Manuscripts of the Bible “聖經”手稿

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof.手稿寫的,而不是印刷,複製的原始文字或整本聖經或其中的一部分的一個版本。 After introductory remarks on manuscripts in general, we shall take up in detail the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Syriac, Armenian, and Coptic manuscripts of the Bible; manuscripts of other versions are not important enough to come within the scope of this article.一般介紹性發言手稿後,我們應採取詳細的希伯來文,希臘文,拉丁文,敘利亞文,亞美尼亞文,科普特人手稿“聖經”手稿的其他版本並不重要,本文的討論範圍內。

I. IN GENERAL一,一般

Manuscripts may be conveniently divided into papyrus and vellum manuscripts.手稿可以方便地分為紙莎草紙和羊皮紙手稿。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
(1) Papyrus manuscripts (1)紙莎草紙手稿

In the Roman Empire of the first three centuries of our era, papyrus was the ordinary writing material.在羅馬帝國的最初的三個世紀,我們的時代,紙莎草紙是普通的書寫材料。 Made out of strips of pith taken from the stem of the Egyptian water-plant of the same name, papyrus was very fragile, became brittle in air, crumbled with use, could not resist the disintegrating force of moisture and was quite impracticable for book-form.做出來的條幹髓採取的埃及水植物具有相同名稱的紙莎草是很脆弱的,在空氣中逐漸變脆,崩潰與使用,無法抗拒的崩解力的​​水分,是相當不切實際的書形式。 All papyrus manuscripts of every sort are lost to us save such as were buried in exceedingly dry soil, like that of Upper and Middle Egypt.我們每樣都失去了所有的紙莎草紙手稿保存,如被埋葬在極其乾燥的土壤上,中東埃及。 Here the ignorant fellaheen at one time wantonly destroyed vast quantities of papyrus manuscripts.在這裡,無知fellaheen一次肆意破壞大量的紙莎草紙手稿。 Egyptian excavators now prevent such destruction and keep on adding to our very considerable collections of papyri.埃及大型挖掘機現已防止這種破壞,並不​​斷增加非常可觀的收藏品的紙莎草紙。 It is more than likely that the New Testament sacred writers or their scribes used ink and rolls of fragile papyrus for their autographa (2 Corinthians 3:3; 2 John 12).它更可能是他們的苜蓿(哥林多後書3:3;約翰福音12章),新約聖經的神聖的作家,他們的文士用墨水和脆弱的紙莎草卷。 These original manuscripts probably perished towards the end of the first or the opening of the second century.這些原始手稿可能對結束的第一或開放的第二個世紀滅亡。 We find no trace of them in either the Apostolic or the apologetic Fathers, -- unless we except Tertullian's words, "the authentic letters of the Apostles themselves", which are now generally set aside as rhetorical.我們發現,他們沒有一絲的使徒或致歉的父親, - 除非我們除了德爾圖良的話來說,“真正的使徒信自己”,這是現在一般預留作為修辭。 A significant proof of the early loss of the autograph copies of the New Testament is the fact that Irenæus never appeals to the original writings but only to all the painstaking and ancient copies (en pasi tois spoudaiois kai archaiois antigraphois), to the witness of those that saw John face to face (kai martyrounton auton ekeinon ton katopsin ton Ioannen heorakoton), and to the internal evidence of the written word (kai tou logou didaskontos hemas).新約聖經的書上簽名的初期損失的一個顯著的證明是愛任紐從來沒有提出上訴的事實,原始的文字,但只有所有的艱苦和古老的副本(PASI TOIS spoudaiois偕archaiois antigraphois),這些證人看到約翰面對面的(佳martyrounton:王文浩,ekeinon噸katopsin噸Ioannen heorakoton),以及內部證據的文字(啟頭洛古didaskontos赫馬)。

(2) Vellum manuscripts (2)羊皮紙手稿

Egypt clung to her papyrus rolls until the eighth century and even later.埃及緊緊抓住她的紙莎草卷,直到第八世紀,甚至更晚。 Vellum had been used before the time of Christ (cf. Pliny, "Historia Naturalis", xiii, 11), and during the time of the Apostles (2 Timothy 4:13).牛皮紙已被使用前基督(參見普林尼,“史記”自然“,十三,11)的時間,並在當時的使徒(2提摩太後書4:13)。 In the third century, it began, outside of Egypt, to supersede papyrus; in the early part of the fourth century vellum and the codex, or book-form, gained complete victory over papyrus and the roll-form.在第三個世紀,它開始,埃及外,以取代紙莎草紙,在早期的一部分,第四世紀羊皮紙抄本,或書的形式,獲得了完全的勝利對紙莎草紙和捲筒狀。 When Constantine founded his capital of the Byzantine Empire, he ordered Eusebius to have fifty manuscripts of the Bible made on vellum (somatia en diphtherais) for use in the churches of Byzantium (Vita Constant., IV, 36).當康斯坦丁創辦了自己的資本的拜占庭帝國,他下令尤西比烏斯有“聖經”手稿(50)牛皮紙(somatia diphtherais)在教堂的拜占庭(VITA恆,四,36)。 To the fourth century belong the earliest extant Biblical manuscripts of anything but fragmentary size.到了第四世紀屬於現存最早的聖經手稿什麼,但零碎的大小。

(3) Palimpsests (3)Palimpsests

Some vellum manuscripts of the greatest importance are palimpsests (from Lat. palimpsestum, Gr. palimpsestos, "scraped again"), -- that is, they were long ago scraped a second time with pumice-stone and written upon anew.一些羊皮紙手稿,最重要的是palimpsests(從緯度。pal​​impsestum,二年級。palimpsestos,“刮”), - 也就是說,他們不久前被刮了第二次用浮石石,並重新寫在。 The discovery of palimpsests led to the reckless of bigoted charge of wholesale destruction of Biblical manuscripts by the monks of old.的發現的palimpsests的領導的魯莽的大規模的破壞聖經手稿的老和尚的偏執負責。 That there was some such destruction is clear enough from the decree of a Greek synod of AD 691, which forbade the use of palimpsest manuscripts either of the Bible or of the Fathers, unless they were utterly unserviceable (see Wattenbach, "Das Schriftwessen im Mittelalter", 1896, p. 299).是很清楚的,有一些這樣的破壞從一個希臘主教會議的691 AD,禁止使用的重寫本手稿的“聖經”中的父親的法令,除非他們是完全無法使用(見瓦滕巴赫,的“資本Schriftwessen IM Mittelalter “1896年,第299頁)。 That such destruction was not wholesale, but had to do with only worn or damaged manuscripts, is in like manner clear enough from the significant fact that as yet no complete work of any kind has been found on a palimpsest.這種破壞是不批發,但需要做的唯一的磨損或損壞的手稿,是在喜歡的方式不夠清楚的重大事實,還沒有完成的工作的任何一種已發現一個重寫本。 The deciphering of a palimpsest may at times be accomplished merely by soaking it in clear water; generally speaking, some chemical reagent is required, in order to bring back the original writing.一個重寫本5倍的解密來完成,僅僅通過浸泡在清水中,一般來說,需要一些化學試劑,為了帶回原來的寫作。 Such chemical reagents are an infusion of nutgalls, Gioberti's tincture and hydrosulphuret of ammonia; all do harm to the manuscript.這種化學試劑Gioberti酒店的酊劑和hydrosulphuret的的的氨,五倍子,輸液,所有造成傷害的手稿。 Wattenbach, a leading authority on the subject, says: "More precious manuscripts, in proportion to the existing supply, have been destroyed by the learned experimenters of our time than by the much abused monks of old."瓦滕巴赫,領先的權威的人士說:“在現有的供應比例,更珍貴的手稿,已摧毀了我們這個時代所學到的實驗者比很多受虐待的老和尚的。”

II. II。 HEBREW MANUSCRIPTS希伯來文手稿

(1) Age (1)年齡

(a) Pre-Massoretic text (一)前massoretic文本

The earliest Hebrew manuscript is the Nash papyrus.最早的希伯來文手稿是納什紙莎草紙。 There are four fragments, which, when pieced together, give twenty-four lines of a pre-Massoretic text of the Ten Commandments and the shema (Exodus 20:2-17; Deuteronomy 5:6-19; 6:4-5).有四個碎片,拼湊起來的,24行的前massoretic文本中的十誡和瑪(出埃及記20:2-17,申命記5:6-19; 6:4-5) 。 The writing is without vowels and seems palæographically to be not later than the second century.寫作是沒有元音和,似乎palæographically是不晚於第二個世紀。 This is the oldest extant Bible manuscript (see Cook, "A Pre-Massoretic Biblical Papyrus" in "Proceed. of the Soc. of Bib. Arch.", Jan., 1903).這是現存最古老的聖經手稿(見庫克,“預Massoretic聖經紙莎草”中的“繼續。的SOC。的背帶褲。建築”,1903年1月)。 It agrees at times with the Septuagint against the Massorah.它同意與的譯本對Massorah的在。 Another pre- Massoretic text is the Samaritan Pentateuch.另一位前massoretic文本是撒瑪利亞五。 The Samaritan recension is probably pre-exilic; it has come down to us free from Massoretic influences, is written without vowels and in Samaritan characters.撒瑪利亞校訂可能是前放逐它歸結到我們從Massoretic的影響,在編寫時沒有元音和撒瑪利亞字符。 The earliest Samaritan manuscript extant is that of Nablûs, which was formerly rated very much earlier than all Massoretic manuscripts, but is now assigned to the twelfth or thirteenth century AD Here mention should be made of the non-Massoretic Hebrew manuscripts of the Book of Ecclesiasticus.最早的撒瑪利亞手稿現存的是,納布盧斯,它的前身是額定很遠早於所有massoretic手稿,但現在分配給第十二或十三世紀AD在這裡提及應採用非Massoretic希伯來文手稿,這本書的ecclesiasticus 。 These fragments, obtained from a Cairo genizah (a box for wornout or cast-off manuscripts), belong to the tenth or eleventh century of our era.這些片段,獲得一個:開羅genizah(一箱的穿著破爛或鑄手稿),屬於我們這個時代的第十次或11世紀。 They provide us with more than a half of Ecclesiasticus and duplicate certain portions of the book.他們為我們提供了超過一半的傳道書和重複書中的某些部分。 Many scholars deem that the Cairo fragments prove Hebrew to have been the original language of Ecclesiasticus (see "Facsimiles of the Fragments hitherto recovered of the Book of Ecclesiasticus in Hebrew", Oxford and Cambridge, 1901).許多學者認為,開羅碎片證明希伯來文一直傳道書“的原始語言(請參閱”傳真機的片段迄今恢復的書傳道書“在希伯來文,牛津,劍橋,1901年)。

