Christian Fish Symbol基督教魚象徵

General Information 一般資料

The plethora of symbols and attributes used by the Romans contrasted sharply to the few, simple images used by the early Christians, who had to be circumspect in the face of religious persecution.過多的符號和屬性所使用入鄉隨俗鮮明對比的一些簡單的圖像由早期的基督徒,他們都必須小心謹慎,在面對宗教迫害。 On sacramental cups, seals, and lamps the Holy Spirit was symbolized by a dove and Christ by a fish (perhaps because at the time fish was one of the elements of the sacred meal) or by a shepherd carrying a sheep on his shoulders (from Luke 15:3-7).在聖禮杯,密封件,燈具聖靈,是象徵著一個鴿派和基督的一條魚(也許是因為在當時的魚類之一的元素是神聖餐),或由一個牧羊人攜帶綿羊在他的肩膀上(從路加福音15:3-7)。 The Savior was also represented by a monogram formed by combining the Greek letters chi and rho (XP), the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ.救世主,也表示希臘字母志和rho(XP)的前兩個字母的希臘字為基督相結合,形成了一個會標。

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That monogram is also similar to the first Greek letters of the word fish.這會標也相似,第一個希臘字母的單詞魚。

Editor's Note: I heard an interesting speculation regarding this subject, but one which has no confirmation and probably no possible confirmation.編者按:我聽到一個有趣的猜測就這個問題,但並沒有確認,可能沒有可能確認。 The claim starts with the observation that when two strangers would meet, neither really knew if the other was a Christian or someone who might turn them in to the Roman soldiers to be immediately killed.索賠的觀察,開始時被兩名陌生滿足,也真正知道如果對方是一個基督徒或某人誰可能使他們的羅馬士兵當即死亡。 And so either one might rather casually use their toe to fidget around, not drawing any special attention from any Romans who might be nearby.因此,任何一個可能,而不是隨便使用自己的腳趾坐立不安左右,沒有作出任何特別注意從任何入鄉隨俗,可能是附近的人。 A person might then easily draw out the simple outline of a fish in the dust or dirt.一個人可以那麼容易地繪製出簡單的輪廓是一條魚在灰塵或污垢。 If the other person was NOT a Christian, they would not know what that meant and would simply attribute it to doodling.如果其他人是不是一個基督徒,他們不知道那是什麼意思,它會簡單地歸結到塗鴉。 However, if the other person WAS a Christian, then the message would be passed.但是,如果其他人是一個基督徒,那麼消息將被傳遞。 This seems credible because it seems one of the few possible reasonably safe ways to find out if others were Christians or not, in an environment where all Christians were expected to be killed as enemies.這似乎是可信的,因為它似乎是一個幾個可能的合理安全的方式找到了,如果其他人都是基督徒與否,在一個環境下,所有的基督徒都被殺死敵人。


Symbolism of the Fish象徵意義魚

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish ranks probably first in importance.其中符號所僱用的原始基督徒,魚的行列,可能首先在重要的。 While the use of the fish in pagan art as a purely decorative sign is ancient and constant, the earliest literary reference to the symbolic fish is made by Clement of Alexandria, born about 150, who recommends his readers (Paedagogus, III, xi) to have their seals engraved with a dove or a fish.雖然使用的魚在異教的藝術品作為純粹的裝飾性標誌,是古代和不斷的,最早的文學參考,以象徵性的魚類是由克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞,出生約150人,建議他的讀者(Paedagogus,三,十一)有其印章上刻有一隻鴿子或魚。 Clement did not consider it necessary to give any reason for this recommendation, from which it may be safely be inferred that the meaning of both symbols was unnecessary.克萊門特認為沒有必要給予任何理由為這一建議,它可以安全地推斷出兩個符號的意思是不必要的。 Indeed, from monumental sources we know that the symbolic fish was familiar to Christians long before the famous Alexandrian was born; in such Roman monuments as the Capella Greca and the Sacrament Chapels of the catacomb of St. Callistus, the fish was depicted as a symbol in the first decades of the second century.事實上,從不朽的來源,我們知道,象徵性魚類熟悉的基督徒,在著名的亞歷山大出生嘉佩樂Greca和的聖禮教堂的地下墓穴聖卡利斯圖斯在這樣的羅馬古蹟,魚被描繪成為一個象徵在第一個十年的第二個世紀。

