Deism自然神論

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(Latin Deus, God). (拉丁殺出,上帝)。

The term used to denote certain doctrines apparent in a tendency of thought and criticism that manifested itself principally in England towards the latter end of the seventeenth century.術語,用來表示某些學說中表現出來的思想和批評,主要是在英格蘭對後者的17世紀的傾向明顯。 The doctrines and tendency of deism were, however, by no means entirely confined to England, nor to the seventy years or so during which most of the deistical productions were given to the world; for a similar spirit of criticism aimed at the nature and content of traditional religious beliefs, and the substitution for them of a rationalistic naturalism has frequently appeared in the course of religious thought.的教義和自然神論傾向,但是,不完全局限在英國,也不是七十年左右的在這期間大部分的deistical生產的世界為目的的性質和內容類似的批判精神的傳統宗教信仰,對他們的一種理性的自然和替代頻繁出現在使用過程中的宗教思想。 Thus there have been French and German deists as well as English; while Pagan, Jewish, or Moslem deists might be found as well as Christian.因此,法國和德國的自然神論者,以及英語,而自然神論者可能會發現異教徒,猶太人,還是穆斯林以及基督教。

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Because of the individualistic standpoint of independent criticism which they adopt, it is difficult, if not impossible, to class together the representative writers who contributed to the literature of English deism as forming any one definite school, or to group together the positive teachings contained in their writings as any one systematic expression of a concordant philosophy.由於獨立的批評,他們採用的個人主義的角度來看,它是困難的,如果不是不可能的,一起上課的有代表性的作家的文學,英語自然神論形成任何明確的學校,或組合到一起的積極教義中包含他們的著作,任何一個系統的表達出一致的哲學。 The deists were what nowadays would be called freethinkers, a name, indeed, by which they were not infrequently known; and they can only be classed together wholly in the main attitude that they adopted, viz.自然神論者是現在被稱為自由思想家,一個名字,事實上,他們並不少見,他們只能被歸類在一起,他們採取的主要態度,即在全。 in agreeing to cast off the trammels of authoritative religious teaching in favour of a free and purely rationalistic speculation.在同意擺脫權威的宗教教學的束縛,有利於自由和純粹理性的投機。 Many of them were frankly materialistic in their doctrines; while the French thinkers who subsequently built upon the foundations laid by the English deists were almost exclusively so.他們中的許多人坦率地說唯物主義的,在他們的學說,而法國思想家,其後由英國自然神論者奠定的基礎,建立在幾乎完全是這樣。 Others rested content with a criticism of ecclesiastical authority in teaching the inspiration of the Sacred Scriptures, or the fact of an external revelation of supernatural truth given by God to man.其他休息的批評教會的權威在教學中的靈感,神聖的經文,或外部的啟示超自然的真理,神到人的內容。 In this last point, while there is a considerable divergence of method and procedure observable in the writings of the various deists, all, at least to a very large extent, seem to concur.在這一點上,是一個相當大的分歧的方法和過程可觀察的著作中的各種自然神論者,所有的,至少在相當大的程度,似乎同意。 Deism, in its every manifestation was opposed to the current and traditional teaching of revealed religion.自然神論,反對在其每一表現中的電流與傳統教學的啟示宗教。

In England the deistical movement seems to be an almost necessary outcome of the political and religious conditions of the time and country.在英國的deistical的運動似乎是一個幾乎必然結果的時間和國家的政治和宗教條件。 The Renaissance had fairly swept away the later scholasticism and with it, very largely, the constructive philosophy of the Middle Ages.文藝復興時期的相當一掃而空,後來的經院哲學,有了它,很大程度上是的,建設性的中世紀哲學。 The Protestant Reformation, in its open revolt against the authority of the Catholic Church, had inaugurated a slow revolution, in which all religious pretensions were to be involved.新教改革,在其公開反抗天主教會的權威,開始了緩慢的革命,在所有宗教的偽裝參與。 The Bible as a substitute for the living voice of the Church and the State religion as a substitute for Catholicism might stand for a time; but the very mentality that brought them into being as substitutes could not logically rest content with them.聖經作為替代的生活的聲音,教會和國家的宗教,天主教的替代品可能站的時間,但不能邏輯上休息的心態,領他們到作為替代內容與他們同在。 The principle of private judgment in matters of religion had not run its full course in accepting the Bible as the Word of God.在宗教事務的私人判斷的原則沒有運行的全過程中接受聖經是神的話語。 A favourable opportunity would spur it forward once more; and from such grudging acceptance as it gave to the Scriptures it would proceed to a new examination and a final rejection of their claims.一個有利的機會,將推動它向前再次,以及從這種勉強接受,因為它給了“聖經”,它會進入到一個新的檢查和最終拒絕他們的要求。 The new life of the empirical sciences, the enormous enlargement of the physical horizon in such discoveries as those of astronomy and geography, the philosophical doubt and rationalistic method of Descartes, the advocated empiricism of Bacon, the political changes of the times--all these things were factors in the preparation and arrangement of a stage upon which a criticism levelled at revelational religion might come forward and play its part with some chance of success.經驗科學的新生活,巨大的物理視野擴大在這些發現的天文,地理,哲學的懷疑和理性的方法,笛卡爾,培根,提倡經驗主義時代的政治變革 - 所有這些事情的批評啟示的宗教因素中的一個階段的準備和安排,有一些成功的機會可能會挺身而出,發揮自己的作用。 And though the first essays of deism were somewhat veiled and intentionally indirect in their attack upon revelation, with the revolution and the civil and religious liberty consequent upon it, with the spread of the critical and empirical spirit as exemplified in the philosophy of Locke, the time was ripe for the full rehearsal of the case against Christianity as expounded by the Establishment and the sects.而雖然第一撰的自然神論有點含蓄,故意間接的啟示時,他們的攻擊革命後的公民和宗教的自由,傳播的關鍵和實證的精神,體現在洛克的哲學,為全面排練的情況下對基督教的建立與教派所闡述的時機已經成熟。 The wedge of private judgment had been driven into authority.楔形的私人判斷已被趕出權力。 It had already split Protestantism into a great number of conflicting sects.它已經分裂成為一個偉大的自相矛盾的教派新教。 It was now to attempt the wreck of revealed religion in any shape or form.這是現在試圖在任何形狀或形式的啟示宗教的殘骸。

