Magi賢士

General Information 一般資料

The Magi (singular: Magus) were the priestly hierarchy of ancient Zoroastrianism.漫(單數:法師)古老的拜火教祭司的層次結構。 The name was originally that of the tribe to which they belonged.這個名字是他們所屬的部落。 Like the Brahmans of India, the Magi were keepers of the cult and of sacrificial power and exercised considerable political power while Zoroastrianism was the state religion of Persia.印度的婆羅門一樣,賢士飼養的崇拜和犧牲功率和政治權力,而行使相當大的瑣羅亞斯德教為國教的波斯。

In the Hellenistic world the name magi was applied to Eastern astrologers and interpreters of dreams, men considered "wise in the things of God."名法師在希臘化世界的東方占星家和口譯員的夢想,男性認為“聰明的神的事情。” (Hence the derivation of the word magic.) It is in this sense that the name came to be applied to the "wise men from the East" who followed the star to Bethlehem to worship the infant Jesus, presenting him with gifts of frankincense, gold, and myrrh (Matt. 2). (因此這個詞的派生魔法。)的名字,正是在這個意義上,後來被應用到“智者從東方”誰跟著明星到伯利恆朝拜耶穌的嬰兒,他的禮物,乳香,黃金,沒藥(馬太福音2)。 Later tradition called them kings and named them Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar.後來傳說稱他們為國王和將它們命名為加斯帕爾,梅爾基奧爾,和Balthazar。 The Christian church honors them as the first Gentiles to believe in Christ and celebrates their visit by the feast of Epiphany.基督教會榮譽他們相信基督作為第一個外邦人和主顯節慶祝他們的訪問。

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Magi賢士

Catholic Information 天主教信息

(Plural of Latin magus; Greek magoi). (可复的拉丁法師希臘magoi的)。

The "wise men from the East" who came to adore Jesus in Bethlehem (Matthew 2). “智者從東方來朝拜耶穌在伯利恆(馬太福音2)。 Rationalists regard the Gospel account as fiction; Catholics insist that it is a narrative of fact, supporting their interpretation with the evidence of all manuscripts and versions, and patristic citations.理性看待福音帳戶小說,天主教徒堅持認為,這其實是一種敘事,所有的手稿和版本,教父引文的證據支持他們的解釋。 All this evidence rationalists pronounce irrelevant; they class the story of the Magi with the so-called "legends of the childhood of Jesus", later apocryphal additions to the Gospels.這一切都證明的理性主義發音不相關的類的故事的賢士與所謂的“傳說中耶穌的童年”,後來杜撰的福音。 Admitting only internal evidence, they say, this evidence does not stand the test of criticism.他們說,只承認內部的證據,這個證據是經不起考驗的批評。

John and Mark are silent.約翰和馬克都沉默了。 This is because they begin their Gospels with the public life of Jesus.這是因為他們開始他們的福音,耶穌的公共生活。 That John knew the story of the Magi may be gathered from the fact that Irenaeus (Adv. Haer., III, ix, 2) is witness to it; for Irenaeus gives us the Johannine tradition.約翰知道,可蒐集到的事實,愛任紐(副詞。Haer,III,IX,2)是見證了它的故事的賢士,愛任紐為我們提供了約翰的傳統。

Luke is silent.盧克是無聲的。 Naturally, as the fact is told well enough by the other synoptics.當然,事實是不夠好,告訴其他的畫面。 Luke tells the Annunciation, details of the Nativity, the Circumcision, and the Presentation of Christ in the Temple, facts of the childhood of Jesus which the silence of the other three Evangelists does not render legendary.路加告訴報喜,細節的誕生,包皮環切術,並介紹基督在聖殿中,其中沉默的其他三個福音的耶穌並沒有使傳說中的童年事實。

Luke contradicts Matthew and returns the Child Jesus to Nazereth immediately after the Presentation (Luke 2:39).盧克矛盾,馬修和返回的兒童耶穌立即向Nazereth,演講結束後(路加福音2:39)。 This return to Nazareth may have been either before the Magi came to Bethlehem or after the exile in Egypt.這就回到了拿撒勒人可能是之前的賢士來到伯利恆,或者後流亡埃及的。 No contradiction is involved.無矛盾是參與。

The subject will be treated in this article under the two divisions:在這篇文章中,這兩個部門的問題將被視為:

