Machpelah麥比拉

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

Biblical and Post-Biblical Data: 聖經和聖經後的數據:

Machpelah was the name of a field and cave bought by Abraham as a burying-place. The meaning of the name, which always occurs with the definite article, is not clear; according to the Targumim and the Septuagint it means "the double," while Gesenius ("Th."), with more reason, connects it with the Ethiopic for "the portion." ,麥比拉是一個字段的名稱和洞穴買了亞伯拉罕掩埋的地方。這個名字的含義,這總是發生在定冠詞,目前尚不清楚,根據的Targumim和septuagint它的意思是“雙”而格澤紐斯(“釷。”),與更多的,因此,把它連接該ethiopic為“部”。 It appears to have been situated near Mamre, or Hebron, and to have belonged to Epbron the Hittite.這似乎已位於幔利,或希伯倫附近,屬於Epbron,赫人。 Abraham needed a burying-place for Sarah, and bought the field of the Machpelah, at the end of which was a cave, paying four hundred silver shekels.亞伯拉罕需要一個埋在莎拉,買的麥比拉領域,在其中一個山洞裡,支付四百銀十舍客勒。 The cave became the family burying-place, Sarah being the first to be buried there; later, Abraham, Isaac, Rebekah, Leah, and Jacob were placed there (Gen. xxiii. 9, 16-20; xxv. 9; xlix. 30-31; 1. 13).洞穴成為家庭埋葬的地方,莎拉是第一個被埋葬在那裡,後來擺在那裡,亞伯拉罕,以撒,利百加,利亞和雅各(創二十三。9,16-20;二十五。9 XLIX。 30-31; 13)。 It is designated twice only as the "cave" of the Machpelah (Gen. xxiii. 9, xxv. 9); in the other instances it is called "the cave of the field of the Machpelah" or "the cave in the field of the Machpelah."兩次只被指定為“洞穴”的麥比拉(創二十三,二十五。9 9)在其他情況下,它被稱為“洞穴的的麥比拉”的或“領域的洞穴麥比拉。“ No further reference is made to it or to the burying-place of the Patriarchs, though some scholars find an allusion to it in II Sam.沒有進一步提到了它埋葬的始祖,雖然一些學者還發現一個典故,它在二,三。 xv.十五。 7, 9. 7,9。

Josephus speaks of the purchase of Ephron's field at Hebron by Abraham as a place of burial and of the tombs (Μνημεῖα) built there by Abraham and his descendants, without, however, mentioning the name "Machpelah" ("Ant." i. 14. 22).約瑟夫談到的購買弗崙的領域在希伯倫的亞伯拉罕作為一個地方的墓地和的墓葬(Μνημεῖα)建有亞伯拉罕和他的後裔,沒有,但是,提的名稱“麥比拉”(“螞蟻。”我。14 22頁)。 In the twelfth century the cave of the Machpelah began to attract visitors and pilgrims, and this aroused the curiosity and wonder of the natives.在12世紀的開始,以吸引遊客和朝聖者的麥比拉洞穴,這引起了當地人的好奇和驚嘆。 Benjamin of Tudela relates: "At Hebron there is a large place of worship called 'St. Abraham,' which was previously a Jewish synagogue. The natives erected there six sepulchers, which they tell foreigners are those of the Patriarchs and their wives, demanding money as a condition of seeing them. If a Jew gives an additional fee to the keeper of the cave, an iron door which dates from the time of our forefathers opens, and the visitor descends with a lighted candle. He crosses two empty caves, and in the third sees six tombs, on which the names of the three Patriarchs and their wives are inscribed in Hebrew characters. The cave is filled with barrels containing bones of people, which are taken there as to a sacred place. At the end of the field of the Machpelah stands Abraham's house with a spring in front of it" ("Itinerary," ed. Asher, pp. 40-42, Hebr.).本傑明的圖德拉:“在希伯倫有一個大的地方被稱為”聖亞伯拉罕,“這是以前一個猶太會堂的崇拜。當地人建有6個墓穴,他們告訴外國人的始祖和他們的妻子,要求錢,看到他們的條件,如果一個猶太人提供了一個額外的費用門將的洞穴,打開的時候,我們的祖先可以追溯到一個鐵門,和遊客下降的一個點燃的蠟燭。他穿過兩空的洞穴,並在第三次看到6個墓葬,其上的三個族長和他們的妻子的名字被刻在希伯來文字符,洞穴充滿桶含有骨頭的人,有一個神聖的地方。結束時,麥比拉領域的代表亞伯拉罕的房子在它前面的一個春天“(”行程,“版。灰粉,第40-42頁,黑布爾)。 Samuel b.塞繆爾乙。 Samson visited the cave in 1210; he says that the visitor must descend by twenty-four steps in a passageway so narrow that the rock touches him on either hand ("Pal. Explor. Fund," Quarterly Statement, 1882, p. 212).參孫在1210年參觀了山洞,他說,遊客必須下降24步在通道狹窄,岩石接觸他的兩邊(“帕爾。勘探基金,”季度報表,1882年,頁212) 。 Now the cave is concealed by a mosque; this was formerly a church, built by the Crusaders between 1167 and 1187 and restored by the Arabs (comp. Stanley, "Sinai and Palestine," p. 149).現在的洞穴被掩蓋的清真寺,這是以前的一個教堂,在1167和1187之間的十字軍建造和恢復阿拉伯人(化合物士丹利,西奈半島和巴勒斯坦“,第149頁)。 See Hebron.請參閱希伯倫。

Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn埃米爾·赫斯基,M. Seligsohn
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書,1901年至1906年間發表的。

Tomb of Adam and Eve.墓的亞當和夏娃。

In Rabbinical Literature:在猶太教文學:

The name of "Machpelah" (= "the doubled one") belongs, according to the Rabbis, to the cave alone, their reasons for the name being various: it was a double cave, with two stories (Rab); it contained pairs of tombs (Samuel); it had a double value in the eyes of people who saw it; any one buried there could expect a double reward in the future world; when God buried Adam there He had to fold him together (Abahu; 'Er. 53a; Gen. R. lviii. 10).屬於“麥比拉”的(=“增加了一​​倍”)的名稱,根據拉比的,單獨的洞穴的名字是不同的,他們的理由:這是一個雙洞,兩個故事(RAB),它包含了對它有一個雙重價值的墓葬(塞繆爾);在任何一個人的眼睛看到它的人葬在那裡可以期望在未來世界中的雙重獎勵;當上帝埋亞當在那裡,他有他一起折(Abahu'呃53A將軍河第五十八10)。 Adam and Eve were the first pair buried there, and therefore Hebron, where the cave was situated, bore the additional name of "Kirjath-arba" (= "the city of four"; ie , of the tombs of Adam and Eve, Abraham and Sarah, Isaac and Rebekah, Jacob and Leah ('Er. 53a; Soṭah 13a; comp. Gen. R. lviii. 4).亞當和夏娃是第一對埋葬在那裡,因此,這裡的洞穴位於希伯倫,承擔了額外的名稱,“基列耶琳基列亞巴”的(=“四市”, 亞當和夏娃,亞伯拉罕的墳墓,和莎拉,以撒和利百加,雅各與利亞('呃53A;Soṭah13A;小樣圖。將軍河LVIII 4)。