(b) Massoretic text (二)massoretic文本

All other Hebrew manuscripts of the Bible are Massoretic (see MASSORAH), and belong to the tenth century or later.所有其他的希伯來文“聖經”手稿Massoretic(見MASSORAH),,屬於​​十世紀或更高版本。 Some of these manuscripts are dated earlier.這些手稿的日期。 Text-critics consider these dates to be due either to intentional fraud or to uncritical transcription of dates of older manuscripts.文本批評,認為這些是由於故意欺詐或不加批判地老年人的手稿轉錄的日期的日期。 For instance, a codex of the Former and Latter Prophets, now in the Karaite synagogue of Cairo, is dated AD 895; Neubauer assigns it to the eleventh or thirteenth century.例如,食品法典委員會的前和後先知,在開羅的karaite猶太教堂的現在,於公元895紐鮑爾其分配給第十一屆或13世紀。 The Cambridge manuscript no.劍橋手稿沒有。 12, dated AD 856, he marks as a thirteenth-century work; the date AD 489, attached to the St. Petersburg Pentateuch, he rejects as utterly impossible (see Studia Biblica, III, 22). 12月AD 856,他標誌著作為第十三世紀的工作;的日期公元489,聖彼得堡五時,他拒絕根本不可能的(見Studia Biblica,III,22)。 Probably the earliest Massoretic manuscripts are: "Prophetarium Posteriorum Codex Bablyonicus Petropolitanus", dated AD 916; the St. Petersburg Bible, written by Samuel ben Jacob and dated AD 1009; and "Codex Oriental. 4445" in the British Museum, which Ginsburg (Introduction, p. 469) assigns to AD 820-50.可能是最早的massoretic手稿是:“Prophetarium Posteriorum食品法典委員會Bablyonicus Petropolitanus”,於公元916年,聖彼得堡聖經寫的塞繆爾·本·雅各布,並於公元1009;和“食品法典委員會東方4445”在大英博物館,其中金斯伯格(導言,第469頁)分配至公元820-50。 The text critics differ very widely in the dates they assign to certain Hebrew manuscripts.文本的批評非常廣泛的不同的日期,他們分配給某些希伯來文手稿。 De Rossi is inclined to think that at most nine or ten Massoretic manuscripts are earlier than the twelfth century (Variæ Lectiones, I, p. xv).德羅西是傾向於認為,在九,十massoretic手稿是早於12世紀(VariæLectiones,我第XV部)。

(2) Number (2)

Kennicott, the first critical student of the Massoretic text, either examined or had others examine 16 Samaritan manuscripts, some 40 printed texts and 638 Massoretic manuscripts (see "Dissertatio Generalis in Vetus Testam. Hebraicum", Oxford, 1780).的massoretic文本的第一個關鍵學生,肯尼科特,檢查或其他檢查16撒瑪利亞手稿,大約40個印刷文本和638 massoretic手稿(見“Dissertatio一般在VETUS Testam。Hebraicum”,牛津大學,1780年)。 He numbered these manuscripts in six groups: nos.他六組:雙數編號的這些手稿。 1-88, Oxford manuscripts; nos. 1-88牛津大學的手稿; NOS的影響。 89-144, other manuscripts of English-speaking countries; nos. 89-144,其他的手稿以英語為母語的國家,NOS。 145-254, manuscripts of continental Europe; nos. 145-254歐洲大陸,手稿,NOS。 255-300, printed texts and various manuscripts; nos. 255-300,印刷文本和各種手稿,NOS。 301-694, manuscripts collated by Brunsius. 301-694,的手稿整理Brunsius。 De Rossi (Variæ Lectiones Vet. Test.) retained the numeration of Kennicott and added a list of 479 manuscripts, all his own personal property, of which unfortunately 17 had already received numbers from Kennicott.德羅西(VariæLectiones獸醫試驗)保留了記數的肯尼科特和補充的列表479手稿,全是他自己的個人財產,其中不幸的是有17個已經收到號碼由肯尼科特。 De Rossi later added four supplementary lists of 110, 52, 37, and 76 manuscripts.德羅西後來又增加了四個補充名單,110,52,37,和76的手稿。 He brought the number of Massoretic manuscripts up to 1375.他帶來了1375年的massoretic手稿。 No one has since undertaken so colossal a critical study of the Hebrew manuscripts.沒有人因為承擔如此巨大的一個重要研究希伯來文手稿。 A few of the chief manuscripts are more exactly collated and compared in the critical editions of the Massoretic text which were done by S. Baer and Fr.有幾個首席手稿更準確地整理和比較版本的massoretic文本進行S. Baer和神父的關鍵。 Delitzsch and by Ginsburg.德里和金斯伯格。 To the vast number of Hebrew manuscripts examined by Kennicott and De Rossi must be added some 2000 manuscripts of the Imperial Library of St. Petersburg, which Firkowitsch collated at Tschufut-Kale ("Jews' Rock") in the Crimea (see Strack, "Die biblischen und massoretischen Handschriften zü Tschufut-Kale" in "Zeits. für luth. Theol. und Kirche", 1875).給廣大的希伯來手稿審查肯尼科特和德羅西必須添加一些2000年聖彼得堡帝國圖書館的手稿,這Firkowitsch整理,羽衣甘藍Tschufut(“猶太人”搖滾“)在克里米亞(見施特拉克,”模具biblischen和massoretischen手捲祖Tschufut羽衣甘藍“中的”Zeits。獻給盧斯。theol的和KIRCHE“,1875年)。

(3) Worth (3)價值

The critical study of this rich assortment of about 3400 Massoretic rolls and codices is not so promising of important results as it would at first thought seem to be.這個種類豐富的約3400 Massoretic輥和codices的重要研究是重要的結果,因為它會首先想到的似乎是這麼有前途。 The manuscripts are all of quite recent date, if compared with Greek, Latin, and Syriac codices.手稿都相當最近的日期,如果與希臘文,拉丁文,和敘利亞的抄本。 They are all singularly alike.他們都是奇異的一致好評。 Some few variants are found in copies made for private use; copies made for public service in the synagogues are so uniform as to deter the critic from comparing them.有幾個變種被發現在本作私人用途,製作公共服務在各會堂裡是如此的統一,以阻嚇批評比較。 All Massoretic manuscripts bring us back to one editor -- that of a textual tradition which probably began in the second century and became more and more minute until every jot and tittle of the text was almost absolutely fixed and sacred.所有massoretic手稿帶我們回到一個編輯器 - 傳統的文字可能開始於公元二世紀,並成為越來越多分鐘,直到所有的記,絲毫不差的文字幾乎完全固定的和神聖的。 R. Aqiba seems to have been the head of this Jewish school of the second century. R. Aqiba似乎一直是這所猶太學校的第二個世紀的頭。 Unprecedented means were taken to keep the text fixed.採取前所未有的手段來保持固定的文本。 The scholars counted the words and consonants of each book, the middle word and middle consonants, the peculiarities of script, etc. Even when such peculiarities were clearly due to error or to accident, they were perpetuated and interpreted by a mystical meaning.學者計算在內的話和輔音的每一本書,中間的字,中間輔音,腳本的特殊性,即使這樣的特點顯然是由於錯誤或意外事故,他們延續和解釋由一個神秘的含義。 Broken and inverted letters, consonants that were too small or too large, dots which were out of place -- all these oddities were handed down as God-intended.壞了,倒字母,輔音,過小或過大,點的地方 - 所有這些古怪的傳世神的原意。 In Gen., ii, 4, bebram ("when they were created"), all manuscripts have a small Hê.將軍,二,四,bebram(“當他們創造了”),所有的手稿有一個小他。 Jewish scholars looked upon this peculiarity as inspired; they interpreted it: "In the letter Hê he created them"; and then set themselves to find out what that meant.This lack of variants in Massoretic manuscripts leaves us hopeless of reaching back to the original Hebrew text save through the versions.猶太學者把這種特性的啟發,他們的解釋是:“他創造了他們在信中他”,然後為自己找到了什麼,meant.This缺乏的變異體在massoretic手稿,讓我們無望達到回原來的希伯來文保存的版本。 Kittel in his splendid Hebrew text gives such variants as the versions suggest.基特爾在他輝煌的希伯來文中給出了這樣的變種版本。

III. III。 GREEK MANUSCRIPTS希臘手稿

(1) In General (1)一般

Greek manuscripts are divided into two classes according to their style of writing -- uncials and minuscules.被分為兩個類根據自己的寫作風格 - uncials和minuscules的希臘文手抄本。

(a) Uncials were written between the fourth and tenth centuries, with large and disconnected letters. (一)Uncials的書面之間的第四和第十世紀,大和斷開的字母。 These letters were not capitals but had a distinctive form: epsilon, sigma, and omega were not written EPSILON, SIGMA, OMEGA, as are those capitals in inscriptions; rho, phi, psi, and at times upsilon were prolonged above or below the line.這些信件是不是首都,但有一個獨特的形式:ε,Sigma和歐米茄沒有書面EPSILON,SIGMA,OMEGA,這些首都的銘文; RHO,披PSI,有時埃普西隆延長線的上方或下方的。 Words were not separated; neither accents nor punctuation marks were used; paragraphs were marked off only by a very small lacuna; the letters were uniform and artistic; ligatures were used only for the most ordinary words -- IC (Iesous), KC (Kyrios), XC (Christos), ICL (Israel), PNA (pneuma), DLD (David), ANOC (anthropos), PER (pater), MER (mater), OUC (pater), CER (soter), OUNOC (ouranos).詞不分離;既不口音也沒有標點符號使用段落標記只由一個非常小的空白字母是一致的,藝術的,連字只用於最普通的話 - :IC(Iesous),KC(曼涅勞),XC(克里斯托),ICL(以色列),PNA(元氣),DLD(大衛),ANOC(的人類學),PER(老子),MER(母校),OUC(老子),CER(SOTER),OUNOC(天空異物)。 In the sixth century, began a decadence of the elegant uncial writing.在第六世紀,開始了頹廢的優雅的uncial寫作。 Twists and turns were given to certain letters.一波三折的某些字母。 In the seventh century, more letters received flourishes; accents and breathings were introduced; the writing leaned to the right.在第七世紀,越來越多的字母,一夜暴富的口音和喘息聲的寫作靠的權利。