I. Who the Magi were;一,誰的賢士;

II. II。 The Time and Circumstances of their Visit.的時間和情況下對他們的訪問。

I. WHO THE MAGI WERE一,誰是賢士

A. Non-Biblical Evidence A.非聖經的證據

We may form a conjecture by non-Biblical evidence of a probable meaning to the word magoi.我們可能會形成一個猜想的一個可能的意義,這個詞magoi非聖經的證據。 Herodotus (I, ci) is our authority for supposing that the Magi were the sacred caste of the Medes.希羅多德(I,CI)是我們的權力假設賢士的瑪代人神聖的種姓。 They provided priests for Persia, and, regardless of dynastic vicissitudes, ever kept up their dominating religious influence.他們提供了波斯的祭司,並且,無論王朝的滄桑,永遠保持自己的主導宗教的影響力。 To the head of this caste, Nergal Sharezar, Jeremias gives the title Rab-Mag, "Chief Magus" (Jeremiah 39:3, 39:13, in Hebrew original - Septuagint and Vulgate translations are erroneous here).頭部的這種種姓,涅伽爾Sharezar,赫雷米亞斯給出了標題RAB-MAG,“首席大法師”(耶利米書39:3,39:13,希伯來文原 - 在這裡是錯誤的譯本和武加大譯本)。 After the downfall of Assyrian and Babylonian power, the religion of the Magi held sway in Persia.垮台後的亞述和巴比倫的力量,宗教的賢士舉行搖擺在波斯。 Cyrus completely conquered the sacred caste; his son Cambyses severely repressed it.居魯士完全征服了神聖的種姓,他的兒子岡比西斯嚴厲鎮壓。 The Magians revolted and set up Gaumata, their chief, as King of Persia under the name of Smerdis.襖教徒反抗,並成立Gaumata,其行政,波斯國王的名義下的Smerdis。 He was, however, murdered (521 BC), and Darius became king.然而,他被謀殺(公元前521年),和大流士成為國王。 This downfall of the Magi was celebrated by a national Persian holiday called magophonia (Her., III, lxiii, lxxiii, lxxix).這倒台的賢士慶祝活動由國家波斯節日稱為magophonia(Her.,III,LXIII,LXXIII,LXXIX)。 Still the religious influence of this priestly caste continued throughout the rule of the Achaemenian dynasty in Persia (Ctesias, "Persica", X-XV); and is not unlikely that at the time of the birth of Christ it was still flourishing under the Parthian dominion.這祭司種姓的宗教的影響一直持續到在波斯的阿契美尼德王朝(Ctesias,“桃”,X-XV)規則;不是不可能,在基督誕生的時候,它仍然是欣欣向榮的帕提亞人統治。 Strabo (XI, ix, 3) says that the Magian priests formed one of the two councils of the Parthian Empire.斯特拉波(XI,IX,3)表示,馬吉安祭司形成兩個市政局的帕提亞帝國之一。

B. Biblical Evidence B.聖經的證據

The word magoi often has the meaning of "magician", in both Old and New Testaments (see Acts 8:9; 13:6, 8; also the Septuagint of Daniel 1:20; 2:2, 2:10, 2:27; 4:4; 5:7, 5:11, 5:15).這個詞magoi經常有“魔術師”的意思,在舊約和新約(見使徒行傳8:9; 13:6,8七十但以理書1:20; 2:2,2:10,2: 27; 4:4,5:7,5:11,5:15)。 St. Justin (Tryph., lxxviii), Origen (Cels., I, lx), St. Augustine (Serm. xx, De epiphania) and St. Jerome (In Isa., xix, 1) find the same meaning in the second chapter of Matthew, though this is not the common interpretation.街賈斯汀(Tryph.,LXXVIII),奧利(Cels.,I,LX),聖奧古斯丁(Serm. XX,德epiphania)和圣杰羅姆(在ISA。,十九,1)找到相同的含義第二章“馬太福音”,雖然這是不常見的解釋。

