Codex Amiatinus食品法典委員會Amiatinus

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The most celebrated manuscript of the Latin Vulgate Bible, remarkable as the best witness to the true text of St. Jerome and as a fine specimen of medieval calligraphy, now kept at Florence in the Bibliotheca Laurentiana.最有名的拉丁武加大聖經手稿,顯著的最好見證,圣杰羅姆的真實文本和中世紀的書法,現在保存在佛羅倫薩圖書館Laurentiana一個很好的標本。 The symbol for it is written am or A (Wordsworth).它的符號寫入時或A(華茲華斯)。 It is preserved in an immense tome, measuring in height and breadth 19 1/4 inches by 13 3/8 inches, and in thickness 7 inches -- so impressive, as Hort says, as to fill the beholder with a feeling akin to awe.把它保存在一個巨大的大部頭,測量高度和寬度19 1/4英寸13 3/8英寸,厚度為7英寸 - 如此令人印象深刻,園藝說,仁者見仁,以填補一個類似敬畏的感覺。 Some consider it, with White, as perhaps "the finest book in the world"; still there are several manuscripts which are as beautifully written and have besides, like the Book of Kells or Book of Lindisfarne, those exquisite ornaments of which Amiatinus is devoid.有些人認為,與白色,也許是“世界上最好的書”,仍然有幾個手稿,文字優美,除了有林迪斯法恩,那些精美的飾品,其中Amiatinus沒有像凱爾斯書或書。 It contains 1029 leaves of strong, smooth vellum, fresh-looking today, despite their great antiquity, arranged in quires of four sheets, or quaternions.它包含1029葉強,光滑的羊皮紙,清新的今天,儘管他們非常古老,安排在quires四片,或者四元。 It is written in uncial characters, large, clear, regular, and beautiful, two columns to a page, and 43 or 44 lines to a column.這是寫在uncial字,大而明確,正規,漂亮,兩列的頁面,和43或44行到列。 A little space is often left between words, but the writing is in general continuous.往往是字與字之間留下一點空間,但寫的是一般連續。 The text is divided into sections, which in the Gospels correspond closely to the Ammonian Sections.文本分成部分,在福音密切對應的氨氮部分。 There are no marks of punctuation, but the skilled reader was guided into the sense by stichometric, or verse-like, arrangement into coda and commata, which correspond roughly to the principal and dependent clauses of a sentence.沒有任何標記的標點符號,但熟練的讀者被引導到了它的意義stichometric,或詩句,安排到尾,commata的,這大致相當於本金和從句的句子。 This manner of writing the scribe is believed to have modelled upon the great Bible of Cassiodorus, but it goes back perhaps even to St. Jerome; it may be shown best by an example:寫文士這種方式被認為是後Cassiodorus偉大的聖經“為藍本,但它可以追溯到什至圣杰羅姆,它可能是最好的一個例子:

QUIA IN POTESTATE ERAT QUIA在POTESTATE ERAT

SERMO IPSIUS SERMO IPSIUS

ET IN SYNAGOGA ERAT HOMO HABENS ET的SYNAGOGA ERAT HOMO HABENS

DAEMONIUM INMUNDUM DAEMONIUM INMUNDUM

ET EXCLAMAVIT VOCE MAGNA ET EXCLAMAVIT VOCE MAGNA

DICENS DICENS

SINE QUID NOBIS ET TIBI IHU SINE檳榔NOBIS ET蒂維IHU

NAZARENE VENISTI PERDERE NOS拿撒勒人VENISTI PERDERE NOS

SCIO TE QUI SIS SCS DI國務院新聞辦公室TE QUI SIS SCS DI

ET INCREPAVIT ILLI IHS DICENS ET INCREPAVIT ILLI的IHS DICENS

It will be noticed that the section "ET IN" and the coda begin at about the same perpendicular line, the commata begin further in under the third or second letter, and so likewise does the continuation of a colon or comma which runs beyond a single line (see facsimile page).它將會看到節“ET”和尾聲開始,大約在同一垂直線,commata開始進一步在第三或第二個字母,所以同樣不延續冒號或逗號超越了單一的運行行(傳真頁)。 This arrangement, besides aiding the intelligence of the text, gave a spacious, varied, and rather artistic appearance to the page.這樣的安排,除了幫助的情報文本的頁面,給了一個寬敞的,多種多樣的,而藝術的外觀。 The initial letter of a section was often written in ink of a different colour, and so also was the first line of a book.往往是一節的首字母寫在不同顏色的墨水,所以也被一本書的第一線。 Beyond that there was no attempt at decorating the text.除此之外,有沒有嘗試在裝飾的文本。

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The codex (or pandect) is usually said to contain the whole Bible; but it should be noted that the Book of Baruch is missing, though the Epistle of Jeremias, usually incorporated with it, is here appended to the Book of Jeremias.食品法典委員會(總論)通常包含整本聖經,但應該指出的是,這本書的baruch缺失,雖然書信的赫雷米亞斯,通常註冊成立的,在這裡添加耶利米書。 Besides the text of the Scriptural books, it contains St. Jerome's "Prologus Galeatus" and his prefaces to individual books; the capitula, or summaries of contents; and, in the first quaternion, certain materials which have been much discussed and have proved of the greatest service in tracing the history of the codex, among them dedicatory verses, a list of the books contained in the codex, a picture of the Tabernacle (formerly thought to be Solomon's Temple), a division of the Biblical books according to Jerome, another according to Hilary and Epiphanius, and a third according to Augustine.除了聖經的書的文本,它包含圣杰羅姆的“Prologus Galeatus”和他的序言,個別書籍的頭狀花序,或摘要的內容,並且在第一個四元數,某些材料已經討論很多,並已證明在最大的服務跟踪國際食品法典標準的歷史,其中奉獻的詩句,一系列的法典,會幕的圖片(以前認為所羅門聖殿),一個部門的聖經書根據杰羅姆中的書籍,另據希拉里和埃皮法尼烏斯,第三奧古斯丁。 Part of Solomon's prayer (1 Kings 8:22-30) in an Old Latin text is reproduced at the end of Ecclesiasticus.所羅門的禱告(王上8:22-30)在老拉丁文字部分轉載於年底的ecclesiasticus。 A Greek inscription at the beginning of Leviticus, recording that "the Lord Servandus prepared" this codex or part of it, has entered largely into the discussion of its origin.利未記開始的希臘銘文,記錄“主Servandus編寫的”食品法典委員會或它的一部分,大部分已進入到它的起源的討論。

The recovery of the history of Codex Amiatinus, which has important bearings upon the history of the Vulgate itself and of the text of the Bible, was due to the labours of many scholars and the insight of one man of genius, de Rossi.回收食品法典委員會Amiatinus的歷史,具有重要的軸承後的武加大自身的歷史和“聖經”的文字,是因為許多學者和了解一個人的天才,德羅西的勞動。 At the beginning of the pandect, as we have mentioned, there are certain dedicatory verses; they record the gift (of the codex) to the venerable convent of St. Saviour by a certain Peter who was abbot from the extreme territory of the Lombards.開始的總論,正如我們已經提到的,有一定的奉獻小詩;他們記錄的禮物(食品法典委員會)古老的修道院的聖救主受到了一定的彼得誰是住持的倫巴第人從極端的領土。 The Latin text is as follows:拉丁文字如下:

CENOBIUM AD EXIMII MERITO CENOBIUM AD EXIMII MERITO

VENERABILE SALVATORIS VENERABILE SALVATORIS

QUEM CAPUT ECCLESIAE QUEM資助教會

DEDICAT ALTA FIDES DEDICAT ALTA FIDES

PETRUS LANGOBARDORUM PETRUS LANGOBARDORUM

EXTREMIS DE FINIB.極端的FINIB。 ABBAS ABBAS

DEVOTI AFFECTUS德沃蒂AFFECTUS

PIGNORA MITTO MEI PIGNORA樂助美

St. Saviour's is the name of the monastery on Monte Amiata (whence Amiatinus) near Siena; here this codex was kept from the ninth century till the year 1786, when it was brought to Florence after the suppression of the monastery.聖救主的名字是蒙特卡羅阿米塔何處Amiatinus靠近錫耶納的寺院;在這裡法典保持從第九世紀,直到1786年,當它被帶到佛羅倫薩後抑制的寺院。

