(Divine) Judgment (神聖的)判決

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Because we are born in sin and therefore cannot live up to God's righteous standards, condemnation (damnation, the older synonym, has other connotations today) hangs over our heads like the sword of Damocles (II Pet. 2:3; Rom. 1:18; Eph. 5:5-6; Col. 3:5-6).因為我們是生在罪中,因此不能辜負上帝的公義標準,譴責(詛咒,舊的代名詞,具有其他含義的今天)掛在我們頭上的達摩克利斯之劍(II寵物。2:3像劍,羅1: 18,弗5:5-6;歌羅西書3:5-6)。 God himself is the one who condemns (Job 10:2; Jer. 42:18; John 12:48).上帝是一個人譴責(伯10:2,耶利米書42:18;約翰福音12:48)。 His condemnation is based on his justice, and such condemnation is deserved (I Kings 8:32; Rom. 3:8; Gal. 1:8-9).他是基於他的正義譴責,這種譴責是實至名歸(列王紀上8:32;羅馬書3:8;加拉太書1:8-9)。 Condemnation comes to the wicked and unrepentant (Matt. 12:41-42; Luke 11:31-32; John 5:29; Rom. 5:16, 18; II Thess. 2:12; Rev. 19:2) and results in eternal punishment (Matt. 23:33), but no OT believer who trusted in God (Ps. 34:22) or NT believer who trusts in Christ (John 3:18; 5:24) will be condemned.譴責II帖撒羅尼迦前書2:12;啟19:2)和邪惡和頑固不化(馬太福音12:41-42,路加福音11:31-32,約5:29,羅5:16,18;結果在永恆的懲罰(馬太福音23:33),但沒有OT信徒的信任,神“(詩篇34:22)或NT信徒相信基督(約翰福音3:18; 5:24)必被定罪。 Jesus came to save rather than to condemn (John 3:17), and he frees us from final condemnation (Rom. 8:1-2).耶穌來拯救,而不是譴責(約翰福音3:17),他可以讓我們從最後的譴責(羅馬書8:1-2)。

Conscience may cause us to condemn ourselves (I John 3:19-21), but no one can justly condemn the righteous if God is on his side (Isa. 50:9; Titus 2:7-8).良心可能導致我們譴責自己(約翰一書3:19-21),但沒有人可以理直氣壯地譴責正義的,如果上帝是在他的身邊(以賽亞書50:9;提多書2:7-8)。 In fact, the Lord prevents or reverses unfair condemnation by our enemies (Pss. 37:33; 79:11; 102:19-20; 109:31).事實上,耶和華我們的敵人,阻止或逆轉不公平的譴責(Pss. 37:33,79:11; 102:19-20; 109:31)。 Self-righteous people should avoid condemning others (Job 32:3; Luke 6:37; Rom. 8:34; 14:3) because quickness to condemn may recoil on their own heads (Job 15:6; Ps. 34:21; Luke 6:37; Rom. 2:1; Titus 3:10-11).自以為是的人應該避免譴責別人(伯32:3,路加福音6:37,羅8:34; 14:3),因為速度譴責可能反沖在自己頭上(伯15:6;詩34:21。路加福音6:37,羅2:1,提多書3:10-11)。 Needless to say, it is the height of arrogance and folly for sinful people to condemn a just and omnipotent God (Job 34:17, 29; 40:8).不用說,這是高度的傲慢和愚蠢為罪孽深重的人,譴責公正和萬能的神(伯34:17,29; 40:8)。

