403),但被召回之後不久,經一致要求他的會眾。 He repeated his attacks upon the empress, and was again banished in 404, first to Nicæa, then to Cucusus in the desert of the Taurus, and finally to Pityos on the Black Sea; but he died while on the way to the last-named place.他重申了他的攻擊後,皇后,並再次被流放在404,我們首先nicæa,然後cucusus在沙漠中的金牛座,並最終以pityos在黑海,但他死了,而道路上的最後命名的地方。

The name "Chrysostomus" ("golden-mouthed"; χρυσός "gold," and στόμα "mouth") is a title of honor conferred on this Church father only. “里索斯托姆斯”(“黃金口”;χρυσός“黃金”和στόμα“口”)的名稱是賦予這個教會的父親只授予榮譽稱號。 It was first used by Isidore of Seville (636), and is significant of the importance of the man, whose sermons, of which one thousand have been preserved, are among the very best products of Christian rhetoric.這是第一次使用的伊西多爾的塞維利亞(636),是顯著的重要性的人,他的布道,其中千被保存下來,是最好的產品基督教修辭。 As a teacher of dogmatics and exegesis Chrysostom is not of so much importance, although much space in his works is devoted to these two branches.作為一名教師,教義學和訓詁學金口是沒有這麼多的重要性,雖然在他的作品中太多的空間是專門為這兩個分支。 Among his sermons, the "Orationes VIII. Adversus Judæos" (ed. Migne, i. 843-944) deserve special notice, inasmuch as they mark a turning-point in anti-Jewish polemics.在他的講道中,“Orationes VIII。AdversusJudæos”(編輯米涅,一843-944)值得特別通知,因為它們標誌著一個轉折點,在反猶太人的論戰。 While up to that time the Church aspired merely to attack the dogmas of Judaism, and did that in a manner intended only for the learned, with Chrysostom there began the endeavor, which eventually brought so much suffering upon the Jews, to prejudice the whole of Christendom against the latter, and to erect hitherto unknown barriers between Jews and Christians.而截至當時教會所嚮往的,只是攻擊猶太教的教義,而這樣做的方式,僅用於學習,並有金口開始奮鬥,並最終帶來了如此多的苦難的猶太人,以不妨礙整個基督教對後者,並豎立了前所未有的障礙猶太人和基督徒之間。

Attack on Jews.對猶太人的攻擊。

It was the existing friendly intercourse between Jews and Christians which impelled Chrysostom to his furious attacks upon the former.這是推動金口,以他對前者的狂暴攻擊猶太人和基督徒之間業已存在的友好交往。 Religious motives were not lacking, for many Christians were in the habit of celebrating the Feast of the Blowing of the Shofar, or New-Year, the Day of Atonement, and the Feast of Tabernacles ("Adversus Judæos," i.; ed. Migne, i. 848).宗教動機並不缺乏,許多基督徒在慶祝的節日吹的號角,新的一年,贖罪日的習慣,和住棚節(“AdversusJudæos,”我。版。米涅,一848)。 "What forgiveness can we expect," he exclaimed, "when we run to their synagogues, merely following an impulse or a habit, and call their physicians and conjurers to our houses?" “我們可以期待什麼樣的寬恕,”他大聲說,“當我們運行他們的猶太教堂,只是一個脈衝或習慣,並調用他們的醫生和魔術師,我們的房子?” (ib. viii.). (ib.八)。 In another place Chrysostom.在另一個地方金口。 says: "I invoke heaven and earth as witnesses against you if any one of you should go to attend the Feast of the Blowing of the Trumpets, or participate in the fasts, or the observance of the Sabbath, or observe an important or unimportant rite of the Jews, and I will be innocent of your blood" (ib. i. 8; ed. Migne, i. 855).說:“我援引天地作為證人,你如果任何一個你應該去參加盛宴的吹小號,或參加在齋戒,或遵守安息日,或觀察的重要或不重要的儀式的猶太人,我是無辜的,你的血“(ib.一8;版。米涅,我。855)。 Not only had Chrysostom to combat the pro-Jewish inclinations of the Antiochians in religious matters, but the Jews were held in so much respect at that time, that Christians preferred to bring their lawsuits before Jewish judges, because the form of the Jewish oath seemed to them more impressive and binding than their own (ib. i. 3; ed. Migne, i. 847).不僅金口,以打擊在宗教事務方面的antiochians親猶太人傾向,但在那個時候,也基督教徒推薦,使他們的訴訟之前,猶太人法官的猶太人舉行了這麼多的尊重,因為形式的猶太誓言似乎他們比自己令人印象深刻的和有約束力的(同上,第3版。米涅,我847)。