The symbol itself may have been suggested by the miraculous multiplication of the loaves and fishes or the repast of the seven Disciples, after the Resurrection, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee (John 21:9), but its popularity among Christians was due principally, it would seem, to the famous acrostic consisting of the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish (Ichthys), which words briefly but clearly described the character of Christ and His claim to the worship of believers: Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter, ie Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour.符號本身可能已經提議由神奇的乘法的麵包和魚或repast的七個弟子,復活之後,在岸上的海加利利(約翰福音21:9),但其受歡迎的基督徒,是由於主要是,它似乎,著名的acrostic五個希臘字組成詞魚(Ichthys),其中字簡略的首字母組成的,但清楚地描述了基督的品格和他自稱崇拜的信徒:iesous克里斯托theou yios SOTER的,即耶穌基督,上帝,救世主的兒子。 (See the discourse of Emperor Constantine, "Ad coetum Sanctorum" c. xviii.) It is not improbable that this Christian formula originated in Alexandria, and was intended as a protest against the pagan apotheosis of the emperors; on a coin from Alexandria of the reign of Domitian (81-96) this emperor is styled Theou Yios (Son of God). (見話語皇帝君士坦丁,“廣告coetum sanctorum”長十八)。它不是琢磨這個公式基督教起源於亞歷山大,並打算作為抗議,對異教的典範皇帝;一枚硬幣,從亞歷山德里亞多米提安的統治(81-96),這的皇帝是施展theou Yios(上帝的兒子)。

The word Ichthys, then, as well as the representation of a fish, held for Christians a meaning of the highest significance; it was a brief profession of faith in the divinity of Christ, the Redeemer of mankind.的字ichthys,然後,還有一條魚,舉行基督徒意思的最高意義的代表性;它是一個簡短界的信仰基督的神性,人類的救贖。 Believers in this mystic Ichthys were themselves "little fishes", according to the well-known passage of Tertullian (De baptismo, c. 1): "we, little fishes, after the image of our Ichthys, Jesus Christ, are born in the water".信徒的在這神秘ichthys的“小魚”,根據著名的通過良(德baptismo,1):“我們小的魚後,我們ichthys,耶穌基督的形象,是出生在水“。

The association of the Ichthys with the Eucharist is strongly emphasized in the epitaph of Abercius, the second century Bishop of Hierapolis in Phrygia, and in the somewhat later epitaph of Pectorius of Autun.該協會的ichthys與聖體聖事是極力強調在墓誌銘的Abercius,第二個世紀的主教希拉波利斯在Phrygia,並在晚些時候Autun的pectorius的墓誌銘。 Abercius tells us on the aforesaid monument that in his journey from his Asiatic home to Rome, everywhere on the way he received as food "the Fish from the spring, the great, the pure", as well as "wine mixed with water, together with bread". Abercius告訴我們,在他的旅途從他的亞洲家裡羅馬,到處是路,他所收到的食品,就上述豐碑“的魚從春天,偉大的,純粹的”,以及“酒與水混合,一起與麵包“。 Pectorius also speaks of the Fish as a delicious spiritual nurture supplied by the "Saviour of the Saints". pectorius中還談到了魚類作為一個美味的精神培育的“救世主的聖人”。 In the Eucharistic monuments this idea is expressed repeatedly in the pictorial form; the food before the banqueters is invariably bread and fish on two separate dishes.在聖體聖事的紀念碑,這個想法是在圖案的形式反复表達的的食物前banqueters,是在兩個不同的菜總是麵包和魚。 The peculiar significance attached to the fish in this relation is well brought out in such early frescoes as the Fractio Panis scene in the cemetery of St. Priscilla, and the fishes on the grass, in closest proximity to the baskets containing bread and wine, in the crypt of Lucina.魚的這種關係的特殊意義以及帶來的這種早期的壁畫在墓地的聖priscilla fractio潘尼斯現場,和魚放在基層,在最接近籃子載有麵包和葡萄酒,藍瓊纓的土窖。 (See SYMBOLISM OF THE EUCHARIST.) (見象徵的聖體聖事的。)

