Early Historical Documents on Jesus Christ耶穌基督的早期歷史上的文檔

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The historical documents referring to Christ's life and work may be divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources.可分為三大類:異教來源,猶太人的來源和基督教的來源,歷史文件指的是基督的生活和工作。 We shall study the three in succession.我們將研究三個連續。

I. PAGAN SOURCES一,白雲源

The non-Christian sources for the historical truth of the Gospels are both few and polluted by hatred and prejudice.非基督教的福音書的歷史真相都很少,污染的仇恨和偏見。 A number of reasons have been advanced for this condition of the pagan sources:有很多原因已經提出了這個條件的異教徒來源:

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The field of the Gospel history was remote Galilee;領域的福音,歷史是遙遠的加利利;

the Jews were noted as a superstitious race, if we believe Horace (Credat Judoeus Apella, I, Sat., v, 100);猶太人被記為一個迷信的比賽,如果我們相信賀拉斯(Credat Judoeus Apella,I,週六,V,100);

the God of the Jews was unknown and unintelligible to most pagans of that period;上帝的猶太人是未知的,無法理解那個時期的大多數異教徒的;

the Jews in whose midst Christianity had taken its origin were dispersed among, and hated by, all the pagan nations;猶太人在中間基督教採取了它的原產地分散在,和憎惡,所有的外邦人;

the Christian religion itself was often confounded with one of the many sects that had sprung up in Judaism, and which could not excite the interest of the pagan spectator.基督宗教本身經常被混淆了的許多教派如雨後春筍般出現在猶太教,並不能激發興趣的異教的觀眾之一。

It is at least certain that neither Jews nor Gentiles suspected in the least the paramount importance of the religion, the rise of which they witnessed among them.它至少可以肯定,無論是猶太人,也不外邦人涉嫌在至少最重要的宗教,他們親眼目睹其中的崛起。 These considerations will account for the rarity and the asperity with which Christian events are mentioned by pagan authors.這些考慮將占到被提及基督教異教作家的稀有性和凹凸。 But though Gentile writers do not give us any information about Christ and the early stages of Christianity which we do not possess in the Gospels, and though their statements are made with unconcealed hatred and contempt, still they unwittingly prove the historical value of the facts related by the Evangelists.但是,雖然外邦人的作家不給我們任何有關基督和基督教的早期階段,我們不具備的福音,儘管他們的陳述是毫不掩飾的仇恨和蔑視,他們仍然在不知不覺中證明的歷史價值有關的事實的福音。

We need not delay over a writing entitled the "Acts of Pilate", which must have existed in the second century (Justin, "Apol"., I, 35), and must have been used in the pagan schools to warn boys against the belief of Christians (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl.", I, ix; IX, v); nor need we inquire into the question whether there existed any authentic census tables of Quirinius.不耽誤我們需要在一個寫作題為“行為的彼拉多”,必須已經存在於公元二世紀(賈斯汀,“APOL”,I,35),必須已經使用在異教學校的警告對男孩信仰的基督徒(優西比烏,“組織胺。傳道書。”,I,IX IX,V);我們也不需要調查的問題,是否存在任何真實的普查表居里扭。