(b) Minuscules (二)Minuscules

While uncials held sway in Biblical manuscripts, minuscules were employed in other works.雖然uncials佔統治地位聖經手稿,minuscules其他作品。 During the ninth century, both uncial and minuscule manuscripts of the Bible were written.在第九世紀,“聖經”的uncial和微不足道的手稿寫的。 The latter show a form of writing so fully developed as to leave no doubt about its long standing use.後者顯示了書面形式的充分發展以不留下任何疑問,其長期使用。 The letters are small, connected, and written with a running hand.字母是小,連接,並與正在運行的編寫。 After the tenth century, minuscules were used until, in the fifteenth century, manuscripts were superceded by print.在第十個世紀,minuscules,直到在15世紀,手稿所取代,打印。

(2) Old Testament manuscripts (2)舊約聖經手稿

(a) Septuagint (LXX) (一)七十士譯本(LXX)

There are three families of Septuagint manuscripts -- the Hexaplaric, Hesychian, and Lucianic.有家庭的譯本手稿 - Hexaplaric,Hesychian,並Lucianic。 Manuscripts of Origen's Hexapla and Tetrapla were preserved at Cæsarea by his disciple Pamphilus.手稿的奧利的hexapla和Tetrapla的保存在該撒利亞他的弟子Pamphilus。 Some extant manuscripts (vg aleph and Q) refer in scholia to these gigantic works of Origen.一些現存的手稿(VG Aleph和Q)是指在scholia的淵源,這些巨大的工程。 In the fourth century, Pamphilus and his disciple Eusebius of Cæsarea reproduced the fifth column of the Hexapla, ie Origen's Hexaplaric Septuagint text, with all his critical signs.在第四世紀,pamphilus和他的弟子尤西比烏斯的cæsarea轉載的hexapla,即奧利Hexaplaric七十文字的第五縱隊,與他的所有關鍵的跡象。 This copy is the source of the Hexaplaric family of Septuagint manuscripts.此副本的Hexaplaric家庭的譯本手稿的來源。 In course of time, scribes omitted the critical signs in part or entirely.隨著時間的推移,文士部分或全部省略了關鍵的跡象。 Passages wanting in the Septuagint, but present in the Hebrew, and consequently supplied by Origen from either Aquila or Tehodotion, were hopelessly commingled with passages of the then extant Septuagint.與現存七十通道的通道要在七十,但在希伯來文的淵源,從而提供從任一的拉奎拉或Tehodotion,絕望的混合。 Almost at the same time two other editions of the Septuagint were published -- those of Hesychius at Alexandria and of Lucian at Antioch.幾乎在同一時間,其他兩個版本的譯本出版了 - 那些在亞歷山德里亞的赫西基奧斯和盧西恩在安提阿。 From these three editions the extant manuscripts of the Septuagint have descended, but by ways that have not yet been accurately traced.來自這三個版本現存手稿的septuagint已經下降,但的方式尚未被準確地跟踪。 Very few manuscripts can be assigned with more than probability to one of the three families.極少數的手稿可以分配概率超過三個家族中的一個。 The Hexaplaric, Hesychian, and Lucianic manuscripts acted one upon the other.的Hexaplaric,Hesychian和Lucianic手稿擔任一個在另一個。 Most extant manuscripts of the Septuagint contain, as a result, readings of each and of none of the great families.大多數現存手稿的septuagint遏制,因此,讀數和沒有偉大的家庭。 The tracing of the influence of these three great manuscripts is a work yet to be done by the text-critics.這三個偉大的手稿的影響的跟踪是一個尚未完成的文本批評。

Papyrus.紙莎草紙。 -- About sixteen fragments on papyrus are extant. - 關於16對紙莎草紙的碎片,是現存的。 Of these, the most important are:這些中,最重要的是:

Oxyrhyncus Pap. Oxyrhyncus子宮頸。 656 (early third cent.), containing parts of Gen., xiv-xxvii, wherein most of the great vellum manuscripts are wanting. 656(早第三%),部分將軍,十四,十七,其中最偉大的羊皮紙手稿的希望。

British Museum Pap.大英博物館子宮頸。 37, at times called U (seventh cent.), containing part of Psalms (Hebrew) x-xxxiii. 37,有時被稱為U(第七%),其中包含的詩篇(希伯來文)的X三十三。

A Leipzig Pap.一個萊比錫人民行動黨。 (fourth cent.) containing Psalms xxix-liv. (四美分)。含詩篇XXIX-54。 These two Psalters give us the text of Upper Egypt. ,這兩個Psalters給我們上埃及的文本。

A Heidelberg Pap.一台海德堡子宮頸。 (seventh cent.) containing Azch., iv, 6-Mal., iv, 5. (第七左右。)Azch。,四,6瑪,四,五。

A Berlin Pap.一個柏林巴氏。 (fourth or fifth cent.) containing about thirty chapters of Genesis. (第四或第五美分),約含30章的成因。

Vellum Uncial.牛皮紙的uncial。 -- Parsons collated 13 uncial and 298 minuscule manuscripts of the Septuagint; the former he designated with Roman numerals, I-XIII, the latter with Arabic numbers, 14-311 (cf., "VT Græcum cum Variis Lectionibus", Oxford, 1798). - 帕森斯整理13的uncial和298微小的手稿的septuagint前,他指定用羅馬數字I-XIII,後者用阿拉伯數字,14-311(參見“VT香草暨Variis Lectionibus”,牛津大學,1798年)。 Legarde designated the uncials by Roman and Greek capitals. Legarde指定uncials由羅馬和希臘的首都。 This designation is now generally accepted (cf. Swete, "Introduction to the Old Testament in Greek", Cambridge, 1902, 148).這指定是現在普遍接受的(見Swete,“舊約的希臘文”,劍橋,1902年,148頁)。

aleph -- S, Cod.艾禮富 - S,鱈魚。 Sinaiticus (fourth century; 43 leaves at Leipzig, 156 together with NT at St. Petersburg) contains fragments of Gen. and Num.; I Par., ix, 27-xix, 17; Esd.西奈抄本(第四世紀43葉156一起在萊比錫,與NT在聖彼得堡的)將軍和Num包含片段。我標準桿,27九,十九,17; ESD。 ix, 9-end; Esth.; Tob.; Judith; I and IV Mach.; Isa.; Jer.; Lam., i, 1-ii, 20; Joel; Ab.-Mal.; the Poetical Books; the entire New Testament; the Epistle of Barnabas and part of the "Shepherd" of Hermas.九,9月底; ESTH。來的。朱迪思I和IV馬赫。賽。耶。1-II,林,我20;約珥Ab.瑪詩學的書籍;整個新約的書信的巴拿巴和部分的“牧羊人”的書。 The text is mixed.該文本是混合型的。 In Tobias it differs much from A and B. Its origin is doubtful.在托比亞斯,它不同於A和B。它的起源是值得懷疑的。 Two correctors (Ca and Cb) are of the seventh century.校正(CA和CB)是七世紀。 Ca tells us at the end of Esth.鈣告訴我們在年底ESTH。 that he compared this manuscript with a very early copy, which Pamphilus testified had been taken from and corrected according to the Hexapla or Origen.一個非常早期的副本,Pamphilus作證已經採取和糾正根據的hexapla或淵源與他相比,這個手稿。

A, or Cod. A,或鱈魚。 Alexandrinus (fifth century; in British Museum) contains complete Bible (excepting Ps. 1-20-lxxx, 11, and smaller lacunæ) and includes deuterocanonical books and fragments, the apocryphal III and IV Mach., also I and II Clem.頸(五世紀,在大英博物館)包含完整的聖經“(詩1-20-LXXX,11,和更小的腔隙除外),包括經書和片段,猜測III和IV馬赫的,也I和II克萊姆。 Its origin is Egyptian and may be Hesychian.它的起源是埃及和可能是Hesychian。 It differs much from B, especially in Judges.它不同於B,特別是法官。 Two scribes wrote the manuscript.兩個文士寫的稿子。 The corrector belonged to about the same time.校正器屬於大約在同一時間。

B, or Cod. B,或鱈魚。 Vaticanus (fourth century; in the Vatican) contains complete Bible.梵諦岡(第四世紀在梵蒂岡)載有完整的聖經。 The Old Testament lacks Gen., i, 1-xivi, 28; I and II Mach.; portions of 2 Samuel 2; and Psalms, cv-cxxxvii.舊約沒有將軍,我,1 xivi,28,我和二馬赫。2撒母耳記上2;和詩篇,CV-CXXXVII的部分。 The New Testament wants Heb., ix, 14; I and II Tim.; Titus.; Apoc.新約聖經要來,九,14,我和提摩太。提多;載脂蛋白C。 Its origin is Lower Egyptian.它的起源是下埃及。 Hort thinks it akin to the text used by Origen in his Hexapla.園藝認為它類似於文本使用的奧利在他的Hexapla。

C, or Codex Ephræmi Rescriptus (fifth century palimpsest, in National Library, Paris) contains 64 leaves of Old Testament; most of Eccl.; parts of Ecclus.; Wisd.; Prov. C,或,法典Ephraemi Rescriptus(第五世紀重寫本,在國家圖書館,巴黎),包含64舊約葉大部分傳道書。部分Ecclus。; Wisd;省。 and Cant.; 145 out of 238 leaves of New Testament.公會。145 238葉新約聖經。