The deistical tendency passed through several more or less clearly defined phases.的傾向通過幾個不太明確的定義階段deistical。 All the forces possible were mustered against its advance.所有可能的力量糾集反對它的前進。 Parliaments took cognizance of it.議會認定了它。 Some of the productions of the deists were publicly burnt.一些製作的自然神論者進行了公開燒毀。 The bishops and clergy of the Establishment were strenuous in resisting it.建立的主教和神職人員的劇烈抵制它。 For every pamphlet or book that a deist wrote, several "answers" were at once put before the public as antidotes.對於每一個自然神論者寫的小冊子或書籍,幾個“答案”,在一次在公眾面前的解藥。 Bishops addressed pastoral letters to their dioceses warning the faithful of the danger.主教牧函給自己的教區的警告忠實的危險。 Woolston's "Moderator" provoked no less than five such pastorals from the Bishop of London.伍爾斯頓的“主持人”,引起了不低於五田園倫敦的主教。 All that was ecclesiastically official and respectable was ranged in opposition to the movement, and the deists were held up to general detestation in the strongest terms.所有這一切都教會官方的和受人尊敬的範圍在反對運動,和自然神論者舉行了最強烈的措辭一般的厭惡。 When the critical principles and freethought spirit filtered down to the middle classes and the masses, when such men as Woolston and Chubb put pen to paper, a perfect storm of counter-criticism arose.當重要的原則和自由思想精神滲透到中產階級和廣大人民群眾,這樣的男人時,,伍爾斯頓和Chubb落筆,一場完美風暴產生的反批評。 As a matter of fact, not a few educated and cultured men were really upon the side of a broad toleration in matters of religion.事實上,沒有幾個受過良好教育和培養的男人真的是一個廣泛的耐受性,在宗教方面,在側面。 The "wit and ridicule" by which the Earl of Shaftesbury would have all tested meant, as Brown rightly notes, no more than urbanity and good nature.所有測試“的智慧和嘲笑”,其中沙夫茨伯里伯爵的意思,作為,布朗正確地指出,不超過城市性和良好的性質。 But Shaftesbury himself would by no means allow that he was a deist, except in the sense in which the term is interchangeable with theist; and Herbert of Cherbury, by far the most cultured representative of the movement, is noted as having been the most moderate and the least opposed of them all to the teachings of Christianity.但沙夫茨伯里自己絕不會允許,他是一個自然神論者,在這個意義上與有神論者的術語是可以互換的除外;和赫伯特Cherbury,迄今為止最有文化代表性的運動,指出最溫和的和他們都反對基督教的教義。

One phase through which deism may be said to have passed was that of a critical examination of the first principles of religion. ,通過它自然神論的一個階段可以說已經過去了,宗教的首要原則的嚴格審查。 It asserted its right to perfect tolerance on the part of all men.它完美的寬容的一部分,所有的人主張其權利。 Freethought was the right of the individual; it was, indeed, but one step in advance of the received principle of private judgment.自由思想是正確的個人;,的確是,但提前私人判斷所接收的原則的一個步驟。 Such representatives of deism as Toland and Collins may be taken as typical of this stage.這樣的托蘭,以及柯林斯的自然神論可以作為這個階段的典型代表。 So far, while critical and insisting on its rights to complete toleration, it need not be, though as a matter of fact it undoubtedly was, hostile to religion.到目前為止,雖然關鍵,堅持完成容忍的權利,它不需要,但事實上,它無疑是敵對的宗教。

A second phase was that in which it criticized the moral or ethical part of religious teaching.第二階段,在它批評的道德或倫理,宗教教職。 The Earl of Shaftesbury, for example, has much to urge against the doctrine of doctrine of future rewards and punishments as the sanction of the moral law.沙夫茨伯里伯爵,例如,有很多提出來,反對的教義學說的道德法律的制裁的未來獎懲。 Such an attitude is obviously incompatible with the accepted teaching of the Churches.這樣的態度顯然是不符合公認的教學,教會的。 Upon this follows a critical examination of the writings of the Old and New Testaments, with a particular regard to the verification of prophecy and to the miraculous incidents therein recorded.一旦在此之前的舊約和新約的著作進行嚴格審查,驗證的預言,並奇蹟般的事件,其中所記錄的一個特定的方面。 Antony Collins performed the first part of this task, while Woolston gave his attention principally to the latter, applying to Scriptural records the principles put forward by Blount in his notes to the "Apollonius Tyanæus".安東尼柯林斯執行這個任務的第一部分,Woolston的給了他的注意,而主要是後者,應用聖經的原則提出到“阿波羅尼奧斯Tyanæus”,由布朗特在他的筆記記錄。 Lastly, there was the stage in which natural religion as such was directly opposed to revealed religion.最後,有階段的自然宗教,因為這樣是直接反對天啟宗教的。 Tindal, in his "Christianity as old as the Creation", reduces, or attempts to reduce, revelation to reason, making the Christian statement of revelational truths either superfluous, in that it is contained in reason itself, or positively harmful, in that it goes beyond or contradicts reason.廷德爾,在他的“基督教舊如舊的創造”,減少或試圖減少的原因,啟示,啟示的真理,基督教的聲明不是多餘的,因為它包含本身的原因,肯定是有害的,因為它超越或違背原因。

It is thus clear that, in the main, deism is no more than an application of critical principles to religion.由此可見,在主,自然神論是關鍵的原則,以宗教不超過一個應用程序。 But in its positive aspect it is something more, for it offers as a substitute for revealed truth that body of truths which can be built up by the unaided efforts of natural reason.但其積極的一面,它是更多的東西,因為它提供的替代品揭示的真理,身體的真理,可以建立獨立的努力自然原因。 The term deism, however, has come in the course of time to have a more specific meaning.然而,術語自然神論,已經到來時間的過程中有一個更具體的含義。 It is taken to signify a peculiar metaphysical doctrine supposed to have been maintained by all the deists.它是表示一個獨特的形而上的學說,應該一直保持所有的自然神論者。 They are thus grouped together roughly as members of a quasi-philosophical school, the chief and distinguishing tenet of which is the relationship asserted to obtain between the universe and God.因此,他們組合在一起,大約為成員的一個準哲學的學校,其中的主要區別的宗旨是斷言,以獲得宇宙和上帝之間的關係。 God, in this somewhat inferential and constructive thesis, is held to be the first cause of the world, and to be a personal God.神,在這個有點推理和建設性的論文,被認為是世界的第一個原因,是一個個人的神。