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Divine judgment is God's method of displaying his mercy as well as his wrath toward individuals and nations (Exod. 6:6, 7:4; Eccles. 3:17; 12:14; Dan. 7:22; Joel 3:2; II Cor. 5:10).神聖的判決是上帝的方法,顯示他的憐憫以及他的憤怒,對個人和國家(出埃及記6:6,7:4;埃克爾斯。3:17; 12:14;丹。7:22,約珥書3:2;哥林多後書5:10)。 As God is the one who condemns, so also he is the true and only Judge (Gen. 18:25; Ps. 82:1; Eccles. 11:9), an office and function shared by the Father (Gen. 31:53; John 8:50; Rom. 3:6) and the Son (Acts 10:42; 17:31; Rom. 2:16).因為上帝是一個人譴責,他是真正的和唯一的法官(創18:25;詩82:1;埃克爾斯。11:9),一間辦公室和功能共享的父親(創31: 53約翰福音8:50;羅3:6)和兒子(使徒行傳10:42; 17:31;羅馬書2:16)。 Retributive or negative judgment is a direct result of sin (I Sam. 3:13; Ezek. 7:3, 8, 27; Rom. 2:12; Jude 14-15) and is therefore both just (Ezek. 33:20; II Tim. 4:8; I Pet. 2:23) and deserved (Pss. 94:2; 143:2; Ezek. 18:30).報復性的或負面的判斷的直接結果是罪(我心。3:13;結7:3,8,27,羅2:12;猶大書14-15),因此剛(以西結書33:20提摩太前書4:8;我的寵物。2:23),值得(詩94:2; 143:2;以西結書18:30)。 Rewarding or positive judgment relates to the believer's stewardship of his talents and gifts and is therefore characterized by divine compassion (Matt. 25:14-23; I Cor. 3:12-15; I Pet. 1:17).獎勵或正面的判斷,涉及到信徒的領導下,他的天賦和才能,因此特點是神的憐憫(馬太福音25:14-23,我肺心病。3:12-15,我的寵物。1:17)。 Although we experience judgment initially in this life, all of us are judged ultimately after death (Isa. 66:16; Jer. 25:31; Joel 3:12; John 12:48; Acts 17:31; Rom. 2:16; Rev. 20:12-13) at the judgment seat of God (Rom. 14:10) or Christ (II Cor. 5:10).雖然我們最初是在這樣的生活經驗判斷,我們所有的人都判斷最終後死亡(以賽亞書66:16,耶利米書25:31,約珥書3:12,約翰福音12:48,使徒行傳17:31;羅馬書2:16啟20:12-13)神(羅14:10),基督(哥林多後書5:10)在審判席上。 Self-judgment, another manifestation of the same activity, is brought about by rebellion and willfulness (Rom. 13:2; I Cor. 11:29; I Tim. 5:12).自我判斷,同樣的活動的另一種表現形式,所帶來的叛逆和任性(羅13:2,哥林多前書11:29;我添。5:12)。

It is not only human beings who are judged, however, God also judges other gods, real or imagined (Exod. 12:12; Num. 33:4; Jer. 10:14-15), and angels as well (II Pet. 2:4; Jude 6).它不僅是人類判斷,然而,上帝也法官神,真實的或想像(出埃及記12:12;民33:4;耶利米書10:14-15),和天使,以及(II寵物2:4;猶大書6)。 The devil himself is not exempt from such judgment (I Tim. 3:6).魔鬼是不能免除這樣的判斷(我添。3:6)。 And although in the final analysis God is the only judge, he has chosen to allow us to participate with Christ in judging the world (Matt. 19:28; Luke 22:30; I Cor. 6:2; Rev. 20:4), including the angels (I Cor. 6:3).雖然在最後的分析中,上帝是唯一的法官,他選擇了,讓我們與基督的審判世界(馬太福音19:28;路加福音22:30,哥林多前書6:2;啟示錄20:4 ),包括天使(林前6:3)。

