Judas Iscariot加略人猶大

General Information 一般資料

Judas Iscariot was the Apostle who betrayed Jesus Christ to the authorities.加略人猶大的使徒是誰出賣了耶穌向有關當局。 According to Matthew 27:4, Judas, distraught over Jesus' condemnation, returned his reward of 30 pieces of silver and hanged himself.根據馬太福音27:4猶大對耶穌的譴責,令人扼腕,返回他的30個銀幣的獎勵,上吊自殺了。 According to Acts 1:18, Judas bought a field with the money, but fell headlong in it, injured himself, and died.根據使徒行傳1:18,猶大買了一塊地的錢,但摔了個倒栽蔥,傷害了自己,和死亡。 His surname may indicate that he belonged to the Sicarii, a radical political group.他的姓,可能預示著他的Sicarii,一個激進的政治團體。

Bibliography: Gartner, Bertil, Iscariot (1971); Schaumberg, EL, Judas (1981).參考書目:Gartner的數據,貝蒂爾,加略人猶大(1971年); Schaumberg,EL,猶大(1981)。

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Judas Iscariot加略人猶大

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The Apostle who betrayed his Divine Master.使徒是誰出賣了他的神聖的主人。 The name Judas (Ioudas) is the Greek form of Judah (Hebrew "praised"), a proper name frequently found both in the Old and the New Testament. ,的名猶大(Ioudas“)是希臘形式的猶大(希伯來文”叫好不叫座“),一個合適的名字經常發現無論是在舊和新約。 Even among the Twelve there were two that bore the name, and for this reason it is usually associated with the surname Iscariot [Hebrew "a man of Kerioth" or Carioth, which is a city of Judah (cf. Joshua 15:25)].即使在十二有兩個孔的名字,因為這個原因,它通常與姓加略人猶大[希伯來文“加略人”或Carioth,這是一個城市的猶大(參見約書亞15:25)] 。 There can be no doubt that this is the right interpretation of the name, though the true origin is obscured in the Greek spelling, and, as might be expected, other derivations have been suggested (eg from Issachar).毫無疑問,這是正確的解釋的名稱,是模糊的,但真正的原產地在希臘的拼寫,並且,可以預料,其他派生形式(例如,從以薩迦)已經提出。

Very little is told us in the Sacred Text concerning the history of Judas Iscariot beyond the bare facts of his call to the Apostolate, his treachery, and his death.很少有人告訴我們,在神聖的文本之外的加略人猶大的歷史確鑿的事實,他的電話的使徒,他的背叛,他的死亡。 His birthplace, as we have seen, is indicated in his name Iscariot, and it may be remarked that his origin separates him from the other Apostles, who were all Galileans.正如我們已經看到的那樣,他的出生地,他的名字的加略人表示,它可以說他的出身,他從其他使徒,誰都是加利利。 For Kerioth is a city of Judah.加略是一個城市的猶大。 It has been suggested that this fact may have had some influence on his career by causing want of sympathy with his brethren in the Apostolate.有人建議,這一事實可能有他的職業生涯造成一定的影響,要同情他的兄弟在傳道。 We are told nothing concerning the circumstances of his call or his share in the ministry and miracles of the Apostles.我們被告知沒有他的電話,或者他的份額在有關情況部和奇蹟的使徒。 And it is significant that he is never mentioned without some reference to his great betrayal.重要的是,他從未被提及,而一些參考他的偉大的背叛。 Thus, in the list of the Apostles given in the Synoptic Gospels, we read: "and Judas Iscariot, who also betrayed him".因此,在天氣福音的使徒在列表中,我們讀到:“加略人猶大,誰也背叛了他”。 (Matthew 10:4. Cf. Mark 3:19; Luke 6:16). (馬太福音10:4。參見馬可福音3:19;路加福音6:16)。 So again in St. John's Gospel the name first occurs in connection with the foretelling of the betrayal: "Jesus answered them: Have not I chosen you twelve; and one of you is a devil? Now he meant Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon: for this same was about to betray him whereas he was one of the twelve" (John 6:71-2).所以,再一次在約翰福音的名字第一次出現在預言的背叛:“耶穌回答說:我不是揀選了你們十二個門徒,你是一個魔鬼嗎?現在,他的意思是,西門的兒子加略人猶大此相同的是,背叛他,而他的十二個門徒“(約翰福音6:71-2)。

In this passage St. John adds a further particular in mentioning the name of the traitor Apostle's father, which is not recorded by the other Evangelists.在這段話中,聖約翰進一步增加了特別一提的叛徒的使徒的父親的名字,這是沒有記錄的其他福音。 And it is he again who tells us that Judas carried the purse.這是他再一次告訴我們,猶大攜帶的錢包。 For, after describing the anointing of Christ's feet by Mary at the feast in Bethania, the Evangelist continues:因為,在描述的恩膏瑪麗在Bethania的盛宴,在基督的腳,傳播者將繼續:

Then one of his disciples, Judas Iscariot, he that was about to betray him, said: 'Why was not this ointment sold for three hundred pence, and given to the poor?'然後他的門徒之一的猶大,他是背叛他,說:“你為什麼不軟膏,成交價為300便士,分給窮人?” Now he said this, not because he cared for the poor; but because he was a thief, and having the purse, carried the things that were put therein (John 12:4-6).他說這話,並不是因為他關心窮人,但因為他是個賊,有錢包,進行的事情,把其中的(約翰福音12:4-6)。

This fact that Judas carried the purse is again referred to by the same Evangelist in his account of the Last Supper (13:29).猶大攜帶的錢包這一事實再次提到了他的最後​​的晚餐(13:29)帳戶的傳播者。 The Synoptic Gospels do not notice this office of Judas, nor do they say that it was he who protested at the alleged waste of the ointment.對觀福音沒有注意到這個辦公室的猶大,也沒有他們說,這是他涉嫌浪費的藥膏抗議。 But it is significant that both in Matthew and Mark the account of the anointing is closely followed by the story of the betrayal:但重要的是,在馬修和馬克的帳戶的恩膏緊隨其後的是背叛的故事:

Then went one of the twelve, who was called Judas Iscariot, to the chief priests, and said to them: What will you give me, and I will deliver him unto you?然後跑到12,誰被稱為加略人猶大,祭司長,就對他們說:你給我,我把他給你們嗎? (Matthew 26:14-5) (馬太福音26:14-5)

And Judas Iscariot, one of the twelve, went to the chief priests, to betray him to them.加略人猶大,其中的12個,去給祭司長,他出賣給他們。 Who hearing it were glad; and they promised him they would give him money.誰聽證會很高興,他們答應了他,他們給他錢。 (Mark 14:10-1) (14:10-1馬克)

In both these accounts it will be noticed that Judas takes the initiative: he is not tempted and seduced by the priests, but approaches them on his own accord.在這兩個帳戶,它會被發現,猶大主動:他不動心,誘惑的祭司,但接近他們自己的。

St. Luke tells the same tale, but adds another touch by ascribing the deed to the instigation of Satan:聖路加講述了同樣的故事,但所指稱的契約撒旦的唆使下,增加了一個觸摸:

And Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed Iscariot, one of the twelve.撒但就入了猶大,誰是姓加略人猶大,十二個。 And he went, and discoursed with the chief priests and the magistrates, how he might betray him to them.他去了,並論述與祭司長和裁判,他怎麼可能背叛他。 And they were glad, and convenanted to give him money.他們很高興的,和convenanted給他錢。 And he promised.他答應了。 And he sought opportunity to betray him in the absence of the multitude.他就找機會在眾人不在背叛他。 (Luke 22:3-6) (路加福音22:3-6)

St. John likewise lays stress on the instigation of the evil spirit: "the devil having now put into the heart of Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon, to betray him" (13:2).聖約翰同樣注重指使邪惡的精神:“到心臟的加略人猶大,西門的兒子現在就把魔鬼,要把他”(13:2)。 The same Evangelist, as we have seen, tells of an earlier intimation of Christ's foreknowledge of the betrayal (John 6:71-2), and in the same chapter says expressly: "For Jesus knew from the beginning, who they were that did not believe, and who he was, that would betray him" (6:65).同樣的傳播者,正如我們所看到的,講述的一個較早的暗示基督的先見之明的背叛(約翰福音6:71-2),並在同一章中明確地說:“對於耶穌從一開始就知道,他們是誰,做了不相信,他是誰,會背叛他“(6:65)。 But he agrees with the Synoptics in recording a more explicit prediction of the treachery at the Last Supper: "When Jesus had said these things, he was troubled in spirit; and he testified, and said: Amen, amen I say to you, one of you shall betray me" (John 12:21).但他同意與符類福音中記錄的背叛“最後的晚餐”更明確的預測:“當耶穌說了這些話,他在精神上的困擾和他作證,說:阿門,阿門我要對你們說,一個你要出賣我。“(約翰福音12:21)。 And when St. John himself, at Peter's request, asked who this was, "Jesus answered: He it is to whom I shall reach bread dipped. And when he had dipped the bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot, the son of Simon. And after the morsel, Satan entered into him. And Jesus said to him: That which thou dost, do quickly. Now no man at the table knew to what purpose he said this unto him. For some thought, because Judas had the purse, that Jesus said to him: Buy those things which we have need of for the festival day: or that he should give something to the poor" (12:26-9).聖約翰自己,在彼得的請求,詢問誰是“耶穌回答說:他是人,我要達到的麵包浸。時,他就蘸麵包,遞給加略人猶大,西門的兒子了一口後,撒但就入了他。耶穌對他說:你的生命,趕緊做,現在沒有人知道目的是什麼,他說,這對他在餐桌上。對於一些思想因為猶大的錢包, ,耶穌對他說:“買這些東西,我們需要的節日:或者說,他拿什麼給窮人”(12:26-9)。 These last details about the words of Jesus, and the natural surmise of the disciples, are given only by St. John.耶穌的話,人與自然猜測的弟子,只給出了這些最後的細節聖約翰。 But the prediction and the questioning of the disciples are recorded by all the Synoptics (Matthew 26; Mark 14; Luke 22).但是,預測和質疑的弟子記錄所有對觀福音(馬太福音第26章,馬可福音14章,路加福音22)。 St. Matthew adds that Judas himself asked, "Is it I, Rabbi?"聖馬太補充說,猶大自己問,“是我,拉比?” and was answered: "Thou hast said it" (26:25).並回答說:“你說的是”(26:25)。

All four Evangelists agree in regard to the main facts of the actual betrayal which followed so closely on this prediction, and tell how the traitor came with a multitude or a band of soldiers from the chief priests, and brought them to the place where, as he knew, Jesus would be found with His faithful disciples (Matthew 26:47; Mark 14:43; Luke 22:47; John 18:3).同意在所有四個福音方面的實際背叛如此緊密,這一預測的主要事實,並告訴叛徒與眾多或一筆帶過的士兵從祭司長,把他們帶到的地方,如他知道,耶穌會發現,與忠實的門徒(馬太福音26:47;馬克14時43分,盧克22點47分,約十八點03)。 But some have details not found in the other narratives.但也有一些細節,沒有發現在其他的敘述。 That the traitor gave a kiss as a sign is mentioned by all the Synoptics, but not by St. John, who in his turn is alone in telling us that those who came to take Jesus fell backward to the ground as He answered "I am he."的叛徒,給了一個吻作為一個標誌是所提到的所有對觀福音,但不是在輪到他告訴我們,那些來耶穌往後倒在地上,他回答說:“我是單獨的聖約翰,他說。“ Again, St. Mark tells that Judas said "Hail, Rabbi" before kissing his Master, but does not give any reply.同樣,聖馬可告訴猶大說:“恭喜,拉比”之前親吻他的主人,但並沒有給任何答复。 St. Matthew, after recording these words and the traitor's kiss, adds: "And Jesus said to him: Friend, whereto art thou come:" (26:50).聖馬太,記錄這些詞和叛徒的吻後,補充說:“耶穌對他說:朋友,你何以藝術來:”(26:50)。 St. Luke (22:48) gives the words: "Judas, dost thou betray the Son of man with a kiss?"聖盧克(22:48)給出的話:“猶大,還要背叛人的兒子,用一個吻嗎?”