C. Patristic Evidence C.教父的證據

No Father of the Church holds the Magi to have been kings.沒有父親的教會擁有的賢士已國王。 Tertullian ("Adv. Marcion.", III, xiii) says that they were wellnigh kings (fere reges), and so agrees with what we have concluded from non-Biblical evidence.戴爾都良(“高級馬吉安。”,三,十三)說,他們是wellnigh國王(FERE reges),和同意與非聖經的證據,我們得出的結論。 The Church, indeed, in her liturgy, applies to the Magi the words: "The kings of Tharsis and the islands shall offer presents; the kings of the Arabians and of Saba shall bring him gifts: and all the kings of the earth shall adore him" (Psalm 71:10).事實上,教會,在她的禮儀,適用於賢士的話:“塔爾西斯及離島的國王提供的禮物,國王的阿拉伯人和薩巴帶給他的禮物:和所有國王的地球應崇拜他“(詩篇71:10)。 But this use of the text in reference to them no more proves that they were kings than it traces their journey from Tharsis, Arabia, and Saba.但這種使用的文字,在談到他們沒有更多的證明,他們是國王,比它的痕跡,他們的旅程從的塔爾西斯,沙特阿拉伯和薩巴島。 As sometimes happens, a liturgical accommodation of a text has in time come to be looked upon by some as an authentic interpretation thereof.由於有時會出現的文字,禮儀的住宿時間來期待後,由一些作為一個真實的詮釋。 Neither were they magicians: the good meaning of magoi, though found nowhere else in the Bible, is demanded by the context of the second chapter of St. Matthew.他們也不是魔術師:好的意思的magoi,雖然發現無處可在“聖經”馬太福音第二章的要求的背景下, These Magians can have been none other than members of the priestly caste already referred to.這些襖,可一直沒有除了已經提到的祭司種姓成員。 The religion of the Magi was fundamentally that of Zoroaster and forbade sorcery; their astrology and skill in interpreting dreams were occasions of their finding Christ.從根本上說,瑣羅亞斯德的宗教的賢士,並禁止巫術,他們的占星術和技能解釋的夢想,他們的發現基督的場合。 (See THEOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF THE AVESTA.) (見神學方面的阿維斯塔)。

The Gospel narrative omits to mention the number of the Magi, and there is no certain tradition in this matter. 福音敘述遺漏提的賢士,在這個問題上有沒有一定的傳統。 Some Fathers speak of three Magi; they are very likely influenced by the number of gifts.有些父親講三賢士,他們很可能由數量禮物的影響。 In the Orient, tradition favours twelve.在古老的東方,傳統主張12。 Early Christian art is no consistent witness:早期基督教藝術是沒有一致的見證:

a painting in the cemetery of Sts.畫中STS的墓地。 Peter and Marcellinus shows two;彼得和利努斯顯示了兩個;

one in the Lateran Museum, three;在拉特蘭博物館之一,三名;

one in the cemetery of Domitilla, four;一個在墓地,四,方便;

a vase in the Kircher Museum, eight (Marucchi, "Eléments d'archéologie chrétienne", Paris, 1899, I 197).基歇爾博物館,八(Marucchi,“花瓶中的元素”考古學chrétienne“,巴黎,1899年,I 197)。