D, or The Cotton Genesis (fifth century; in British Museum) contains fragments of Gen.; was almost destroyed by fire in 1731, but had been previously studied. D,或棉花成因(五世紀,在大英博物館)載有片段的將軍;火在1731年幾乎被摧毀了,但以前的研究。

E, or Cod. E,或鱈魚。 Bodleianus (ninth or tenth century; in Bodl. Libr., Oxford) contains Heptateuch fragments. Bodleianus(第九或第十世紀,在Bodl。溴化鋰,牛津)包含Heptateuch片段。

F, or Cod. F,或鱈魚。 Ambrosianus (fifth century; at Milan) contains Heptateuch fragments. Ambrosianus(五世紀,在AC米蘭)包含Heptateuch片段。

G, or Cod. G,或鱈魚。 Sarravianus (fifth century; 130 leaves at Leyden; 22 in Paris, one in St. Petersburg) contains the Hexaplaric Octateuch (fragments) with some of the asterisks and obeli of Origen. Sarravianus(五世紀,130葉子在萊頓22日在巴黎,一個在聖彼得堡)包含Hexaplaric Octateuch的(片段)的淵源的星號和obeli的的一些。

H, or Cod. H,或鱈魚。 Petropolitanus (sixth century; in Imperial Libr., St. Petersburg) contains portions of Numbers. Petropolitanus(第六世紀,在帝國溴化鋰,聖彼得堡)包含部分的數字。

I, or Cod. I,或鱈魚。 Bodleianus (ninth century; in Bodl. Libr., Oxford) contains the Psalms. Bodleianus(第九世紀,在Bodl。溴化鋰,牛津)包含的詩篇。

K, or Cod. K,或鱈魚。 Lipsiensis (seventh century; in Univ. of Leipzig) contains fragments of Heptateuch. (七世紀,萊比錫大學。)Lipsiensis包含的片段Heptateuch。

L, or The Vienna Genesis (sixth century; in Imperial Libr., Vienna) contains incomplete Genesis, written with silver letters on purple vellum. L,或維也納成因(第六世紀,在帝國溴化鋰,維也納)包含不完整的創世紀,紫色vellum銀信寫的。

M, or Cod. M,或鱈魚。 Coislinianus (seventh century; in National Library, Paris) contains Heptateuch and Kings. Coislinianus(七世紀,在國家圖書館,巴黎)包含Heptateuch和國王。

NV, or Cod. NV,或鱈魚。 Basiliano-Venetus (eighth or ninth century; partly in Venice and partly in Vatican) contains complete Gen., Ex., and part of Lev., and was used with B in the critical edition of the Septuagint (Rome, 1587).第八或第九世紀Basiliano Venetus(部分在威尼斯和部分在梵蒂岡)包含完整的將軍,前,列弗。的一部分,,用於B在關鍵的版本的譯本(羅馬,1587年)。

O, or Cod. O,或鱈魚。 Dublinensis (sixth century; in Trinity College, Dublin) contains fragments of Isaias. Dublinensis(第六世紀,在聖三一學院(Trinity College),都柏林)包含片段伊薩亞斯。

Q, or Cod. Q,或鱈魚。 Marchalianus (sixth century, in Vatican) contains Prophets, complete; is very important, and originated in Egypt. Marchalianus(公元六世紀,在梵蒂岡)載有先知,完整的,是非常重要的,起源於埃及。 The text is probably Hesychian.的文字可能Hesychian。 In the margins are many readings from the Hexapla; it also gives many Hexaplaric signs.在此其間很多讀數的hexapla,它也提供了許多Hexaplaric的跡象。

R, or Cod. R,或鱈魚。 Veronensis (sixth century; at Verona) contains Gr.的Veronensis(第六世紀,在維羅納)包含GR。 and Lat.和緯度。 Psalter and Canticles.詩篇和canticles。

T, or Cod. T,或鱈魚。 Zuricensis, the Zürich Psalter (seventh century) shows, with R, the Western text; silver letters, gold initials, on purple vellum. Zuricensis中,蘇黎世詩篇(七世紀)表示,與西方文字R,銀信,黃金的縮寫,紫色vellum。

W, or Cod. W,或鱈魚。 Parisiensis (ninth century; in National Library, Paris) contains fragments of Psalms. Parisiensis(第九世紀,在國家圖書館,巴黎),包含片段的詩篇。

X, or Cod. X,或鱈魚。 Vaticanus (ninth century; in Vatican) contains the Book of Job.梵諦岡(第九世紀,在梵蒂岡)載有這本書的工作。

Y, or Cod. Y,或鱈魚。 Tauriensis (ninth century; in National Library, Turin) contains Lesser Prophets. Tauriensis(第九世紀,在國家圖書館,都靈),包含小先知。

Z, or Cod. Z,或鱈魚。 Tischendorf (ninth century) contains fragments of Kings; published by Tischendorf.蒂申多夫(第九世紀)包含片段的國王;公佈的蒂申多夫。

Gamma, or Cod.伽瑪,或鱈魚。 Cryptoferrantensis (eighth or ninth century; at Grottaferrata) contains fragments of Prophets. Cryptoferrantensis(第八或第九世紀,在Grottaferrata的)包含片段的先知。

Delta, or Cod.三角洲,或鱈魚。 Bodleianus (fourth or fifth century; Oxford, in Bodl. Libr.) contains a fragment of Daniel. Bodleianus(第四或第五世紀,牛津,在。溴化鋰Bodl。)中的一個片段丹尼爾。

Theta, or Cod.西塔,或鱈魚。 Washington (fifth or sixth century, to be in Smithsonian Institution), contains Deut.-Jos., found in Egypt, one of the Freer manuscripts.華盛頓(第五或第六世紀,在史密森學會),包含申喬斯,在埃及,一個更自由的手稿。 There are likewise seven uncial Psalters (two complete) of the ninth or tenth century and eighteen rather unimportant fragments listed by Swete (op. cit., p. 140).同樣,有7的uncial手稿Psalters(兩個完整的),第九,第十世紀和18比較不重要的片段上市Swete(同上,頁140)。

Vellum Minuscule.牛皮紙微不足道的。 More than 300 are known but unclassified. 300多名被稱為分類。 The Cambridge Septuagint purposes to collate the chief of these minuscules and to group them with a view to discriminating the various recensions of the Septuagint.劍橋七十目的,收集的首席這些minuscules,對它們進行分組,以區分不同的校訂的譯本。 More than half of these manuscripts are Psalters and few of them give the entire Old Testament.超過一半這些手稿是Psalters的,他們幾個給整個舊約。 In editing his Alcalá Polyglot, Cardinal Ximenes used minuscules 108 and 248 of the Vatican.在編輯他的阿爾卡拉多語種,樞機主教希梅內斯minuscules 108和248的梵蒂岡。

(b) Aquila (二)阿奎拉

(See VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE). (見版本的聖經)。 Manuscript traces of the text of Aquila are found in拉奎拉的文字手稿的痕跡被發現在

fragments of Origen's third columns, written as marginal notes to some manuscripts, such as Q;奧利的第三欄,寫的旁注一些手稿,如Q的片段;

the Milan palimpsest of the Hexapla, a most important tenth century copy found by Mercati in 1896.米蘭重寫本的hexapla,最重要的十世紀的副本發現Mercati於1896年。 It contains about eleven Psalms, has no Hebrew column, and uses the space thereof for variant readings;它包含了約11詩篇,有沒有希伯來語列,並使用空間變讀;

the Cambridge fragment, seventh century, discovered in a Cairo genizah.公元七世紀,劍橋片段,發現在開羅genizah。 It contains parts of Ps.它包含了部分的PS。 xxi (see Taylor, "Cairo Genizah Palimpsests", 1900).二十一(見泰勒,“開羅Genizah Palimpsests”,1900年)。 The name Jahweh is written in old Hebrew letters.是寫在舊的希伯來字母的名稱亞威。

The Cairo fragments of the fourth and fifth centuries; three palimpsests (containing 1 Kings 20:7-17; 2 Kings 23:11-27) published by Burkitt in 1897; and four portions of the Psalms (lxxxix, 17-xci, 10; xcv, 7- xcvi, 12; xcviii, 3; ci, 16-cii, 13) published by Taylor (op. cit.).開羅片段的第四和第五世紀伯基特在1897年公佈的3 palimpsests(列王紀上20:7-17 2國王23:11-27);四個部分的詩篇“(LXXXIX,17 XCI,10 XCV,7 - XCVI,12 XCVIII,3,CI,16-CII,13)發表的泰勒(同上)。

The fourth-century papyrus fragments of Gen., i, 1-5, published, 1900, by Grenfell and Hunt.第四世紀的紙莎草紙碎片的將軍,我,1-5,出版,1900年,葛菲和亨特。

(c) Theodotion (三)Theodotion

(See VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE). (見版本的聖經)。 The Book of Daniel of Theodotion is found in the Septuagint manuscripts previously mentioned.但以理書Theodotion被發現在前面提到的譯本手稿。 The Milan palimpsest contains his text in part.米蘭重寫本部分包含了他的文字。

(d) Symmachus (四)馬初斯

(See VERSIONS OF THE BIBLE). (見版本的聖經)。 Manuscript sources are the Milan palimpsest, Cambridge fragment, and Hexaplaric marginal notes, all of which are manuscript sources of Aquila.手稿的來源米蘭重寫本,劍橋片段,邊際筆記Hexaplaric,所有這一切都是雕稿件來源。

