Hebron希伯倫

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

1. 1。

A city of Asher, properly "Ebron"; called also Abdon.舍,正常“Ebron”的一個城市,也稱為亞比頓。

2. 2。

A town in Palestine, about 17 miles southwest of Jerusalem; it has a population of 14,000, including 1,100 Jews—690 Sephardim and 410 Ashkenazim.一個鎮在巴勒斯坦,耶路撒冷西南約17公里,它有一個人口為14,000人,其中1,100猶太人-690 Sephardim和410德系猶太人。 In 1890 there was a Jewish population of 1,490, but it has been diminishing.在1890年有一個猶太人人口1,490,但它已被削弱。 Most of the Jews still live in a ghetto surrounded by walls, and known in Spanish as "El Cortijo" (the court).大多數猶太人仍然生活在貧民窟,四周的牆壁,並稱為“厄爾尼諾Cortijo酒店”(法院)在西班牙語中。 It consists of a maze of narrow and dark passages, into which the doorways open at distances of not more than three feet.它由一個迷宮般的狹窄,黑暗的通道,在其中的門道開在距離不超過3英尺。 In ancient times Hebron was known as "Kirjath-arba," after its reputed founder, Arba, father of the Anakim (Josh. xiv. 15, xxi. 11).But according to modern exegetes the name is equivalent to the "city of the four."希伯崙在古代被稱為“基列耶琳 - 阿爾巴,”後其知名的創始人,亞巴,亞衲族人的父親(15約書亞記十四,二十一11),但根據現代解經家的名稱是“城市四。“ The patriarch Abraham resided at Hebron (Gen. xiii. 18, xiv. 13, xviii. 1, xxiii. 2), and purchased a cave known as the "Double Cave," where Sarah was buried.族長亞伯拉罕居住在希伯倫(創十三18,十四13,十八,二十三,二),並購買了一個山洞裡被稱為“雙窟”,莎拉被埋葬的地方。 Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Leah were afterward buried there (see Machpelah).亞伯拉罕,以撒,雅各與利亞,後來葬在那裡(見麥比拉)。 Jacob went from Hebron to Egypt (Gen. xxxvii. 14, xlvi. 1); the spies visited the city (Num. xiii. 22).雅各就從希伯倫(Hebron)埃及(創三十七,四十六14。1);間諜走訪了市區(民十三22)。 In the time of Joshua, Hoham, King of Hebron, was captured there and put to death by the Israelites.在約書亞的時候,被抓住了,希伯崙王何咸,那裡的以色列人把他治死。 Hebron and its territory were at first given to Caleb (Josh. xiv. 6 et seq. , xv. 13; Judges i. 20), and then to the Levites of the family of Kohath; it ultimately became one of the six cities of refuge (Josh. xx. 7).希伯倫和領土第一迦勒(約書亞記十四,十五六等以下 13;法官:我20),然後利未人哥轄的家庭,它最終成為了其中的六個城市的避難所(約書亞記XX。7)。 David lived there until the conquest of Jerusalem, and was there anointed as king (II Sam. ii. 1, 11; iii. 2 et seq. ; v. 1 et seq. ).大衛住在這裡,直到征服耶路撒冷,並在那裡膏立為王(二山姆。二,1,11,三,2 起。1起)。 Absalom's revolt began there (II Sam. xv. 9 et seq. ); Rehoboam fortified the city (II Chron. xi. 10).押沙龍的叛亂開始(二山姆。十五。9 起。);羅波安強化城市(二專欄。十一10)。

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Hebron was one of the towns which possessed a Jewish community after the return from Babylon (Neh. xi. 25), but the Idumeans appear to have afterward acquired it, since they were expelled by Judas Maccabeus (I Macc. v. 65).希伯倫是返回後從巴比倫(尼十一25)鎮擁有一個猶太人社區之一,,但Idumeans之後似乎已經收購了它,因為他們被驅逐出猶大馬加比(I排雷。第65)。 Occupied by the Romans, it was taken by Simon, son of Gioras, one of the leaders of the insurrection; but the Roman general Cerealis retook it by storm, killed the garrison, and burned the city (Munk, "La Palestine," p. 57).被羅馬人佔領,它採取的Gioras的起義的領導者之一的兒子西門,但羅馬將軍禾谷再拿風暴,殺了駐軍,並燒毀了這座城市(芒克,“香格里拉巴勒斯坦,”P 57頁)。 Jews did not inhabit Hebron after the destruction of the Temple, nor under the Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, or Crusaders.猶太人不居住在希伯倫的聖殿被毀後,也根據羅馬人,拜占庭人,阿拉伯人,或十字軍。 Benjamin of Tudela found only a single Jew (1171) at St. Abraham, as Hebronwas called by the Crusaders.本傑明的圖德拉發現只有一個猶太人(1171)在聖亞伯拉罕,Hebronwas稱為十字軍。 He asserts, however, that the Church of St. Abraham had been a synagogue under the Turkish rule.他斷言,但是,教會的聖亞伯拉罕曾在土耳其統治下的一個猶太教堂。 Forty years later R. Samuel bar Shimshon, who explored Palestine in 1209, makes no mention of Jews in Hebron. 40年後,R.塞繆爾酒吧Shimshon,探討巴勒斯坦於1209年,並沒有提及在希伯倫的猶太人。