A. Tacitus A.塔西佗

We possess at least the testimony of Tacitus (AD 54-119) for the statements that the Founder of the Christian religion, a deadly superstition in the eyes of the Romans, had been put to death by the procurator Pontius Pilate under the reign of Tiberius; that His religion, though suppressed for a time, broke forth again not only throughout Judea where it had originated, but even in Rome, the conflux of all the streams of wickness and shamelessness; furthermore, that Nero had diverted from himself the suspicion of the burning of Rome by charging the Christians with the crime; that these latter were not guilty of arson, though they deserved their fate on account of their universal misanthropy.至少我們擁有的證詞塔西佗(公元54-119年)的創始人,基督教在羅馬人的眼睛,一種致命的迷信,已死亡檢察本丟彼拉多的提比略統治下的報表他的宗教,雖然抑制了一段時間,再次爆發出來,不僅在整個猶太起源的地方,但即使是在羅馬的所有流的wickness和無恥,而且,是Nero偏離自己的懷疑,匯流燃燒的羅馬充電基督徒的犯罪,這些不是縱火犯,雖然他們應得他們的命運,他們的普遍厭世。 Tacitus, moreover, describes some of the horrible torments to which Nero subjected the Christians (Ann., XV, xliv).此外,塔西佗,介紹了一些可怕的折磨,尼祿受到的基督徒(Ann.,十五,四十四)。 The Roman writer confounds the Christians with the Jews, considering them as a especially abject Jewish sect; how little he investigated the historical truth of even the Jewish records may be inferred from the credulity with which he accepted the absurd legends and calumnies about the origin of he Hebrew people (Hist., V, iii, iv).羅馬作家的基督徒與猶太人混淆,把它們作為一個特別可憐的猶太節如何小,他調查了歷史的真相,甚至猶太人的記錄可以推斷,從輕信他接受了荒謬的傳說和誹謗的起源他希伯來人(Hist.,V,Ⅲ,Ⅳ)。

B. Suetonius B.蘇維托尼烏斯

Another Roman writer who shows his acquaintance with Christ and the Christians is Suetonius (AD 75-160).另一個羅馬作家,他的相識與基督和基督徒是蘇維托尼烏斯(公元75-160年)。 It has been noted that Suetonius considered Christ (Chrestus) as a Roman insurgent who stirred up seditions under the reign of Claudius (AD 41-54): "Judaeos, impulsore Chresto, assidue tumultuantes (Claudius) Roma expulit" (Clau., xxv).人們已經注意到,蘇維托尼烏斯認為作為一個羅馬的叛亂激起了克勞狄斯(公元41-54年)的統治下,煽動叛亂:“Judaeos,impulsore Chresto,assidue tumultuantes(克勞狄斯)羅馬expulit”(Clau.,二十五基督(Chrestus) )。 In his life of Nero he regards that emperor as a public benefactor on account of his severe treatment of the Christians: "Multa sub eo et animadversa severe, et coercita, nec minus instituta . . . . afflicti Christiani, genus hominum superstitious novae et maleficae" (Nero, xvi).在他的生命的Nero他認為,皇帝作為公認的慈善家考慮到他的嚴厲對待的基督徒:“EO等Multa子animadversa嚴重,等coercita,其他減去instituta的... afflicti克里斯蒂,屬hominum迷信的新星等maleficae “(NERO,十六)。 The Roman writer does not understand that the Jewish troubles arose from the Jewish antagonism to the Messianic character of Jesus Christ and to the rights of the Christian Church.羅馬作家不明白,產生的猶太人的麻煩從猶太人的對抗,以救世主的性格耶穌基督的基督教教會的權利。

C. Pliny the Younger C.小普林尼

Of greater importance is the letter of Pliny the Younger to the Emperor Trajan (about AD 61-115), in which the Governor of Bithynia consults his imperial majesty as to how to deal with the Christians living within his jurisdiction.更重要的是這封信的普利尼年輕的圖拉真皇帝(約公元61-115年),其中總督庇推尼去諮詢他的皇權的威嚴,如何處理與基督徒生活在他的管轄範圍內。 On the one hand, their lives were confessedly innocent; no crime could be proved against them excepting their Christian belief, which appeared to the Roman as an extravagant and perverse superstition.一方面,他們的生活是明白地無辜的,沒有犯罪的事實證明了他們除了自己的基督教信仰,這似乎是羅馬一個奢侈的和有害的迷信。 On the other hand, the Christians could not be shaken in their allegiance to Christ, Whom they celebrated as their God in their early morning meetings (Ep., X, 97, 98).另一方面,基督徒不能動搖他們的效忠基督,他們慶祝他們的神,在清晨會議(插曲,X,97,98)。 Christianity here appears no longer as a religion of criminals, as it does in the texts of Tacitus and Suetonius; Pliny acknowledges the high moral principles of the Christians, admires their constancy in the Faith (pervicacia et inflexibilis obstinatio), which he appears to trace back to their worship of Christ (carmenque Christo, quasi Deo, dicere).基督教在這裡似乎不再像以前那樣的宗教罪犯,因為它在塔西佗和蘇維托尼烏斯的文本;普林尼的基督徒承認,崇高的道德原則,欽佩他們的堅貞在信仰(pervicacia等inflexibilis obstinatio)的,而他似乎跟踪備份他們崇拜的基督(carmenque克里斯托,準迪奧,dicere)。