The names of the Magi are as uncertain as is their number.的賢士的名稱是不確定的,因為是他們的電話號碼。 Among the Latins, from the seventh century, we find slight variants of the names, Gaspar, Melchior, and Balthasar; the Martyrology mentions St. Gaspar, on the first, St. Melchior, on the sixth, and St. Balthasar, on the eleventh of January (Acta SS., I, 8, 323, 664).在拉丁人,從公元七世紀,我們發現輕微變種的名稱,加斯帕爾,梅爾基奧爾,巴爾塔薩;的Martyrology提到聖加斯帕爾,第一,聖梅爾基奧爾,第六,和聖巴爾塔薩,在第十一屆月1日(文獻SS,I,8,323,664)。 The Syrians have Larvandad, Hormisdas, Gushnasaph, etc.; the Armenians, Kagba, Badadilma, etc. (Cf. Acta Sanctorum, May, I, 1780).敘利亞人Larvandad,Gushnasaph等卡爾米斯達斯,亞美尼亞人,Kagba,Badadilma,等等(參見文獻Sanctorum,我,1780年)。 Passing over the purely legendary notion that they represented the three families which are decended from Noah, it appears they all came from "the east" (Matthew 2:1, 2, 9).經過純粹是傳說中的概念,他們所代表的三個家庭decended從諾亞,看來他們都​​來自“東方”(馬太福音2:1,2,9)。 East of Palestine, only ancient Media, Persia, Assyria, and Babylonia had a Magian priesthood at the time of the birth of Christ.東巴勒斯坦,只有古代的媒體,波斯,亞述,和巴比倫神職人員在基督誕生的時候,有一個馬吉安。 From some such part of the Parthian Empire the Magi came.從一些諸如部分的帕提亞帝國賢士來了。 They probably crossed the Syrian Desert, lying between the Euphrates and Syria, reached either Haleb (Aleppo) or Tudmor (Palmyra), and journeyed on to Damascus and southward, by what is now the great Mecca route (darb elhaj, "the pilgrim's way"), keeping the Sea of Galilee and the Jordan to their west till they crossed the ford near Jericho.他們可能越過敘利亞沙漠,位於在幼發拉底河與敘利亞之間,達到無論是哈勒布(阿勒頗)或Tudmor(巴爾米拉),和遠航上到大馬士革,並向南,什麼是現在的偉大的麥加路線(出眾的人或物elhaj,“聖地朝拜者的路“),保持海上的加利利和約旦在其西面,直到他們越過了福特在傑里科附近。 We have no tradition of the precise land meant by "the east".我們沒有傳統的精準土地“東方”的意思。 It is Babylon, according to St. Maximus (Homil. xviii in Epiphan.); and Theodotus of Ancyra (Homil. de Nativitate, I, x); Persia, according to Clement of Alexandria (Strom., I xv) and St. Cyril of Alexandria (In Is., xlix, 12); Aribia, according to St. Justin (Cont. Tryphon., lxxvii), Tertullian (Adv. Jud., ix), and St. Epiphanius (Expos. fidei, viii).它是巴比倫,據聖鮃(Homil.十八Epiphan);和安該拉(Homil. Nativitate,I,X);奧多托斯波斯,根據克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞(Strom.,我XV)和St。西里爾亞歷山大(是,XLIX,12); Aribia,根據聖賈斯汀(續Tryphon,第七十七號),良(副詞士,九),聖埃皮法尼烏斯(Expos.真誠原則,八) 。