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According to Pirḳe R. El.據pirḳe傳譯下午。 xxxvi., the cave of Machpelah was at Jebus, and the reason that induced Abraham to buy it was the following: When Abraham went to fetch the calf for his guests (comp. Gen. xviii. 7) it escaped to the cave of Machpelah.三十六,麥比拉洞是在耶布斯和誘導亞伯拉罕買它的原因是:當亞伯拉罕去為他的客人(comp.將軍十八。7)取小腿逃脫的麥比拉洞。 Abraham ran after it, and when he entered the cave he saw Adam and Eve lying in their beds as though they were sleeping, while lighted candles were around them, exhaling a fragrant odor.亞伯拉罕又跑到後,當他進入洞穴,他看到亞當和夏娃的病床上,就好像他們正在睡覺,而點燃的蠟燭在他們周圍,吐氣芬芳的氣味。 Abraham, filled with a desire to possess the cave, determined to buy it at any price.亞伯拉罕,一個充滿了渴望擁有的洞穴,決心,購買它不惜任何代價。 The Jebusites, however, refused to sell it to him until he had sworn that when his descendants conquered the land of Canaan they would spare the city of Jebus (Jerusalem).耶布斯人,但拒絕將其出售給他,直到他發誓說,當他的子孫征服了迦南地的他們將不遺餘力城市的耶布斯(耶路撒冷)。 Abraham accordingly took the oath, and the Jebusites inscribed it on brazen idols which they placed in the markets of the city.亞伯拉罕相應的誓言,耶布斯人刻在明目張膽的偶像,他們在市場上的城市放置。 This was the reason why the children of Benjamin did not drive out the inhabitants of Jebus (Judges i. 21).這是原因為什麼便雅憫人沒有趕出耶布斯人(士一21)。 Abraham secured his purchase of the cave of Machpelah by a formal deed signed by four witnesses: Amigal, son of Abishua the Hittite; Elihoreph, son of Ashunah the Hivite; 'Iddon, son of Ahira the Gardite; Aḳdul, son of 'Abudish the Zidonite ("Sefer ha-Yashar," section "Ḥayye Sarah," p. 37a, Leghorn, 1870).由四名證人簽署一個正式的契約:Amigal,亞比赫人烏利亞的兒子; Elihoreph,Ashunah希未人的兒子“; Iddon,有以南的兒子GarditeAḳdul,”Abudish的兒子,亞伯拉罕鞏固了他的購買麥比拉洞Zidonite(“之書公頃亞沙爾,”一節“Ḥayye莎拉,”P 37A,裡窩那,1870年)。

Title-Deeds.標題事蹟。

After Isaac's death, Jacob, desirous of becoming sole owner of the cave of Machpelah, acquired Esau's part of it in exchange for all the riches left him by his father.以撒去世後,雅各,渴望成為唯一擁有人的麥比拉洞,收購了以掃的一部分,以換取他的父親留給他的所有財富。 This sale was also ratified by a document, which Jacob put in an earthen vessel to preserve it from decay ( ib. section "Wayesheb," p. 77b).此次出售還批准了一份文件,雅各放在瓦器保留它從的衰減( 同上節“Wayesheb,”第77B)。 Nevertheless, at the burial of Jacob the cave was the subject of a violent dispute between Jacob's children and Esau.然而,在雅各埋葬的洞穴,是雅各的兒童和以掃的暴力之間的糾紛。 The latter opposed the burial of Jacob in the cave on the ground that there was room only for four pairs, and that Jacob, by burying Leah, had filled up his part.後者反對雅各埋葬在山洞裡,房間裡只有四對在地面上,和,雅各,埋利亞,充滿了他的一部分。 Naphtali returned to Egypt for the title-deed, but meanwhile Hushim, the son of Dan, struck Esau on the head with a stick so that the latter's eyes fell on Jacob's knees (Soṭah lc ; comp. "Sefer ha-Yashar," lc pp. 97a-98a, where it is said that Hushim cut off Esau's head, which was buried on the spot).拿弗他利返回到埃及的標題,契約,但與此同時戶伸,丹的兒子,擊中以掃的頭一棒,使後者的眼睛下跌了雅各布的膝蓋上(Soṭah 立法會 ;小樣圖。“之書公頃,亞沙爾,” 立法會第97A-98A,它是說,戶伸切斷以掃的頭,被安葬在現場)。 There is another tradition, to the effect that Esau was slain by Judah in the cave of Machpelah at Isaac's burial (Midr. Teh. xviii.; Yalḳ., Gen. 162).另外還有一個傳統的影響,以掃是被殺害的猶大人在麥比拉洞以撒的墓地(midr.了。十八。Yalḳ,創162)。

Emil G. Hirsch, M. Seligsohn, Solomon Schechter埃米爾·赫斯基,M. Seligsohn,索羅門謝克特
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書,1901年至1906年間發表的。