D. Other pagan writers D.其他異教作家

The remaining pagan witnesses are of less importance: In the second century Lucian sneered at Christ and the Christians, as he scoffed at the pagan gods.剩下的異教證人是不太重要:在第二個世紀,盧西恩嘲笑基督的基督徒,他嘲笑異教的神祗。 He alludes to Christ's death on the Cross, to His miracles, to the mutual love prevailing among the Christians ("Philopseudes", nn. 13, 16; "De Morte Pereg").他提到基督的死在十字架上,他的奇蹟,互愛中普遍存在的基督徒(“Philopseudes”,NN 13,16,“亞瑟王Pereg)。 There are also alleged allusions to Christ in Numenius (Origen, "Contra Cels", IV, 51), to His parables in Galerius, to the earthquake at the Crucifixion in Phlegon ( Origen, "Contra Cels.", II, 14).也有基督Numenius據稱典故(淵源,“魂斗羅CELS”,IV,51),他的比喻加萊里烏斯,在Phlegon在十字架上的地震(淵源,“魂斗羅CELS,II,14)。 Before the end of the second century, the logos alethes of Celsus, as quoted by Origen (Contra Cels., passim), testifies that at that time the facts related in the Gospels were generally accepted as historically true.結束前的第二個世紀,標誌alethes塞爾蘇斯,所報的淵源(魂斗羅CELS,各處),證明有關的事實的福音,當時被普遍接受作為歷史上真實的。 However scanty the pagan sources of the life of Christ may be, they bear at least testimony to His existence, to His miracles, His parables, His claim to Divine worship, His death on the Cross, and to the more striking characteristics of His religion.然而微薄的異教的來源,基督的生命,他們承擔至少證明了他的存在,他的神蹟,他的比喻,他自稱神的崇拜,他的死在十字架上,更引人注目的特點,他的宗教。

II. II。 JEWISH SOURCES猶太人的來源

A. Philo A.斐洛

Philo, who dies after AD 40, is mainly important for the light he throws on certain modes of thought and phraseology found again in some of the Apostles.斐洛,他死於公元40年後,在某些模式的思想和術語的使徒,他拋出的光主要是重要的。 Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., II, iv) indeed preserves a legend that Philo had met St. Peter in Rome during his mission to the Emperor Caius; moreover, that in his work on the contemplative life he describes the life of the Christian Church in Alexandria founded by St. Mark, rather than that of the Essenes and Therapeutae.尤西比烏斯(Hist.傳道書。,II,IV)確實保留一個傳說,斐洛會見了在羅馬的聖彼得在他訪問期間向皇帝凱厄斯,而且,在他的作品上沉思的生活,他描述的基督教教會的生活在亞歷山大創立的聖馬可,而不是的essenes和Therapeutae的。 But it is hardly probable that Philo had heard enough of Christ and His followers to give an historical foundation to the foregoing legends.但是,它是很難有可能斐洛的基督和他的追隨者已經聽夠了給上述傳說的歷史基礎。