St. Matthew is the only Evangelist to mention the sum paid by the chief priests as the price of the betrayal, and in accordance with his custom he notices that an Old Testament prophecy has been fulfilled therein (Matthew 26:15; 27:5-10).聖馬太是唯一的傳播者,更何況祭司長的背叛的價格而支付的款項,並按照他的習慣,他注意到,舊約聖經的預言已經應驗其中,(馬太福音26:15; 27:5 - 10)。 In this last passage he tells of the repentance and suicide of the traitor, on which the other Gospels are silent, though we have another account of these events in the speech of St. Peter:在這最後一段中,他講述的的悔改和自殺的叛徒,其他福音是沉默的,雖然我們有另一個帳戶在講話中對這些事件的聖彼得大教堂:

Men, brethren, the scripture must needs be fulfilled, which the Holy Ghost spoke before by the mouth of David concerning Judas, who was the leader of them that apprehended Jesus: who was numbered with us, and had obtained part of this ministry.諸位,聖經必須得到滿足,這聖靈發言之前,大衛的口,關於猶大,誰是他們的領導者,逮捕耶穌說:誰是編號與我們聯繫,並已獲得這個部的一部分。 And he indeed hath possessed a field of the reward of iniquity, and being hanged, burst asunder in the midst: and all his bowels gushed out.他的確祂所擁有的一個領域作惡的獎勵,而被處以絞刑,炸毀在中間,腸子都湧了出來。 And it became known to all the inhabitants of Jerusalem: so that the same field was called in their tongue, Haceldama, that it to say, the field of blood.它被稱為耶路撒冷的居民相同的字段被稱為在的舌頭,Haceldama,它說,血田。 For it is written in the book of Psalms: Let their habitation become desolate, and let there be none to dwell therein.因為它是寫在這本書的詩篇:讓他們的居住地成為荒涼,有沒有人住在其中。 And his bishopric let another take.他的主教,願別人得。 (Acts 1:16-20. Cf. Psalm 68:26; 108:8) (使徒行傳1:16-20。參見詩篇68:26; 108:8)

Some modern critics lay great stress on the apparent discrepancies between this passage in the Acts and the account given by St. Matthew.一些現代的批評奠定了巨大的壓力,這一段的行為和帳戶的聖馬太上的明顯差異。 For St. Peter's words taken by themselves seem to imply that Judas himself bought the field with the price of his iniquity, and that it was called "field of blood" because of his death.對於自己的聖彼得的話似乎在暗示,猶大自己與他的罪孽的價格買走了那塊,它被稱為“血田”,因為他的死亡。 But St. Matthew, on the other hand, says: "Then Judas, who betrayed him, seeing that he was condemned, repenting himself, brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and ancients, saying: I have sinned in betraying innocent blood. But they said: What is that to us? Look thou to it. And casting down the pieces of silver in the temple, he departed: and went and hanged himself with an halter."不過,聖馬太,另一方面,說:“猶大,誰背叛了他,看到他被譴責,悔改自己,帶回了30兩銀子給祭司長和古人的,他說:我犯了罪背叛無辜人的血,但他們說:那是什麼?看你。銀鑄造件,在寺廟中,他離開了,出去吊死了一個露背的。“ After this the Evangelist goes on to tell how the priests, who scrupled to put the money in the corbona because it was the price of blood, spent it in buying the potter's field for the burial of strangers, which for this cause was called the field of blood.在此之後,傳播者“上,以告訴如何的祭司,誰scrupled以把這些錢中的corbona,因為它是血的代價,花了它在買了窯戶的一塊田的埋葬陌生人,這為這項事業被稱為該領域的的血液。 And in this St. Matthew sees the fulfillment of the prophecy ascribed to Jeremias (but found in Zechariah 11:12): "And they took the thirty pieces of silver, the price of him that was prized, whom they prized of the children of Israel. And they gave them unto the potter's field, as the Lord appointed to me" (Matthew 27:9, 10).而在這聖馬太衝高到耶利米(但在撒迦利亞書11:12),看到了實現的預言:“他們花了30塊錢,他的價格是珍貴的,他們的珍貴的孩子以色列,他們就給了他們對波特的領域,作為主委任為我“(馬太福音27:9,10)。

But there does not seem to be any great difficulty in reconciling the two accounts.但似乎沒有任何極大的困難,協調這兩個帳戶。 For the field, bought with the rejected price of his treachery, might well be described as indirectly bought or possessed by Judas, albeit he did not buy it himself.的領域,他的背叛與被拒絕的價格買的,,可能間接購買或擁有的猶大,儘管他自己沒買。 And St. Peter's words about the name Haceldama might be referred to the "reward of iniquity" as well as the violent death of the traitor.聖彼得的話的名稱Haceldama可能被稱為“獎勵的罪孽”,以及暴力死亡的漢奸。 Similar difficulties are raised as to the discrepancies in detail discovered in the various accounts of the betrayal itself.類似的困難,提出了一些細節發現,在各賬戶的背叛本身的差異在。 But it will be found that, without doing violence to the text, the narratives of the four Evangelists can be brought into harmony, though in any case there will remain some obscure or doubtful points.但它會被發現,沒有暴力的文本,敘述的四福音可以帶來和諧相處,但在任何情況下都會存在一些模糊或有疑問的點。 It is disputed, for instance, whether Judas was present at the institution of the Holy Eucharist and communicated with the other Apostles.它是有爭議的,例如,是否猶大是在聖體聖事的機構與其他使徒和溝通。 But the balance of authority is in favour of the affirmative.但是,權力平衡是贊成的肯定。 There has also been some difference of opinion as to the time of the treachery.同時也出現了一些不同的意見,倒戈的時間。 Some consider that it was suddenly determined on by Judas after the anointing at Bethania, while others suppose a longer negotiation with the chief priests.有些人認為,它突然確定後的恩膏在Bethania的猶大,而其他假設有一個較長的談判與祭司長。