The story of Noah's flood contains several principles concerning divine judgment that are worth careful consideration.挪亞洪水的故事,包含了關於神的審判,是值得認真考慮的幾個原則。 (1) God's judgments are never arbitrary. (1)神的審判是永遠不會武斷的。 Man's sin is God's sorrow (Gen. 6:5-6).人的罪是神的悲哀(創6:5-6)。 The Lord is not capricious when he judges.主是不是反复無常,當他的法官。 He makes a considered and deliberate decision before unleashing his punishment.他提出了考慮和深思熟慮的決定之前釋放他的懲罰。 (2) God can be counted on always to judge sin (Gen. 6:7). (2)神可以算的上始終判斷的罪(創6:7)。 No sin escapes his notice; his judgment on sin is inevitable (Rom. 2:3; Heb. 9:27-27).沒有罪逃脫他的注意,他對罪的判決是不可避免的(羅馬書2:3;希伯來書9:27-27)。 (3) God always announces judgment beforehand (Gen. 6:13). (3)神總是事先宣布的判決(創6:13)。 He informs us that our evil deeds are condemned by him and will be judged by him.他告訴我們,我們的劣跡譴責他,將他的判斷。 (4) God always gives sinners an opportunity to repent before judging them (see Acts 17:30-31; Rom. 2:4; II Pet. 3:9). (4)上帝總是給人罪人悔改前判斷他們的機會(見徒17:30-31;羅2:4;二寵物。3:9)。 There was a period of 120 years of grace for the people of Noah's day (Gen. 6:3).挪亞的日子(創6:3)的人,有一段120年的寬限期。 (5) God always follows through on his decision to judge (cf. Gen. 7:4 with vss. 12 and 23), once he has announced it and once people have had an opportunity to repent. (5)神總是通過如下的判斷對他的決定(參創7:4與VSS 12和23),一旦他宣布,一旦人們有機會悔改。 His judgments are irreversible.他的判斷是不可逆的。 (6) God's judgments always lead to death (see Jer. 51:18; Hos. 6:5). (6)上帝的判決總是導致死亡(見耶利米書51:18何西阿6:5)。 Gen. 7:17-24, the only paragraph in the flood narrative that does not contain the name of God, reeks with the smell of death.創世記7:17-24,唯一的段洪水中的敘述,不包含以上帝的名義,瀰漫著死亡的氣息。 When judgment results in death, God is no longer there.當判斷導致死亡,上帝不再存在。

But the flood story teaches us also that (7) God's judgments always include elements of both justice and grace.但洪水的故事還告訴我們:(7)神的判斷,包括正義與恩典。 Though the story of the flood begins with judgment, it ends with redemption; though it begins with a curse (Gen. 6:7), it ends with a covenant (9:11).雖然故事的洪水開始與判斷,它與贖回結束,雖然它開始與詛咒(創6:7),立約(9:11)結束。 If judgment always issues life.如果判斷總是發出生命。 Judgment is never God's last or best word to those who believe in him, because "mercy triumphs over judgment" (James 2:13).判斷是從來沒有神的或最好的詞來那些相信他的人,因為“慈悲戰勝判斷”(雅各書2:13)。

R Youngblood ŕ布拉德
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
L. Morris, The Biblical Doctrine of Judgment; R. Youngblood, How It All Began; F. Buchsel, TDNT, III, 921-54; W. Schneider et al., NIDNTT, II, 361-71. “聖經”教義的判斷莫里斯的影響,R.布拉德,這一切是如何開始的樓Buchsel,TDNT,III,921-54; W. Schneider等人,NIDNTT,II,361-71。


Divine Judgment神的審判

Catholic Information 天主教信息

This subject will be treated under two heads:根據兩國元首就此問題進行處理:

I. Divine Judgment Subjectively and Objectively Considered;一,神的審判主觀和客觀;

II. II。 Pre-Christian Beliefs Concerning Judgment after Death.前基督教信仰有關判決死刑後。

Particular Judgment and General Judgment will be treated in separate articles.單獨的條款將被視為在特定的判斷和綜合判斷。

I. DIVINE JUDGMENT SUBJECTIVELY AND OBJECTIVELY CONSIDERED一,神的審判主觀和客觀的考慮

Divine judgment (judicium divinum), as an immanent act of God, denotes the action of God's retributive justice by which the destiny of rational creatures is decided according to their merits and demerits.神聖的判斷(judicium divinum),作為一種內在的神的行為,表示神的報應正義的行動是理性的動物的命運決定根據自己的優點和缺點。 This includes:這包括:

God's knowledge of the moral worth of the acts of free creatures (scientia approbationis et reprobationis), and His decree determining the just consequences of such acts;神的自由生物(科學,approbationis等reprobationis),和他的法令確定的只是這種行為的後果的行為的道德價值的知識;

the Divine verdict upon a creature amenable to the moral law, and the execution of this sentence by way of reward and punishment.神聖的判決後,一個生物服從的道德律,獎勵和懲罰的方式執行這句話。

It is clear, of course, that the judgment, as it is in God, cannot be a process of distinct and successive acts; it is a single eternal act identical with the Divine Essence.當然,很明顯,的判決,因為它是在神,不能是一個獨特的和連續的行為過程中,它是一個單一的永恆的神聖本質相同的行為。 But the effects of the judgment, since they take place in creatures, follow the sequence of time.但是,該判決的影響,因為它們發生在生物,按照時間序列。 The Divine judgment is manifested and fulfilled at the beginning, during the progress, and at the end of time.神聖的判決是在一開始表現和履行過程中的進展情況,並在年底的時間。 In the beginning, God pronounced judgment upon the whole race, as a consequence of the fall of its representatives, the first parents (Genesis 3).開始的時候,上帝宣判後,整場比賽,秋天的代表,第一對父母(創3)的結果。 Death and the infirmities and miseries of this were the consequences of that original sentence.死亡的軟弱和痛苦,這是原句所帶來的後果。 Besides this common judgment there have been special judgments on particular individuals and peoples.除了這個共同的判斷,特別是個人和人民的特殊判斷。 Such great catastrophes as the flood (Genesis 6:5), the destruction of Sodom (Genesis 28:20), the earthquake that swallowed up Core and his followers (Numbers 16:30), the plagues of Egypt (Exodus 6:6; 12:12), and the evil that came upon other oppressors of Israel (Ezekiel 25:11; 28:22) are represented in the Bible as Divine judgments.如此巨大的災難,洪水(創世紀6:5),所多瑪的毀滅(創28:20),地震吞噬了核心和他的追隨者(16:30),埃及的瘟疫(出埃及記6:6; 12:12),來到以色列的壓迫者和邪惡的(以西結書25:11; 28:22)在聖經中代表神聖的判斷。 The fear of God is such a fundamental idea in the Old Testament that it insists mainly on the punitive aspect of the judgment (cf. Proverbs 11:31; Ezekiel 14:21).敬畏上帝是這樣一個基本的想法在舊約中,它主要是堅決主張懲罰性方面的判斷(見箴言11:31,以西結書14:21)。 An erroneous view of these truths led many of the rabbis to teach that all the evil which befalls man is a special chastisement from on high, a doctrine which was declared false by Christ.這些真理的一個錯誤的觀點,導致許多的拉比教導說,所有的邪惡降臨的人高,被宣布為假的基督的教義是一種特殊的懲罰。