B. Josephus B.約瑟夫

The earlist non-Christian writer who refers Christ is the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus; born AD 37, he was a contemporary of the Apostles, and died in Rome AD 94.最早的非基督徒作家,是指基督是猶太歷史學家弗拉菲烏斯約瑟夫出生於公元37,他是當代的使徒,在羅馬公元94死亡。 Two passages in his "Antiquities" which confirm two facts of the inspired Christian records are not disputed.兩段經文在他的“古物”的啟發基督教記錄確認兩個事實是沒有爭議的。 In the one he reports the murder of "John called Baptist" by Herod (Ant., XVIII, v, 2), describing also John's character and work; in the other (Ant., XX, ix, 1) he disappoves of the sentence pronounced by the high priest Ananus against "James, brother of Jesus Who was called Christ."在一個他稱為“約翰浸會”的希律王(Ant.,十八,五,2),描述約翰的性格和工作報告的謀殺案,在其他(Ant.,XX,九,1),他disappoves的宣判的的大祭司亞納諾斯對“詹姆斯,誰被稱為基督的耶穌的兄弟。” It is antecedently probable that a writer so well informed as Josephus, must have been well acquainted too with the doctrine and the history of Jesus Christ.消息靈通的約瑟夫,一個作家必須已經很熟悉也與耶穌基督的教義和歷史,這是可能先行。 Seeing, also, that he records events of minor importance in the history of the Jews, it would be surprising if he were to keep silence about Jesus Christ.見此情景,同時,他記錄的未成年人的重要性在歷史上的猶太人的事件,這將是令人驚訝的,如果他保持沉默耶穌基督。 Consideration for the priests and Pharisees did not prevent him from mentioning the judicial murders of John the Baptist and the Apostle James; his endeavour to find the fulfilment of the Messianic prophecies in Vespasian did not induce him to pass in silence over several Jewish sects, though their tenets appear to be inconsistent with the Vespasian claims.的祭司和法利賽人的代價並不能阻止他提的的司法謀殺案的施洗約翰和使徒詹姆斯,他的努力在維斯帕先找到實現彌賽亞的預言並沒有引起他通過在沉默了幾猶太宗派,雖然他們的原則是不一致的維斯帕先索賠。 One naturally expects, therefore, a notice about Jesus Christ in Josephus.一個自然期望,因此,關於耶穌基督在約瑟夫的通知。 Antiquities XVIII, iii, 3, seems to satisfy this expectation:古物十八,三,3,似乎滿足這種期望:

About this time appeared Jesus, a wise man (if indeed it is right to call Him man; for He was a worker of astonishing deeds, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with joy), and He drew to Himself many Jews (many also of Greeks. This was the Christ.) And when Pilate, at the denunciation of those that are foremost among us, had condemned Him to the cross, those who had first loved Him did not abandon Him (for He appeared to them alive again on the third day, the holy prophets having foretold this and countless other marvels about Him.) The tribe of Christians named after Him did not cease to this day.大約在這個時候出現了耶穌,一個聰明的人(如果它確實是正確的,稱他的人,因為他是一個工人的驚人事蹟的老師,這樣的人接受真理的喜悅),他畫了許多猶太人(也有不少的希臘人,這是基督。)彼拉多,在譴責那些是其中最重要的,譴責他在十字架上,那些誰愛他並沒有放棄他(因為他似乎是他們活著再次到了第三天,聖先知的預言和其他無數的奇蹟,關於他的事。)部落的基督徒,他的名字命名這一天也沒有停止。

A testimony so important as the foregoing could not escape the work of the critics.無法逃避的見證如此重要,因為上述工作的批評。 Their conclusions may be reduced to three headings: those who consider the passage wholly spurious; those who consider it to be wholly authentic; and those who consider it to be a little of each.他們的結論可能會減少到三個標題:那些考慮通過全資虛假的,那些人認為這是完全真實的,和那些誰認為這是一個小的每一個。

Those who regard the passage as spurious那些認為通過虛假的

First, there are those who consider the whole passage as spurious.首先,是那些誰認為整個通道的寄生。 The principal reasons for this view appear to be the following:該視圖的主要理由似乎是下列:

Josephus could not represent Jesus Christ as a simple moralist, and on the other hand he could not emphasize the Messianic prophecies and expectations without offending the Roman susceptibilities;約瑟夫不能代表耶穌基督作為一個簡單的衛道士,而另一方面,他不能強調彌賽亞的預言和期望,而不得罪了羅馬的敏感性;

the above cited passage from Josephus is said to be unknown to Origen and the earlier patristic writers;上述列舉的通過從約瑟夫奧利和早期教父作家說是未知的;

its very place in the Josephan text is uncertain, since Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., II, vi) must have found it before the notices concerning Pilate, while it now stands after them.它的非常到位在Josephan文本是不確定的,因為尤西比烏斯(Hist.傳道書。,二,六)必須已經發現它之前,通知有關彼拉多,而現在站在他們後。