But these textual difficulties and questions of detail fade into insignificance beside the great moral problem presented by the fall and treachery of Judas.但是,這些文字的困難和問題,無足輕重的細節褪色的偉大的道德問題提出的秋天和背叛的猶大。 In a very true sense, all sin is a mystery.在非常真實的意義上說,所有的罪都是一個謎。 And the difficulty is greater with the greatness of the guilt, with the smallness of the motive for doing wrong, and with the measure of the knowledge and graces vouchsafed to the offender.的難度更大,與偉大的內疚,與小規模的動機做錯了,並且該措施的知識和恩典賜予的罪犯。 In every way the treachery of Judas would seem to be the most mysterious and unintelligible of sins.在每猶大的背叛似乎是最神秘和難以理解的罪。 For how could one chosen as a disciple, and enjoying the grace of the Apostolate and the privilege of intimate friendship with the Divine Master, be tempted to such gross ingratitude for such a paltry price?對於怎麼可能選擇為弟子,並享受寬限期的使徒和親密的友誼與神的法師的特權,這樣一個微不足道的價格誘惑,總忘恩負義? And the difficulty is greater when it is remembered that the Master thus basely betrayed was not hard and stern, but a Lord of loving kindness and compassion.而難度較大的時候才想起主卑鄙的背叛並不難和船尾,但一個神的慈悲。 Looked at in any light the crime is so incredible, both in itself and in all its circumstances, that it is no wonder that many attempts have been made to give some more intelligible explanation of its origin and motives, and, from the wild dreams of ancient heretics to the bold speculations of modern critics, the problem presented by Judas and his treachery has been the subject of strange and startling theories.看著在任何光線是如此的令人難以置信的犯罪,無論是在自身和其在所有情況下,這也難怪許多嘗試給予一定的解釋更容易理解它的起源和動機,並且,從狂野的夢想古代異教徒現代批評,提出的問題猶大和他的倒戈大膽的猜測一直受到奇怪的和令人吃驚的理論。 As a traitor naturally excites a peculiarly violent hatred, especially among those devoted to the cause or person betrayed, it was only natural that Christians should regard Judas with loathing, and, if it were possible, paint him blacker than he was by allowing him no good qualities at all.作為一個叛徒,自然激發獨有的暴力仇恨,尤其是那些致力於事業或個人出賣的,這是自然的,基督徒應該把猶大與厭惡,並且,如果有可能,他畫黑,比他讓他沒有在所有的優秀品質。 This would be an extreme view which, in some respects, lessens the difficulty.這將是一個極端的觀點,在某些方面,減少了困難。 For if it be supposed that he never really believed, if he was a false disciple from the first, or, as the Apocryphal Arabic Gospel of the Infancy has it, was possessed by Satan even in his childhood, he would not have felt the holy influence of Christ or enjoyed the light and spiritual gifts of the Apostolate.如果它被認為,他從來沒有真正相信,如果他是一個虛假的弟子從第一或的猜測阿拉伯語福音的嬰兒,被撒旦附體,甚至在他的童年,他就不會覺得自己的神聖影響的基督或享受光的使徒和屬靈的恩賜。