Arguments Against Judaism.論據反對猶太教。

Chrysostom further argues at length in his writings that Judaism has been overcome and displaced by Christianity.金口進一步辯稱,在長度在他的著作中,猶太教已被克服和流離失所由基督教。 He attempts to prove this by showing that the Jewish religion can not exist without a temple and sacrifice and a religious center in Jerusalem, and that none of the later religious institutions can fill the place of the ancient ones.他試圖證明這一點,猶太宗教離不開的寺廟和犧牲在耶路撒冷的宗教中心,以及後來的宗教機構,沒有可以填補的地方,古人的。 Chrysostom derides the Patriarchs, who, he declares, were no priests, but gave themselves the appearance of such, and merely played their parts like actors.金口嘲笑的始祖,他宣稱,沒有神父,但給自己的外觀等,像演員一樣,只是發揮了他們的部分。 He adds: "The holy Ark, which the Jews now have in their synagogues, appears to be no better than any wooden box offered for sale in the market" (ib. vi. 7; ed. Migne, i. 614).他補充說:“聖方舟,其中猶太人在他們的會堂裡,現在有沒有更好的,比任何木箱在市場上銷售”(ib.六7版。米涅,我614)。

But he is not satisfied with the derision of all things sacred to the Jews.但他並沒有滿足所有的東西神聖的猶太人的嘲笑。 He tries to convince his hearers that it is the duty of all Christians to hate the Jews (ib. vi. 7; ed. Migne, i. 854), and declaresit a sin for Christians to treat them with respect.他試圖說服他的聽眾,這是所有基督徒的責任,恨猶太人(ib.六7版。米涅,我854),declaresit了罪的基督徒對待他們的。 In spite of his hatred of the Jews and Judaism, Chrysostom—as, indeed, the whole Antiochian school in their Bible exegesis—shows a dependence upon the Haggadah, which at the time predominated among the Palestinian Jews.儘管他的仇恨猶太人和猶太教,金口作為,事實上,整個Antiochian學校在他們的聖經註釋顯示哈加達,這在當時佔主導地位,巴勒斯坦的猶太人之間的依賴。 A few parallels with the Haggadists have been given by Weiss, but they could be easily increased; and even in instances not directly taken from the Haggadah, its influence can be noticed in the writings of Chrysostom.幾個平行的haggadists已給予維斯,但他們可以很容易地增加;即使在並未直接從哈加達的情況下,其影響可以看到,在著作金口。

Kaufmann Kohler, Louis Ginzberg考夫曼科勒,路易·金茲伯格

Bibliography: The best edition of Chrysostom's works is by Montfaucon, 13 vols., in Patrologiœ Cursus Completus, ed.參考書目:最好的版本的金口的作品是蒙福,13卷,,編輯PatrologiœCursus Completus的。 Migne, Greek series, Paris, 1718-38; Böhringer, Die Kirche Christi und Ihre Zeugen, ix.; Bush, Life and Times of Chrysostomus, 1875; Lutz, Chrysostomus und die Berühmtesten Redner, 1859, Cassel, in Ersch and Gruber, Encyc.米涅,希臘系列,巴黎,1718年至1738年;Böhringer,模具KIRCHE斯蒂和IHRE Zeugen,IX;布什,生活和時代的里索斯托姆斯,1875年,盧茨,里索斯托姆斯與Berühmtesten衛特拿,1859年,卡塞爾,在Ersch和Gruber,百科全書。 xxvii.; Grätz, Gesch.二十七。格拉茨,Gesch。 der Juden, iv.德國猶太人,四。 356-357; Perles, Chrysostomus and the Jews, in Ben Chananja, iii. 356-357;:珍珠,里索斯托姆斯和猶太人,在本Chananja,三。 569-571; Weiss, Dor, iii. 569-571魏斯,多爾,三。 128-129.KLG 128 129.KLG



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