(3) New Testament manuscripts (3) 新約聖經手稿

(a) In General (一)一般

There are, according to the latest authority on this subject, von Soden ("Die Schriften des NT in ihrer ältesten erreichbaren Textgestalt", Berlin, 1902), 2328 New Testament manuscripts extant.還有,根據最新的權威在這個問題上,馮索登(“Schriften德NT在ihrerältestenerreichbaren Textgestalt”,柏林,1902年),2328年的新約手抄本現存。 Only about 40 contain, either entire or in part, all the books of the New Testament.只有約40載,無論是全部或部分的新約,所有的書。 There are 1716 manuscript copies of the Gospels, 531 of the Act, 628 of the Pauline Epistles, 219 of the Apocalypse.有1716份手稿的福音,該法第531的,628的寶蓮,書信,219的啟示。 The commonly received numeration of the New Testament manuscripts is that of Wettstein; uncials are designated by Roman and Greek capital, minuscules by Arabic numbers.記數的新約聖經手稿是維特斯坦uncials被指定由羅馬和希臘的的資金,minuscules阿拉伯數字。 These manuscripts are divided into the above-mentioned four groups -- Gospels, Acts, Pauline Epistles, Apocalypse.這些手稿分為上述四個團體 - 福音書,使徒行傳,保羅書信,啟示。 In the case of uncials, an exponent is used to designate the group referred to.在uncials的情況下,一個指數用於指定組提及。 D or Dev is Cod. “D或開發是鱈魚。 Bezæ, a manuscript of the Gospels; D3 or Dpaul is Cod. Bezæ,手稿的福音,的D3或Dpaul是鱈魚。 Claromontanus, a manuscript of the Pauline Epistles; E2 or Eact is Cod. Claromontanus的寶蓮書信,手稿;的E2或EACT是鱈魚。 Laudianus, a manuscript of the Acts. Laudianus,手稿的行為。 The nomenclature is less clear for minuscules.的命名是不太清楚,minuscules。 Each group has a different set of numbers.每個組都有一個不同的數字。 If a minuscule be a complete manuscript of the New Testament, it is designated by four different numbers.如果一個微不足道的是一個完整的新約聖經的手稿,它被指定由4個不同的電話號碼。 One and the same manuscript at Leicester is Evan.埃文是同一個手稿在萊斯特。 69, Act. 69,法。 31, Paul. 31日,保羅。 37, Apoc. 37,載脂蛋白C。 14. 14。 Wettestein's lists of New-Testament manuscripts were supplemented by Birch and Schols; later on Scrivener and Gregory continued the lists, each with his own nomenclature.新約聖經手稿Wettestein的名單,補充了,樺木和Schols;以後斯克里夫納和Gregory繼續列表,用他自己的命名。 Von Soden has introduced a new numeration, so as to indicate the contents and date of the manuscripts.馮索登已經推出了新的記數,顯示的內容和日期的手稿。 If the content be more than the Gospels, it is marked delta (that is, diatheke, "testament"); if only the Gospels, eta (ie, euaggelion, "gospel"); if aught else save the Gospels, alpha (that is, apostolos).如果內容超過了福音,它標誌著三角洲(即,diatheke的,“遺書”),如果只有福音,η(即“福音書”); euaggelion,如果任何事物都保存福音,α(即是,APOSTOLOS)。 B is delta-1; aleph is delta-2; Q is epsilon-4, etc. No distinction is made between uncials and minuscules. B是δ-1;阿列夫是Δ-2,Q是ε-4等無uncials,minuscules之間作出區分。 Scholars admit the logic and scientific worth of this new numeration, but find it too unwieldy and impracticable.學者們承認這個新的記數的邏輯和科學價值,但發現它太笨重的和不切實際的。

(b) Payrus (二)Payrus

In the Archduke Rainer collection, Vienna, are several very fragmentary bits of New Testament Greek phrases, which Wessely, the curator of that collection, assigns to the second century.在維也納,大公Rainer的收集,新約希臘短語,威斯利,策展人的收集,分配給第二個世紀的一些很零碎位。 The Grenfell and Hunt excavations in Oxyrhyncus brought to light various fragments of the New Testament which Kenyon, the assistant keeper of the manuscripts of the British Museum, assigns to the latter part of the third century.葛菲和亨特的發掘中Oxyrhyncus帶來的光的輔助老闆的手稿在大英博物館,肯揚,新約中的第三個世紀的後半部分配給不同的片段。 Only one papyrus manuscript of the New Testament is important to the text-critic -- Oxyrhyncus Pap.只有一個紙莎草紙手稿的新約文本的評論家 - Oxyrhyncus巴氏是很重要的。 657, third-fourth century; it preserves to us about a third of the Epistle to the Hebrews, and epistle in which Codex B is defective. 657,第三十四世紀,它保留了我們大約有三分之一的希伯來人的書信,書信,法典B是有缺陷的。

(c) Vellum Uncials (三)牛皮紙Uncials

There are about 160 vellum uncials of the New Testament; some 110 contain the Gospels or a part thereof.大約有160牛皮紙uncials的新約,約110個包含福音書或其中的一部分。 The chiefest of these uncials are the four great codices of the entire Greek Bible, aleph, A, B, C, for which, see above.作這些uncials是整個希臘文聖經,艾禮富,A,B,C,四大codices的,見上文。 The Vatican (B) is the oldest and probably the best New Testament manuscript.的梵蒂岡(B)是最古老的,可能是最好的新約聖經手稿。

D. or Cod. D.或鱈魚。 Bezæ (qv) (fifth or sixth century; in University Library, Cambridge) contains Gospels and Acts in Gr. Bezæ(QV)(第五或第六世紀,在大學圖書館,劍橋)包含在一年級的福音和使徒行傳。 and Lat., excepting Acts, xxii, 29 to the end; it is a unique specimen of a Greek manuscript whose text is Western, ie that the Old Latin and Old Syriac.和緯度,除了使徒行傳,二十二,29日至月底的希臘手稿的文字是西方的,即,舊的拉丁語和古敘利亞文,它是一個獨特的標本。

D3 or Cod. D3或鱈魚。 Claromonianus (probably sixth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris) contains Pauline Epistles in Gr. Claromonianus(可能是第六世紀,在溴化鋰,巴黎)包含在GR的保羅書信。 and Lat., each text independent of the other.和緯度,每個獨立於其他的文字。 Before Hebrews is a list of the books of the New Testament and the number of lines (stichoi) in each; this list omits Thess., Heb., and Phil., includes four apocryphal books, and follows an unusual order: Matt., John, Mark, Luke, Rom., I and II Cor., Gal., Eph., I and II Tim., Titus, Col., Philem., I and II Pet., James, I, II and III John, Jude, Barnabas, Apoc., Acts, Hermas, Acts of Paul, Apoc.在希伯來書是新約聖經的數量線(stichoi)在各書的列表,這個列表忽略了帖撒羅尼迦前書,希伯來書,菲爾,包括四個猜測書籍,並遵循一個不尋常的命令:馬特。約翰,馬可,路加,羅,我和哥林多後書,加拉太書,以弗所書,我和提摩太,提多書,歌羅西書,Philem。,I和II寵物,詹姆斯,I,II和III約翰,裘德,巴拿巴,載脂蛋白C。,使徒行傳,黑馬,保羅,APOC的行為。 of Peter.彼得。

E, or Cod. E,或鱈魚。 Basileensis (eighth century; in Univ. Libr., Basle) contains the Gospels. (八世紀,在大學溴化鋰,巴塞爾)Basileensis包含了福音。

E2, or Cod. E2,或鱈魚。 Laudianus (sixth century; Oxford, in Bodl. Library) contains Acts in Gr. Laudianus(第六世紀,牛津,在Bodl。庫)包含在一年級的行為。 and Lat.和緯度。 The former is somewhat like D.前者是有點像D.

E3, or Cod. E3,或鱈魚。 Sangermanensis (ninth century; in Imper. Libr., St. Petersburg) contains Pauline Epistles in Gr. Sangermanensis(第九世紀,Imper。溴化鋰,聖彼得堡)包含在一年級的保羅書信。 and Lat.; of same family as D3.和緯度。的D3相同的家庭。

F, or Cod. F,或鱈魚。 Boreeli (ninth century; at Utrecht), contains Gospels. Boreeli(第九世紀,在烏得勒支),包含了福音。

F3, or Cod. F3,或鱈魚。 Augiensis (ninth century; in Trinity College, Cambridge), contains Pauline Epp.的Augiensis(第九世紀,在聖三一學院(Trinity College),劍橋),包含寶蓮埃普。 in Gr.換藥。 and Lat.; of the same family as D3, E3, and G3.和緯度,D3,E3,G3的同一個家庭。

G, or Cod. G,或鱈魚。 Wolfii A (ninth or tenth century; at Cambridge, and London), contains the Gospels.第九,第十世紀Wolfii A(劍橋和倫敦),包含了福音。

G3, or Cod. G3,或鱈魚。 Boernerianus (ninth century; at Dresden), contains Paul Epp. Boernerianus(第九世紀,在德累斯頓),包括保羅·埃普。 in Gr.換藥。 and Lat.; text of D3 type.和緯度。D3類型的文本。

H, or Cod. H,或鱈魚。 Wolfii B (ninth or tenth century; at Dresden), contains Paul Epp. Wolfii B(第九或第十世紀,在德累斯頓),包括保羅·埃普。 in Gr.換藥。 and Lat.; text of D3 type.和緯度。D3類型的文本。

h2, or Cod. h2,或鱈魚。 Mutinensis (ninth century; at Modena), contains Acts. Mutinensis(第九世紀,在摩德納),載行為。

h3, or Cod. h3,或鱈魚。 Coislinianus (sixth century; originally at Mt. Athos where 8 leaves remain. Other parts were used for binding manuscripts; 22 leaves thus reached Paris; 3 which were discovered at St. Petersburg, Moscow and Kieff; 1 in Turin). Coislinianus(第六世紀,最初。阿索斯山8樹葉的其他部分使用了具有約束力的手稿; 22樹葉從而達到巴黎3被發現在都靈在聖彼得堡,莫斯科和Kieff的; 1)。 This manuscript gives us, in great part, a fourth-century text of Euthalius of Sulca.這手稿給了我們,在很大程度上,四分之一世紀的Sulca的Eut​​halius文本。

K, or Cod. K,或鱈魚。 Cyprius (ninth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), contains the Gospels.興國(第九世紀,在溴化鋰,巴黎),包含了福音。

K2, or Cod. K2,或鱈魚。 Mosquensis (ninth century; in Holy Synod Library, Moscow), contains Acts, Cath., and Paul. Mosquensis(第九世紀,在聖主教圖書館,莫斯科),載行為,蛋白酶,和保羅。 Epp.埃普。