But the spuriousness of the disputed Josephan passage does not imply the historian's ignorance of the facts connected with Jesus Christ.的寄生性的爭議Josephan的通過並不意味著歷史學家的無知與耶穌基督的事實。 Josephus's report of his own juvenile precocity before the Jewish teachers (Vit., 2) reminds one of the story of Christ's stay in the Temple at the age of twelve; the description of his shipwreck on his journey to Rome (Vit., 3) recalls St. Paul's shipwreck as told in the Acts; finally his arbitrary introduction of a deceit practised by the priests of Isis on a Roman lady, after the chapter containing his supposed allusion to Jesus, shows a disposition to explain away the virgin birth of Jesus and to prepare the falsehoods embodied in the later Jewish writings.約瑟夫的報告讓人想起自己的少年早熟的前猶太教師(維,2)基督停留在12歲的寺的故事,描述他的旅程,他的海難羅馬(維,3)回憶起聖保羅海難告訴的行為,最後他的任意一的欺騙所實行的祭司伊希斯的羅馬貴婦的引進,他應該暗指耶穌的章含之後,顯示了配置,解釋了處女耶穌誕生的並準備在後來的猶太著作中所體現的謊言。

Those who regard the passage as authentic, with some spurious additions誰正宗,認為通過增加一些虛假的

A second class of critics do not regard the whole of Josephus's testimony concerning Christ as spurious but they maintain the interpolation of parts included above in parenthesis.第二類批評不把整個的約瑟夫的見證基督的寄生,但他們保持以上括號中的插值部分包括。 The reasons assigned for this opinion may be reduced to the following two:分配給這個意見的原因可能是以下兩個:

Josephus must have mentioned Jesus, but he cannot have recognized Him as the Christ; hence part of our present Josephan text must be genuine, part must be interpolated.約瑟夫必須提到耶穌,但他不能承認他是基督,因此我們目前的Josephan文本的一部分必須是真實的,部分必須插。

Again, the same conclusion follows from the fact that Origen knew a Josephan text about Jesus, but was not acquainted with our present reading; for, according to the great Alexandrian doctor, Josephus did not believe that Jesus was the Messias ("In Matth.", xiii, 55; "Contra Cels.", I, 47).同樣,相同的結論如下的事實,奧利知道一個Josephan的的文本關於耶穌的,但我們現在讀不熟悉的,偉大的亞歷山大醫生,約瑟夫不相信耶穌是彌賽亞(“在Matth,。 “,十三,55:”魂斗羅CELS。“,I,47)。

Whatever force these two arguments have is lost by the fact that Josephus did not write for the Jews but for the Romans; consequently, when he says, "This was the Christ", he does not necessarily imply that Jesus was the Christ considered by the Romans as the founder of the Christian religion.無論力這兩個參數丟失的事實,約瑟夫沒有寫猶太人,但羅馬人,因此,當他說,“這是基督”,他並不一定意味著耶穌是基督的考慮羅馬,基督教的創始人。

Those who consider it to be completely genuine那些認為這是完全真正的

The third class of scholars believe that the whole passage concerning Jesus, as it is found today in Josephus, is genuine.第三類學者認為,關於耶穌,因為它是在約瑟夫的今天,整個通道是真實的。 The main arguments for the genuineness of the Josephan passage are the following:的Josephan通過的真實性的主要論點有以下幾種:

First, all codices or manuscripts of Josephus's work contain the text in question; to maintain the spuriousness of the text, we must suppose that all the copies of Josephus were in the hands of Christians, and were changed in the same way.首先,所有的手抄本或手稿約瑟夫的工作包含文本的問題,以保持寄生性的文字,我們必須假設所有的副本約瑟夫手中的基督徒,並以同樣的方式改變。