So far the teaching is that of the theists, as contrasted with that of atheists and pantheists.到目前為止,教學是有神論者,與之相對的是,無神論者和泛神論者。 But, further, deism not only distinguishes the world and God as effect and cause; it emphasizes the transcendence of the Deity at the sacrifice of His indwelling and His providence.但是,進一步自然神論不僅區分效果和引起的世界和上帝;它強調的是超越的神在他留置的犧牲和他的普羅維登斯。 He is apart from the creation which He brought into being, and unconcerned as to the details of its working.他是除了他的創作帶來應運而生,並考慮其工作的細節。 Having made Nature, He allows it to run its own course without interference on His part.自然,他讓,它自生自滅不受干預的情況下,他的一部分。 In this point the doctrine of deism differs clearly from that of theism.在這一點上,自然神論學說的顯著不同的有神論。 The verbal distinction between the two, which are originally convertible terms--deism, of Latin origin, being a translation of the Greek theism--seems to have been introduced into English literature by the deists themselves, in order to avoid the denomination of naturalists by which they were commonly known.似乎已被引入到英語文學的自然神論者自己的,為了避免面額的博物學家的口頭兩者之間的區別,這是最初兌換的條件 - 自然神論,起源於拉丁語,翻譯的希臘有神論 - 他們被俗稱。 As naturalism was the epithet generally given to the teaching of the followers of the Spinozistic philosophy, as well as to the so-called atheists, deism seemed to its professors at once to furnish a disavowal of principles and doctrines which they repudiated, and to mark off their own position clearly from that of the theists.隨著自然主義稱號一般的Spinozistic理念,以及所謂的無神論者的追隨者的教學,自然神論似​​乎教授在一次提供的原則和教義,他們否定了否定,並對其進行標記顯然,從這一有神論者關閉自己的位置。 The word seems however, to have been first employed in France and Italy about the middle of the sixteenth century, for it occurs in the epistle dedicatory prefixed to the second volume of Viret's "Instruction Chrétienne" (1563), where the reforming divine speaks of some persons who had called themselves by a new name--deists.這個詞似乎不過,有被首次採用在法國和意大利約十六世紀中,為它發生的書信奉獻前綴的第二個量的Viret的“指令Chrétienne”(1563年),在那裡的改革神聖的說,一些人曾稱自己為一個新的名字 - 自然神論者。 It was principally upon account of their methods of investigation and their criticism of the traditional Protestant religious teaching that they had also come to to be called rationalists, opposing, as has been pointed out, the findings of unaided reason to the truths held on faith as having come from God through external revelation.這主要是考慮他們的方法調查和批評的傳統新教的宗教教職後,他們也被稱為理性主義,反對,正如已經指出的那樣,外援的原因的調查結果舉行信仰的真理來自上帝通過外部啟示。 Whether it was by ignoring this altogether, or by attempting actively to refute it and prove its worthlessness, rationalism was the obvious term of their procedure.無論是通過忽略這完全,或試圖積極地予以反駁,並證明其無價值,理性其程序的期限是顯而易見的。 And it was also, in very much the same manner, by their claiming the freedom to discuss on these lines the doctrines set forth in the Bible and taught by the Churches, that they earned for themselves the no less commonly given title of "freethinkers."而且它也是非常相同的方式,他們聲稱這些線路上載於“聖經”的教義和教導的教會,他們贏得了為自己的不常用標題“自由思想家的自由討論。 “

There are notable distinctions and divergences among the English deists as to the whole content of truth given by reason.有顯著的區別和分歧,其中英語自然神論者的原因真相的全部內容。 The most important of these distinctions is undoubtedly that by which they are classed as "mortal" and "immortal" deists; for, while many conceded the philosophical doctrine of a future life, the rejection of future rewards and punishments carried with it for some the denial of the immortality of the human soul.這些區別中最重要的無疑是,他們被歸類為“凡人”和“不朽的”自然神論者;,而許多未來的生活,對於一些未來的獎懲進行拒絕承認的哲學學說拒絕的人的靈魂的不朽。 The five articles laid down by Lord Herbert of Cherbury, however, with their expansion into six (and the addition of a seventh) by Charles Blount, may be taken--and especially the former--as the format professions of deism.五篇文章所訂定主赫伯特Cherbury,但是,隨著其擴展成六(和另外的第七)由查爾斯·布朗特,可能會採取的 - 尤其是前 - 專業的自然神論的格式。 They contain the following doctrines:它們包含了以下的教義:

that there exists one supreme God, ,存在著一個至高無上的神,

who is chiefly to be worshipped;主要是應受崇拜的;

that the principal part of such worship consists in piety and virtue;這種崇拜的主要組成部分包括在虔誠和美德;

that we must repent of our sins and that, if we do so, God will pardon us;我們必須悔改我們的罪,如果我們這樣做,上帝會原諒我們;

that there are rewards for good men and punishments for evil men both here and hereafter.有好男人和懲罰邪惡的人都在這裡和以下的獎勵。

Blount, while he enlarged slightly upon each of these doctrines, broke one up into two and added a seventh in which he teaches that God governs the world by His providence.布朗特,而他略有放大後這些學說,打破了一分為二,增加了第七次中,他教導我們,上帝支配的世界由他的普羅維登斯。