There is also a judgment of God in the world that is subjective.還有一個在世界上是主觀判斷的神。 By his acts man adheres to or deviates from the law of God, and thereby places himself within the sphere of approval or condemnation.通過他的行為的人堅持還是背離上帝的律法,並由此將自己的範圍內,批准或譴責。 In a sense, then, each individual exercises judgment on himself.然後,在某種意義上說,每個人在行使自己的判斷。 Hence it is declared that Christ came not to judge but to save (John 3:17; 8:15; 12:47).因此,宣稱基督來,不是法官,但保存(約翰福音3:17,8:15,12:47)。 The internal judgment proceeds according to a man's attitude: towards Christ (John 3:18).根據一個人的態度進行內部判斷:對基督(約翰福音3:18)。 Though all the happenings of life cannot be interpreted as the outcome of Divine judgment, whose external manifestation is therefore intermittent, the subjective judgment is coextensive with the life of the individual and of the race.雖然所有發生的事情,生活不能被理解為神聖的判決的結果,它的外在表現形式,因此間歇性的,主觀判斷與個人生活的比賽是共存的。 The judgment at the end of time will complement the previous visitations of Divine retribution and will manifest the final result of the daily secret judgment.該判決在年底的時候將補充天譴以前的探訪,並會表現出日常的秘密判決的最終結果。 By its sentence the eternal destiny of creatures will be decided.通過對句子的生物永恆的命運將被決定。 As there is a twofold end of time, so there is likewise a twofold eternal judgment: the particular judgment, at the hour of death, which is the end of time for the individual, and the general judgment, at the final epoch of the world's existence, which is the end of time for the human race.由於那裡是一個雙重的結束時間,所以有是同樣一個雙重永恆的判斷:特定的判斷,在死亡的時刻,這是對個人的時間結束,和一般的判斷,在的最後劃時代的世界的存在,這是人類的時間。

II. II。 PRE-CHRISTIAN BELIEFS CONCERNING JUDGMENT AFTER DEATH前基督教信仰判決死刑後,

The idea of a final readjustment beyond the grave, which would rectify the sharp contrast so often observed between the conduct and the fortune of men, was prevalent among all nations in pre-Christian times.所有國家在基督教時代以前的想法超越了墳墓,這將糾正了鮮明的對比,所以經常觀察到的行為和財富的男人,最後的調整是普遍存在的。 Such was the doctrine of metempsychosis or the transmigration of souls, as a justification of the ways of God to man, prevailing among the Hindus of all classes and sects, the Pythagoreans, the Orphic mystics, and the Druids.這是的輪迴或靈魂輪迴的學說,作為上帝的方式對人的理由,當時所有的類和教派,畢達哥拉斯學派的俄耳甫斯的神秘主義者,和德魯伊之間的印度教徒。 The doctrine of a forensic judgment in the unseen world, by which the eternal lot of departed souls is determined, was also widely prevalent in pre-Christian times.法醫的判斷看不見的世界中的教義,離去的靈魂是永恆的很多決定前基督教時代,也廣泛流行。

The Egyptian idea of the judgment is set forth with great precision of detail in the "Book of the Dead", a collection of formulae designed to aid the dead in their passage through the underworld (EGYPT).埃及想法的判斷非常精確的細節,“死者之書”,集合公式,旨在通過黑社會(埃及),以幫助死者在其通過載。 The Babylonians and the Assyrians make no distinction between the good and the bad so far as the future habitation is concerned.巴比倫人和亞述人,沒有區分好的和壞的,未來的居住環境。 In the Gilgames epic the hero is marked as judge of the dead, but whether his rule was the moral value of their actions is not clear.在史詩的Gilgames“英雄標記為法官的死,但他的統治是否為自己的行為的道德價值是不明確的。 An unerring judgment and compensation in the future life was a cardinal point in the mythologies of the Persians, Greeks, and Romans.在今後的生活能無誤地判斷和補償是波斯人,希臘人和羅馬人的神話中的一個基本點。 But, while these mythological schemes were credited as strict verities by the ignorant body of the people, the learned saw in them only the allegorical presentation of truth.但是,儘管這些神話中的計劃入賬列作嚴格的真理的無知的人身體,據悉他們看到的寓言介紹的真理。 There were always some who denied the doctrine of a future life, and this unbelief went on increasing till, in the last days of the Republic, skepticism regarding immortality prevailed among Greeks and Romans. ,在共和國的最後日子裡,總是有一些人否認了這一學說的未來的生活,不信就增加,直到希臘人和羅馬人之間普遍持懷疑態度不朽。

