Dogma教條

Catholic Information 天主教信息

I. DEFINITION一,定義

The word dogma (Gr. dogma from dokein) signifies, in the writings of the ancient classical authors, sometimes, an opinion or that which seems true to a person; sometimes, the philosophical doctrines or tenets, and especially the distinctive philosophical doctrines, of a particular school of philosophers (cf. Cic. Ac., ii, 9), and sometimes, a public decree or ordinance, as dogma poieisthai.這個詞的教條(希臘文教條dokein)表示,在古代的經典作家,有時,意見或這似乎是真正的一個人的著作中,有時,哲學學說或原則,特別是獨特的哲學學說,某學校的哲學家(參投公司。交流,二,九),有時候一個公共法令或條例,作為教條poieisthai。 In Sacred Scripture it is used, at one time, in the sense of a decree or edict of the civil authority, as in Luke, ii, 1: "And it came to pass, that in those days there went out a decree [edictum, dogma] from Caesar Augustus" (cf. Acts 17:7; Esther 3:3); at another time, in the sense of an ordinance of the Mosaic Law as in Eph., ii 15: "Making void the law of commandments contained in decrees" (dogmasin), and again, it is applied to the ordinances or decrees of the first Apostolic Council in Jerusalem: "And as they passed through the cities, they delivered unto them the decrees [dogmata] for to keep, that were decreed by the apostles and ancients who were at Jerusalem" (Acts 16:4).在神聖的經文,在同一時間,在這個意義上的民間機構的法令或法令,因為在路加福音,二,一:“它來傳遞,在那些日子裡,走出了一條法令[edictum ,教條從愷撒奧古斯都“(參徒17:7;以斯帖記3:3),在另一個時間,在這個意義上,條例的鑲嵌法,因為在以弗所書,二15:”無效的法律誡命載於法令“(dogmasin),並再次,它是適用的條例或法令的第一使徒會在耶路撒冷說:”當他們經過的城市,他們告訴了他們有關法規[dogmata]保持,即分別頒布的使徒和古人在耶路撒冷“(徒16:4)。 Among the early Fathers the usage was prevalent of designating as dogmas the doctrines and moral precepts taught or promulgated by the Saviour or by the Apostles; and a distinction was sometimes made between Divine, Apostolical, and ecclesiastical dogmas, according as a doctrine was conceived as having been taught by Christ, by the Apostles, or as having been delivered to the faithful by the Church.其中早期父親的用法是普遍的指定作為教條的理論和道德戒律的救世主,或由使徒的教導或頒布和區分有時之間神聖的,使徒,和宗教教條,據作為一個學說被認為是經過教導基督,由使徒,或視為已交付給忠實由教會。

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But according to a long-standing usage a dogma is now understood to be a truth appertaining to faith or morals, revealed by God, transmitted from the Apostles in the Scriptures or by tradition, and proposed by the Church for the acceptance of the faithful.但是,根據一個長期使用的教條現在的理解是一個所屬的信仰或道德的真理,揭示了上帝,在聖經的使徒的傳統,並提出了由教會接受的忠實。 It might be described briefly as a revealed truth defined by the Church -- but private revelations do not constitute dogmas, and some theologians confine the word defined to doctrines solemnly defined by the pope or by a general council, while a revealed truth becomes a dogma even when proposed by the Church through her ordinary magisterium or teaching office.這可能是由教會作為揭示真理的定義,簡要介紹了 - 但私人啟示並不構成教條,和一些神學家局限於一詞定義為教義鄭重地界定教皇或由總理事會,而揭示的真理變成教條即使擬議由教會透過她的普通magisterium或教學辦公室。 A dogma therefore implies a twofold relation: to Divine revelation and to the authoritative teaching of the Church.教條,因此,隱含著兩方面的關係:以神聖啟示和教會的權威的教學。

The three classes of revealed truths這三個班的揭示真理

Theologians distinguish three classes of revealed truths: truths formally and explicitly revealed; truths revealed formally, but only implicitly; and truths only virtually revealed.神學家區分三類揭示的真理:真理正式和明確地揭示真理透露,正式的,但只是含蓄和真理,實際上顯示的。