This can hardly be accepted as a doctrine common to the deists; while, as has been said, future rewards and punishments were not allowed by them all.這很難被接受的自然神論者的共同的教義;同時,正如人們所說的,未來的獎勵和處罰,不允許他們所有。 In general they rejected the miraculous element in Scripture and ecclesiastical tradition.一般來說,在聖經和教會的傳統,他們拒絕了神奇的元素。 They would not admit that there was any one "peculiar people", such as the Jews or the Christians, singled out for the reception of a truth-message, or chosen to be the recipients of any special grace or supernatural gift of God.他們不會承認有任何一個“特殊的人”,如猶太人或基督徒,挑出來的真理消息的接收,或選擇收件人的任何特別的恩典或超自然的神的恩賜。 They denied the doctrine of the Trinity and altogether refused to admit any mediatorial character in the person of Jesus Christ.他們否認三位一體的教義,並完全拒絕承認任何中保耶穌基督的人的性格。 The atonement, the doctrine of the "imputed righteousness" of Christ--especially popular with orthodoxy at the time--shared the fate of all Christological doctrines at their hands.贖罪,學說的基督賜予的正義“ - 特別是與正統的時間 - 共同的命運,所有基督的教義在他們的手。 And above all things and upon every occasion--but with at least one notable exception--they raised their voices against ecclesiastical authority.上面所有的東西,在每一個場合 - 但至少有一個顯著的例外 - 他們對教會的權威提出了自己的聲音。 They never tired of inveighing against priestcraft in every shape or form, find they went so far as to assert that revealed religion was an imposture, an invention of the priestly caste to subdue, and so the more easily govern and exploit, the ignorant.他們永不疲倦的痛罵反對祭司在各種形狀或形式,發現他們竟的斷言,啟示宗教是一個騙局,一個發明的祭司種姓制服,所以更容易治理和利用,無知的。

As deism took its rise, in the logical sequence of events, from the principles asserted at the Protestant Reformation, so it ran its short and violent course in a development of those principles and ended in a philosophical scepticism.自然神論的崛起,在事件的邏輯順序,從斷言,在新教改革的原則,所以它跑了其短期及暴力當然在這些原則的發展和結束,在哲學上的懷疑。 For a time it caused an extraordinary commotion in all circles of thought in England, provoked a very large and, in a sense, interesting polemical literature, and penetrated from the highest to the lowest strata of society.一時間引起了不平凡的思想在英國各界騷動,引起了非常大的,從某種意義上說,有趣的論戰文獻,從最高到最低的社會階層和滲透。 Then it fell flat, whether because the controversy had lost the keen interest of its acuter stage or because people in general were drifting with the current of criticism towards the new views, it would be difficult to say.然後倒扁,是否因為爭論已經失去了濃厚的興趣其acuter階段,因為人們一般都對新觀點的批評與當前漂流,這將是很難說。 With most of the arguments of the deists we are nowadays quite familiar, thanks to the efforts of modern freethought and rationalism to keep them before the public.對於大多數的參數,我們現在相當熟悉的自然神論者,由於現代自由思想和理性的努力,讓他們在公眾面前。 Though caustic, often clever, and sometimes extraordinarily blasphemous, we open the shabby little books to find them for the most part out-of-date, commonplace, and dull.雖然燒鹼,往往是聰明的,有時甚至非常褻瀆的,我們打開簡陋的小書找到他們的日期,司空見慣,沉悶的大部分。 And while several of the "replies" they evoked may still be reckoned as standard works of apologetics, the majority of them belong, in more senses than one, to the writings of a bygone age.而一些可能仍然不可忽視的“回复”誘發護標準的工程,其中大多數屬於,更多的感官比,舊時代的著作。

When Viscount Bolingbroke's works were published posthumously in 1754, and even when, six years previously, David Hume's "Essay on the Human Understanding" was given to the public, little stir was caused.當子爵博林布魯克的作品被出版了遺腹於1754年,並是由於,即使在六年前,大衛·休謨的“人類理解徵文”給公眾的,小的轟動。 Bolingbroke's attacks upon revealed religion, aimed from the standpoint of a sensationalistic theory of knowledge, were, as a recent writer puts it, "insufferably wearisome"; nor could all his cynicism and satire, any more than the scepticism of the Scottish philosopher, renew general interest in a controversy that was practically dead.博林布魯克的攻擊時透露,宗教,旨在從一個聳人聽聞的理論知識的角度來看,作為最近的作家提出它,“忍受令人厭煩的”,也可以所有他的玩世不恭和諷刺,任何更多比的持懷疑態度的蘇格蘭哲學家,更新在爭論,實際上是死的普遍關心。 The deistical controversy traceable to the philosophy of Hobbes and Locke is preeminently an English one, and it is to the English deists that reference is usually made when there is question of deism.爭議可追溯至霍布斯和洛克的哲學deistical講話的英語,這是引用時,通常是由有問題的自然神論的英語自然神論者。 But the same or a similar movement took place in France also.但是,同樣的或類似的運動,也發生在法國。 Says Ueberweg,說Ueberweg,

In the eighteenth century, the prevailing character of French philosophy .在18世紀,當時的法國哲學字符。 . . was that of opposition to the received dogmas and the actual conditions in Church and State, and the efforts of its representatives were chiefly directed to the establishment of a new theoretical and practical philosophy resting on naturalistic principles.反對接收到的教條,在教會與國家的實際情況,主要是其代表的努力,建立一個新的理論和實踐哲學,停留在自然主義的原則。 (Gesch. d. Philosophie, Berlin, 1901, III, 237) (Gesch.。哲學“,柏林,1901年,III,237)

Men like Voltaire, and even the materialistic Encyclopædists, exemplify a tendency of philosophic thought which has very much in common with what in England ended in deism.男人喜歡伏爾泰,甚至物慾橫流的百科全書,體現了一個有很多共同之處,與在英國結束在自然神論的哲學思想傾向。 It had the same basis, the theory of knowledge propounded by Locke and subsequently pushed to an extreme point by Condillac, and the general advance of scientific thought.它有相同的基礎上,理論知識,會否由洛克,後來推到一個極端點的孔狄亞克,一般前進的科學思想。 From Voltaire's criticisms of ecclesiastical organization and theology, his unwearying attacks upon Christianity, the Bible, the Church, and revelation, the tendency turned towards pantheism and materialism.從伏爾泰的批評教會組織和神學,他的unwearying的攻擊後,基督教,聖經,教會,啟示,泛神論和唯物主義轉向的趨勢。 Rousseau would have a religion of nature substituted for the traditional forms of revelation, and bring it, as he would bring philosophy and politics, to the point of view of individualism.盧梭的宗教性質取代傳統形式的啟示,並把它,因為他把哲學和政治的個人主義的角度來看。 Helvetius would have the moral system based upon the principle of present self-interest.愛爾將根據目前自身利益的原則,有道德體系。 And thus, as in England the logical development of deism ended in the scepticism of Hume, so in France it came to rest in the materialism of La Mettrie and Holbach.因此,在英國的邏輯發展自然神論結束了休謨的懷疑,所以在法國,在LA美特利,霍爾巴赫的唯物主義來休息。