Second, it is true that neither Tertullian nor St. Justin makes use of Josephus's passage concerning Jesus; but this silence is probably due to the contempt with which the contemporary Jews regarded Josephus, and to the relatively little authority he had among the Roman readers.其次,它是真實的,既不是特土良也沒有聖賈斯汀利用約瑟夫通過關於耶穌,但保持沉默,這可能是由於當代猶太人認為約瑟夫的蔑視,以及相對較少的權威,他曾在羅馬讀者之間。 Writers of the age of Tertullian and Justin could appeal to living witnesses of the Apostolic tradition.作家良和賈斯汀的年齡,可向活著的證人的使徒傳統。

Third, Eusebius ("Hist. Eccl"., I, xi; cf. "Dem. Ev.", III, v) Sozomen (Hist. Eccl., I, i), Niceph.第三,尤西比烏斯(“歷史。傳道書”,我喜;比照“數字高程模型。電動車。”,III,V)Sozomen(Hist.傳道書。,I,I),Niceph。 (Hist. Eccl., I, 39), Isidore of Pelusium (Ep. IV, 225), St. Jerome (catal.script. eccles. xiii), Ambrose, Cassiodorus, etc., appeal to the testimony of Josephus; there must have been no doubt as to its authenticity at the time of these illustrious writers. (Hist.傳,I,39),伊西多爾的佩魯西亞“(插曲IV,225),圣杰羅姆(catal.script。埃克爾斯十三),劉漢銓,Cassiodorus的等,呼籲的證詞,約瑟夫;一定是沒有懷疑其真實性的時候,這些傑出的作家之一。

Fourth, the complete silence of Josephus as to Jesus would have been a more eloquent testimony than we possess in his present text; this latter contains no statement incompatible with its Josephan authorship: the Roman reader needed the information that Jesus was the Christ, or the founder of the Christian religion; the wonderful works of Jesus and His Resurrection from the dead were so incessantly urged by the Christians that without these attributes the Josephan Jesus would hardly have been acknowledged as the founder of Christianity.四,以耶穌,約瑟夫沉默是一個有著比我們更雄辯地證明了他目前的案文中,後者不包含其Josephan著作權羅馬讀者需要的信息,耶穌是基督,或不兼容的聲明創辦的基督教的基督徒,如果沒有這些屬性的Josephan耶穌就很難被承認為基督教的創始人耶穌和祂從死裡復活的精彩作品,因此不斷敦促。

All this does not necessarily imply that Josephus regarded Jesus as the Jewish Messias; but, even if he had been convinced of His Messiahship, it does not follow that he would have become a Christian.所有這一切並不一定意味著,約瑟夫認為耶穌是猶太人的彌賽亞;但是,即使他一直堅信他的彌賽亞,但這並不意味著他會成為一個基督徒。 A number of possible subterfuges might have supplied the Jewish historian with apparently sufficient reasons for not embracing Christianity.顯然有足夠的理由不接受基督教的猶太歷史學家可能會提供一個可能的託辭。

C. Other Jewish Sources C.其他猶太來源

The historical character of Jesus Christ is also attested by the hostile Jewish literature of the subsequent centuries.耶穌基督的歷史特點,也證明了隨後的幾個世紀的敵對猶太文學的。 His birth is ascribed to an illicit ("Acta Pilati" in Thilo, "Codex apocryph. NT, I, 526; cf. Justin, "Apol.", I, 35), or even an adulterous, union of His parents (Origen, "Contra Cels.," I, 28, 32). The father's name is Panthera, a common soldier (Gemara "Sanhedrin", viii; "Schabbath", xii, cf. Eisenmenger, "Entdecktes Judenthum", I, 109; Schottgen, "Horae Hebraicae", II, 696; Buxtorf, "Lex. Chald.", Basle, 1639, 1459, Huldreich, "Sepher toledhoth yeshua hannaceri", Leyden, 1705). The last work in its final edition did not appear before the thirteenth century, so that it could give the Panthera myth in its most advanced form. Rosch is of opinion that the myth did not begin before the end of the first century.他的誕生是由於非法(“文獻皮拉蒂”現場總線系統,“食品法典委員會apocryph NT,我,526;比照賈斯汀,”APOL“,I,35),甚至是通姦,工會,他的父母(淵源,“魂斗羅CELS。,”我,28,32)。父親的名字是豹,一個普通士兵(革馬拉“公會”,第八;“Schabbath”,第十二,比照。艾森曼格,“Entdecktes的Judenthum”,我,109;的schottgen打,“海悅Hebraicae”,II,696布克斯托夫,“萊克斯。Chald”,巴塞爾,1639年,1459年,Huldreich,“耶穌hannaceri Sepher toledhoth”,萊頓,1705)。在其最終版本的最後一部作品沒有出現前13世紀,它可以給豹神話中的最高級形式。RÖSCH認為是神話沒有開始之前的第一個世紀的結束。