A truth is said to be formally revealed, when the speaker or revealer really means to convey that truth by his language, to guarantee it by the authority of his word.一個真理是表示,將正式揭曉,,當揚聲器或revealer在真正的意義上,傳達事實的真相,他的語言,以保證它的權威,他的話。 The revelation is formal and explicit, when made in clear express terms.的啟示是正式的,明確的時候,作出了明確的表示術語。 It is formal but only implicit, when the language is somewhat obscure, when the rules of interpretation must be carefully employed to determine the meaning of the revelation.這是正式的,而只是隱時,語言是有點含混,當規則的解釋必須慎重,以確定含義的啟示。 And a truth is said to be revealed only virtually, when it is not formally guaranteed by the word of the speaker, but is inferred from something formally revealed.一個事實是,只透露,實際上,當它不是正式的保證揚聲器的話,但可以推斷,從正式透露的東西。

Now, truths formally and explicitly revealed by God are certainly dogmas in the strict sense when they are proposed or defined by the Church.現在,真理正式和明確地揭示了上帝當然是教條,在嚴格意義上說,當他們提出或由教會。 Such are the articles of the Apostles' Creed.這些都是文章的使徒們的信條。 Similarly, truths revealed by God formally, but only implicitly, are dogmas in the strict sense when proposed or defined by the Church.同樣的真理,揭示了上帝正式,但只有含蓄,是教條,在嚴格意義上的時候,建議或定義,由教會。 Such, for example, are the doctrines of Transubstantiation, papal infallibility, the Immaculate Conception, some of the Church's teaching about the Saviour, the sacraments, etc. All doctrines defined by the Church as being contained in revelation are understood to be formally revealed, explicitly or implicitly.這樣,例如,學說陷於變體說,教皇infallibility,聖母無原罪主教,教會的教學救世主,聖禮等一切學說界定由教會被包含在啟示是可以理解的,將正式揭曉,顯式或隱式。 It is a dogma of faith that the Church is infallible in defining these two classes of revealed truths; and the deliberate denial of one of these dogmas certainly involves the sin of heresy.這是一個教條的信仰,教會是不會犯錯誤的,在確定這兩個班的揭示真理和故意剝奪其中的教條,當然涉及的罪的異端邪說。 There is a diversity of opinion about virtually revealed truths, which has its roots in a diversity of opinion about the material object of faith (see FAITH).有一個不同的意見,實際上揭示的真理,它有它的根在各種不同的意見,對實物的信仰(FAITH)。 It is enough to say here that, according to some theologians, virtually revealed truths belong to the material object of faith and become dogmas in the strict sense when defined or proposed by the Church; and according to others, they do not belong to the material object of faith prior to their definition, but become strict dogmas when defined; and, according to others, they do not belong to the material object of Divine faith at all, nor become dogmas in the strict sense when defined, but may be called mediately-Divine or ecclesiastical dogmas.這是足以在這裡說,根據一些神學家,實際上揭示的真理屬於物質對象的信仰和教條,成為嚴格意義上的界定或建議由教會和根據其他人,他們不屬於物質物體的信念之前,他們的定義,但成為嚴格的教條時,界定,並根據其他人,他們不屬於物質對象的神聖的信仰,也成為教條,在嚴格意義上的定義,但可能是所謂的治療神或宗教教條。 In the hypothesis that virtually revealed conclusions do not belong to the material object of faith, it has not been defined that the Church is infallible in defining these truths, the infallibility of the Church, however, in relation to these truths is a doctrine of the Church theologically certain, which cannot lawfully be denied -- and though the denial of an ecclesiastical dogma would not be heresy in the strict sense, it could entail the sundering of the bond of faith and expulsion from the Church by the Church's anathema or excommunication.在該假說認為,實際上顯示的結論不屬於物質對象的信仰,它沒有被定義,教會是不會犯錯誤的,在確定這些真理,infallibility的教會,然而,在這些真理是一個中庸的教會theologically一定的,這能不合法被拒絕 - 雖然否認的一個教會的教條將不被異端邪說在嚴格意義上,它可能帶來的紛爭債券的信仰和驅逐從教會教會的詛咒或逐出教會。

II. II。 DIVISIONS分部

The divisions of dogma follow the lines of the divisions of faith.該師的教條,遵循線各分部的信念。 Dogmas can be (1) general or special; (2) material or formal; (3) pure or mixed; (4) symbolic or non-symbolic; (5) and they can differ according to their various degrees of necessity.的教條可以是:(1)一般或特殊;(2)材料或正規;(3)純或混合(4)符號或符號;(5),他們可以不同,根據其不同程度的必要性。

(1) General dogmas are a part of the revelation meant for mankind and transmitted from the Apostles; while special dogmas are the truths revealed in private revelations. (1)一般教條,是一個部分的啟示意義,為人類,並轉交由使徒,而特殊的教條,是真理私底下透露啟示。 Special dogmas, therefore, are not, strictly speaking, dogmas at all; they are not revealed truths transmitted from the Apostles; nor are they defined or proposed by the Church for the acceptance of the faithful generally.因此,特別教條,不,嚴格來說,教條,在所有;他們是不會透露的真理轉發從使徒,也不是界定或建議由教會,為接受的忠實。