The fish symbol was not, however, represented exclusively with symbols of the Eucharist; quite frequently it is found associated with such other symbols as the dove, the anchor, and the monogram of Christ. ,但是,魚象徵,是專為代表符號的聖體聖事相當頻繁,它是發現了與此類其他符號作為鴿派,錨,並基督的會標。 The monuments, too, on which it appears, from the first to the fourth century, include frescoes, sculptured representations, rings, seals, gilded glasses, as well as enkolpia of various materials.古蹟,也對其中出現的,從第一到第四個世紀,包括壁畫,雕塑交涉,戒指,密封件,鍍金眼鏡,以及enkolpia的各種材料。 The type of fish depicted calls for no special observation, save that, from the second century, the form of the dolphin was frequently employed.類型的魚描繪的呼籲並沒有特別的觀察,挽救說,從公元二世紀,形式海豚經常被聘用。 The reason for this particular selection is presumed to be the fact that, in popular esteem, the dolphin was regarded as friendly to man.這個特殊的選擇的原因被推定的事實是,在流行的自尊心,海豚被視為對人友好。

Besides the Eucharistic frescoes of the catacombs a considerable number of objects containing the fish-symbol are preserved in various European museums, one of the most interesting, because of the grouping of the fish with several other symbols, being a carved gem in the Kircherian Museum in Rome.除了聖體聖事的壁畫的窟對象包含了相當數量的魚象徵被保留在歐洲各博物館,其中最有趣的,因為該集團的魚和其他幾個符號,是一個創業板刻在kircherian博物館在羅馬舉行。 On the left is a T-form anchor, with two fishes beneath the crossbar, while next in order are a T-form cross with a dove on the crossbar and a sheep at the foot, another T-cross as the mast of a ship, and the good shepherd carrying on His shoulders the strayed sheep.在左邊的是一個T型錨,有兩個魚下了橫梁,而未來在治安是一個T形交叉與鴿派對橫梁和羊腳,另一個T-交叉作為桅杆的船,和良好的牧羊人攜帶他的肩膀上迷路的羊。 In addition to these symbols the five letters of the word Ichthys are distributed round the border.除了這些符號的五個英文字母的字ichthys的分佈一輪的邊界。 Another ancient carved gem represents a ship supported by a fish, with doves perched on the mast and stern, and Christ on the waters rescuing St. Peter.另一種古代刻寶石表示支持的一條魚,鴿子棲息在桅杆和斯特恩,和基督的水域挽救聖彼得船舶。

After the fourth century the symbolism of the fish gradually disappeared; representations of fishes on baptismal fonts and on bronze baptismal cups like those found at Rome and Trier, now in the Kircherian Museum, are merely of an ornamental character, suggested, probably by the water used in baptism.後四世紀的象徵意義魚逐漸消失;表示魚類的洗禮字體和對青銅聖洗杯子像那些被發現在羅馬和特里爾,現在在kircherian博物館,僅僅是一種裝飾性的性格,建議,可能是由水在洗禮使用。

Publication information Written by Maurice M. Hassett.出版信息作者莫里斯·M.哈西特。 Transcribed by Mary and Joseph P. Thomas.轉錄由托馬斯馬利亞和約瑟。 In memory of Elizabeth Kunneth The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VI.在內存中的伊麗莎白Kunneth的天主教百科全書,第六卷。 Published 1909.發布時間1909年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, September 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat,1909年9月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約



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