The later Jewish writings show traces of acquaintance with the murder of the Holy Innocents (Wagenseil, "Confut. Libr.Toldoth", 15; Eisenmenger op. cit., I, 116; Schottgen, op. cit., II, 667), with the flight into Egypt (cf. Josephus, "Ant." XIII, xiii), with the stay of Jesus in the Temple at the age of twelve (Schottgen, op. cit., II, 696), with the call of the disciples ("Sanhedrin", 43a; Wagenseil, op. cit., 17; Schottgen, loc. cit., 713), with His miracles (Origen, "Contra Cels", II, 48; Wagenseil, op. cit., 150; Gemara "Sanhedrin" fol. 17); "Schabbath", fol.後來的猶太著作中顯示的痕跡熟人一起命案的聖嬰(瓦根賽爾,“Confut。Libr.Toldoth”,15艾森門格前引書,我,116; schottgen打,前引書,II,667),的號召,飛行到埃及的(參見約瑟夫,“螞蟻。”十三,十三),是耶穌在聖殿在12歲(schottgen打,前引書,II,696),門徒(“公會”,43A;瓦根賽爾,前引書,17; schottgen打,上述引文中,713),與他所行的神蹟(淵源,“魂斗羅CELS”,II,48瓦根賽爾,前引書,150 ;革馬拉“公會”FOL 17); FOL的的“Schabbath”。 104b; Wagenseil, op.cit., 6, 7, 17), with His claim to be God (Origen, "Contra Cels.", I, 28; cf. Eisenmenger, op. cit., I, 152; Schottgen, loc. cit., 699) with His betrayal by Judas and His death (Origen, "Contra cels.", II, 9, 45, 68, 70; Buxtorf, op. cit., 1458; Lightfoot, "Hor. Heb.", 458, 490, 498; Eisenmenger, loc. cit., 185; Schottgen, loc. cit.,699 700; cf. "Sanhedrin", vi, vii). 104B瓦根賽爾,前引書,6,7,17),他聲稱自己是神(淵源,“魂斗羅CELS。”,I,28;比照艾森門格,同前。,I,152; schottgen打,上述引文中,699)與他的背叛的猶大和他的死亡(淵源,“魂斗羅CELS。”,II,9,45,68,70;布克斯托夫,前引書,1458,萊特富特,“賀來。 “,458,490,498;艾森門格,前引書,185頁; schottgen打,上述引文中,699 700;比照”公會“,六,七)。 Celsus (Origen, "Contra Cels.", II, 55) tries to throw doubt on the Resurrection, while Toldoth (cf. Wagenseil, 19) repeats the Jewish fiction that the body of Jesus had been stolen from the sepulchre.塞爾蘇斯(淵源,“魂斗羅CELS。”,II,55)拋出疑問的復活,,而Toldoth(19)參見瓦根賽爾,重複猶太小說,被人偷走了耶穌的身體從墳墓裡。

III. III。 CHRISTIAN SOURCES基督教的來源

Among the Christian sources of the life of Jesus we need hardly mention the so called Agrapha and Apocrypha.在基督教的來源,耶穌的生命,我們幾乎不用提所謂的Agrapha和偽經。 For whether the Agrapha contain Logia of Jesus, or refer to incidents in His life, they are either highly uncertain or present only variations of the Gospel story.對於的Agrapha是否包含總互濟會的耶穌,在他的生活事件,他們是高度的不確定性,或只是變化的福音故事。 The chief value of the Apocrypha consists in their showing the infinite superiority of the Inspired Writings by contrasting the coarse and erroneous productions of the human mind with the simple and sublime truths written under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost.偽經的主要價值在於他們的啟發著作的無限優勢,通過對比粗的和錯誤的人的心靈與生產的聖靈的啟發下寫的簡單的和崇高的真理。