L, or Cod. L,或鱈魚。 Regius (eighth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), contains Gospels.麗君(八世紀,溴化鋰,巴黎),包含了福音。

L2, or Cod. L2,或鱈魚。 Angelicus (ninth century; in Rome), contains Acts, Cath., and Paul.安傑利卡斯(第九世紀,在羅馬),載行為,蛋白酶,和保羅。 Epp.埃普。

M, or Cod. M,或鱈魚。 Campianus (ninth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), contains Gospels. Campianus(第九世紀,在溴化鋰,巴黎),包含了福音。

M3, or Cod. M3,或鱈魚。 Campianus (ninth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), contains Gospels. Campianus(第九世紀,在溴化鋰,巴黎),包含了福音。

N, or Cod. N,或鱈魚。 Purpureus, called also Petropolitanus (sixth century), contains Gospels in silver on purple vellum.紅櫨,也稱為Petropolitanus(六世紀),包含了福音,在銀紫色vellum。 About half the manuscript is extant: 182 leaves (found in Asia Minor, 1896) are in St. Petersburg, 33 at Patmos, 6 in the Vatican, 4 in British Museum, and 2 in Vienna.大約有一半的手稿是現存:182葉子(在小亞細亞,1896年)是在聖彼得堡,33帕特莫斯,在梵蒂岡,在大英博物館,並在維也納。

P, or Cod. P,或鱈魚。 Guelferbytanus A (sixth century; Wolfenbüttel), contains Gosp. Guelferbytanus A(第六世紀沃爾芬),包含GOSP。 fragments.片段。

P2, or Cod. P2,或鱈魚。 Porphyrianus (ninth century; in St. Petersburg), contains Acts, Cath. Porphyrianus(第九世紀,在聖彼得堡),載行為,蛋白酶。 and Paul.和保羅。 Epp.埃普。

Q, or Cod. Q,或鱈魚。 Guelferbytanus B (fifth century; Wolfenbüttel), contains Gosp. Guelferbytanus乙(第五世紀沃爾芬)的,包含GOSP。 fragments.片段。

R, or Cod. R,或鱈魚。 Nitriensis (sixth century; in British Museum, London), a palimpsest copy of Luke. Nitriensis(第六世紀,在大英博物館,倫敦),盧克一個重寫本副本。

T, or Cod. T,或鱈魚。 Borgianus (fifth century; in Vatican), Gr. Borgianus(五世紀在梵蒂岡),一年級。 and Sahidic fragments.的sahidic片段。 One has the double-ending of Mark; another has 17 leaves of Luke and John, and a text akin to B and alpha一個具有雙重的結束的標誌;另一個有17葉,路加和約翰,和一個文本類似於B和阿爾法

Z, or Cod. Z,或鱈魚。 Dublinensis (sixth century; in Trinity Col., Dublin), a palimpsest containing 295 verses of Matt.; text probably Egyptian, akin to aleph Dublinensis(第六世紀,在三一上校,都柏林),palimpsest含有295小詩的馬特。;可能是埃及的文字,類似於ALEPH

Delta, or Cod.三角洲,或鱈魚。 Sangallensis (ninth or tenth century; at Saint-Gall), contains Gospels in Gr. Sangallensis(第九或第十世紀,在聖膽),包含在一年級的福音。 and Lat.和緯度。

Lambda, or Cod. LAMBDA,或鱈魚。 Rossanensis (sixth century; at Rossano, in Calabria), contains Matt. Rossanensis(第六世紀,在羅薩諾,在卡拉布里亞),包含馬特。 and Mark, in silver letters on purple vellum with illustrations.和馬克,在銀信與插圖紫色vellum。 N, N,

Sigma, Sigma-b, and Phi are all akin and were probably produced at Constantinople from a single ancestor.適馬,SIGMA-B和Phi都是類似的,很可能是從一個單一的祖先在君士坦丁堡。

Sigma-b, or Cod. Σ-B,或鱈魚。 Sinopensis (sixth century; in Nat. Libr., Paris), consists of 43 leaves (Matthew 7-24), in gold letters on purple vellum with 5 illustrations; it was bought by a French naval officer for a few francs, at Sinope, in 1899, and is called also Omicron and Hê.第六世紀(Sinopensis;在NAT的。溴化鋰,巴黎),由43個葉(馬修7-24),在黃金信件紫色vellum 5插圖,有人買了幾個法郎,由法國海軍軍官在木衛,在1899年,也叫,OMICRON和他。

Phi, or Cod.披,或鱈魚。 Beratinus (sixth century; at Berat in Albania), contains Matt. Beratinus(第六世紀,在阿爾巴尼亞培拉特中),包含馬特。 and Mark.和馬克。

Beth, or Cod.貝絲,或鱈魚。 Patirensis (fifth century; in the Vatican), contains Act., Cath. Patirensis(五世紀,在梵蒂岡),包含法,蛋白酶。 and Paul.和保羅。 Epp.埃普。

The American manuscript of the Gospels (fifth century), found in Egypt, 1907, has not yet been published; nor have the fragments of the Pauline Epistles (sixth century) which were found at the same time.手稿的福音(第五世紀),1907年,在埃及,美國尚未公佈;也有片段的寶蓮書信(六世紀),被發現在相同的時間。

(d) Vellum minuscules (四)牛皮紙minuscules

The vast numbers of minuscule witnesses to the text of the New Testament would seem to indicate a rich field of investigation for the text-critic.廣大微小的證人“新約”的文字似乎表明了豐富的研究領域為文本的評論家。 The field is not so rich at all.在所有的領域也不是那麼豐富。 Many of these minuscules have never been fully studies.許多這些minuscules沒有得到充分的研究。 Ninety-five per cent.九十五%。 of them are witnesses to the same type of text; that of the textus receptus.他們是證人對同一類型的文本;,Web網站receptus。 Only those minuscules interest the text-critic which are distinctive of or akin to one of the great uncials.只有那些minuscules利益是獨特的或類似的偉大uncials文本的批評。 Among the Gospel minuscules, according to Gregory's numeration, the type of B-aleph is seen more or less in 33; 1, 118, 131, 209; 59, 157, 431, 496, 892.在的福音minuscules,根據格里高利的記數,B-ALEPH的類型或多或少33,1,118,131,209,59,157,431,496,892。 The type of D is that of 235, 431, 473, 700, 1071; and of the "Ferrar group", 13, 69, 124, 346, 348, 543, 713, 788, 826, 828. d的類型是235,431,473,700,1071;的“Ferrar組”,13,69,124,346,348,543,713,788,826,828。 Among the Acts minuscules, 31 and 61 show some kinship to B; 137, 180, 216, 224 to D. 15, 40, 83, 205, 317, 328, 329, 393 are grouped and traced to the fourth century text of Euthalius of Sulica.在使徒行傳minuscules,31和61的一些親屬關係到B,137,180,216,224 D. 15,40,83,205,317,328,329,393組合和跟踪的第四個世紀文本的Euthalius蘇利克。 Among the Pauline minuscules, this same text (ie that of h3) is found in 81, 83, 93, 379, 381.在保祿minuscules,這個相同的文本(即,h3)被發現在81,83,93,379,381。

(e) Lectionaries (五)Lectionaries

There are some 1100 manuscripts of readings from the Gospels (Evangelia or Evangeliaria) and 300 manuscripts of readings from Acts and Epistles (Praxapostoli). 1100手稿的福音(讀數的Evangelia或Evangeliaria)和300個讀數行為和書信(Praxapostoli)的手稿。 Although more than 100 of these lectionaries are uncials, they are of the ninth century or later.雖然有超過100這些lectionaries的uncials,他們的第九屆世紀或更高版本。 Very few of these books of the Epistles and Gospels have been critically examined.只有極少數的這些書信和福音書已嚴格審查。 Such examination may later on serve to group the New Testament minuscules better and help to localize them.這種檢查以後可能會為新約聖經分組minuscules更好的幫助本地化。

IV. IV。 LATIN MANUSCRIPTS拉丁手稿

Biblical manuscripts are far more uniform in Greek than in Latin script.聖經手稿是在希臘比拉丁字母更均勻。 Palæography divides the Greek into uncials and minuscules; the Latin into uncials, semi-uncials, capitals, minuscules and cursives.古文字將希臘到uncials和minuscules到uncials,拉丁半uncials,資金,minuscules和cursives。 Even these divisions have subdivisions.即使是這些部門有分支機構。 The time, place and even monastery of a Latin manuscript may be traced by the very distinct script of its text.的時間,地點,甚至修道院的一個拉丁手稿最早可追溯到其文字非常明顯的腳本。

(1) Old Latin (1)舊拉丁美洲

Some 40 manuscripts have preserved to us a text which antedates the translation of St. Jerome; they are designated by small letters.大約有40的手稿保存到一個文本先於翻譯的圣杰羅姆,他們指定的小寫字母。 Unfortunately no two of these manuscripts represent to us quite the same text.不幸的是,這些手稿代表我們不太一樣的文字。 Corrections introduced by scribes and the inevitable influence of the Vulgate have left it a very difficult matter to group the Old Latin manuscripts.更正推出的文士和不可避免的影響了vulgate已經離開了一個非常困難的問題進行分組,舊拉丁美洲手稿。 Text-critics now agree upon an African, a European and an Italian type of text.文本的批評者現在同意後,非洲,歐洲和意大利式的文字。 The African text is that mentioned by Tertullian (c. 150-220) and used by St. Cyprian (c. 200-258); it is the earliest and crudest in style.非洲文本提到的戴爾都良(約150-220)和聖塞浦路斯(公元前200-258)的使用,它是國內最早,最原始的風格。 The European text is less crude in style and vocabulary, and may be an entirely new translation. ,歐洲文字是原油風格和詞彙,並可能是一個全新的翻譯。 The Italian text is a version of the European and was revised by St. Jerome in parts of the Vulgate.意大利文是歐洲的一個版本,並修改圣杰羅姆的武加大部分地區。