The Modern Community.現代社區。

Local tradition attributes the foundation of the modern community to Malkiel Ashkenazi (1450?), in whose honor a service is held every year on the anniversary of his death.當地的傳統屬性的現代社會的基礎,德系馬爾基爾(1450),在榮譽的服務,每年都舉辦的週年紀念他的死亡。 (Azulai, "Shem ha-Gedolim," p. 88). (Azulai,“閃HA-Gedolim”第88頁)。 Fifty years afterward, however, it was difficult to form a "minyan" (quorum).然而,50年之後,它很難形成一個“民諺”(定額)。 The following were chief rabbis of Hebron: Israel Ẓebi (1701-31); Abraham Castel (1757); Aaron Alfandari (1772); Mordecai Ruvio ( c. 1785); David Melamed ( c. 1789); Eliakim (end of 18th cent.); Ḥayyim ha-Levi Polacco ( c. 1840); Hai Cohen (1847-52); Moses Pereira (1852-64); Elia Sli-.以下為首席拉比希伯倫的以色列澤比(1701至1731年),亞伯拉罕·卡斯特(1757)亞倫Alfandari(1772);,末底改Ruvio( 1785);大衛·梅拉梅德( 1789年)以利亞(完18仙。)伊姆公頃-利維Polacco所著( 1840年)的海·科恩(1847年至1852年),摩西·佩雷拉(1852年至1864年),埃利亞SLI。 man Mani(1864-78); Raḥamim Joseph Franco (1878-1901); Hezekiah Medini (former chief rabbi of Karasu-Bazar in the Crimea; known as the "Ḥakam Bashi Wakili"; acting chief rabbi since 1901).男子瑪尼(1864年至1878年);拉哈明約瑟夫·佛朗哥(1878年至19​​01年);,希西家Medini(卡拉蘇 - 扎爾前首席拉比在克里米亞被稱為“Hakam的巴士Wakili”;署理首席拉比自1901年以來)。

Hebron possesses four synagogues within the ghetto and four batte ha-midrash without.希伯倫擁有4個猶太教堂在貧民窟和充電電池HA-米德拉士沒有。 The oldest synagogue, that of Abraham Abinu, is supposed to date back three centuries.最古老的猶太教堂,即的亞伯拉罕Abinu,應該可以追溯到三個世紀。 It was restored in 1738 and enlarged in 1864.它被恢復了在1738年和1864年擴大了。 The others are Keneset Eliyyah Mani (like the former, Sephardic), and two Ashkenazic.其他Keneset Eliyyah摩尼(像前,塞法迪),和兩個德裔。 There are three yeshibot, the oldest having been founded by Israel Ẓebi (d. 1731); the second was formed by the union of four older yeshibot.有是3 yeshibot的,最古老的成立了由:以色列澤比(卒於1731年);第二是形成由四個老yeshibot工會。 It possesses the library of Vivas, a native of Leghorn, and is very rich in Spanish works.它擁有圖書館的維瓦斯,一個土生土長的裡窩那,並在西班牙作品是非常豐富的。 Hebron possesses four Talmud Torahs for Sephardim and one for Ashkenazim.希伯倫擁有的四個的猶太法典Torahs為Sephardim和為德​​系猶太人之一。 There are three mutual-aid societies and a free dispensary.有三個互助的社會和自由藥房。 The Sephardic community is administered by the chief rabbiand a council of seven members; the Ashkenazic by the chief rabbi and a council of three. Sephardic社區的管理工作由行政rabbiand一個委員會七名成員的德裔的首席拉比理事會3。 Most of the Jews are supported by the "ḥaluḳḳah," but there are a few carpenters and shoemakers.大部分的猶太人都支持“ḥaluḳḳah,”但有幾個木匠,鞋匠。 Among the antiquities are the Double Cave, revered by the Mohammedans; the ruins of Abraham's house; the tombs of Gad, Nathan the prophet, Abner (David's commander-in-chief), and others.其中的文物是雙洞,崇敬的伊斯蘭教亞伯拉罕的房子的廢墟中,迦得,彌敦道的墳墓先知,押尼珥(大衛的統帥),等等。 The modern name of the town is Al-Khalil (lit. "the friend" [ ie , of God], a name by which Abraham was known; comp. Isa. xli. 8).現代名鎮哈利勒(文獻“朋友”[ 上帝],被稱為亞伯拉罕的名稱;賽。四十一8)。