II. II。 TIME AND CIRCUMSTANCES OF THEIR VISIT時間和環境對他們的訪問

The visit of the Magi took place after the Presentation of the Child in the Temple (Luke 2:38).這次訪問的賢士發生後,演示文稿的兒童在聖殿(路加福音2:38)。 No sooner were the Magi departed than the angel bade Joseph take the Child and its Mother into Egypt (Matthew 2:13).遲早被賢士離開比天使叫約瑟夫帶著孩子和其母親到埃及(馬太福音2:13)。 Once Herod was wroth at the failure of the Magi to return, it was out of all question that the presentation should take place.當希律怒意,在失敗的賢士返回,這是演示文稿的所有問題,應採取。 Now a new difficulty occurs: after the presentation, the Holy Family returned into Galilee (Luke 2:39).現在出現一個新的困難:神聖家族的介紹後,返回到加利利(路加福音2:39)。 Some think that this return was not immediate.有些人認為,這回是不是立竿見影的。 Luke omits the incidents of the Magi, flight into Egypt, massacare of the Innocents, and return from Egypt, and takes up the story with the return of the Holy Family into Galilee.盧克忽略了事件的賢士,飛行到埃及,massacare的無辜者,並從埃及返回,返回的聖家到加利利的故事。 We prefer to interpret Luke's words as indicating a return to Galilee immediately after the presentation.我們喜歡盧克的話,表明返回加利利的介紹後立即解釋。 The stay at Nazareth was very brief.留在拿撒勒是非常短暫的。 Thereafter the Holy Family probably returned to abide in Bethlehem.此後,神聖家族可能回到住在伯利恆。 Then the Magi came.賢士來了。 It was "in the days of King Herod" (Matthew 2:1), ie before the year 4 BC (AUC 750), the probable date of Herod's death at Jericho.這是“希律王的日子”(馬太福音2:1),即在今年年底之前公元前4世紀(AUC 750),希律王在傑里科的死亡的可能日期。 For we know that Archelaus, Herod's son, succeeded as ethnarch to a part of his father's realm, and was deposed either in his ninth (Josephus, Bel. Jud., II, vii, 3) or tenth (Josephus, Antiq., XVII, xviii, 2) year of office during the consulship of Lepidus and Arruntius (Dion Cassis, lv, 27), ie, AD 6.因為我們知道,亞基老,希律王的兒子,成功ethnarch他父親的境界的一部分,和被廢黜無論是在他的第九個(約瑟夫,BEL。士。,二,七,3)或第十屆(約瑟夫,Antiq酒店。,第十七十八,2)任期內在執政官,的萊皮杜斯和Arruntius(翁卡西斯,LV,27),即公元6。 Moreover, the Magi came while King Herod was in Jerusalem (vv. 3, 7), not in Jericho, ie, either the beginning of 4 BC or the end of 5 BC Lastly, it was probably a year, or a little more than a year, after the birth of Christ.此外,賢士來了,當希律王在耶路撒冷(第3,第7節),而不是在傑里科的,即,無論是公元前4世紀的開始或結束的5 BC最後,它可能是一年,或者多一點一年後,基督的誕生。 Herod had found out from the Magi the time of the star's appearance.希律王已經找到了從賢士的時候,明星的外表。 Taking this for the time of the Child's birth, he slew the male children of two years old and under in Bethlehem and its borders (v. 16).這的時候,孩子的出生,他殺死了男性的2歲及以下的兒童在伯利恆及其邊界(16節)。 Some of the Fathers conclude from this ruthless slaughter that the Magi reached Jerusalem two years after the Nativity (St. Epiphanius, "Haer.", LI, 9; Juvencus, "Hist. Evang.", I, 259).有些父親結束,從這個無情的屠殺賢士達成耶路撒冷兩年後的誕生(聖埃皮法尼烏斯,“Haer的。”,李9,Juvencus,“歷史。Evang。”,I,259)。 Their conclusion has some degree of probability; yet the slaying of children two years old may possibly have been due to some other reason - for instance, a fear on Herod's part that the Magi had deceived him in the matter of the star's appearance or that the Magi had been deceived as to the conjunction of that appearance with the birth of the Child.他們的結論是有一定程度的概率,但在殺死兩歲的兒童可能因為一些其他原因 - 比如,害怕對希律王的賢士欺騙了他在恆星的外觀的問題或那的賢士被欺騙出生的孩子,外觀的結合。 Art and archeaology favour our view.藝術與archeaology贊同我們的觀點。 Only one early monument represents the Child in the crib while the Magi adore; in others Jesus rests upon Mary's knees and is at times fairly well grown (see Cornely, "Introd. Special. in NT", p.203).只有一個早期的紀念碑,代表在搖籃裡的孩子,而賢士崇拜,而在其他耶穌落在瑪麗的膝蓋,並在相當生長良好(見Cornely,“選確認。特別在NT”,p.203)。

From Persia, whence the Magi are supposed to have come, to Jerusalem was a journey of between 1000 and 1200 miles.從波斯,從那裡來的賢士應該都來了,耶路撒冷是1000和1200英里的旅程。 Such a distance may have taken any time between three and twelve months by camel.這樣的距離可能採取的任何時間為三至十二個月的駱駝。 Besides the time of travel, there were probably many weeks of preparation.除了旅行時,有可能是幾個星期的準備。 The Magi could scarcely have reached Jerusalem till a year or more had elapsed from the time of the apperance of the star.賢士可以幾乎已經達到了耶路撒冷,直到一年或一年以上的時間已經過去了的明星外觀。 St. Augustine (De Consensu Evang., II, v, 17) thought the date of the Epiphany, the sixth of January, proved that the Magi reached Bethlehem thriteen days ofter the Nativity, ie, after the twenty-fifth of December.聖奧古斯丁(Consensu Evang。,II,V,17)日的主顯節,1月的六分之一,證明了賢​​士達成伯利恆thriteen天,ofter的誕生,即經過第二十五屆十二月。 His argument from liturgical dates was incorrect.從禮儀的日期他的說法是不正確的。 Neither liturgical date is certainly the historical date.無論是禮儀日期是一定的歷史的日期。 (For an explanation of the chronological difficulties, see Chronology, Biblical, Date of the Nativity of Jesus Christ.) In the fourth century the Churches of the Orient celebrated the sixth of January as the feast of Christ's Birth, the Adoration by the Magi, and Christ's Baptism, whereas, in the Occident, the Birth of Chirst was celebrated on the twenty-fifth of December. (適用於按時間順序的困難的解釋,見年表,聖經,日期的耶穌降生的耶穌。)在第四世紀東方教會慶祝的第六一月的盛宴基督的誕生,朝拜的賢士,基督的洗禮,而在西方,天呢誕生慶祝第二十五屆十二月。 This latter date of the Nativity was introduced into the Church of Antioch during St. Chrysostom's time (PG, XLIX, 351), and still later into the Churches of Jerusalem and Alexandria.這後者的誕生日期安提阿教會的聖金口的時間(PG,XLIX,351),還是後來進入耶路撒冷和亞歷山大的教會。