Naturally, the codex was supposed to be a gift to this house, but nothing was known of the donor.當然,國際食品法典標準應該是這所房子的禮物,但沒有被稱為供體。 Bandini, the librarian of the Laurentiana, into whose hands the codex came, noticed that the names of neither the donor nor the recipient belonged to the original dedication.班蒂尼,館員的的Laurentiana,到誰的手中的法典來了,注意到,無論是捐贈人或受贈人的名字,屬於原來的奉獻精神。 They were written in a different hand over parts of the original inscription, as betrayed by evident signs of erasure.他們原碑文的部分寫在不同的手,被出賣了明顯的跡象擦除。 The letters italicized above were by the second hand, while the initial letter C of the first line and the E in the fifth were original.上面用斜體字母秒針,而最初的字母“C”的第一線,是原來的E在第五。 Bandini noticed, also, that cenobium replaced a shorter word and that the last five letters of salvatoris were written on parchment that had not been erased, and so that the ten letters of this word replaced five of the original word.迪尼注意到,同時,cenobium的更換更短的字的salvatoris的最後五個字母被寫在羊皮紙上,沒有被刪除的,所以這個詞的十個字母的原話更換5。 The metre also was entirely at fault.米也完全是有過錯的。 The clue for reconstructing the original lines he found in the expression caput ecclesiæ, which he judged referred to St. Peter.改造原有線路的線索,他發現在表達附睾頭ecclesiæ判斷,他提到聖彼得。 And as in the Middle Ages a favourite title for the Apostolic See was culmen apostolicum, he reconstructed the line in this fashion:在中世紀最喜歡的標題使徒見culmen apostolicum的,他重建了在這種方式:

CULMEN AD EXIMII MERITO VENERABILE PETRI CULMEN AD EXIMII MERITO VENERABILE PETRI

This conjecture produced a correct hexameter verse, retained the original initial C, supplied a word of proper length at the beginning and another at the end, and afforded a sense fitting in perfectly with the probabilities of the case.這個猜想正確的六步詩句,保留了原來的初始C,提供適當的長度,一個字的開始和結束時,得到感配件在完美的情況下的概率。 In the fifth line, instead of Petrus Langobardorum, Bandini suggested Servandus Latii, because of the inscription about Servandus mentioned above.在第五行中,而不是佩特魯斯Langobardorum的,Bandini的建議Servandus Latii,因為上面提到的題詞約Servandus。 This Servandus was believed to be a friend of St. Benedict, to whom he made a visit at Monte Cassino in 541; he was abbot of a monastery near the extremity of Latium.這被認為是一個聖本篤的朋友,他做了一個訪問蒙特卡西諾在541 Servandus,他是住持的修道院附近的末端拉齊奧。

These conjectures were accepted by the learned world; Tischendorf, for instance, writing seventy-five years later, said Bandini had so well proved his case that no doubt remained.這些假設被接受所學到的提申多夫,例如,後寫75年,說,迪尼已經很好地證明了他的情況下,毫無疑問仍。 Accordingly, it was settled that the Codex Amiatinus dated from the middle of the sixth century, was the oldest manuscript of the Vulgate, and was written in Southern Italy.因此,結算,食品Amiatinus日期從中間的第六個世紀,在意大利南部的武加大,最古老的手稿,並且被寫入。 A few protests were raised, however; that, for instance, of Paul de Lagarde.提出的一些抗議活動,但是,舉例來說,保羅·拉加德。 He had edited St. Jerome's translation of the Hebrew Psalter, using freely for that purpose a codex of the ninth century; Amiatinus he judged, with a not unnatural partiality, to be "in all probability" from the hand of the scribe of his ninth-century Psalter, written "at Reichenau on the Lake of Constance".他編輯圣杰羅姆的翻譯希伯來文的詩篇,免費使用為目的法典的第九屆世紀Amiatinus一個不自然的偏愛,他判斷,“在所有的可能性”的文士的手,他的第九個世紀的詩篇,寫有“賴歇瑙的康斯坦茨湖上”。 But, to quote Corssen, it was GB de Rossi, "that great Roman scholar, whose never-failing perspicacity and learning discovered at once the birthplace of our famous manuscript" (Academy, 7 April, 1888).但是,引用Corssen,它是GB德羅西,“偉大的羅馬學者,從來沒有失敗的洞察力和學習,一旦發現在我們著名的手稿”(中國科學院,4月7日,1888年)的發源地。