Numerous rabbinical authors have lived at Hebron, including Elijah de Vidas (1525), author of "Reshit Ḥokmah"; Solomon Edni (1622), author of "Meleket Shelomoh"; Moses ha-Levi (1668), author of "Yede Mosheh"; Israel Ẓebi (1731), author of "Urim Gedolim"; Abraham Conque (1740), author of "Abaḳ Derakim"; Ḥayyim Abraham Israel Ẓebi (1776), author of "Be'er Mayim Ḥayyim"; Aaron Alfandari (1772), author of "Yad Aharon" and "Merkebet ha-Mishneh"; Mordecai Ruvio (1785), author of "Shemen ha-Mor"; Judah Divan (1792), author of "Zibḥe Shelamim"; Elijah Sliman Mani (d. 1878), author of "Kisse Eliyahu"; Raḥamim Joseph Franco (d. 1901), author of "Sha'are Raḥamim"; Hezekiah Medini, author of "Sedeh Ḥemed."許多猶太教作家都住在希伯倫,包括以利亞德Vidas(1525),的作者“Reshit的Ḥokmah”;所羅門EDNI(1622年),的作者“Meleket Shelomoh”;摩西公頃 - 利維(1668),作者的“門Mosheh噎得” :以色列澤比(1731年),“烏陵Gedolim”的作者,:亞伯拉罕Conque(1740),作者的“AbaḳDerakim”伊姆亞伯拉罕·:以色列澤比(1776年),作者的“隔斷MayimḤayyim”亞倫Alfandari(1772) ,作者的“亞得阿哈龍”和“Merkebet公頃事審判”;:末底改Ruvio(1785),“Shemen HA-MOR”的作者;猶大合集(1792年),作者的“ZibḥeShelamim”;:以利亞Sliman瑪尼(卒於1878年),作者的“Kisse埃利亞胡”;拉哈明約瑟夫·佛朗哥(卒於1901年),作者“Sha'areRaḥamim”希西家Medini,作者“SedehḤemed。”

Bibliography 參考書目
Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim ; Azulai,: 閃HA-Gedolim;
Hazan, Ha-Ma'alot li-Shelomoh , Alexandria, 1889;哈杉,的哈Ma'alot李Shelomoh,亞歷山大,1889年;
S. Munk, La Palestine , Paris; S.芒克, 位於巴勒斯坦 ,巴黎;
Benjamin II., Acht Jahre in Asien und Afrika ;本傑明II,的阿赫特雅雷在Asien和AFRIKA;
Abraham Ḥayyim Penso, Minḥat Ḳena'ot , Jerusalem, 1879;亞伯拉罕·伊姆本所家庭式酒店,耶路撒冷,1879年,MinḥatḲena'ot;
Luncz, Jerusalem , 1895-1901. Luncz, 耶路撒冷 ,1995至01年。

M. Franco M.法
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書,1901年至1906年間發表的。

3. 3。

Third son of Kohath, son of Levi and founder of the Levitic family, the Hebronites (Ex. vi. 18; Num. iii. 19, 27; xxvi. 58).第三個兒子,哥轄的兒子列維和的創始人的Levitic家庭,的希伯倫(出埃及記(六)18,民三19,27,二十六58)。 The Hebronites are often mentioned in the enumerations of the Levites, under the name either of "Ha-Ḥebroni" (Num. iii. 27, xxvi. 58; I Chron. xxvi. 23, 30, 31) or of "Bene-Ḥebron" (I Chron. xv. 9, xxiii. 19).希伯倫中經常提到的枚舉的利未人的名義下的的“哈Ḥebroni”(民數記三,27,二十六58;我專欄。二十六,23,30,31)或“利益希伯倫“(我專欄253。9,二十三19)。 In the time of David the chief of the Hebronites was called Jeriah (I Chron. xxiii. 19, and elsewhere).在大衛的時候,首席希伯倫被稱為Jeriah(我專欄。二十三,19日,和其他地方)。 In the fortieth year of David's reign the Hebronites were settled at Jazer in Gilead, of whom 2,700 mighty men were appointed by the king superintendents over the two and one-half tribes, and 1,700, under Hashahiah, held similar positions on the west of the Jordan ( ib. xxvi. 30, 31).的第四十一年,大衛的統治希伯倫定居於雅謝在基列,其中2700強大的男人被任命的王學監在兩個和一個半部落,和1700,下Hashahiah,舉行類似職位上的西部喬丹( 同上二十六,30,31)。

4. 4。

One of the tribe of Judah, a descendant of Caleb ( ib. ii. 42, 43)之一的猶大支派的後裔迦勒(ib.二42,43)

Gotthard Deutsch, M. Franco, Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn聖哥達德語,M.法,埃米爾·赫希,M. Seligsohn
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書,1901年至1906年間發表的。



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