That the Magi thought a star led them on, is clear from the words (eidomen gar autou ton astera) which Matthew uses in 2:2.賢士以為明星帶領他們,是明確的,從馬修使用2:2的的話(eidomen噶爾autou噸ASTERA)。 Was it really a star?一個真正的明星嗎? Rationalists and rationalistic Protestants, in their efforts to escape the supernatural, have elaborated a number of hypotheses:理性主義和理性主義的新教徒,他們的努力擺脫超自然的,已經制訂了一系列的假設:

The word aster may mean a comet; the star of the Magi was a comet.字紫菀可能意味著彗星的明星賢士是一顆彗星。 But we have no record of any such comet.但是,我們沒有任何有關彗星的記錄。

The star may have been a conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn (7 BC), or of Jupiter and Venus (6 BC).這顆恆星可能是一個結合的木星和土星(公元前7年),或木星和金星(公元前6年)。

The Magi may have seen a stella nova, a star which suddenly increases in magnitude and brilliancy and then fades away.賢士可能已經看到了斯特拉新星,一顆星星突然增加的幅度和輝煌,然後消失。

These theories all fail to explain how "the star which they had seen in the east, went before them, until it came and stood over where the child was" (Matthew 2:9). 這些理論都無法解釋“的明星,他們看到了在東部地區,走在他們前面,直到它來到,站在那裡的孩子”(馬太福音2:9)。 The position of a fixed star in the heavens varies at most one degree each day.一個恆星在天空中的位置變化至多有一個度的每一天。 No fixed star could have so moved before the Magi as to lead them to Bethlehem; neither fixed star nor comet could have disappeared, and reappeared, and stood still.沒有固定的明星太感動了之前的賢士,帶領他們往伯利恆去,既不是恆星和彗星可能已經消失,又出現了,站著不動。 Only a miraculous phenomenon could have been the Star of Bethlehem.只有一個神奇的現象,本來是伯利恆之星。 it was like the miraculous pillar of fire which stood in the camp by night during Israel's Exodus (Exodus 13:21), or to the "brightness of God" which shone round about the shepherds (Luke 2:9), or to "the light from heaven" which shone around about the stricken Saul (Acts 9:3).它就像站在營,晚上在以色列的出埃及記(出埃及記13:21),或“亮度”神照耀著一輪關於牧羊人(路加福音2時09分),或以“化腐朽為神奇的火柱光從天上“,照耀著周圍的受災掃羅(使徒行傳9:3)。