(2) Dogmas are called material (or Divine, or dogmas in themselves, in se) when abstraction is made from their definition by the Church, when they are considered only as revealed; and they are called formal (or Catholic, or "in relation to us", quoad nos) when they are considered both as revealed and defined. (2)教條被稱為材料(或神聖的教條,或自己本身)的教會,當他們只被發現,被認為是抽象的,是從他們的定義,他們被稱為正式的(或天主教,或“關係到我們“,quoad數),當它們被認為是發現和定義。 Again, it is evident that material dogmas are not dogmas in the strict sense of the term.同樣,物質的教條,不是教條,在嚴格意義上來說,這是顯而易見的。

(3) Pure dogmas are those which can be known only from revelation, as the Trinity, Incarnation, etc.; while mixed dogmas are truths which can be known from revelation or from philosophical reasoning as the existence and attributes of God. (3)純淨的教條,是那些可以只知道從啟示,三位一體,化身等,而混合的教條,是真理,可以從已知的啟示或從哲學的道理,作為上帝的存在和屬性的。 Both classes are dogmas in the strict sense, when considered as revealed and defined.這兩個類是教條,在嚴格意義上,當發現和界定。

(4) Dogmas contained in the symbols or creeds of the Church are called symbolic; the remainder are non-symbolic. (4)中包含的符號或教義的教會的教條被稱為象徵性的,其餘都是非符號。 Hence all the articles of the Apostles' Creed are dogmas -- but not all dogmas are called technically articles of faith, though an ordinary dogma is sometimes spoken of as an article of faith.因此,所有的文章的使徒們的信條是教條 - 但不是所有的教條,是所謂技術上文章的信仰,雖然有時說成是一個普通的教條的信念。

(5) Finally, there are dogmas belief in which is absolutely necessary as a means to salvation, while faith in others is rendered necessary only by Divine precept; and some dogmas must be explicitly known and believed, while with regard to others implicit belief is sufficient. (5)最後,還有一些教條的信仰,這是絕對必要的,而信仰是別人提供的必要的,只有通過神的戒律,以及一些教條,必須明確地知道並相信,而對於另一些隱性的信念是作為一種手段來救贖就足夠了。

III. III。 OBJECTIVE CHARACTER OF DOGMATIC TRUTH; INTELLECTUAL BELIEF IN DOGMA知識產權的信仰教條客觀性質,教條式的真理;

As a dogma is a revealed truth, the intellectual character and objective reality of dogma depend on the intellectual character and objective truth of Divine revelation.作為一個教條,是一個發現真理,智慧的品格和客觀實際的教條,依賴於智力品格和客觀真理,神的啟示。 We will here apply to dogma the conclusions developed at greater length under the heading of revelation.我們將在這裡適用的教條結論,制定以大篇幅標題下的啟示。 Are dogmas considered merely as truths revealed by God, real objective truths addressed to the human mind?是教條,僅應視為真理,揭示了上帝,真正的客觀真理的人的心靈嗎? Are we bound to believe them with the mind?我們必然相信他們的心靈? Should we admit the distinction between fundamental and non-fundamental dogmas?我們應該承認基本和非基本的教條之間的區別嗎?