De Rossi followed Bandini in his reconstruction of the first verse, but he thought it unlikely that an abbot, presenting a book to the pope at Rome, should speak of "the extreme limits of Latium", really but a short distance from Rome.德羅西班迪尼在他的第一首詩歌的重建,但他認為這不太可能的拉丁姆“極限”,方丈,一本書,羅馬教皇,應該講真的,但很短的距離羅馬。 Anzizni, the librarian of the Laurentiana, pointed out to him that the space erased to make room for Petrus Langobardorum was greater than called for by the conjecture of Bandini.館員的Laurentiana,Anzizni,指出他的空間被刪除,以騰出空間佩特魯斯Langobardorum大於所要求的猜想迪尼。 De Rossi was at the time engaged on an inquiry into the ancient history of the Vatican library, and, recalling a passage of Bede, he divined that the lost name was Ceolfridus.德羅西是在時間上查詢到古代歷史的梵蒂岡圖書館,,回顧了一段貝德,他覺察,失去的名字是Ceolfridus。 The erasures, which were irregular, seeming to follow the letters very closely, corresponded perfectly to this conjecture.塗改,呈不規則形,似乎遵循字母非常密切,完全符合這個猜想。 He proposed then the verse:然後,他提出的詩句:

CEOLFRIDUS BRITONUM EXTREMIS DE FINIB. CEOLFRIDUS BRITONUM:極端情況DE FINIB。 ABBAS ABBAS

The phrase exactly suited an abbot from the end of the world, as England was then regarded and styled; and the story of Ceolfrid made de Rossi's conjectures acceptable at once, especially to English scholars.然後認為這句話正好適合一個住持,從去年底的世界,英國和風格;和Ceolfrid的故事在一次德羅西的猜測是可以接受的,尤其是英語的學者。 Ceolfrid was the disciple of Benedict Biscop, who founded the monasteries of Wearmouth and Jarrow in Northumberland towards the end of the seventh century. Ceolfrid是本篤十六世比斯科普,誰創立的寺廟和杰諾Wearmouth在諾森伯蘭郡的第七世紀接近尾聲的弟子。 England, in those days, was the most devoted daughter of the Roman See, and Abbot Benedict was enthusiastic in his devotion.在那些日子裡,英格蘭,羅馬教廷最忠實的女兒,和住持本篤十六世在他的奉獻熱情。 His monasteries were dependent directly on Rome.他的修道院是直接依賴於羅馬。 Five times during his life he journeyed to Rome, usually bring back with him a library of books presented by the pope.五次在他的生命,他到羅馬,帶回他的教皇提出的一個圖書館的書籍。 Ceolfrid, who had accompanied him on one of these visits, became his successor in 686 and inherited his taste for books; Bede mentions three pandects of St. Jerome's translation which he had made, one of which he determined in his old age, in 716, to bring to the church of St. Peter at Rome. 686 Ceolfrid,誰曾陪同他訪問之一,成為他的繼任者繼承他的口味的書籍,比德圣杰羅姆的翻譯提到3 pandects,,他做了,他決定在他的晚年,在716帶來的在羅馬的聖彼得教堂。 He died on the way, but his gift was carried to the Holy Father, then Gregory II.他死在路上,但他的禮物,然後向教宗格雷戈里二。 This codex de Rossi identified with Amiatinus.該法典德羅西確定與Amiatinus。