The philosophy of the Magi, erroneous though it was, led them to the journey by which they were to find Christ.理念的賢士,錯誤的,雖然這是他們的旅程,使他們找到基督。 Magian astrology postulated a heavenly counterpart to complement man's earthly self and make up the complete human personality.馬吉安占星術推測對應天上的人在地上的自我補充和完整的人的個性。 His "double" (the fravashi of the Parsi) developed together with every good man until death united the two.他的“雙規”(fravashi的帕西)共同開發的每一個好人,直至死亡團結。 The sudden appearance of a new and brilliant star suggested to the Magi the birth of an important person.突然出現的一個新的和燦爛的明星,建議賢士的誕生,一個重要的人。 They came to adore him - ie, to acknowledge the Divinity of this newborn King (vv. 2, 8, 11).他們來崇拜他 - 即承認這個新生王的神(林2,8,11)。 Some of the Fathers (St. Irenaeus, "Adv. Haer.", III, ix, 2; Progem. "in Num.", homil. xiii, 7) think the Magi saw in "his star" a fulfilment of the prophesy of Balaam: "A star shall rise out of Jacob and a sceptre shall spring up from Israel" (Numbers 24:17).有些父親(聖愛任紐,“進階Haer。”,三,九,2 Progem。“編號”,。十三homil,7)認為賢士看到了“的預言應驗了他的明星”巴蘭:“A星將上升雅各和權杖湧現從以色列”(民數記24:17)。 But from the parallelism of the prophesy, the "Star" of Balaam is a great prince, not a heavenly body; it is not likely that, in virtue of this Messianic prophesy, the Magi would look forward to a very special star of the firmament as a sign of the Messias.但是從並行的預言,巴蘭的“明星”是一個偉大的王子,而不是一個天體,它是不太可能,憑藉這彌賽亞的預言,賢士將期待著一個非常特殊的明星的蒼穹作為一個標誌的messias。 It is likely, however, that the Magi were familiar with the great Messianic prophesies.這是有可能的,但是,賢士熟悉偉大的彌賽亞的預言。 Many Jews did not return from exile with Nehemias.許多猶太人從流亡與內赫米亞斯的不返回。 When Christ was born, there was undoubtedly a Hebrew population in Babylon, and probably one in Persia.基督誕生的時候,無疑是一個希伯來語人口在巴比倫,並可能在波斯之一。 At any rate, the Hebrew tradition survived in Persia.無論如何,希伯來傳統存活在波斯。 Moreover, Virgil, Horace, Tacitus (Hist., V, xiii), and Suetonius (Vespas., iv) bear witness that, at the time of the birth of Christ, there was throughout the Roman Empire a general unrest and expectation of a Golden Age and a great deliverer.此外,維吉爾,賀拉斯,塔西佗(Hist.,V,十三),和蘇維托尼烏斯(Vespas.,IV)的見證,在基督誕生的時候,整個羅馬帝國普遍的不安和期待的黃金時代和一個偉大的拯救者。 We may readily admit that the Magi were led by such hebraistic and gentile influences to look forward to a Messias who should soon come.我們可以很容易地承認賢士分別由這樣的hebraistic與異教徒的影響,期待一個messias誰應該很快就會。 But there must have been some special Divine revelation whereby they knew that "his star" meant the birth of a king, that this new-born king was very God, and that they should be led by "his star" to the place of the God-King's birth (St. Leo, Serm. xxxiv, "In Epiphan." IV, 3).但也必須有一些特殊的神的啟示,讓他們知道,“他的明星”指的是出生的王,這新出生的國王很神的,應該由他的明星“的地方神王的誕生(聖利奧,SERM。三十四,“在Epiphan。”IV,3)。 The advent of the Magi caused a great stir in Jerusalem; everybody, even King Herod, heard their quest (v. 3).的出現,引起了很大的轟動,在耶路撒冷的賢士,每個人,甚至希律王聽見了他們的任務(第3節)。 Herod and his priests should have been gladdened at the news; they were saddened.希律王和他的祭司應該歡喜的消息,他們都很傷心。 It is a striking fact that the priests showed the Magi the way, but would not go that way themselves.這是一個驚人的事實,祭司顯示賢士的方式,但不會自己走那條路。 The Magi now followed the star some six miles southward to Bethlehem, "and entering into the house [eis ten oikian], they found the child" (v. 11).賢士現在跟著明星有六英里南下到伯利恆,“進入眾議院[EIS 10 oikian,他們發現孩子”(11節)。 There is no reason to suppose, with some of the Fathers (St. Aug., Serm. cc, "In Epiphan.", I, 2), that the Child was still in the stable.是沒有理由假設,一些的父親(聖8月,SERM毫升,“在Epiphan”,一,二),兒童仍處於穩定。 The Magi adored (prosekynesan) the Child as God, and offered Him gold, frankincense, and myrrh.賢士崇拜(prosekynesan)兒童作為上帝,並且提供了他黃金,乳香和沒藥。 The giving of gifts was in keeping with Oriental custom.饋贈禮物與東方的習俗。 The purpose of the gold is clear; the Child was poor.金的目的是明確的,孩子是窮人。 We do not know the purpose of the other gifts.我們不知道其他禮物的目的。 The Magi probably meant no symbolism.賢士可能沒有什麼象徵意義。 The Fathers have found manifold and multiform symbolic meanings in the three gifts; it is not clear that any of these meanings are inspired (cf. Knabenbauer, "in Matth.", 1892).父親在三個禮物歧管和各種形式的象徵意義,它是不明確的,這些含義的啟發(參見Knabenbauer,“在Matth。”,1892年)。