The most important Old Latin manuscripts are the bilingual New Testament manuscripts D, D3, E2, E3, F3, G3, Delta.最重要的舊的拉丁手稿是雙語新約聖經手稿D,D3,E2,E3,F3,G3,台達。

a, or Cod. ,或鱈魚。 Vercellensis (fourth century; at Vercelli), containing the Gospels. Vercellensis(第四世紀,在韋爾切利),包含了福音。

b, or Cod. B,或鱈魚。 Veronensis (fifth century; at Verona), containing Gospels on purple vellum.的Veronensis(五世紀,在維羅納),紫色羊皮紙上的福音。 a and b are our chief witnesses to the European text of the Gospels. a和b是我們的主要證人歐洲文本的福音。

e, or Cod. E,或鱈魚。 Palatinus (fifth century; at Vienna, -- one leaf is in Dublin), contains the Gosp.顎(五世紀,在維也納, - 一片葉子是在都柏林),包含GOSP。 For Acts, e is Lat.行為,E緯度。 of E2; for Paul. E2;保羅。 Epp., e is Lat.埃普。,e是緯度。 of E3. E3。

f, or Cod. F,或鱈魚。 Brixianus (sixth century; at Brescia), contains Gosp. Brixianus(第六世紀,在布雷西亞),包含GOSP。 on purple vellum; Italian type, thought by Wordsworth and White to be the best extant representative of the Old Latin text which St. Jerome used when revising the New Testament.紫色vellum意大利式的,想華茲華斯和白色的舊拉丁文字圣杰羅姆在修訂新約聖經是現存最好的代表。

ff2, or Cod. FF2,或鱈魚。 Corbeiensis (fifth century; at Paris), contains the Gospels. Corbeiensis(五世紀,在巴黎),包含了福音。

g, or Cod.克,或鱈魚。 Gigas (thirteenth century; at Stockholm), a complete Bible; Acts and Apoc.牡蠣(在13世紀,斯德哥爾摩),一個完整的聖經,行為和載脂蛋白C。 are in Old Latin text and are the chief representative of the European type.在舊的拉丁文字,是歐洲型首席代表。

h, or Palimpsest de Fleury (fourth or fifth century; at Turin), contains Mark, vii-xvi, 8 and Matt., i-xv; earliest form of Old Latin, African type, closely akin to text used by Saint Cyprian. h,或重寫本弗勒裡(第四或第五世紀,在都靈),包含標記,七十六,8和馬特。,I-15;舊拉丁美洲,非洲型,密切類似於文本使用的聖塞浦路斯的最早形式。

q, or Cod. Q,或鱈魚。 Monacensis (sixth or seventh century; at Munich, contains Gospels; Italian type of text. Monacensis(第六或第七世紀,在慕尼黑,包含了福音,意大利式的文字。

(2) Vulgate (2)武加大

It is estimated that there are more than 8000 manuscripts of the Vulgate extant.據估計,有8000多的武加大現存的手稿。 Most of these are later than the twelfth century and have very little worth for the reconstruction of the text.其中大多數是比12世紀之後,很少有值得重建的文本。 Tischendorf and Berger designate the chief manuscripts by abbreviations of the names: am.蒂申多夫和伯傑指定的主要手稿的名稱的縮寫。 = Amiatinus; fu. = Amiatinus,傅。 or fuld.富爾德。 = Fuldensis. =委員會fuldensis。 Wordsworth and White, in their critical edition of the Gospel and Acts (1899-1905); use Latin capitals to note the 40 manuscripts on which their text depends.華茲華斯和白色,在其關鍵的福音和使徒行傳(1899-1905)的版本,使用拉丁資金需要注意的40手稿上自己的文字。 Gregory (Textkritik, II, 634) numbers 2369 manuscripts.格雷戈里(Textkritik,II,634)號碼2369手稿。 The most logical and useful grouping of these manuscripts is genealogical and geographical.這些手稿是最合理,最實用的分組家譜和地理。 The work of future critics will be to reconstruct the text by reconstructing the various types, Spanish, Italian, Irish, French, etc. The chief Vulgate manuscripts are:未來的評論家的工作將是重建重建的不同類型,西班牙,意大利,愛爾蘭,法國等文本的主要拉丁文手稿是:

A, or Cod. A,或鱈魚。 Amiatinus (qv) (eighth century; at Florence), contains complete Bible; text probably Italian, best extant manuscript of Vulgate. Amiatinus(QV)(第八世紀的佛羅倫薩),包含完整的聖經文本可能意大利語,最好的現存手稿的武加大。

C, or Cod. C,或鱈魚。 Cavensis (ninth century; at La Cava, near Naples), a complete Bible; best representative of Spanish type. cavensis(第九世紀,在拉卡瓦,在那不勒斯附近),一個完整的聖經,最能代表西班牙式。

Delta, or Cod.三角洲,或鱈魚。 Dunelmensis (seventh or eighth century; in Durham Cathedral, England), Gospels; text akin to A. Dunelmensis(第七或第八世紀,在英國達勒姆大教堂),福音;文本類似於A.

F, or Cod. F,或鱈魚。 Fuldensis (AD 541-546; at Fulda, in Germany), a complete New Testament; Gospels are in form of Tatian's "Diatessaron".的委員會fuldensis(公元541-546在富爾達,在德國),一個完整的新約聖經福音的提安的“Diatessaron人們”的形式。 Bishop Victor of Capua found an Old Latin version of Tatian's arrangement and substituted the Vulgate for the Old Latin.主教維克多卡普阿發現了一個舊拉丁美洲版本的tatian的安排,並取代了舊的拉丁武加大。

G, or Cod. G,或鱈魚。 Sangermanensis (ninth century; at Paris), contains the Bible. Sangermanensis(第九世紀,在巴黎),包含了聖經。 In Acts, Wordsworth uses it more than any other manuscript.在“使徒行傳”中,華茲華斯用它比任何其他的手稿。

H, or Cod. H,或鱈魚。 Hubertianus (ninth century; in British Museum, London), a Bible; Theodulfian type. Hubertianus(第九世紀,在大英博物館,倫敦),聖經; Theodulfian型。

theta, or Cod. θ,或鱈魚。 Theodulfianus (ninth century; at Paris), a Bible; Theodulfian type. Theodulfianus(第九世紀,在巴黎),一本聖經; Theodulfian類型。

K, or Cod. K,或鱈魚。 Karolinus (ninth century; in British Museum, London), a Bible; Alcuin's type. Karolinus(第九世紀,在大英博物館,倫敦),一本“聖經”,阿爾昆的類型。 See V.見第

O, or Cod. O,或鱈魚。 Oxoniensis (seventh century; at Oxford, in Bodl.), contains Gosp.; text English, affected by Irish influences. Oxoniensis(公元七世紀,在牛津大學,在Bodl。),包含GOSP文本英語,受愛爾蘭影響。

O2, or Cod. O2,或鱈魚。 Oxoniensis, or Selden Acts (eighth century; at Oxford, in Bodleian), contains Acts; Irish type. Oxoniensis,或塞爾登行為(第八世紀,在牛津大學,牛津大學圖書館),載行為;愛爾蘭類型。

Q, or Cod. Q,或鱈魚。 Kenanensis, Book of Kells (qv) (eighth century; in Trinity College, Dublin), contains Gosp.; Irish type. Kenanensis,凱爾斯書(請參閱)(八世紀在都柏林三一學院(Trinity College),),包含GOSP。愛爾蘭類型。

S, or Cod. S,或鱈魚。 Stonyhurstensis (seventh century; at Stonyhurst College, England), contains John; text akin to A and probably written near Durham. Stonyhurstensis(七世紀,在Stonyhurst學院,英國),包含約翰文本類似於A和可能書面近達勒姆。

V, or Cod. V,或鱈魚。 Vallicellianus (ninth century; at Rome, in Vallicelliana), a Bible; Alcuin's type. Vallicellianus(第九世紀,在羅馬,在Vallicelliana),一本“聖經”;阿爾昆的類型。 See K.見K.

Y, or Cod. Y,或鱈魚。 Lindisfarnensis (seventh century; in British Museum, London), Gospels. Lindisfarnensis(七世紀,在大英博物館,倫敦),福音書。 Liturgical directions in text show it is a copy of a manuscript written in Naples; text akin to A.禮儀在文本顯示方向這是一份寫在那不勒斯的手稿,文本類似於A.

Z, or Cod. Z,或鱈魚。 Hareianus (sixth or seventh century; in Brit. Mus., London), contains Epist. Hareianus(第六或第七世紀,在英國,倫敦畝。)的,包含Epist。 and Apoc.和載脂蛋白C。

V. SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS五,敘利亞文手稿

(1) Old Syriac (OS) (1)舊的敘利亞文(OS)

The Curetonian and Sinaitic Syriac manuscripts represent a version older than the Peshitto and bear witness to an earlier text, one closely akin to that of which D and the Old Latin are witnesses.的Curetonian和西乃半島敘利亞的手稿,版本老比的Peshitto和見證到一個較早的文本,一個相近,D和舊拉丁美洲證人。

The Curetonian Syriac (Syr-Cur) manuscript was discovered in 1842, among manuscripts brought to the British Museum from the monastery of S. Maria Deipara in the Nitrian desert in Egypt, and was published by Cureton in 1858.的Curetonian敘利亞(SYR-CUR)的手稿,發現於1842年,大英博物館S.瑪麗亞Deipara的埃及的Nitrian沙漠中修道院的手稿中,並帶來了在1858年發表的。 It contains five chapters of John, large portions of Matt.它包含五個章節,約翰,大部分的馬特。 and Luke, and Mark, xvi, 17-20, enough to show that the last twelve verses were originally in the document.和盧克,馬克,十六,17日至20日,足以表明,在過去的12節經文原來的文件。