This conjecture was hailed by all as a genuine discovery of great importance.這個猜想被喻為作為一個真正的發現具有重要意義。 Berger, however, objected to Britonum, suggesting Anglorum.然而,伯傑,反對以Britonum的,這表明Anglorum。 Hort soon placed the matter beyond the possibility of doubt.園藝很快把這個問題超越的可能性的疑問。 In an anonymous life of Ceolfrid, the chief source of Bede's information, which, though twice published, had been overlooked by all, Hort found the story of Ceolfrid journeying to Rome and carrying the pandect inscribed with the verses:在一個匿名的生活Ceolfrid,Bede的信息,雖然兩次出版,所有被忽視的主要來源,園藝發現的Ceolfrid的故事痴痴的羅馬和攜帶總論上的詩句:

CORPUS AD EXIMII MERITO VENERABILE PETRI CORPUS AD EXIMII MERITO VENERABILE PETRI

DEDICAT ECCLESIAE QUEM CAPUT ALTA FIDES DEDICAT教會QUEM CAPUT ALTA FIDES

CEOLFRIDUS, ANGLORUM EXTIMIS DE FINIBUS ABBAS CEOLFRIDUS,ANGLORUM EXTIMIS DE FINIBUS ABBAS

etc. Despite the variations, there could be no doubt of their identity with the dedicatory verses of Amiatinus; Corpus was of course the original, not Culmen, and Anglorum, not Britonum; the other differences were perhaps due to a lapse of memory, or this version may represent the original draft of the dedication.儘管變化等,有可能是的他們的奉獻小詩的amiatinus的身份毫無疑問,語料庫,當然是原件,不是Culmen,並Anglorum,不Britonum的其他方面的差異,可能是由於時隔內存,或這個版本可能代表了原草案的奉獻精神。 De Rossi's chief point was proved right.德羅西的主要觀點被證明是正確的。 It established that Amiatinus originated in Northumberland about the beginning of the eighth century, having been made, as Bede states, at Ceolfrid's order.建立Amiatinus起源於諾森伯蘭​​郡的第八世紀初,已經作出,作為比德國家,在Ceolfrid的訂單。 It does not follow, however, that the scribe was an Englishman; the writing and certain peculiarities of orthography have led some to believe him an Italian.然而,它並沒有跟隨,文士是一個英國人,正字法的寫作和一定的特殊性,導致一些人認為他的意大利。 We know that these two monasteries had brought over a Roman musician to train the monks in the Roman chant, and they may also, for a similar purpose, have procured from Italy a skilled calligrapher.我們知道,這兩個寺廟帶來了超過羅馬的音樂家訓練的僧侶在羅馬高唱,而且,他們也為類似的目的,已經從意大利採購熟練的書法家。 The handwriting of Amiatinus bears a strong resemblance to some fragments of St. Luke in a Durham manuscript, to New Testament fragments bound up with the Utrecht Psalter, and to the Stonyhurst St. John; these facts, together with Bede's statement that Ceolfrid had three pandects written, indicate that "there was a large and flourishing school of calligraphy at Wearmouth or Jarrow in the seventh and eighth centuries, of which till lately we had no knowledge at all" (White).手寫的amiatinus一些片斷聖路加在達勒姆手稿具有強的相似的烏得勒支的詩篇,新約聖經的片段和Stonyhurst聖約翰,這些事實的,一起比德的說法,Ceolfrid有三個表示,“pandects寫的,有一個大而蓬勃發展的學校的書法在Wearmouth或賈羅在第七和第八世紀,直到最近,我們根本不知道在所有”(白色)。 This conclusion is confirmed by peculiarities in the text and in certain of the summaries.這一結論證實的特殊性,在文字和一定的摘要。