Machpelah麥比拉

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The burial-place in the vicinity of ancient Hebron which Abraham bought from Ephron the Hethite for the interment of Sara (Genesis 23:9, 17).埋葬在古老的希伯倫附近的亞伯拉罕買了弗崙的Hethite安葬薩拉(創23:9,17)。 Sara was buried there in a cave (xxiii, 19), as was later Abraham himself (xxv, 9).薩拉被埋葬在一個山洞裡(二十三,19),後來亞伯拉罕自己(25,9)。 The words of the dying Jacob inform us that Rebecca and Lia were also buried in this cave (xlix, 31), and, lastly, Jacob found there his last resting place (l, 13).臨終雅各布的話告訴我們,麗貝卡和利亞也埋在這個洞穴(XLIX 31),和,最後,雅各在那裡發現了他最後的安息之地(L,13)。 According to the Hebrew text, which always uses the word Machpelah with the article, the Machpelah is the place in which the field with the cave is to be found.根據希伯來文,它總是使用這個詞麥比拉的文章,麥比拉是在該領域的洞穴被發現的地方。 Thus we read "the cave in the field of the Machpelah" in Gen., xxiii, 17, 19; xliv, 30; l, 13, "the cave of the Machpelah" is twice mentioned (xxiii, 9; xxv, 9).因此,我們看到“在該領域的麥比拉洞”將軍,二十三,17,19,四十四,30升,13日,“洞穴的麥比拉”兩次提到(9,二十三,二十五,9) 。 But in the Greek text the word is rendered "the double cave"–by derivation from the root kafal, "to double".但在希臘文中的字呈現“雙洞”派生從根本上kafal,“加倍”。 This meaning is admitted into the Targum, into the Syrian translation and into the Vulgate.這意思是入讀根,到敘利亞翻譯成武加大。

In the later books of the Old Testament Machpelah is not mentioned.在後來的書籍的舊約麥比拉都沒有提及。 Josephus, however, knows the tomb of Abraham and his descendants in the district then known as Hebron (Antiq., I, xiv, 1; xxii, 1; xxi, 3).然而,約瑟夫知道亞伯拉罕和他的後裔在當時被稱為區希布倫(Antiq.,我,十四,1,二十二,1;二十一世紀,3)的陵墓。 According to this historian (op. cit., II, viii, 2), the brothers of Joseph were also interred in their ancestral burial-place–a hypothesis for which there is no foundation in Holy Writ.據這位歷史學家(同上,二,八,2),兄弟約瑟夫也被埋葬在他們的祖先埋葬的地方有一個假設是沒有基礎的“聖經”。 A Rabbinic tradition of not much later date on the strength of a misinterpretation of Jos., xiv, 15 (Hebron-Kiriath Arba–"City of Four") would place the graves of four Patriarchs at Hebron, and, relying on the same passage, declares Adam to be the fourth Patriarch.聖何塞,第十四條,15條(希伯倫基列耶琳Arba的“四城”)的誤解的力量將一個拉比的傳統,不是更晚的日期將在希伯倫,四始祖的墳墓,依靠在同一通道亞當宣布,第四祖師。 St. Jerome accepted this interpretation (see "Onomasticon des Eusebius", ed. Klostermann, Leipzig, 1904, p. 7), and introduced it into the Vulgate.圣杰羅姆接受了這個解釋(見“Onomasticon德尤西比烏斯”,編輯。Klostermann,萊比錫,1904年,第7頁),並把它引進了vulgate。 According to Rabbinic legends, Esau also was buried in the neighbourhood.根據拉比的傳說,以掃也被埋葬在附近。 Since the sixth century the grave of Joseph has been pointed out at Hebron (Itinerar. Antonini), in spite of Jos., xxiv, 32, while the Mohammedans even to-day regard an Arabian building joined to the north-west of the Haram as Joseph's tomb.自六世紀約瑟的墳墓已經指出,在希伯倫(Itinerar.安東尼尼),儘管聖何塞,二十四,32中,而伊斯蘭教天方面的阿拉伯建築加入到西北方的聖地約瑟夫的墳墓。 The tomb mentioned by Josephus is undoubtedly the Haram situated in the south-east quarter of Hebron (El-Khalil).提到的約瑟夫墓無疑是的聖地位於希布倫(埃爾 - 哈利勒)東南季度。 The shrine facing north-west and south-east forms a spacious rectangle 197 feet long by 111 feet wide, and rises to a height of about 40 feet.神社面臨西北部和東南部形成了一個寬敞的197英尺長,111英尺寬的矩形,並上升到大約40英尺的高度。 The mighty blocks of limestone as hard as marble, dressed and closely fitted ("beautiful, artistically carved marble", Josephus, "Bell. Jud.", IV, ix, 7) have acquired with age almost the tint of bronze.無垠的石灰石塊硬如大理石,穿好衣服,緊密地配合(“美麗,藝術雕刻的大理石”,約瑟夫,“貝爾。士”,四,九,七)已收購隨著年齡的增長幾乎青銅色調。 The monotony of the long lines is relieved by rectangular pilasters, sixteen on each side and eight at the top and bottom.單調的長線條是緩解長方形半露方柱,每邊16和8的頂部和底部。 Of the builder tradition is silent; Josephus is ignorant of his identity. Builder的傳統是無聲的,,約瑟夫是知道他的身份。 Its resemblance in style to the Haram at Jerusalem has led many to refer it to the Herodian period, eg, Conder, Benzinger.相似的風格在耶路撒冷的聖地已經導致許多人的的希律期間,例如,CONDER,Benzinger的。 Robinson, Warren, and Heidet regard the building as pre-Herodian.羅賓遜,Warren和Heidet的把建設前赫迪安。