(1) Rationalists deny the existence of Divine supernatural revelation, and consequently of religious dogmas. (1)理性否認存在神聖的超自然的啟示,因此對宗教教條。 A certain school of mystics has taught that what Christ inaugurated in the world was "a new life".某校的神秘主義者告訴我們,什麼基督開幕,在世界上是一個“新的生命”。 The "Modernist" theory by reason of its recent condemnation calls for fuller treatment. “現代主義”的理論,因為其最近的譴責,呼籲更充分的治療。 There are different shades of opinion among Modernists.有不同意見之間的現代主義。 Some of them do not, apparently, deny all intellectual value to dogma (cf. Le Roy, "Dogme et Critique").其中一些不很明顯,否認所有智慧的價值教條(參見勒羅伊,“dogme等批判”)。 Dogma, like revelation, they say, is expressed in terms of action.教條,如啟示,他們說,是表現在行動方面。 Thus when the Son of (God is said "to have come down from heaven", according to all theologians He did not come down, as bodies descend or as angels are conceived to pass from place to place, but the hypostatic union is described in terms of action. So when we profess our faith in God the Father, we mean, according to M. Le Roy, that we have to act towards God as sons; but neither the fatherhood of God, nor the other dogmas of faith, such as the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection of Christ, etc. imply of necessity any objective intellectual conception of fatherhood, Trinity, Resurrection, etc., or convey any idea to the mind. According to other writers, God has addressed no revelation to the human mind. Revelation, they say, began as a consciousness of right and wrong -- and the evolution or development of revelation was but the progressive development of the religious sense until it reached its highest level, thus far, in the modern liberal and democratic State. Then, according to these writers, the dogmas of faith, considered as dogmas, have no meaning for the mind, we need not believe them mentally; we may reject them -- it is enough if we employ them as guides for our actions. (See MODERNISM.) Over against this doctrine the Church teaches that God has made a revelation to the human mind. There are, no doubt, relative Divine attributes, and some of the dogmas of faith may be expressed under the symbolism of action, but they also convey to the human mind a meaning distinct from action. The fatherhood of God may imply that we should act towards Him as children towards a father -- but it also conveys to the mind definite analogical conceptions of our God and Creator. And there are truths, such as the Trinity, the Resurrection of Christ, His Ascension, etc. which are absolute objective facts, and which could be believed even if their practical consequences were ignored or were deemed of little value. The dogmas of the Church, such as the existence of God, the Trinity, the Incarnation, the Resurrection of Christ, the sacraments, a future judgment, etc. have an objective reality and are facts as really and truly as it a fact that Augustus was Emperor of the Romans, and that George Washington was first President of the United States.因此,當兒子(上帝說:“是從天上降下來”,所有的神學家,他並沒有降下來,因為這些屍體降落或天使,都被設想,以通過從一個地方到另一個地方,但本質的聯盟中描述的行動。所以,當我們信奉上帝的信仰之父,我們的意思是,根據米樂羅伊說,我們必須採取行動,對上帝的兒子,但無論是做父親的神,也不是其他教條的信仰,如作為三位一體,道成肉身,基督的復活,等等意味著必然有客觀的智力觀父親,三位一體,復活等,或傳達任何想法的頭腦。據其他作家已經解決了,神沒有啟示人的心靈。啟示,他們說,開始正確的和錯誤的 - 作為一個意識的進化或發展的啟示是逐步發展的宗教意義上的,直到它達到了歷史最高水平,到目前為止,在現代社會,自由和民主國家,然後,根據這些作家的,教條的信仰,視為教條,沒有任何意義,為心,我們需要不相信他們的弱智,我們可能會拒絕他們 - 這是不夠的,如果我們聘請他們充當嚮導,為我們行動。(現代主義)。反對這種學說教會教導我們,上帝已經作了一個啟示給人類腦海裡有,毫無疑問,相對的神聖屬性,以及一些教條的信仰可能會表示,根據象徵性的行動,但他們也轉達給人類腦海裡的含義,有別於行動。父上帝可能意味著,我們應該採取行動,他為孩子爭取一個父親 - 但它也傳達了我們的上帝和造物主的心一定類比觀念。有真理,教條的教會,如三位一體,基督的復活,升天等,這些都是絕對的客觀事實,可以相信,即使他們的實際後果被忽略或被視為價值不大。如神的存在,三位一體,化身,復活的基督,聖禮,未來的判斷等有一個客觀的現實是事實,實實在在地為這一個事實是奧古斯都皇帝的入鄉隨俗,喬治華盛頓是美國第一任總統。

(2) Abstracting from the Church's definition, we are bound to render to God the homage of our assent to revealed truth once we are satisfied that He has spoken. (2)抽象從教堂的定義中,我們必將使上帝參拜的,我們贊同以發現真相後,我們對此表示滿意,他說。 Even atheists admit, hypothetically, that if there be an infinite Being distinct from the world, we should pay Him the homage of believing His Divine word.即使是無神論者承認,可以想像,如果有一個無限正有別於世界,我們應該付給他的敬意相信他的神聖的字。

(3) Hence it is not permissible to distinguish revealed truths as fundamental and non-fundamental in the sense that some truths, though known to have been revealed by God, may be lawfully denied. (3)因此,它是不容許的,以區分透露真相,因為基本和非基本的,在這個意義上說,一些真理,雖然已知有消息透露,由上帝,可合法地拒絕。 But while we should believe, at least implicitly, every truth attested by the word of God, we are free to admit that some are in themselves more important than others, more necessary than others, and that an explicit knowledge of some is necessary while an implicit faith in others is sufficient.但同時我們應該相信,至少含蓄,所有的真理都證明了神的話,我們承認,有些人本身更重要,比別人更需要比其他,一個明確的認識,有些是必要的,而隱信心別人是不夠的。