PROMINENT DEIST WRITERS著名的自然神論者WRITERS

Reference has been made above to several of the more important representatives of English deism.已參考了上述幾個更重要的英語自然神論代表。 Ten or twelve writers are usually enumerated as noteworthy contributors to the literature and thought of the movement, of whom the following brief sketches may be given. 10或12作家的文學值得一提的枚舉和思想的運動,可給予以下簡要草圖。

Lord Herbert of Cherbury (1581-1648)主,赫伯特Cherbury(1581年至1648年)

Lord Herbert, a contemporary of the philosopher Hobbes, was the most learned of the deists and at the same time the least disposed to submit Christian revelation to a destructive criticism.赫伯特勳爵,當代的哲學家霍布斯,是最有學問的自然神論者,同時出售至少提交一個破壞性的批評基督教的啟示。 He was the founder of a rationalistic form of religion--the religion of nature--which consisted of no more than the residuum of truth common to all forms of positive religion when their distinctive characteristics were left aside.他是一個理性的宗教 - 宗教的本質 - 的創始人,其中包括不超過渣油各種形式的積極宗教共同的真相時,他們的鮮明特點被擱置。 The profession of faith of Herbert's rationalism is summed up in the five articles given above.行業赫伯特的理性主義的信仰是在總結了上述五篇文章。 His principal contributions to deistical literature are the "Tractatus de Veritate prout distinguitur a Revelatione, a Verisimili, a Possibili et a Falso" (1624); "De Religione Gentilium Errorumque apud eos Causis" (1645, 1663); "De Religione Laici."他的主要貢獻deistical文學的“邏輯哲學論Veritate普勞特distinguitur一個Revelatione,Verisimili,一個可能性等一個Falso]的”(1624年);“Religione Gentilium Errorumque APUD EOS Causis”(1645年,1663年);“De Religione Laici的。 “

Charles Blount (1654-93)查爾斯·布朗特(1654年至1693年)

Blount was noted as a critic of both the Old and New Testaments.布朗特指出作為一個評論家的舊約和​​新約。 His methods of attack upon the Christian position were characterized by an indirectness and a certain duplicity that has ever since come to be in some degree associated with the whole deistical movement.他的攻擊後,基督教的位置的方法的特點是間接性和一定的口是心非,自從來在一定程度上與整個deistical運動。 The notes that he appended to his translation of Apollonius are calculated to weaken or destroy credence in the miracles of Christ, for some of which he actually suggests explanations upon natural grounds, thus arguing against the trustworthiness of the New Testament.他指出,阿波羅尼奧斯追加到他的翻譯進行計算,以削弱或摧毀信任基督的奇蹟,其中的一些自然的理由的解釋後,他居然建議,反對的新約聖經的可信性。 In a similar manner, by employing the argument of Hobbes against the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, and by attacking the miraculous events therein recorded, he had impeached the accuracy and veracity of the Old Testament.以類似的方式,採用的馬賽克著作權的五對霍布斯的說法,並奇蹟般的攻擊事件,其中所記錄的,他曾彈劾的舊約的準確性和真實性。 He rejects utterly the doctrine of a mediatorial Christ and contends that such a doctrine is subversive of true religion; while the many falsehoods he perceives in the traditional and positive forms of Christianity he puts down to the political invention (for purposes of power and of easy government) of priests and religious teachers.他拒絕完全的中保基督的教義,並爭辯說,這樣的理論是顛覆性的真正的宗教,而他的種種不實,他認為在基督教傳統和積極的放下發明的政治(權力的目的和容易政府)的牧師和宗教教師。 The seven articles into which Blount expanded the five articles of Lord Herbert have been noticed above.布朗特擴大到五篇文章的赫伯特勳爵的七篇文章已注意到上述情況。 His notes to the translation of Philostratus' "Life of Apollonius Tyanæus" were published in 1680.他的筆記的翻譯,斐洛斯特拉圖斯“阿波羅尼奧斯Tyanæus的生活”出版於1680年。 He wrote also the "Anima Mundi" (1678-9); "Religio Laici", practically a translation of Lord Herbert's book of the same title (1683); and "The Oracles of Reason" (1893).他也寫了“阿尼瑪芒迪”(1678-9),“宗教化Laici”,實際上是相同的標題(1683)的主赫伯特的書翻譯;的原因“神諭”(1893年)。

John Toland (1670-1722)約翰·托蘭(1670年至1722年)

Toland, while originally a believer in Divine revelation and not opposed to the doctrines of Christianity, advanced to the rationalistic position with strong pantheistic tendencies by taking away the supernatural element from religion.托蘭,而最初的信徒在神的啟示,而不是反對基督教的教義,先進的帶走了超自然的元素,從宗教到理性的位置具有較強的泛神論傾向。 His principal thesis consisted in the argument that "there is nothing in the Gospels contrary to reason, nor above it; and that no Christian doctrine can properly be called a mystery. "This statement he made on the assumption that whatever is contrary to reason is untrue, and whatever is above reason is inconceivable.他的主要論文包括的說法,“有沒有在福音相反的原因,它上面也沒有;沒有基督教的教義,可以適當地被稱為是一個謎。”的假設,無論是相反的原因是他做此聲明不真實的,無論是上述原因是不可想像的。 He contended, therefore, that reason is the safe and only guide to truth, and that the Christian religion lays no claim to being mysterious.因此,他主張,理由是安全和唯一的真理,基督教規定沒有要求是神秘的。 Toland also raised questions as to the Canon of Scripture and the origins of the Church.托蘭也提出了問題,佳能的經文和教會的起源。 He adopted the view that in the Early Church there were two opposing factions, the liberal and the Judaizing; and he compared some eighty spurious writings with the New Testament Scriptures, in order to cast doubt upon the authenticity and reliability of the canon.他通過了,在早期教會認為,存在兩種對立的派別,自由和猶太化的,和他相比一些80雜散與新約聖經的著作,以產生懷疑的真實性和可靠性,佳能。 His "Amyntor" evoked a reply from the celebrated Dr. Clarke, and a considerable number of books and tracts were published in refutation of his doctrine.他的“Amyntor”,引發了著名的克拉克博士的答复,並發表在駁斥他的學說有相當數量的書籍和小冊子。 The chief works for which he was responsible are--"Christianity not Mysterious" (l696); "Letters to Serena" (1704); "Pantheisticon" (1720); "Amyntor" (1699); "Nazarenus" (1718).他負責的主要工作是 - “基督教並不神秘”(l696),“雪姬的信”(1704年),“Pantheisticon”(1720);的“Amyntor”(1699年);的“Nazarenus”(1718年)。 Antony Ashley Cooper, third Earl of Shaftesbury (1671-1713)安東尼阿什利庫珀,第三沙夫茨伯里伯爵(1671年至1713年)