At the opposite extreme is the strange view held by the early Gnostic sect known as the Cainites described by St. Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., I, c. ult.), and more fully by Tertullian (Praesc. Haeretic., xlvii), and St. Epiphanius (Haeres., xxxviii).在另一個極端是奇怪舉行的早期諾斯底教派被稱為聖愛任紐(:副詞Haer。,I,C。ULT的Cainites),和更充分由良(Praesc. Haeretic。,四十七)和:聖埃皮法尼烏斯(Haeres.,三十八)。 Certain of these heretics, whose opinion has been revived by some modern writers in a more plausible form, maintained that Judas was really enlightened, and acted as he did in order that mankind might be redeemed by the death of Christ.若干這些異教徒,他們認為在一個更合理的形式,已經恢復了一些現代作家認為,猶大真是不看不知道,並擔任像他那樣,以基督的死,人類可能會被贖回。 For this reason they regarded him as worthy of gratitude and veneration.出於這個原因,他們認為他是值得感激和尊敬。 In the modern version of this theory it is suggested that Judas, who in common with the other disciples looked for a temporal kingdom of the Messias, did not anticipate the death of Christ, but wished to precipitate a crisis and hasten the hour of triumph, thinking that the arrest would provoke a rising of the people who would set Him free and place Him on the throne.在這一理論的現代版認為,與其他弟子猶大,看著時間的彌賽亞王國,沒有預料到基督的死,但希望沉澱的危機和加快小時的勝利,以為,逮捕會挑起上升的,將有助於他,並把他的寶座上的人。 In support of this they point to the fact that, when he found that Christ was condemned and given up to the Romans, he immediately repented of what he had done.為了支持這一點,他們指向的事實是,當他發現基督譴責和放棄的羅馬人,他馬上就後悔了,他做了什麼。 But, as Strauss remarks, this repentance does not prove that the result had not been foreseen.但是,正如施特勞斯的言論,這悔過書並不能證明未預見的結果。 For murderers, who have killed their victims with deliberate design, are often moved to remorse when the deed is actually done.對於殺人犯,殺了他們的受害者經過深思熟慮的設計,經常移動的反省,實際上是這樣做的契稅。 A Catholic, in any case, cannot view these theories with favour since they are plainly repugnant to the text of Scripture and the interpretation of tradition.在任何情況下,天主教,不能查看這些理論與青睞,因為他們清楚地令人厭惡“聖經”的文本和傳統的解釋。 However difficult it may be to understand, we cannot question the guilt of Judas.但它可能是困難的了解,我們不能懷疑有罪的猶大。 On the other hand we cannot take the opposite view of those who would deny that he was once a real disciple.另一方面,我們不能持相反的觀點,誰又能否認他​​曾經是一個真正的弟子。 For, in the first place, this view seems hard to reconcile with the fact that he was chosen by Christ to be one of the Twelve.因為,擺在首位,這一觀點似乎難以調和的事實,他被選為由基督十二門徒之一。 This choice, it may be safely said, implies some good qualities and the gift of no mean graces.這樣的選擇,它可以安全地說,意味著一些良好的素質和禮物沒有意思的青睞。 But, apart from this consideration, it may be urged that in exaggerating the original malice of Judas, or denying that there was even any good in him, we minimize or miss the lesson of this fall.但是,除了這樣的考慮,它可能會敦促誇大了原有的惡意的猶大,或拒絕,甚至出現了任何好他,我們盡量減少或錯過今年秋天的教訓。 The examples of the saints are lost on us if we think of them as being of another order without our human weaknesses.我們的聖人都將丟失的例子,如果我們認為他們沒有我們人類的弱點的另一種秩序。 And in the same way it is a grave mistake to think of Judas as a demon without any elements of goodness and grace.以同樣的方式,認為猶大作為一個惡魔,沒有任何的善良和優雅的元素,這是一個嚴重的錯誤。 In his fall is left a warning that even the great grace of the Apostolate and the familiar friendship of Jesus may be of no avail to one who is unfaithful.在他的秋天留下了警告,即使是偉大的使徒的恩典和耶穌所熟悉的友誼,可能是無濟於事的,誰是不忠實的。 And, though nothing should be allowed to palliate the guilt of the great betrayal, it may become more intelligible if we think of it as the outcome of gradual failing in lesser things. ,雖然沒有什麼應該被允許以圖減輕偉大的背叛有罪的,它有可能變得更容易理解,如果我們認為它是逐漸失敗的結果,在較小的事情。 So again the repentance may be taken to imply that the traitor deceived himself by a false hope that after all Christ might pass through the midst of His enemies as He had done before at the brow of the mountain.所以,再一次悔改的,可採取暗示的叛徒騙了自己一個虛假的希望,畢竟,基督可能通過他的敵人中間,因為他已經做了之前在大山的眉頭。 And though the circumstances of the death of the traitor give too much reason to fear the worst, the Sacred Text does not distinctly reject the possibility of real repentance.的情況雖然死亡的叛徒給太多的理由擔心最糟糕的,神聖的文字沒有明顯的拒絕真正悔改的可能性。 And Origen strangely supposed that Judas hanged himself in order to seek Christ in the other world and ask His pardon (In Matt., tract. xxxv).和奧利奇怪的應該是猶大上吊自殺,以尋求基督在另一個世界,並請他原諒(在馬特。道。三十五)。

Publication information Written by WH Kent.出版信息作者:WH肯特。 Transcribed by Thomas M. Barrett.轉錄由托馬斯M巴雷特。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

CHRYSOSTOMUS, Hom.里索斯托姆斯,坎。 De Juda Proditore: MALDONATUS and other commentators on New Testament; EPIPHANIUS, Haeres., xxxviii; Legend on death of Judas in SUICER, Thesaurus.猶大Proditore:MALDONATUS德新約聖經和其他評論員埃皮法尼烏斯,Haeres。,三十八,死亡的猶大傳說SUICER,詞庫。 Modern view in STRAUSS, Das Leben Jesu. STRAUSS,DAS LEBEN JESU的現代觀。


Judas Iscariot加略人猶大

Orthodox Information 東正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息的學術質量的其他文章中認為,由於少數東正教學術文章已經被翻譯成英語,我們已經不得不依靠東正教維基作為源。以來的維基百科藏品也沒有表明作者的名字的文章,基本上任何人都可以自由地編輯或修改任何文章(再次,沒有任何跡象顯示被改變,或者改變它),我們有顧慮。然而,為了在我們的主題,包括一個正統的角度介紹,我們發現有必要做到這一點,至少要等到實際的學術東正教文本翻譯從希臘原件!)

Judas Iscariot was originally one of the twelve apostles, but is known for his betrayal of Jesus Christ.加略人猶大是十二使徒之一,但已知為他的背叛耶穌基督。 The Wednesday fast commemorates the sorrow at this betrayal, and it is one of the events commemorated in the services of Holy Thursday.星期三快速紀念這個背叛的悲哀,這是紀念聖週四的服務的事件之一。 His place among the apostles was taken by Matthias after a vote.由Matthias表決後,他在使徒中。 He was the son of Simon Iscariot; Iscariot refers to his place of birth, Judea.他的兒子西蒙·加略人猶大,加略人猶大是指他出生的地方,猶太。 The other apostles were all from Galilee.其他使徒都是從加利利。 He is not to be confused with the Apostle Jude, brother of James.他是不被混淆的使徒猶大,雅各的弟兄。

Betrayal辜負

Plot against Jesus耶穌暗算

Judas agreed with the chief priests of the Jews to betray Jesus for thirty pieces of silver (cf. Matthew 26:14-16, Mark 14:10-11, Luke 22:1-6, John 13:2-3).猶大同意出賣耶穌的猶太人的祭司長,三十兩銀子(參見馬太福音26:14-16,馬可福音14:10-11,路加福音22:1-6,約翰福音13:2-3)。