IV. IV。 DOGMA AND THE CHURCH教條和教會

Revealed truths become formally dogmas when defined or proposed by the Church.正式成為教條時,界定或建議由教會揭示的真理。 There is considerable hostility, in modern times, to dogmatic religion when considered as a body of truths defined by the Church, and still more when considered as defined by the pope.有相當多的敵意,在當今時代,教條式的宗教,認為作為一個團體的定義,由教會的真理時,更視為界定教皇。 The theory of dogma which is here expounded depends for its acceptance on the doctrine of the infallible teaching office of the Church and of the Roman pontiff.取決於犯錯教學辦公室教會和羅馬教皇的教義接受的教條,是在這裡闡述的理論。 It will be sufficient to notice the following points, (1) the reasonableness of the definition of dogma; (2) the immutability of dogma; (3) the necessity for Church unity of belief in dogma (4) the inconveniences which are alleged to be associated with the definition of dogma.這將足以注意以下幾點:(1)合理的定義的教條;(2)變通的教條;(三)有必要教會合一的信仰教條(4)不便據稱與教條的定義。

(1) Against the theory of interpretation of Scripture by private judgement, Catholics regard as absolutely unacceptable the view that God revealed a body of truths to the world and appointed no official teacher of revealed truth, no authoritative judge of controversy; this view is as unreasonable as would be the notion that the civil legislature makes laws and then commits to individual private judgment the right and the duty of interpreting the laws and deciding controversies. (1)對理論的解釋經文由私人判斷,天主教徒認為是絕對不能接受的觀點認為,上帝發現了身體的真理世界,並任命沒有正式的老師透露真相,沒有權威,法官的爭議,這種看法是作為不合理,因為將的概念,即民事立法,使法律和當時的承諾,以個體私營判斷的權利和義務的解釋法律和決定的爭議。 The Church and the supreme pontiff are endowed by God with the privilege of infallibility in discharge of the duty of universal teacher in the sphere of faith and morals; hence we have an infallible testimony that the dogmas defined and delivered to us by the Church are the truths contained in Divine revelation.教會和教宗都賦予上帝的特權i​​nfallibility在履行職責教師通用在信仰和道德領域的,所以我們有一個犯錯的證詞中,界定和交付給我們的教會的教條是真理包含在神的啟示。

(2) The dogmas of the Church are immutable. (2)教條的教會是不可改變的。 Modernists hold that religious dogmas, as such, have no intellectual meaning, that we are not bound to believe them mentally, that they may be all false, that it is sufficient if we use them a guides to action; and accordingly they teach that dogmas are not immutable, that they should be changed when the spirit of the age is opposed to them, when they lose their value as rules for a liberal religious life.現代派認為宗教教條,因此,沒有智力的意思,我們是不是必然相信他們的弱智,他們可能都是假的,它是足夠的,如果我們使用他們的行動指南,因此,他們教導教條是不是一成不變的,應該改變的時候,他們的精神是反對他們的年齡,當他們失去了自己的價值,作為一個自由的宗教生活的規則。 But in the Catholic doctrine that Divine revelation is addressed to the human mind and expresses real objective truth, dogmas are immutable Divine truths.但是,在天主教教義,神的啟示是人的心靈,並表示真正的客觀真理,教條,是不可改變的神聖真理。 It is an immutable truth for all time that Augustus was Emperor of Rome and George Washington first President of the United States.這是一個永恆不變的真理,是奧古斯都皇帝的羅馬和美國第一任總統喬治·華盛頓的所有時間。 So according to Catholic belief, these are and will be for all time immutable truths -- that there are three Persons in God, that Christ died for us, that He arose from the dead, that He founded the Church, that He instituted the sacraments.因此,根據天主教的信仰,這是將所有的時間永恆不變的真理 - 有3人在上帝,基督為我們死,叫他從死裡復活,他創立的教會,即他提起聖禮。 We may distinguish between the truths themselves and the language in which they are expressed.我們可以區分真理本身和語言,他們都表達。 The full meaning of certain revealed truths has been only gradually brought out; the truths will always remain.全部含義的某些揭示的真理,已逐漸帶出的真理將永遠留。 Language may change or may receive a new meaning; but we can always learn what meaning was attached to particular words in the past.語言可能會改變或可能收到了新的含義,但我們總能學到什麼意思是重視的話,尤其是在過去。