The contents of the first quaternion of Amiatinus coincide so remarkably with descriptions of the celebrated Codex Grandior of Cassiodorus that it has been supposed that the leaves were transferred from it bodily; the conjecture has been rendered more credible by the fact that this codex was actually seen in England by Bede, perhaps before Amiatinus was carried to Rome.的第一個四元數的amiatinus的內容一致,顯著的著名的法典Grandior的Cassiodorus的描述,它一直以為它的葉子從身體已經變得更加可信的事實,這個抄本是真正看到的猜想在英格蘭貝德,也許是之前Amiatinus傳到了羅馬。 Moreover, the contents of our codex do not correspond exactly to the list prefixed which purports to give the contents.此外,我們的法典中的內容不完全一致,前綴列表中聲稱的內容。 These reasons, however, would only prove that the Codex Grandior served as the model, which seems indubitable; while, on the other hand, weighty reasons have been urged against the other attractive hypothesis (see White and de Rossi).然而,這些理由,只能證明,食品Grandior的模型,這似乎是不容置疑的,而另一方面,有份量的原因被要求對其他有吸引力的假說(見白色和德羅西)。

Despite the lowering of its date by a century and a half, Amiatinus holds the first place for purity of text among the manuscripts of the Vulgate.儘管降低其日期的一個半世紀,Amiatinus持有的武加大手稿中的文字純度的第一名。 Its excellence is best explained on the ground that its prototype was an ancient Italian manuscript, perhaps one of those brought from Rome by Benedict Biscop, perhaps one brought by Adrian, abbot of a monastery near Naples, when in 668 he accompanied Benedict and Theodore to England.其卓越是最好的解釋在地面上,它的原型是意大利一個古老的手稿,也許,也許那些來自羅馬教宗本篤比斯科普所帶來的阿德里安,那不勒斯附近的一個修道院的方丈,當他陪同668本篤十六世和西奧多英國。 It is remarkable that Amiatinus and the other Northumbrian codices are nearest in text to Italian manuscripts, especially to Southern Italian, and to manuscripts betraying Italian descent.值得注意的是,Amiatinus和其他諾森伯蘭抄本是最近在意大利手稿的文字,尤其是意大利南部,和背叛意大利血統的手稿。 The group to which it belongs bears the closest relationship to the best-esteemed Greek manuscripts extant, aleph, B. (Cf. MANUSCRIPTS OF THE BIBLE; CRITICISM, BIBLICAL, sub-title Textual.) In the Old Testament, the text is not of equal purity throughout; Berger, eg, notes the inferiority of Wisdom and Ecclesiasticus, and Tischendorf of Machabees.它屬於該集團承擔的關係最密切,最尊敬的希臘文手抄本現存的文字,艾禮富,B.(參見“聖經”手稿批評,“聖經”,分題目考)。在舊約中,是不等於純度整個伯傑,如指出,自卑的智慧和ecclesiasticus,蒂申多夫的Machabees。 The Psalter does not present the Vulgate text, but St. Jerome's translation from the Hebrew (cf. PSALTER; VULGATE).的詩篇不存在的拉丁文文字,但圣杰羅姆的翻譯希伯來文(見PSALTER通行的)。 The excellence of the Amiatine text is not a new discovery: it was well known to the Sixtine revisers of the Vulgate, who used it constantly and preferred it, as a rule, to any other.卓越的Amiatine文本是不是一個新的發現:這是人所共知的武加大,不斷使用它,喜歡它,作為一項規則,任何其他到的Sixtine的審校。 To this is largely due the comparative purity of the official Vulgate text and its freedom from so many of the corruptions found in the received Greek text, which rests, as is well known, on some of the latest and most imperfect Greek manuscripts.這主要是由於比較純潔性的官方的拉丁文文字和這麼多的腐敗發現收到的希臘文,這在於它的自由,是眾所周知的,在一些最新的和最完美的希臘文手抄本。

Publication information Written by John Francis Fenlon.出版書面約翰·弗朗西斯Fenlon的信息。 Transcribed by Sean Hyland.轉錄由Sean海崙賓館。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908.發布時間1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約



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