Mystical Supper神秘的晚餐

Jesus revealed at the Mystical Supper that Judas would betray Him, fulfilling the prophecy from the Old Testament.耶穌透露,在神秘的晚餐,猶大出賣耶穌,實現從“舊約”的預言。 After the bread was blessed and broken, Judas left to fetch a guard to arrest Jesus (cf. Matthew 26:20-25; Mark 14:18-21; Luke 22:21-23; John 13:10-11, 18-29).猶大祝福和麵包碎後,留下來獲取一個警衛逮捕耶穌(參馬太福音26:20-25,馬可福音14:18-21,路加福音22:21-23;約翰福音13:10-11,18 - 29)。

Arrest逮捕

After Jesus and His apostles had eaten the meal, Judas came with an armed crowd and betrayed Jesus with a kiss.在耶穌和他的門徒猶大吃了一頓,與武裝的人群中,用一個吻出賣耶穌。 Jesus allowed this because it was part of the burden He chose to accept (cf. Matthew 26:46-50, Mark 14:42-45, Luke 22:47-48, John 18:2-5).耶穌允許的,因為它是一部分的負擔,他選擇了接受(參見馬太福音26:46-50,馬可福音14:42-45,路加福音22:47-48,約翰福音18:2-5)。

Death死亡

There are two accounts of Judas' death.猶大的死亡有兩個帳戶。
Judas, remorseful, tried to return the money, but was refused, so he threw it into the temple.猶大,懊悔,試圖返回的錢,但遭到拒絕,於是他把它扔到寺廟。 He hanged himself.他上吊自殺了。 The money was used to purchase a potter's field as a burial place for foreigners (cf. Matthew 27:3-10).這些錢被用來購買窯匠的領域,為要埋葬外鄉人(參見馬太福音27:3-10)。
Judas bought a field where he fell and died (cf. Acts 1:18-19).猶大,他買了一塊地下降,死亡(參徒1:​​18-19)。

Theological meaning神學意義

The betrayal of Christ was foretold in the prophets of the Old Testament, Jeremiah and Zachariah.出賣基督被預言的先知的舊約,耶利米書和撒迦利亞。

In the services of Holy Wednesday, Judas is contrasted with the sinful woman who anointed Jesus with costly perfume (Matthew 26:6-13).在聖週三的服務,猶大是對比的有罪的女人用膏膏耶穌的人與昂貴的香水(太26:6-13)。

In the prayers of preparation before receiving the Holy Eucharist, he is contrasted with the the thief who confessed Christ on the cross: "I will not reveal your mysteries to your enemies, neither like Judas will I betray you with a kiss, but like the thief on the cross I will confess you: 'Remember me, Lord, when You come into Your Kingdom.'"在接受聖體聖事的祈禱前的準備工作,他是對比的小偷交代了基督在十字架上的:“我不會透露您的奧秘你的敵人,既不像猶大我會背叛你一個吻,但像小偷在十字架上,我會承認你:'記住我,主啊,當你進入你的國。“

External links外部鏈接

Great and Holy Thursday (GOARCH)大和聖週四(GOARCH)
Bridegroom Services: Palm Sunday Evening through Holy Wednesday (GOARCH)新郎:棕櫚星期天晚上 - 通過聖週三(GOARCH)
"The Twelve Apostles" by Rev. George Mastrantonis (GOARCH) “十二使徒岩(Twelve Apostles)”由,牧師喬治Mastrantonis(GOARCH)


Judas Iscariot加略人猶大

Coptic Orthodox Information 科普特東正教會信息

Judas Iscariot was from the village of Kerioth in Judea.加略人猶大是在猶太的加略村。 He was the only apostle who was not a Galilean.他是唯一的使徒,不是伽利略。 Judas' name means "Praise."猶大的名字的意思是“讚美”。 It is thought because of this, that his unknown mother and his father, Simon Iscariot, were faithful Jews.正因為如此,它被認為是未知的母親,他和他的父親,西蒙·加略人猶大,忠實猶太人。

Judas was probably drawn to Jesus by the preaching of John the Baptist.猶大可能吸引到耶穌施洗約翰所傳的。 His heart was prepared to receive the teaching of Jesus because John pointed the way to the coming kingdom and the Messiah.他的心臟,因為約翰指出要來的國度和彌賽亞的方式來準備接受耶穌的教導。 Along with the other apostles, Judas had been called to walk in the footsteps of Jesus and to share in his sufferings and self-denials.除了與其他使徒猶大,被稱為走在耶穌的腳步,和大家分享他的痛苦和自我否定。 Judas, with the others, preached the kingdom, healed the sick, and cast out demons by the power of God's Holy Spirit.猶大,與其他人,宣揚天國的,治好了病,趕鬼的力量,神的聖靈。 Judas was privileged to be constantly with his Savior for three and a half years.猶大是不斷榮幸地成為他的救主,為3年半。 He witnessed the purity of Jesus' life and his loyalty and obedience to his Heavenly Father.他見證了耶穌的生平和他的忠誠和服從天父的純度。