(3) We are bound to believe revealed truths irrespective of their definition by the Church, if we are satisfied that God has revealed them. (3)我們必然相信,揭示了真理,不論其定義,由教會,如果我們確信上帝揭示了他們。 When they are proposed or defined by the Church, and thus become dogmas, we are bound to believe them in order to maintain the bond of faith.當他們提出或由教會的定義,並因此成為教條,我們一定要相信他們,以保持債券的信心。 (See HERESY). (異端)。

(4) Finally, Catholics do not admit that, as is sometimes alleged, dogmas are the arbitrary creations of ecclesiastical authority, that they are multiplied at will, that they are devices for keeping the ignorant in subjection, that they are obstacles to conversions. (4)最後,天主教不承認這一點,因為有時據稱,教條,是任意創作的教會的權威,他們是在成倍的意志,他們是設備保持在無知的屈從,他們是障礙轉換。 Some of these are points of controversy which cannot be settled without reference to more fundamental questions.其中有一些是更為根本性的問題沒有參考點的爭議,無法得到解決。 Dogmatic definitions would be arbitrary if there were no Divinely instituted infallible teaching office in the Church; but if, as Catholics maintain, God has established in His Church an infallible office, dogmatic definitions cannot be considered arbitrary.如果沒有神提起犯錯教學辦公室在教會教條式的定義是任意的,但是,如果作為天主教徒維持,上帝已經在他的教會建立一個犯錯的辦公室,教條式的定義不能被認為是任意的。 The same Divine Providence which preserves the Church from error will preserve her from inordinate multiplication of dogmas.同樣是神聖的,其中保存著從教堂誤差會保留她的從過多乘法的教條。 She cannot define arbitrarily.她不能任意定義。 We need only observe the life of the Church or of the Roman pontiffs to see that dogmas are not multiplied inordinately.我們只需要遵守教會生活或羅馬教宗看到的教條,是不是乘以不相稱。 And as dogmatic definitions are but the authentic interpretation and declaration of the meaning of Divine revelation, they cannot be considered devices for keeping the ignorant in subjection, or reasonable obstacles to conversions, on the contrary, the authoritative definition of truth and condemnation of error, are powerful arguments leading to the Church those who seek the truth earnestly.作為教條式的定義是,但在真實的解釋和聲明的神聖啟示的意義,他們不能被認為是保持無知的隸屬,或無合理障礙轉換設備,與此相反,在權威的定義,真理和譴責的錯誤,是導致教會那些尋求真理的人切實有力的論據。

V. DOGMA AND RELIGION五,教條和宗教

It is sometimes charged that in the Catholic Church, in consequence of its dogmas, religious life consists merely in speculative beliefs and external sacramental formalities.它有時被充電,在天主教教會,由於它的教條,宗教生活的,只是在投機性的信仰和外部聖手續。 It is a strange charge, arising from prejudice or from lack of acquaintance with Catholic life.這是一個奇怪的電荷,所產生的偏見或缺乏熟人與天主教的生活。 Religious life in conventual and monastic establishments is surely not a merely external formality.宗教生活在修道院和寺院的機構肯定不是僅僅是外部的手續。 The external religious exercises of the ordinary Catholic layman, such as public prayer, confession, Holy Communion, etc. suppose careful and serious internal self-examination and self-regulation, and various other acts of internal religion.普通天主教門外漢,如公共祈禱,懺悔,聖餐等外來宗教演習想詳細而認真地內部的自我檢查和自我調節,和其他各種行為的內部宗教。 We need only to observe the public civic life of Catholics, their philanthropic works, their schools, hospitals, orphanages, charitable organizations, to be convinced that dogmatic religion does not degenerate into mere external formalities.我們只需要體察民意公民生活的天主教徒,他們的慈善工作,學校,醫院,孤兒院,慈善組織,要相信,教條式的宗教,並不墮落成僅僅是外部手續。 On the contrary, in non-Catholic Christian bodies a general decay of supernatural Christian life follows the dissolution of dogmatic religion.相反,在非天主教的基督教團體一般衰變超自然基督徒生活的情況如下解散教條式的宗教。 Were the dogmatic system of the Catholic Church, with its authoritative infallible head, done away with, the various systems of private judgment would not save the world from relapsing into and following pagan ideals.天主教教會的教條式的系統,其權威性不會犯錯誤的頭,掉的,各個系統的私人判斷不會拯救世界免於陷入及以下異教的理想。 Dogmatic belief is not the be-all and end-all of Catholic life; but the Catholic serves God, honours the Trinity, loves Christ, obeys the Church, frequents the sacraments, assists at Mass, observes the Commandments, because he believes mentally in God, in the Trinity, in the Divinity of Christ, in the Church, in the sacraments and the Sacrifice of the Mass, in the duty of keeping the Commandments, and he believes in them as objective immutable truths.教條式的信念是不是被全部和最終所有的天主教生活,但天主教會服務於上帝,榮譽三位一體,熱愛基督,服從教會,流連於聖禮,助攻群眾,體察誡命,因為他相信,在弱智神,三位一體,基督的神,在教會中的聖禮和犧牲的群眾,在保持誡命的責任,他相信在他們為目標永恆不變的真理。