Since Josephus tradition has no doubt preserved the site correctly.由於約瑟夫傳統毫無疑問,保留了網站的正確。 Eusebius merely mentions the burial-place ("Onomasticon", ed. Klostermann, sv "Arbo", p. 6); the Pilgrim of Bordeaux (333) speaks explicitly of a rectangular building of magnificent stone ("Itinera Hieros.", ed. Geyer, "Corpus Script. Eccl. Lat.", XXXIX, Vienna, 1898, p. 25).尤西比烏斯僅僅提到埋葬的地方(“Onomasticon”,編Klostermann,SV“蟲媒”,第6),波爾多(333)的朝聖者講話明確的長方形建築的宏偉石(“Itinera Hieros。”版。赫耶爾“語料庫腳本。傳緯度”,XXXIX,維也納,1898年,頁25)。 In his version of the "Onomasticon", St. Jerome unfortunately does not express himself clearly; it is doubtful whether the church, which he declares to have been recently built (a nostris ibidem jam exstructa), is to be sought in the mausoleum or at Haram Ramet el Khalil, half an hour's journey north of Hebron.在他的版本的“Onomasticon”,圣杰羅姆遺憾的是沒有表達清楚,這是值得懷疑,是否教堂,這是他最近宣布已建(nostris ibidem果醬exstructa),是要尋求的陵墓或在聖地分株EL哈利勒,一個半小時​​的旅程北部希伯倫。 The "Itinerarium" of St. Antoninus (c. 570) mentions a basilica with four halls (perhaps four porches about the walls) at the graves of the Patriarchs, possessing an open court, and equally venerated by Christians and Jews ("It. Hieros.", ed. Geyer, 178 sq.).聖安東尼(公元前570)的“Itinerarium”中提到了一個教堂,四館(也許是這些地方的普通民眾家的牆壁)的始祖的墳墓,擁有一個開放的法院,同樣崇敬的基督徒和猶太人(“。 Hieros。“,編輯。赫耶爾178平方米)。 About 700, Adamnan informs us, on the authority of Arculf, that the burial-place of the Patriarchs is surrounded by a rectangular wall, and that over the graves stand monuments, but there is no mention of a basilica ("De Locis Sanct.", II, x, Geyer, 261 sq.).約700名,阿達姆南告訴我們,上的權威Arculf,一個長方形的圍牆所包圍的埋葬地點的始祖,在墳墓獨立紀念碑,但沒有提到的大教堂(“德Locis Sanct。 “第一,二,X,赫耶爾261平方米)。 The following centuries (Mukkadasi, Saewulf, Daniel–985, 1102, 1106) throw no new light on the question.在接下來的幾個世紀(Mukkadasi,Saewulf,丹尼爾-985,1102,1106)拋出的問題上沒有新的光。 In 1119 a Christian church was undoubtedly to be found there, either the old Byzantine or the Crusader's church, which, to judge from the style, apparently dates from the middle of the twelfth century.在1119年的基督教教堂,無疑是在那裡發現,無論是舊拜占庭或十字軍的教會,其中,判斷的風格,顯然是從中間的12世紀的日期。 Remains from early times are still perceptible, but they do not enable one to form any judgment concerning the old basilica; what still remained of it at the period of the Crusades is uncertain.從早期的遺跡仍然察覺,但他們不使一個老大殿形成的任何判決,仍然保持它在十字軍東征期間是不確定的。 According to a rather improbable statement of Benjamin of Tudela, a Jewish synagogue stood in the Haram before the re-establishment of Christian domination.根據本傑明的圖德拉一個相當難以琢磨的聲明,站在聖地的猶太會堂,基督教統治之前重新建立。 After the downfall of the Frankish kingdom, the Latin church was converted into the present mosque.拉丁教會的法蘭克王國的垮台後,轉換成現在的清真寺。 This is built in the southern section of the Haram in such a position as to utilize three of the boundary walls.這是建立在南部的聖地,在這樣的位置利用圍牆,三個部分。 The interior is seventy feet long and ninety-three feet wide; four pillars divide it into three aisles of almost the same breadth, but of unequal length.內部是70英尺長和寬93英尺的四大支柱把它分成三個過道寬度幾乎相同,但長度不等。 The entrance to the Haram is effected by means of two flights of steps, a specimen of Arabian art of the fourteenth century.的影響通過兩個航班的步驟,標本的14世紀的阿拉伯藝術的聖地的入口。