Characteristics of This Disciple這個徒弟的特點

The other disciples and Jesus recognized in Judas a very good business sense and they placed him in charge of their treasury.其他的門徒,耶穌在猶大的認可非常良好的商業意識,他們把他放在其財務主管。 Jesus and his full-time followers didn't have time to work at secular jobs.耶穌和他的全職的追隨者沒有時間在世俗的工作。 They needed to devote their entire time to preaching the kingdom, and so some of Jesus' followers voluntarily donated money for their financial support (Luke 8:1-3).他們需要,以說教王國奉獻自己的全部時間,所以一些跟隨耶穌的自願捐款捐物的財政支持(路加福音8:1-3)。 Judas was probably very trustworthy at first in his responsibilities with the treasury and in his duties to go forth and preach the kingdom.猶大可能是非常值得信賴的,在第一次在他的職責與財政部和職務去提出和鼓吹的國度。 All of the apostles had the same privileges and special guidance of the Holy Spirit, all were tested as to their loyalty to Jesus, and all but Judas were submissive to their testing.所有的使徒,有相同的特權和特殊的聖靈的引導,所有測試他們對耶穌的忠誠度,和,但猶大屈從於他們的測試。 Judas had certain expectations of what his Lord would do to bring about the kingdom. ,猶大有一定的預期帶來的王國,他的主會做什麼。 Judas' love and devotion to Jesus was tested more and more, and soon the seed of pride and self-will took root.猶大對耶穌的愛和奉獻精神進行了測試越來越多,很快的驕傲和自尊的種子,扎下了根。 In time it took over his entire character.隨著時間的推移,它接管了他的整個字符。 The more time went on, the more Judas became entrenched in his own will.的更多時間的推移,更多的猶大成為盤踞在他自己的意志。 Judas, no doubt, thought of the treasury as a means to also bring about his plans.猶大,毫無疑問,想的國債作為一種手段,也帶來了他的計劃。 He hoarded the purse of money as if it were his own.他囤積的錢包的錢,如果這是他自己的。 He became obsessed with the idea of money.他熱衷於用錢的想法。 Six days before Jesus was crucified, Judas was so concerned about money that he rebuked the Lord for allowing Mary to pour her precious ointment upon his head.前六天,耶穌被釘在十字架上,猶大是那麼在乎錢,他斥責主讓瑪麗在他的頭上倒她珍貴的軟膏。 He exclaimed, "What a waste! This ointment might have been sold for a year's wage and given to the poor!"他感嘆道,“什麼是浪費!這種藥膏可能已經賣了一年的工資,並給窮人!” How wrong it was for Judas to have criticized this sweet sacrifice of Mary.批評錯了,它是為猶大瑪麗這個可愛的犧牲。 And how doubly wrong to criticize his Master in front of all his followers.錯上加錯批評他的主人在他的所有追隨者面前。 He even got some of the others to join in the criticism.他甚至得到了一些其他人加入的批評。 But Jesus rebuked him back saying, "Leave her alone for she anoints me for my burial!"耶穌就斥責他說,“讓她一個人,她膏抹我為我安葬!” Judas' pretended zeal for the poor was really greed for his purse (Matthew 26:7-12; John 12:3-8).猶大假裝的熱情,為窮人真的是他的錢包的貪婪(太26:7-12;約翰福音12:3-8)。 The love of money ensnared Judas and his love for his Lord was in question (1 Timothy 6:10).錢陷入猶大和他的愛,他的主的愛問題(提摩太前書6:10)。

The final event of Judas' life proved that he no longer lived to serve his Lord Jesus, but he now lived to serve himself and his schemes.最後的事件證明了他不再活著,為他的主耶穌的猶大的生活,但他現在居住為他自己和他的計劃。 He no longer was inspired by his Lord Jesus, but was now inspired by the prince of evil, Satan (John 13:2).他不再是他的主耶穌的啟發,但現在的王子,邪惡,撒旦(約翰福音13:2)的啟發。 After the incident with Mary, Judas went to the chief priests who had already been plotting to rid themselves of Jesus, and he said, "What will you give me if I deliver Jesus to you?"事件發生後,猶大與瑪麗去誰已經密謀擺脫耶穌的祭司長,和他說,“你給我什麼,如果我提供的是耶穌給你嗎?” They contracted to pay him 30 pieces of silver.他們合同向他支付30個銀幣。 This was prophesied in Zechariah 11:12-13.這是在撒迦利亞書11:12-13預言。 From this point on, Judas sought an opportunity to betray Jesus (Matthew 26:14-16).從這個角度上,,猶大尋求機會,要把耶穌(馬太福音26:14-16)。 So when the night of the Passover had come, Jesus said to the Twelve, "It is the one to whom I will give this piece of bread when I have dipped it in the dish."所以,當耶穌在逾越節的晚上來了,到十二,說:“這是一個人,我會給這片麵包,當我在盤子裡蘸一點。” Then, dipping the piece of bread, he gave it to Judas Iscariot.然後,蘸了一塊麵包,他給它加略​​人猶大。 Even with all of the clues, the others still did not know of Judas' treachery (John 13:26-29).即使所有的線索,仍然不知道猶大的背叛“(約翰福音13:26-29)。 When someone shared a meal with another it represented a vow of trust and friendship.當一個人與另一個共享一餐,它代表了信任和友誼的誓言。 Judas did not belong at the Last Supper.猶大不屬於在“最後的晚餐”。 It was after this that Jesus told Judas to leave and be about his evil business.在此之後,耶穌告訴猶大離開,他的邪惡業務。 Judas left and went straight to the chief priests.猶大離開,直奔祭司長。 Jesus was in the Garden of Gethsemane when Judas led a multitude of priests, servants and elders to his Master.耶穌在客西馬尼園,,當猶大帶領眾多的祭司,公務員和長者他的主人。 Judas came to Jesus and said, "Greetings, Rabbi," (Matthew 26:49) and then he kissed Jesus.猶大來到耶穌面前,說:“你好,拉比”(馬太福音26:49),然後他吻了耶穌。 Even then Judas thought of Jesus as his Master and probably thought of this whole event as a way to get Jesus to take control.即使是這樣,猶大認為耶穌為他的主人可能會想到一個辦法讓耶穌來控制這整個事件。 But the group seized Jesus and led him away to be crucified.但是,本集團抓住耶穌,帶他出去,要釘在十字架上。 When Judas saw that he was wrong and that his plans had failed, he went back to the chief priests the next morning and said, "I have sinned for I have betrayed innocent blood."當猶大看見他錯了,他的計劃已經失敗,他又回到祭司長,第二天早上說:“我犯了罪,因為我背叛了無辜人的血。” And they said, "What is that to us? That is your responsibility!"他們說,“那與我們有什麼相干呢?那是你的責任!” (Matthew 27:4-5). (馬太福音27:4-5)。 Judas threw down the pieces of silver, ran away and hanged himself.猶大扔下兩銀子,離家出走,上吊自殺了。