VI. VI。 DOGMA AND SCIENCE教條和科學

But, it is objected, dogma checks investigation, antagonizes independence of thought, and makes scientific theology impossible.但是,它反對意見,教條檢查,調查,拮抗獨立的思考,並作出科學的神學是不可能的。 This difficulty may be supposed to be put by Protestants or by unbelievers.這種困難可能是應該把新教徒或由不信。 We will consider it from both points of view.我們將考慮從兩種觀點。

(1) Beyond scientific investigation and freedom of thought Catholics recognize the guiding influence of dogmatic beliefs. (1)超出科學調查和思想自由的天主教徒承認指導的影響,教條的信仰。 But Protestants also profess to adhere to certain great dogmatic truths which are supposed to impede scientific investigation and to conflict with the findings of modern science.但新教徒還聲言要堅持某些教條式的偉大真理,這是阻礙科學考察,並與現代科學的調查結果相衝突。 Old difficulties against the existence of God or its demonstrability, against the dogma of Creation, miracles, the human soul, and supernatural religion have been dressed in a new garb and urged by a modern school of scientists principally from the discoveries in geology, paleontology, biology, astronomy, comparative anatomy, and physiology.舊的困難,針對存在的上帝或其demonstrability的,反對教條的創作,創造奇蹟,人的靈魂,和超自然的宗教一直穿著一個新的外衣,並敦促主要來自現代學校的科學家發現,在地質學,古生物學,生物學,天文學,比較解剖學和生理學。 But Protestants, no less than Catholics, profess to believe in God, in the Creation, in the soul, in the Incarnation, in the possibility of miracles; they too, maintain that there can be no discord between the true conclusions of science and the dogmas of the Christian religion rightly understood.但是,新教徒,不低於天主教徒,自稱相信上帝,在創造中,在靈魂的化身,在有可能創造奇蹟,他們也認為,不可能有任何齟齬,真實的結論​​的科學性和正確地理解基督宗教的教條。 Protestants, therefore, cannot consistently complain that Catholic dogmas impede scientific investigation.新教徒,因此,不能始終抱怨說,天主教教條,妨礙了科學的調查。 But it is urged that in the Catholic system beliefs are not determined by private judgment, behind the dogmas of the Church there is the living bulwark of her episcopate.但它主張,在天主教系統的信念不取決於私人的判斷,後面的教條的教會生活的堡壘,她的主教。 True, behind dogmatic beliefs Catholics recognize ecclesiastical authority; but this puts no further restraint on intellectual freedom -- it only raises the question as to the constitution of the Church.誠然,落後教條的信仰天主教徒承認教會的權力,但是這將不會再克制,對知識自由 - 它只是提出了問題的教會的憲法。 Catholics do not believe that God revealed a body of truths to mankind and appointed no living authority to unfold, to teach, to safeguard that body of Divine truths, to decide controversies; but the authority of the episcopate under the supreme pontiff to control intellectual activity is correlative with, and arises from their authority to teach supernatural truth.天主教徒不相信上帝的真理,為人類暴露了身體,並任命沒有住權力,以一種方興未艾的教導,為了維護該機構的神聖​​真理,以決定爭議,但根據最高人民法院的教宗的主教的權威,以控制智力活動是相關的,來自於他們的權力,教導超自然的真理。 The existence of judges and magistrates does not extend the range of our civil laws -- they are rather a living authority to interpret and apply the laws.法官和治安法官的存在,並沒有擴大範圍,我們的民事法律 - 他們,而不是謀生有權解釋和適用的法律。 Similarly, episcopal authority has for its range the truth of revelation, and it prohibits only what is inconsistent with the full scope of that truth.同樣地,主教管理局已為它的射程真理的啟示,並禁止任何人只有什麼是不相符的全部範圍,真理。