With the Jews.隨著猶太人。 the judgment of the living was a far more prominent idea than the judgment of the dead.生活的判斷比的判斷,死者是一個更為突出的理念。 The Pentateuch contains no express mention of remuneration in the future life, and it was only at a comparatively late period, under the influence of a fuller revelation, that the belief in resurrection and judgment began to play a capital part in the faith of Judaism.摩西五經中包含的薪酬在未來的生活中沒有明確提及,它只是在一個相對較晚的時期,更全面的啟示,開始發揮資金的一部分,在猶太教的信仰復活的信念和判斷的影響下。 The traces of this theological development are plainly visible in the Machabean era.這神學發展的痕跡清晰可見在Machabean時代。 Then arose the two great opposing parties, the Pharisees and the Sadducees, whose divergent interpretations of Scripture led to heated controversies, especially regarding the future life.於是出現了兩大對立黨派,法利賽人和撒都該人,不同的解釋“聖經”,導致了激烈的爭議,特別是關於未來的生活。 The Sadducees denied all reward and penalty in the hereafter, while there opponents encumbered the truth with ludicrous details.撒都該人否認了所有的獎勵和懲罰,而在此後的對手擔保的真理與荒謬的細節。 Thus some of the rabbis asserted that the trumpet which would summon the world to judgment would be one of the horns of the ram which Abraham offered up instead of his son Isaac.因此,一些聲稱的拉比,小號將召集世界做出判斷,將角的公羊亞伯拉罕獻上他的兒子以撒,而不是之一。 Again they said: "When God judges the Israelites, He will stand, and make the judgment brief and mild; when He judges the Gentiles, he will sit and make it long and severe."他們再次說:“當神審判以色列人,他會受不了,和作出判斷的短暫和溫和的;當他判斷外邦人,他會坐下來,它的長期和嚴重的。” Apart from such rabbinical fables, the current belief reflected in the writings of the rabbis and the pseudographs at the beginning of the Christian Era was that of a preliminary judgment and of a final judgment to occur at the consummation of the world, the former to be executed against the wicked by the personal prowess of the Messiah and of the saints of Israel, the latter to be pronounced as an eternal sentence by God or the Messiah.除了從這些猶太教的寓言,目前信念反映的拉比的著作中的“偽基督教時代的開始,是一個初步的判斷和最終判決發生了圓滿的世界,前者是執行對惡人的個人威力的彌賽亞和以色列的聖徒,後者明顯彌賽亞神或作為一個永恆的句子。 The particular judgment of the individual person is lost sight of in the universal judgment by which the Messiah vindicate the wrongs endured by Israel.特定的個人判斷忽略的彌賽亞以色列所承受的錯誤辯護的普遍判斷。 With Alexandrian Judaism, on the contrary, with that at least of which Philo is the exponent, the dominant idea was that of an immediate retribution after death.有了亞歷山大猶太教,與此相反,與至少其中斐洛是指數的,佔主導地位的想法是,立即報應死後。 The two dissenting sects of Israel, the Essenes and the Samaritans, were in agreement with the majority of Jews as to the existence of a discriminating retribution in the life to come.兩個反對的教派,以色列,愛色尼和撒瑪利亞,與大多數猶太人的判別報應在生活中的存在。 The Essenes believed in the preexistence of souls, but taught that the after-existence was an unchanging state of bliss or woe according to the deeds done in the body.愛色尼人相信前世的靈魂,更要教後的存在是一種狀態不變的幸福,榮辱與共的事蹟在體內完成。 The eschatological tenets of the Samaritans were at first few and vague.撒瑪利亞人的末世論的原理,在一些和模糊。 Their doctrine of the resurrection and of the day of vengeance and recompense was a theology patterned after the model of Judaism, and first formulated for the sect by its greatest theologian, Marka (AD fourth century)他們的學說的復活,復仇和補償的一天是一個神學仿照的模式猶太教,並制定了“法輪功”偉大的神學家,馬爾卡(公元第四世紀)

Publication information Written by JA McHugh.出版信息的書面JA McHugh說。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄由Donald J.恩賜。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume VIII.天主教百科全書,音量八。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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