Did Judas repent of his crime?難道猶大悔改自己的罪行嗎? From what we know, it doesn't appear so.從我們所知道的,所以它不會出現。 In Acts we are told that another was selected "to take over this apostolic ministry, which Judas left to go where he belongs" (1:25).在使徒行傳告訴我們另外一個選擇了“接管這使徒猶大離開他所屬的地方去”(1:25)。 The final determination concerning Judas is in the Lord's hands.關於猶大的最終決定是在主的手中。 All we can do is examine Judas' actions and apply lessons from his experiences to our own characters.所有我們能做的就是檢查猶大的行為,並申請從他的經驗教訓,以我們自己的角色。 Never did he cry out to his Master, "oh, Lord, forgive! I am sorry, I was so wrong!"他從來沒有大聲呼喊他的主人,“哦,主啊,請原諒!”我很抱歉,我真的錯了!“ No, instead he went to his accomplices in crime, the chief priests who could grant no forgiveness.不,相反,他去他的同夥犯罪的,可以不予寬恕的祭司長。 His pride kept him from facing his brethren and seeking their forgiveness and their help to recover from his sins.他的驕傲使他面對他的弟兄們,並尋求他們的寬恕和他們的幫助,以恢復他的罪。 When the Apostle Peter sinned by denying the Lord three times, he humbly returned to his brothers and repented.當使徒彼得否認主三次犯了罪,他謙虛地回到他的兄弟改邪歸正。 Judas acted pridefully to the end.猶大擔任擊敗的。 In his mind he thought the only way out was to kill himself, for to turn back would have meant admitting to all that he was wrong.在他的心中,他認為唯一的出路是自殺,回頭將意味著承認,他錯了。 He didn't think of the special assistance of the Holy Spirit that he was provided.他沒想到的聖靈,他提供特別援助。 He selfishly ended his covenant to deny himself, take up his cross and follow Jesus.他自私地結束了他的約當捨己,背起他的十字架,跟隨耶穌。 Instead, he committed suicide.相反,他自殺了。

In the case of Judas, Jesus offered many opportunities for Judas to repent.耶穌在猶大的案件中,提供了許多機會,猶大悔改。 Jesus was of a gentle and generous spirit toward Judas right up to the very last act when Judas betrayed Jesus with a kiss.耶穌的溫柔和慷慨的精神向猶大,到最後的行​​為時,猶大出賣耶穌用一個吻。 Judas still had a choice at that point to seek forgiveness from his Master.猶大仍然有一個選擇,在這一點上尋求寬恕他的主人。

We should take to heart the lesson of this gentle manner of Jesus when dealing with those who oppose us.在處理那些反對我們的人,我們應該採取這種溫和的方式,耶穌的心可鑑。 We must keep in mind that we are not the judges of our brethrens' hearts.我們必須記住,我們不是法官對我們的brethrens的心。 Both Peter and Judas opposed the Lord, but Jesus was loving and patient with them.彼得和猶大反對的主,但耶穌與他們的愛心和耐心。 He worked with them to help bring them back into harmony with God.他與他們合作,幫助他們與神和諧。 God allowed Peter to stray far from faith for a time only to show Peter the lesson of his frail flesh.上帝讓彼得相去不遠一次只能顯示彼得的教訓,他的虛弱的肉體的信心。 Some of our fellow Christians may stray far from the Lord as well, and, yet, there is still hope to the end.我們的一些基督徒可能太遠從主,和,但是,還是有希望的。 Judas Iscariot had every opportunity to be purified by the truth and be useful in the work of the Lord, but instead he became a servant of Satan.加略人猶大完全有機會得到淨化的真實性和有用的工作的主,但他卻成為了撒旦的僕人。 Jesus said that of the twelve apostles given to him by his Heavenly Father, "None has been lost except the one doomed to destruction" (John 17:12).耶穌說,他的天父給他的十二使徒,“無已消失,但一個注定要滅亡”(約翰福音17:12)。 Jesus also said, "But woe to that man who betrays the Son of Man! It would be better for him if he had not been born" (Matthew 26:24; John 6:70).耶穌也說:“賣人子的人了,那人有禍了!這是更適合他,如果他還沒有出生”(馬太福音26:24,約翰福音6:70)。 Judas gave up his privilege as a faithful follower of Jesus: one who would be worthy to be called one of the twelve Apostles of the Lamb.猶大放棄了自己的特權,作為一個忠實的跟隨耶穌:一個會是誰不配被稱為羔羊的十二使徒之一。 Though we learn lessons from the life of Judas Iscariot, we cannot claim him as one who is a firm foundation to the Church.雖然我們從中汲取教訓的加略人猶大的生活,我們不能要求他是對教會了堅實的基礎。 Instead, the honored place he would have held as being part of the Messiah's work was filled by another.相反,歷史悠久的地方,他作為彌賽亞的工作的一部分,將持有填補另一個。

The symbol for Judas is a bag and thirty pieces of silver.猶大的符號是一個袋子裡,30個銀幣。 The moneybag reminds us that Judas was the treasurer of the disciples and that he helped himself to its contents (12:6).錢袋提醒我們,猶大是掌櫃的弟子,他幫助自己的內容(12:6)。 The thirty pieces of silver was his payment for betraying the Lord.三十個銀幣出賣主是他的付款。 Another symbol shows thirty coins above a rope in the form of a "J."另一種符號顯示30硬幣上面的繩子形式的“J.” Sometimes the symbol is totally blank indicating the traitor deserves no remembrance.有時是完全空白的指示的叛徒不值得回憶的象徵。

James F. Korthals詹姆斯·F. Korthals



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