The Earl of Shaftesbury, one of the most popular, elegant, and ornate of these writers, is generally classed among the deists on account of his "Characteristics".沙夫茨伯里,最流行的,優雅的,華麗的,這些作家之一,一般被歸類伯爵之間的自然神論者考慮他的“特色”。 He himself would not admit that he was such, except in the sense in which deist is contrasted with atheist; of him Bishop Butler said that, had he lived in a later age, when Christianity was better understood, he would have been a good Christian.他本人將不承認他是這樣的,除了對比自然神論者是無神論者,在這個意義上,他的主教巴特勒說,他住在以後的年齡時,基督教更好的理解,他會是一個好基督徒。 Thus, in a preface that Shaftesbury contributed to a volume of the sermons of Dr. Whichcot (1698), he "finds fault with those in this profane age, that represent not only the institution of preaching, but even the Gospel itself, and our holy religion, to be a fraud".因此,在沙夫茨伯里到卷的布道:博士Whichcot(1698)的序言中,他“發現故障,在這個世俗的時代,不僅是機構的說教,但即使是福音本身,而我們的神聖的宗教,是一種欺詐行為“。 There are also passages in "Several Letters Written by a Noble Lord to a Young Man in the University" (1716) in which he shows a very real regard for the doctrines and practice of the Christian religion.也有“寫了幾封信大學學報”(1716)中,他顯示了一個非常現實的基督宗教的教義和實踐方面為一名年輕男子在高尚的主通道。 But the "Characteristics of Men, Matters, Opinions, and Times" (1711-1723) gives clear evidence of Shaftesbury's deistical tendencies.但“男,事項,意見,和時代特徵的”(1711年至1723年)提供了明確的證據沙夫茨伯里的deistical傾向的。 It contains frequent criticisms of Christian doctrines, the Scriptures, and revelation.它包含了經常批評基督教教義,聖經和啟示。 He contends that this last is not only useless but positively mischievous, on account of its doctrine of rewards and punishments.他辯稱,這不僅是無用的,但正調皮,在其學說的獎勵和懲罰。 The virtue of morality he makes to consist in a conformity of our affections to our natural sense of the sublime and beautiful, to our natural estimate of the worth of men and things.道德的美德,他包括在一個符合我們的感情,我們的崇高和美麗的自然感,我們的天然的男性和事物的價值估計。 The Gospel, he asserts with Blount, was only the fruit of a scheme on the part of the clergy to secure their own aggrandizement and enhance their power.福音,他斷言布朗特,只是計劃的一部分神職人員,以確保自己的強化和提高他們的能力,所結的果子。 With such professions it is difficult to reconcile his statement that he adheres to the doctrines and mysteries of religion; but this becomes clear in the light of the fact that he shared the peculiar politico-religious view of Hobbes.有了這樣的專業,它是難以調和他的說法,他堅持和神秘的宗教的教義,但這個清楚的事實,他分享了獨特的霍布斯的政治和宗教觀點的光。 Whatever the absolute power of the State sanctions is good; the opposite is bad.無論絕對權力的國家制裁是好的,相反的是壞的。 To oppose one's private religious convictions to the religion sanctioned by the State is of the nature of a revolutionary act.為了反對一個人的私人宗教信仰,由國家認可的宗教的本質是革命性的舉動。 To accept the established state religion is the duty of the citizen.接受既定的國教是公民的責任。 Shaftesbury's more important contributions to this literature are the "Characteristics" and the "Several Letters", mentioned above.沙夫茨伯里的更重要的貢獻,這種文學的“特色”和“幾封信”,如上所述。

Antony Collins (1676-1729)安東尼柯林斯(1676年至1729年)