Among the Sacred Books of the New Testament, it is especially the four Gospels and the four great Epistles of St. Paul that are of the highest importance for the construction of the life of Jesus.在神聖的書籍的新約聖經,尤其是它的四福音書和書信的聖保祿四大的建設耶穌的生命最重要的是。

The four great Pauline Epistles (Romans, Galatians, and First and Second Corinthians) can hardly be overestimated by the student of Christ's life; they have at times been called the "fifth gospel"; their authenticity has never been assailed by serious critics; their testimony is also earlier than that of the Gospels, at least most of the Gospels; it is the more valuable because it is incidental and undesigned; it is the testimony of a highly intellectual and cultured writer, who had been the greatest enemy of Jesus, who writes within twenty-five years of the events which he relates.的4偉大的寶蓮書信(羅馬書,加拉太書,並第一次和第二次哥林多前書)難以被高估了基督的生命的學生,他們已經在時代被稱為的“第五福音”,其真實性已永遠不會被襲擊的嚴肅的評論家,他們的也早於福音書的證詞是,至少大部分的福音,它是更有價值的,因為它是偶然的,偶然的,它是一個高級知識分子和培養的作家,誰一直是最大的敵人,耶穌的見證,內寫入的25年他涉及的事件。 At the same time, these four great Epistles bear witness to all the most important facts in the life of Christ: His Davidic descent, His poverty, His Messiahship, His moral teaching, His preaching of the kingdom of God, His calling of the apostles, His miraculous power, His claims to be God, His betrayal, His institution of the Holy Eucharist, His passion, crucifixion, burial, resurrection, His repeated appearances (Romans 1:3-4; 5:11; 8:2-3; 8:32; 9:5; 15:8; Galatians 2:17; 3:13; 4:4; 5:21; 1 Corinthians 6:9; 13:4; etc.).在同一時間,這四個偉大的書信見證基督的生命中最重要的事實:他的大衛的後裔,他的貧窮,他的彌賽亞,他的道德教學的神的國度,他的說教,他的呼召的使徒,他的神奇的力量,他聲稱自己是神,他的背叛,他的聖體聖事的機構,他的激情,受難,埋葬,復活,他一再露面(羅馬書1:3-4; 5:11; 8:2-3 8:32; 9:5; 15:8;加拉太書2:17; 3:13; 4:4; 5:21;哥林多前書6:9; 13:4;等)。 However important the four great Epistles may be, the gospels are still more so.但是重要的四大書信,福音書更是這樣。 Not that any one of them offers a complete biography of Jesus, but they account for the origin of Christianity by the life of its Founder.沒有任何一個他們提供了一個完整的耶穌傳記,但他們也對基督教的起源,其創辦人的生命。 Questions like the authenticity of the Gospels, the relation between the Synoptic Gospels, and the Fourth, the Synoptic problem, must be studied in the articles referring to these respective subjects.福音書的真實性,諸如此類的問題,對觀福音,以及四,天氣問題之間的關係,必須進行研究的文章中提到這些各自的主題。

Publication information Written by AJ Maas.出版信息的書面AJ馬斯。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。 In Memory of Archbishop Mathew Kavukatt The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.在內存大主教馬修Kavukatt的天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Sequential Life of Jesus, from the Gospels 順序耶穌的生命,從福音書

Chronology of Jesus' Life (Catholic Article) 年表耶穌的生平(天主教文章)

Early Documents Regarding the History of Jesus' Life 關於歷史的耶穌的生活的早期文獻

39 Miracles Performed by Jesus 39耶穌的奇蹟演出

Around 100 OT Prophecies Fulfilled by Jesus 大約有100舊約的預言應驗耶穌的

Sequence of all important in Christianity 在基督教中的所有重要序列

Date of Birth of Jesus, by several Analytical Methods 耶穌的出生日期,由幾種分析方法


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


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