The Sinaitic Syriac (Syr-Sin) was found by Mrs. Lewis and Mrs. Gibson, during 1892, in the monastery of St. Catherine on Mount Sinai.西乃半島敘利亞(SYR-SIN)由夫人劉易斯和夫人吉布森,在1892年被發現,在西奈山聖凱瑟琳修道院。 This palimpsest contains the Four Gospels in great part, though not entire; it is an earlier recension of the same version as Syr-Cur.此重寫本中包含的四福音書的很大一部分,但不是全部,它是較早recension的版本相同SYR-CUR。 Both are assigned to the fifth century and represent a Syriac version which cannot be later than AD 200.都被分配到第五世紀,代表了敘利亞的版本不能晚於公元200年。

(2) The Diatessaron (2)Diatessaron人們

This harmony of the Gospels was written by Tatian, an Assyrian and the disciple of Justin Martyr, about AD 170, and was widely used in Syria.這種和諧的福音書是由他提安,亞述和賈斯汀烈士的弟子,大約公元170,和在敘利亞被廣泛使用。 Our manuscript records are two Arabic versions, discovered one in Rome the other in Egypt, and published 1888.我們的手稿記錄阿拉伯語版本,在羅馬在埃及發現了一個,並發表了1888。 A Latin translation of an Armenian edition of St. Ephraem's commentary on the Diatessaron is in like manner witness to this early version of the Gospels.在拉丁美洲的翻譯的一個亞美尼亞版,聖ephraem的評上的Diatessaron人們的是同樣的方式見證這個早期版本的福音。 Scholars are inclined to make Tatian's to be the earliest Syriac translation of the Gospel.學者們傾向於tatian的是最早的敘利亞文翻譯的福音。

(3) The Peshitto (3)Peshitto

The earliest manuscript of this Syriac Vulgate is a Pentateuch dated AD 464; this is the earliest dated Biblical manuscripts; it is in the British Museum.最早的手稿,這敘利亞文拉丁文是一個五於公元464,這是最早的過時的聖經手稿,它是在大英博物館。 There are two New Testament manuscripts of the fifth century.有兩個新約聖經手稿的第五世紀。 In all, the Peshitto manuscripts number 125 of Gospels, 58 of Acts and the Catholic Epistles, and 67 of the Pauline Epistles.在所有的Peshitto手稿125的福音,行為和天主教教會中,58和67的寶蓮書信。

(4) The Philoxenian Syriac version (4)Philoxenian的敘利亞文版本

The Philoxenian Syriac version of the New Testament has come down to us only in the four minor Catholic Epistles, not included in the original Peshitto, and a single manuscript of the Apoc., now at Trinity College, Dublin.敘利亞文版本的新約聖經Philoxenian下來到我們只有在四個小的天主教教會,不包括在原來的Peshitto,和一個單一的手稿的載脂蛋白C。,現在在都柏林三一學院(Trinity College)。

(5) The Harklean Syriac version (5)Harklean的敘利亞文版本

This version of the New Testament is represented by some 35 manuscripts dating from the seventh century and later; they show kinship with a text like to D.這個版本的“新約”為代表的約35手稿的歷史可以追溯到公元七世紀,後來,他們喜歡的文字D.血緣關係

(6) The Palestinian Syriac version (6)巴勒斯坦敘利亞文版本

This version of the New Testament has reached us by lectionaries and other fragmentary manuscripts discovered within the past sixteen years.這個版本的新約聖經已達到我們發現在過去的16年之內的lectionaries和其他零碎的手稿。 The three principal manuscripts are dated AD 1030, 1104, and 1118.三個主要的手稿於公元1030,1104,和1118。

VI. VI。 ARMENIAN MANUSCRIPTS亞美尼亞手稿

Armenian manuscripts date from AD 887, and are numerous.亞美尼亞手稿日期從公元887年,是多方面的。

VII. VII。 COPTIC MANUSCRIPTS科普特人手稿

(1) Sahidic (1)Sahidic

The Apocalypse is the only book of the New Testament which has come down to us complete in a single manuscript of this dialect of Upper Egypt.啟示錄是唯一的書的新約聖經已回落到我們完整的上埃及方言在一個單一的手稿本。 Many isolated fragments have of recent years been recovered by excavation in Egypt; from these it may soon be possible to reconstruct the Sahidic New Testament.許多孤立的片段,近年來已被追回挖掘在埃及,它可能很快就可以重建該sahidic新約聖經。 The earliest fragments seem to belong to the fifth century.最早的碎片似乎屬於第五世紀。 Some of these manuscripts are bilingual (see T of New Testament manuscripts).這些手稿是雙語(見T的新約聖經手稿)。

(2) Boharic (2)Boharic

This version in the dialect of Lower Egypt is well represented by manuscripts of the same character as B-aleph.這下埃及的方言版本中得到很好的體現由B-ALEPH相同的字符手稿。 The Curzon Catena is the earliest extant Boh.的柯曾,卡泰納是最早的現存BOH。 manuscript of the Gospels; it is dated AD 889 and is in the Parham Library.手稿的福音,它於公元889和的帕勒姆圖書館中是。 Others are of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries.其他的第十二和第十三世紀。 None is at all so old as the Sah. “無”是在舊如舊的薩。 fragments.片段。

(3) Middle Egyptian (3)中東埃及

Middle Egyptian fragments on vellum and papyrus, have been found in Fayum and near to Akhmim and to Memphis.中東埃及羊皮紙和紙莎草紙的碎片,被發現在法尤姆和近到艾赫米姆和孟菲斯。 The largest of these fragments is a British Museum sixth-century palimpsest of John, iii and iv.這些碎片中最大的是一個六世紀的大英博物​​館約翰,III和IV重寫本。

Publication information Written by Walter Drum.出版信息的書面由Walter鼓。 Transcribed by Bryan R. Johnson.轉錄由布萊恩·R·約翰遜。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IX.天主教百科全書,體積九。 Published 1910.發布時間1910年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1910. Nihil Obstat,1910年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, Censor.人頭馬lafort,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰M法利,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
HEBREW MANUSCRIPTS: STRACK AND HARKAVY, Catalog der hebr.希伯來文手稿:STRACK,目錄和Harkavy德黑布爾。 Bibelhandschriften der kaiserlichen Bibliothek (Leipzig 1875); NEUBAUER, Facsimilies of Hebrew manuscripts in the Bodleian Library (Oxford, 1886); NEUBAUER, Catalogue of the Hebrew Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library and in the College Libraries of Oxford (Oxford, 1886); KRAFT AND DEUTSCH, Die handschriftl. Bibelhandschriften得kaiserlichen藏書(萊比錫,1875年);紐鮑爾,傳真件的希伯來文手稿在國立圖書館(牛津,1886年);紐鮑爾,目錄中的Bodleian圖書館和高校圖書館,牛津的希伯來文手稿(牛津,1886年); KRAFT和Deutsch中,模具handschriftl。 hebräischen Werke der KK Hofbibliothek (Vienna, 1857); STEINSCHNEIDER, Die hebräisch. KK HofbibliothekhebräischenWerke公司德(維也納,1857年); STEINSCHNEIDER,:模具hebräisch。 Handschriften der K. Hof.手捲德K.霍夫。 und Staatsbibliothek (Munich, 1895); SCHILLER-SZINESSY, Catalogue of the Hebrew manuscripts preserved in the University Library (Cambridge, 1876); ASSEMANI, Bibliothecæ Apostolicæ Vaticanæ codices Orientales (Rome, 1756); MAI, Appendix to Assemani (Rome, 1831).和Staatsbibliothek(慕尼黑,1895年); SCHILLER SZINESSY,目錄希伯來手稿保存在大學圖書館(劍橋,1876年); ASSEMANI次,BibliothecæApostolicæ抄本VaticanæOrientales(羅馬,1756年); MAI,附錄,以Assemani(羅馬,1831 )。

GREEK MANUSCRIPTS (OLD TESTAMENT): SWETE, Introduction to the OT in Greek; KENYON, Our Bible and the Ancient manuscripts (1898); NESTLE, Septuagintastudien (1886-1907); FIELD, Origenis Hexaplorum quæ supersunt (Oxford, 1875).希臘手稿(舊約):SWETE,介紹在希臘OT; KENYON,我們的聖經​​和古代手稿(1898年),雀巢,Septuagintastudien(1986至07年),FIELD,Origenis Hexaplorum奎艾supersunt(牛津,1875年)。

GREEK MANUSCRIPTS (NEW TESTAMENT): SCRIVENER, Introduction to the Criticism of the New Testament (1894); GREGORY, Textkritik des NT (1900); Die Griechischen Handschriften des NT (1908); HARRIS, Further researches into the history of the Ferrar-group (1900).希臘手稿(新約):代書,新約聖經(1894年)的批判; GREGORY,Textkritik德NT(1900年);模具Griechischen手捲德NT(1908年); HARRIS,進一步的研究走進了歷史的Ferrar組(1900年)。

LATIN MANUSCRIPTS: BURKITT, The Old Latin and the Itala (Cambridge, 1896); WORDSWORTH, SANDAY, AND WHITE, Old Latin Biblical Texts (Oxford, 1883-97); GREGORY, Textkritik des NT (1900).拉丁手稿:伯基特,舊拉丁美洲和伊泰萊(劍橋,1896年);華茲華斯,桑迪,白色,老拉丁語“聖經”經文“(牛津,1883年至1897年); GREGORY,德NT Textkritik(1900年)。 WORDSWORTH AND WHITE, Edition of the Vulgate (1889-1905)華茲華斯和白色版的武加大(1889年至1905年)

SYRIAC MANUSCRIPTS: LEWIS, The Four Gospels translated from the Sinaitic Palimpsest (1894); WOODS AND GWILLIAM in Studia Biblica, vols.敘利亞文手稿:劉易斯,四福音書翻譯從西奈山重寫本(1894),老虎伍茲和GWILLIAM Studia Biblica第一卷和第二卷。 I and III.我和III。

COPTIC MANUSCRIPTS: CRUM, Catalogue of Coptic manuscripts in the British Museum (London, 1905); HYVERNAT, Etude sur les versions coptes de la Bible in Rev. Bibl.科普特人手稿:CRUM,目錄的科普特人手稿在大英博物館(倫敦,1905年); HYVERNAT,練習曲SUR LES版本coptes德拉聖經啟示錄Bibl。 (1896). (1896年)。


This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在