According to a late and unreliable Mohammedan tradition, the tombs of the Patriarchs lie under six monuments; to Isaac and Rebecca are assigned those within the mosque itself; to Abraham and Sara the next two, in front of the north wall of the mosque in two chapels of the narthex; those of Jacob and Lia are the last two at the north end of the Haram.到晚,不可靠的伊斯蘭教傳統的始祖,墓葬6紀念碑下,以撒和利百分配的清真寺內,亞伯拉罕和莎拉在未來兩年,在兩個清真寺的北牆的前面教堂的前廳,雅各和利亞是最後在北端的聖地。 Concerning the subterranean chambers we possess only inexact information.關於地下室,我們所擁有的唯一的不準確的信息。 The Jewish accounts (Benjamin of Tudela, 1160-73; Rabbi Petacchia, 1175-80; David Reubeni, 1525) are neither clear nor uniform.猶太人的賬戶(本傑明·圖德拉,1160年至1173年,拉比Petacchia,1175年至1180年;大衛Reubeni,1525)是既不明確,也不均勻。 An extensive investigation was undertaken by the Latin monks of Kiriath Arba (DV Cariath-Arbe-Hebron) in 1119, but was never completed.基列耶琳亞巴(DV Cariath ARBE希伯倫)在1119的拉丁僧侶進行了廣泛的調查,但還沒有結束。 After several days of laborious work, they disclosed a whole system of subterranean chambers, in which it was believed that at last the much-sought-for "double cave" with the remains of the three Patriarchs had been discovered.經過數天的艱苦工作,他們披露了整個系統的地下室,其中有人認為,在去年非常搶手的“雙洞”三始祖的遺體已被發現。 In 1859 by means of an entrance in the porch of the mosque between the sarcophagi of Abraham and Sara, the Italian Pierotti succeeded in descending some steps of a stairway hewn in the rock.在1859年通過一個入口門廊裡的清真寺亞伯拉罕和莎拉之間的石棺,意大利Pierotti成功的在降一些步驟在岩石中鑿成的樓梯。 According to Pierotti's observations, the cavity extends the whole length of the Haram.根據Pierotti的意見,腔體延伸的聖地的整個長度。 Owing to the intolerance of the Mohammedans, all subsequent attempts of English and German investigators (1862, 1869, 1882) have led to no satisfactory results.由於伊斯蘭教不容忍的英語和德語的調查(1862年,1869年,1882年),所有後續嘗試都沒有令人滿意的結果。 Concerning the plan of and connection between the underground chambers no judgment can be formed without fresh investigation.關於計劃和地下洞室之間的連接沒有判斷可以形成不鮮調查。