(2) In discussing the question with unbelievers we note that science is "the observation and classification, or co-ordination, of the individual facts or phenomena of nature". (2)在討論的問題,不信我們注意到,科學是“觀察和分類,或協調,個別事實或現象的性質”。 Now a Catholic is absolutely free in the prosecution of scientific research according to the terms of this definition.現在是一名天主教徒是完全免費的,在起訴的科研根據這個定義的條款。 There is no prohibition or restriction on Catholics in regard to the observation and co-ordination of the phenomena of Nature.有沒有禁止或限制對天主教徒關於自然現象的觀察和協調。 But some scientists do not confine themselves to science as defined by themselves.但也有科學家不局限於自己的科學界定自己。 They propound theories often unwarranted by experimental observation.他們針對性地提出理論常常無端通過實驗觀察。 One will maintain as a "scientific" truth that there is no God, or that His existence is unknowable -- another that the world has not been created; another will deny in the name of "science" the existence of the soul; another, the possibility of supernatural revelation.一,將保持為“科學”的真理,有沒有上帝,或者說他的存在是不可知的 - 另一個世界還沒有被創建,另一個會否認,在“科學”的存在,靈魂的名稱,另一個,可能性超自然的啟示。 Surely these denials are not warranted by scientific methods.當然,這些否認不保證其科學的方法。 Catholic dogma and ecclesiastical authority limit intellectual activity only so far as may be necessary for safeguarding the truths of revelation.天主教的教義和教會的權力限制智力活動只有這樣,就可能有必要為維護真理的啟示。 If non-believing scientists in their study of Catholicism would apply the scientific method, which consists in observing, comparing, making hypotheses, and perhaps formulating scientific conclusions, they would readily see that dogmatic belief in no way interferes with the legitimate freedom of the Catholic in scientific research, the discharge of civic duty, or any other form of activity that makes for true enlightenment and progress.如果不相信,科學家們在他們的研究中的天主教會,運用科學的方法,其中包括在觀察,比較,作出假設,或許是制定科學的結論,他們會很容易地看到,教條式的信念,絕不會干擾合法的自由的天主教在科研,履行公民義務,或任何其他形式的活動,使真正的啟蒙和進步。 The service rendered by Catholics in every department of learning and of social endeavour, is a fact which no amount of theorizing against dogma can set aside.天主教徒在各部門的學習和社會事業所提供的服務,是一個事實,再多的反對教條的理論可以設置預留。 (See FAITH, INFALLIBILITY, REVELATION, SCIENCE, TRUTH.) (見信心,絕對正確,啟示,科學性,真實性。)

Publication information Written by Daniel Coghlan.出版信息的書面由丹尼爾·科格倫。 Transcribed by Gerard Haffner.轉錄由杰拉德·哈夫納。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909.天主教百科全書,體積五發布1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年5月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
Acta et Decreta Concilii Vaticani in Coll.梵蒂岡在科爾等Decreta Concilii文獻。 Lac.紫膠。 (Freiburg im Br., 1870-90), VII; SUAREZ, Opera Omnia: De Fide Theologicâ; DE LUGO, Pera: De fide; VACANT, Etudes th&eaccute;ologiques sur les constitutions du concile du Vatican (Paris, 1895); GRANDERATH, Constitutiones dogmaticae Sacrosancti Ecumenici Concilii Vaticani ex ipsis ejus actis explicatae atque illustratae (Freiburg im Br., 1892); SCHEEBEN, Handbuch der katholischen Dogmatik (Freiburg im Br., 1873); SCHWANE, Dogmengeschichte (2nd ed., Freiburg, 1895); MAZZELLA, De Virtutibus Infusis (Rome, 1884); BILLOT, Tractatus de Ecclesiâ Christi (Rome, 1903); IDEM, De Virtutibus Infusis (Rome, 1905); NEWMAN, Idea of a University (London, 1899). (佛萊一二。,1870至1890年),VII; SUAREZ,歌劇的Omnia:善意神學DE LUGO,佩拉:真誠;空置,練習曲日&eaccute; ologiques SUR LES憲法杜concile杜梵蒂岡(巴黎,1895年); GRANDERATH Constitutiones dogmaticae Sacrosancti Ecumenici Concilii梵蒂岡前ipsis ejus英聯explicatae atque illustratae(佛萊BR,1892年); SCHEEBEN,handbuch明鏡katholischen刑法信條學(佛萊BR,1873年); SCHWANE,Dogmengeschichte(第2版,弗賴堡,1895年) MAZZELLA,Virtutibus Infusis(羅馬,1884年); BILLOT,邏輯哲學論的教會基督(羅馬,1903年);同上,德Virtutibus Infusis(羅馬,1905年); NEWMAN,理念的一所大學(倫敦,1899年)。


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