Collins caused a considerable stir by the publication (1713) of his "Discourse of Freethinking, occasioned by the Rise and Growth of a Sect call'd Freethinkers".柯林斯造成了相當大的轟動,他的“話語的自由思想,所引起的崛起與發展的一個教派叫作自由思想家”的出版(1713年)。 He had previously conducted an argument against the immateriality and immortality of the soul and against human liberty.對非物質和不朽的靈魂和對人的自由,他曾進行參數。 In this he had been answered by Dr. Samuel Clarke.在這方面,他已經由塞繆爾·克拉克博士。 The "Discourse" advocated unprejudiced and unfettered enquiry, asserted the right of human reason to examine and interpret revelation, and attempted to show the uncertainty of prophecy and of the New Testament record.的“話語”,主張不帶偏見的和不受約束的調查,斷言人類理性的啟示,研究和解釋,並試圖預言的不確定性和新約的記錄。 In another work Collins puts forth an argument to prove the Christian religion false, though he does not expressly draw the conclusion indicated.在另一項工作,柯林斯提出的論據來證明基督教的宗教假的,但他並沒有明確地得出這樣的結論。 He asserts that Christianity is dependent upon Judaism, and that its proof is the fulfilment of the prophetic utterances contained in the Old Testament.他斷言,基督教是猶太教的依賴,並證明其是在舊約聖經中的預言的實現。 He then proceeds to point out that all such Prophetic utterance is allegorical in nature and cannot be considered to furnish a real proof of the truth of its event.他接著指出的是,所有這些預言的話語是寓言性質的,不能被認為是提供一個真正的證明其事件的真相。 He further points out that the idea of the Messiah among the Jews was of recent growth before the time of Christ, and that the Hebrews may have derived many of their theological ideas from their contact with other peoples, such as the Egyptians and Chaldeans.他進一步指出,近期經濟增長之間的猶太人的彌賽亞的想法是基督的時間前,和希伯來他們的神學思想,可能會派生出許多與其他民族,如埃及人和迦勒底人從他們的聯繫人。 In particular, when his writings on prophecy were attacked he did his utmost to discredit the book of Daniel.特別是,當他的著作中預言攻擊他極力抹黑但以理書。 The "Discourse on the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion" (1724) called forth a great number of answers, principal among which were those of the Bishop of Richfield, Dr. Chandler ("Defence of Christianity from the Prophecies of the Old Testament"), and Dr. Sherlock ("The Use and Intent of Prophecy"). “論的根據和理由的基督教宗教”(1724)提出了許多答复,其中主要是那些主教田生,博士錢德勒(“辯護的基督教的”舊約“的預言“),博士和福爾摩斯”(以下簡稱“使用和意圖的預言”)。 It was in Collins' "Scheme of Literal Prophecy" that the antiquity and authority of the Book of Daniel were discussed.這是在柯林斯的“計劃”的文字的預言,但以理書的古老性和權威性進行了討論。 The "prophecies were made to be a record of past and contemporary events rather than a prevision of the future. But the "Scheme" was weak, and though it was answered by more than one critic it cannot be said to have added much weight to the discourse".的“預言是一個記錄的過去和當代的事件,而不是一個預知的未來,但”計劃“是弱,和儘管它是回答一個以上的批評家它可以不被說向已加入的重量,以“的話語。 Altogether Collins' attacks upon prophecy were considered to be of so serious a nature that they called forth no less than thirty-five replies.共有柯林斯的攻擊後,預言被認為是如此嚴重的自然,他們提出了所謂不低於35篇回复。 Of his works, the following may be noticed, as bearing especially upon the subject of deism: "Essay Concerning the Use of Reason in Theology" (1707); "Discourse of Freethinking" (1713); "Discourse on the Grounds and Reasons of the Christian Religion" (1724); "The Scheme of Literal Prophecy Considered" (1727).他的作品,可能會注意到,特別是在軸承的主題自然神論:“論使用的,因此在神學”(1707),“話語的自由思想”(1713年),“論的根據和理由的基督宗教“(1724);”計劃的文字的預言“(1727年)。

Thomas Woolston (1669-1733)托馬斯伍爾斯頓(1669年至1733年)

Woolston appeared as a moderator in the acrimonious controversy that was being waged between Collins and his critics with his "Moderator between an Infidel and an Apostate".伍爾斯頓作為一個主持人在與他的“主持人之間的異教徒和叛教者”,柯林斯和他的批評者之間展開了激烈的爭議。 As Collins had succeeded in allegorizing the prophecies of the Old Testament until nothing remained of them, so Woolston tried to allegorize away the miracles of Christ.正如柯林斯成功寓言的舊約預言,直到沒有剩下的人都在,,所以伍爾斯頓試圖寓言化了,基督的奇蹟。 During the years 1728-9, six discourses on the miracles of Our Lord came out in three parts, in which Woolston asserted, with an extraordinary violence of language and blasphemy that could only be attributed to a madman, that the miracles of Christ, when taken in a literal and historical sense, are false, absurd, and fictitious.在1728-9,6話語的奇蹟,我們的主出來的三個部分,其中伍爾斯頓斷言,具有非凡的語言暴力和褻瀆的話,可能只能歸因於一個瘋子,那基督的奇蹟,當在字面和歷史責任感,都是假的,荒謬的,虛構的。 They must therefore, he urges, be received in a mystical and allegorical sense.他們必須因此,他敦促,收到一個神秘的寓言意義。 In particular, he argued at great length against the miracles of resurrection from the dead wrought by Christ, and against the resurrection of Christ Himself.他特別指出在大篇幅對造成的基督從死裡復活的奇蹟,對復活的基督自己。 The Bishop of London issued five pastoral letters against him, and many ecclesiastics wrote in refutation of his work.倫敦的主教發表牧函,他和,許多教區中寫道駁斥他的工作。 The most noteworthy reply to his doctrines was "The Tryal of the Witnesses" (1729) by Dr. Sherlock.最值得一提的答复,他的學說是“博士福爾摩斯Tryal的證人”(1729年)。 In 1729-30, Woolston published "A Defense of his Discourse against the Bishops of London and St. David's", an extremely weak production.在1729至30年,伍爾斯頓發表他的話語對倫敦和聖大衛主教的“防禦”,以極其微弱的生產。

Matthew Tindal (1657-1733)馬修·廷德爾(1657年至1733年)

Tindal gave to the controversy the work that soon became known as the "Deists' Bible".廷德爾的工作,很快成為了被稱為“自然神論”聖經“的爭議。 His "Christianity as Old as the Creation" was published in his extreme old age in 1730.他“基督教舊的創作”,發表在他的極端老年於1730年。 As its sub-title indicates, its aim was to show that the Gospel is no more than a republication of the Law of Nature.它的子標題所表明的,其目的是表明,福音是不超過一個再版的自然法則。 This it undertakes to make plain by eviscerating the Christian religion of all that is not a mere statement of natural religion.這承諾使純淨膛基督宗教的自然宗教,不是一個單純的陳述。 External revelation is declared to be needless and useless, indeed impossible, and both the Old and New Testaments to be full of oppositions and contradictions.聲明是不必要的和無用的,確實是不可能的,外部的啟示是,無論是舊約和新約的對立和矛盾。 The work was taken as a serious attack upon the traditional position of Christianity in England, as is evinced by the hostile criticism it at once provoked.工作作為一項嚴肅的攻擊基督教的傳統地位,在英國,由敵對的批評,這一次挑起是明證。 The Bishop of London issued a pastoral; Waterland, Law, Conybeare, and others replied to it, Conybeare's "Defence" creating a considerable stir at the time.倫敦的主教發出了田園;票,法律,科尼比爾,和其他人說,它科尼比爾的“國防”的時候創造了相當大的轟動。 More than any other work, "Christianity as Old as the Creation" was the occasion of the writing of Butler's well known "Analogy".比任何其他的工作,“基督教舊的創作”之際,巴特勒的著名的“類比”的寫作。