Publication information Written by A. Merk.出版信息作者:A.默克。 Transcribed by WGKofron.轉錄的WGKofron。 With thanks to St. Mary's Church, Akron, Ohio The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.與感謝聖瑪麗教堂,阿克倫,俄亥俄州天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
ROBINSON, Biblical Researches in Palestine, II (Boston, 1841), 75 sqq.; Memoirs on the Survey of Western Palestine, III (London, 1883), 333 sqq.; Palestine Exploration Fund, Quarterly Statement (1882), 197 sqq. ROBINSON,研究聖經的巴勒斯坦II(波士頓,1841年),75 SQQ。西方巴勒斯坦III(倫敦,1883年),333 SQQ。調查的回憶錄;巴勒斯坦勘探基金,季度簡報(1882年),197 SQQ。 (1897), 53 sqq.; LE STRANGE, Palestine under the Moslems (London, 1890), 300 sqq.; Acta SS., IV, Oct., 688 sqq.;RIANT, Archives de l'Orient latin, II (Genoa, 1884), 411 sqq.; PIEROTTI, Macpéla ou tombeaux des patriarches (Lausanne, 1869); HEIDET in VIGOUROUX, Dict. (1897年),53 SQQ; LE奇怪的是,巴勒斯坦的穆斯林(倫敦,1890年),300 SQQ。文獻SS。,IV,10月,688 SQQ。RIANT,檔案DE L'東方拉丁,II(熱那亞,1884),411 SQQ。PIEROTTI,MacpélaOU tombeaux德patriarches(洛桑,1869年); HEIDET在VIGOUROUX,快譯通。 de la Bible, sv Macpélah.德拉聖經,:SVMacpélah。



Also, see:此外,見:
Islam, Muhammad 伊斯蘭教,穆罕默德
Koran, Qur'an 可蘭經,可蘭經
Pillars of Faith 支柱的信仰
Abraham 亞伯拉罕
Testament of Abraham 全書亞伯拉罕
Allah 安拉
Hadiths hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari 啟示-h adiths從第一冊的基地布哈里
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari 信仰-h adiths從第二冊的基地布哈里
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari 知識-h adiths從第三冊的基地布哈里
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari 時代的祈禱-h adiths從書展1 0個基地布哈里
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari 縮短祈禱(在taqseer ) -h adiths從書展2 0鋁布哈里
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari 朝聖(朝覲) -h adiths從書展2 6鋁布哈里
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari 爭取事業的阿拉(傑哈德) -h adiths圖書5 2鋁布哈里
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari 同一性,獨特的阿拉tawheed ) -h adiths圖書9 3鋁布哈里
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanafiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) malikiyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) shafi'iyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) hanbaliyyah學校神學(遜尼派)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) maturidiyyah神學(遜尼派)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) ash'ariyyah神學(遜尼派)
Mutazilah Theology mutazilah神學
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) ja'fari神學(什葉派)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) nusayriyyah神學(什葉派)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) zaydiyyah神學(什葉派)
Kharijiyyah kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) 伊瑪目(什葉派)
Druze 德魯茲
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) qarmatiyyah (什葉派)
Ahmadiyyah ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail 伊斯梅爾,司馬義。
Early Islamic History Outline 早在伊斯蘭歷史綱要
Hegira hegira
Averroes averroes
Avicenna 阿維森納
Machpela machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone 天房,黑石頭
Ramadan 齋月
Sunnites, Sunni 遜尼派,遜尼派
Shiites, Shia 什葉派,什葉派
Mecca 麥加
Medina 麥迪
Sahih, al-Bukhari sahih ,鋁-布哈里
Sufism 蘇非派
Wahhabism 瓦哈比主義
Abu Bakr 阿布巴克爾
Abbasids abbasids
Ayyubids ayyubids
Umayyads 倭馬亞王朝
Fatima 法蒂瑪
Fatimids (Shia) 法蒂瑪王朝(什葉派)
Ismailis (Shia) 伊斯瑪儀教派(什葉派)
Mamelukes mamelukes
Saladin 薩拉丁
Seljuks seljuks
Aisha 的Aisha
Ali 阿里
Lilith lilith
Islamic Calendar 伊斯蘭日曆
Interactive Muslim Calendar 互動穆斯林日曆


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