We are certain that the Magi were told in sleep not to return to Herod and that "they went back another way into their country" (v. 12).我們確信,賢士被告知在睡眠中不返回到希律王和說:“他們回去另一種方式進入他們的國家”(12節)。 This other way may have been a way to the Jordan such as to avoid Jerusalem and Jericho; or a roundabout way south through Beersheba, then east to the great highway (now the Mecca route) in the land of Moab and beyond the Dead Sea.其他的方式,可能的喬丹這樣的一種方式,以避免耶路撒冷和傑里科,或迂迴的方式到別是巴,南部東大公路(現在的麥加航線)在摩押地超越了死海。 It is said that after their return home, the Magi were baptized by St. Thomas and wrought much for the spread of the Faith in Christ.有人說,他們回家後,賢士的洗禮,聖托馬斯,並造成了基督信仰的傳播。 The story is traceable to an Arian writer of not earlier than the sixth century, whose work is printed, as "Opus imperfectum in Matthæum" among the writings of St. Chrysostom (PG, LVI, 644).阿里安作家不早於第六世紀,他們的工作是印刷,聖金口(PG,LVI,644)的著作之間的“一部imperfectum在Matthæum”的故事是有跡可尋的。 This author admits that he is drawing upon the apocryphal Book of Seth, and writes much about the Magi that is clearly legendary.筆者坦言,他是塞特猜測書中的借鑒,並寫入了賢士,這顯然是傳說中的。 The cathedral of Cologne contains what are claimed to be the remains of the Magi; these, it is said, were discovered in Persia, brought to Constantinople by St. Helena, transferred to Milan in the fifth century and to Cologne in 1163 (Acta SS., I, 323).科隆大教堂包含的內容聲稱自己是賢士的遺體,這是說,被發現在波斯,君士坦丁堡的聖赫勒拿島,在第五世紀,科隆1163(學報的SS轉移到米蘭,I,323)。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息的書面由Walter鼓。 Transcribed by John Szpytman.轉錄由約翰Szpytman。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約


Magi賢士

Orthodox Information 東正教信息

(This information may not be of the scholastic quality of the other articles in BELIEVE. Since few Orthodox scholarly articles have been translated into English, we have had to rely on Orthodox Wiki as a source. Since the Wikipedia collections do not indicate the author's name for articles, and essentially anyone is free to edit or alter any of their articles (again, without any indication of what was changed or who changed it), we have concerns. However, in order to include an Orthodox perspective in some of our subject presentations, we have found it necessary to do this. At least until actual scholarly Orthodox texts are translated from the Greek originals!) (此信息的學術質量的其他文章中認為,由於少數東正教學術文章已經被翻譯成英語,我們已經不得不依靠東正教維基作為源。以來的維基百科藏品也沒有表明作者的名字的文章,基本上任何人都可以自由地編輯或修改任何文章(再次,沒有任何跡象顯示被改變,或者改變它),我們有顧慮。然而,為了在我們的主題,包括一個正統的角度介紹,我們發現有必要做到這一點,至少要等到實際的學術東正教文本翻譯從希臘原件!)

According to the Gospel of Matthew (2:1-16), the wise men or Magi followed a star to the birth place of Christ.根據馬太的福音(2:1-16),聰明人,賢士一個明星的基督誕生的地方。 It was written that they were from the east and that they brought three gifts to Christ; gold, frankincense, and myrrh.它被寫,他們來自東部和基督的,他們帶來了三件禮物,黃金,乳香和沒藥。 Since there were three gifts, it has been inferred that there were three Magi.由於有三個禮物,它已推斷,有三賢士。 In Latin tradition dating from the seventh century,(from a greek manuscript) their names are given as Gaspar (or Caspar/Jasper), Melchior and Balthasar.在拉丁美洲傳統的歷史可以追溯到公元七世紀,(從希臘手稿),他們的名字作為加斯帕(或卡斯帕/嘉柏),梅爾基奧爾和巴爾塔薩。 According to one tradition, the Magi were baptized by the Apostle Thomas, and became bishops.據一位傳統,賢士的洗禮,使徒托馬斯,並成為主教。 The Church commemorates the Magi as saints; the Eastern feast day of the Magi is December 25.教會紀念為聖人賢士的賢士是東方宗教節日12月25日。

There are numerous variations of the names of the Magi in Greek, but the most common variation is for the name Gaspar which in Greek is Γιάσπερος (yiasperos) which is Anglicized as Jasper.有許多不同的名稱在希臘語中的賢士,但最常見的變化是加斯帕的名稱在希臘語中是的Γιάσ​​περος(yiasperos),這是英國化的如碧玉。



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