Thomas Morgan (d. 1743)托馬斯·摩根(卒於1743)

Morgan makes professions of Christianity, the usefulness of revelation, etc., but criticizes and at the same time rejects as revelational the Old Testament history, both as to its personages and its narratives of fact.摩根使基督教的專業的,有用的啟示,等等,但批評和在同一時間拒絕為revelational中的舊約歷史,都以它的人物和其敘述的事實。 He advances the theory that the Jews "accomodated" the truth, and even goes so far as to extend this "accomodation" to the Apostles and to Christ as well.他的猶太人“accomodated”的道理,甚至到目前為止,以延長這個“住宿”的使徒和基督的理論。 His account of the origin of the Church is similar to that of Toland, in that he holds the two elements, Judaizing and liberal, to have resulted in a fusion.他帳戶的教會的起源是類似的托蘭,因為他擁有的兩個要素,猶太化和自由,已導致融合。 His principal work is "The Moral Philosopher, a Dialogue between Philalethes, a Christian Deist, and Theophanes, a Christian Jew" (1737, 1739, 1740).他的主要工作是“道德哲學家,之間的對話Philalethes,一個基督教的自然神論者,和塞奧法尼斯,一個基督教的猶太人”(1737年,1739年,1740年)。 This was answered by Dr. Chapman, whose reply called forth a defense on the part of Morgan in "The Moral Philosopher, or a farther Vindication of Moral Truth and Reason".這回答了查普曼博士,他的答复,提出了所謂的“道德哲學家的防禦的一部分,摩根,或更遠的道德真理與理性”辯護。

Thomas Chubb (1679-1746)托馬斯·丘博保險(1679至1746年)

Chubb -- a man of humble origin and of poor and elementary education, by trade a glove-maker and tallow-chandler -- is the most plebeian representative of deism.丘博 - 一個人的出身卑微,貧困和基礎教育,貿易手套製造商和牛油 - 錢德勒 - 是最平民代表的自然神論。 In 1731 he published "A Discourse Concerning Reason" in which he disavows his intention of opposing revelation or serving the cause of infidelity. 1731年,他出版了“話語問題的原因”,他否定了他的意向的反對的啟示或服務失真的原因。 But "The True Gospel of Jesus Christ", in which Lechler sees "an essential moment in the historical development of Deism", announces Christianity as a life rather than as a collection of doctrinal truths.但“真正的耶穌基督的福音”,其中萊克勒看到“自然神論的歷史發展中的一個重要時刻”,宣布基督教為生活,而不是作為一個集合理論的真理。 The true gospel is that of natural religion, and as such Chubb treats it in his work.真正的福音是自然宗教,如丘博將在他的作品中。 In his posthumous works a sceptical advance is made.在他的遺作持懷疑態度的進步。 These were published in 1748, and after the "Remarks on the Scriptures" contain the author's "Farewel to His Readers".這些結果發表在1748年,並在“備註”聖經“包含作者的”永別了,他的讀者“。 This "Farewel" embraces a number of tracts on various religious subjects. “永別”涵蓋的各種宗教題材的大片。 A marked tendency to scepticism regarding a particular providence pervades them.一個明顯的趨勢持懷疑態度特定的普羅維登斯貫穿於他們。 The efficacy of prayer, as well as the future state, is called in question.禱告的功效,以及未來的狀態,就是所謂的問題。 Arguments are urged against prophecy and miracle.參數呼籲對預言和奇蹟。 There are fifty pages devoted to those against the Resurrection alone.有50頁專門給那些對單獨的復活。 Finally, Christ is presented as a mere man, who founded a religious sect among the Jews.最後,耶穌是作為一個純粹的人,他成立了一個宗教教派之間的猶太人。 Chubb published also "The Supremacy of the Father" (1715) and "Tracts" (1730).丘博出版至上“的父親”(1715)和“大港”(1730)。 He is also responsible for the sentiments of "The Case of Deism Fairly Stated", an anonymous tract which he revised.他還負責“的情況下自然神論公平列賬”,一個匿名的道,他修的情緒。 Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke (1678-1751)亨利·聖約翰子爵博林布魯克(1678年至1751年)

Viscount Bolingbroke belongs to the deists chiefly by reason of his posthumous works.子爵博林布魯克的自然神論者主要的原因,他的遺作。 They are ponderously cynical in style and generally dull and uninteresting, Containing arguments against the truth and value of Scriptural history, and asserting that Christianity is a system footed upon the unlettered by the cunning of the clergy to further their own ends.他們是笨重玩世不恭的風格和一般沉悶和無趣的,包含的真理和價值的聖經歷史的論據反對,並聲稱基督教是一個狡猾的神職人員,進一步擴大自己的系統後,不識字的左腳。

Peter Annet (1693-1769)彼得Annet(1693年至1769年)

Annet was the author, among other works, of "Judging for Ourselves, or Freethinking the great Duty of Religion" (1739), "The Resurrection of Jesus Considered" (1744), "Supernatural Examined" (1747), and nine numbers of the "Free Inquirer" (1761). Annet寫的,在其他作品中,“為自己的判斷,或自由思想的偉大的宗教義務”(1739),“耶穌的復活,認為”(1744年),“超自然經審理查明”(1747),和9個號碼“免費問詢報”(1761)。 In the second of these works he denies the resurrection of Christ and accuses the Holy Bible of fraud and imposture.在這些作品中的第二個,他否認基督的復活,並指責聖經的欺詐和騙局。

Henry Dodged (d. 1748)亨利躲閃(卒於1748)

Dodged, who wrote "Christianity not Founded on Argument", is also generally reckoned, with Annet, as among the representative deists.躲開了,是誰寫的“基督教成立於參數”,也普遍認為,Annet,代表自然神論者之間。 (See GOD; PROVIDENCE; RATIONALISM; SCEPTICISM; THEISM.) (見上帝; PROVIDENCE的理性主義,懷疑主義的有神論。)

Publication information Written by Francis Aveling.出版信息寫弗朗西斯·艾威林。 Transcribed by Rick McCarty.轉錄里克麥卡蒂。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV.天主教百科全書,第四卷。 Published 1908.發布時間1908年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat. Nihil Obstat。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約



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