The Sacrament of Penance聖事的懺悔

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Penance is a sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same.懺悔是一種聖禮由基督新稅法中,為洗清罪孽的洗禮後,被授予通過祭司的赦免,以人與真正的悲哀懺悔自己的罪過,並承諾滿足相同的。 It is called a "sacrament" not simply a function or ceremony, because it is an outward sign instituted by Christ to impart grace to the soul.它被稱為“聖事”不是一個簡單的函數或儀式,因為它是一個由基督賦予的寬限期,以靈魂的外在徵象。 As an outward sign it comprises the actions of the penitent in presenting himself to the priest and accusing himself of his sins, and the actions of the priest in pronouncing absolution and imposing satisfaction.作為一個向外的跡象,它包括的行動提出自己的牧師,他的罪,並指責自己的懺悔,牧師在發音赦免和實施滿意的行動。 This whole procedure is usually called, from one of its parts, "confession", and it is said to take place in the "tribunal of penance", because it is a judicial process in which the penitent is at once the accuser, the person accused, and the witness, while the priest pronounces judgment and sentence.這整個過程通常被稱為,其組成部分,從一個“交代”,據說這是發生在“法庭的懺悔”,因為它是一個司法過程,在這過程中,懺悔是在一次原告,人被告,證人,而牧師宣告判決和刑罰。 The grace conferred is deliverance from the guilt of sin and, in the case of mortal sin, from its eternal punishment; hence also reconciliation with God, justification.授予的恩典是拯救有罪,罪,不可饒恕的大罪的情況下,從永恆的懲罰,因此也與神和好,理由。 Finally, the confession is made not in the secrecy of the penitent's heart nor to a layman as friend and advocate, nor to a representative of human authority, but to a duly ordained priest with requisite jurisdiction and with the "power of the keys", ie, the power to forgive sins which Christ granted to His Church.最後的告白不中的懺悔者的內心的秘密也沒有一個外行朋友和主張,也沒有人的權力的代表,但一個正式按立牧師與必要的管轄權和的“權力的鑰匙”,即有赦罪的基督授予他的教會。

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By way of further explanation it is needful to correct certain erroneous views regarding this sacrament which not only misrepresent the actual practice of the Church but also lead to a false interpretation of theological statement and historical evidence.通過進一步的解釋,它是要緊糾正某些錯誤的觀點,關於這聖禮,這不僅歪曲了實際操作中的教會,但也可能導致的錯誤解釋的神學聲明和歷史證據。 From what has been said it should be clear:從已表示,它應該是明確的:

that penance is not a mere human invention devised by the Church to secure power over consciences or to relieve the emotional strain of troubled souls; it is the ordinary means appointed by Christ for the remission of sin.懺悔是不是一個單純的人類發明設計的教堂,以確保權力的良心或緩解情緒壓力困擾的靈魂,它是由基督為赦罪的委任普通的手段。 Man indeed is free to obey or disobey, but once he has sinned, he must seek pardon not on conditions of his own choosing but on those which God has determined, and these for the Christian are embodied in the Sacrament of Penance.人的確是服從或不服從,但是一旦他犯了罪,他必須尋求赦免,而不是他自己選擇的,但那些神已經確定,這些都體現的基督教的懺悔聖事。

No Catholic believes that a priest simply as an individual man, however pious or learned, has power to forgive sins.沒有天主教認為一名牧師只是作為一個個體的人,但是虔誠或學習,有赦罪的權柄。 This power belongs to God alone; but He can and does exercise it through the ministration of men.這權力屬於只有上帝,但他可以行使它通過人的服侍。 Since He has seen fit to exercise it by means of this sacrament, it cannot be said that the Church or the priest interferes between the soul and God; on the contrary, penance is the removal of the one obstacle that keeps the soul away from God.由於他已經看到合適的,以行使它的手段,這聖餐,它不能說是的教會或牧師干擾的靈魂和上帝之間;相反,懺悔是去除的1障礙,保持靈魂離神。 It is not true that for the Catholic the mere "telling of one's sins" suffices to obtain their forgiveness.這是不正確的天主教僅僅是“告訴自己的罪”足以獲得他們的寬恕。 Without sincere sorrow and purpose of amendment, confession avails nothing, the pronouncement of absolution is of no effect, and the guilt of the sinner is greater than before.沒有真誠的悲傷和修訂的目的,認罪的品性,宣告的赦免是沒有影響的,有罪的罪人是比以前更大。

While this sacrament as a dispensation of Divine mercy facilitates the pardoning of sin, it by no means renders sin less hateful or its consequences less dreadful to the Christian mind; much less does it imply permission to commit sin in the future.雖然這聖事的神的憐憫免除促進赦免的罪,也決不呈現罪仇恨或減少其後果可怕的基督徒的心裡,要少得多,它意味著允許在未來犯罪。 In paying ordinary debts, as eg, by monthly settlements, the intention of contracting new debts with the same creditor is perfectly legitimate; a similar intention on the part of him who confesses his sins would not only be wrong in itself but would nullify the sacrament and prevent the forgiveness of sins then and there confessed.例如,在支付普通債務,每月定居點,承包新債務的債權人的意圖是完全合法的;的一部分,他承認自己的罪了類似的意向,不僅本身是錯誤的,但會抵消聖餐防止使罪得赦,然後有事實供認不諱。

Strangely enough, the opposite charge is often heard, viz., that the confession of sin is intolerable and hard and therefore alien to the spirit of Christianity and the loving kindness of its Founder.奇怪的是,經常聽到相反的電荷,即,,認罪是無法忍受的困難,因此外來的基督教的精神和慈愛,其創辦人。 But this view, in the first place, overlooks the fact that Christ, though merciful, is also just and exacting.擺在首位,但這種觀點忽略了一個事實,基督,但仁慈的,也是公正和嚴格的。 Furthermore, however painful or humiliating confession may be, it is but a light penalty for the violation of God's law.此外,可能是痛苦的或有辱人格的表白,它不過是一個輕處罰的違反神的律法。 Finally, those who are in earnest about their salvation count no hardship too great whereby they can win back God's friendship.最後,那些誰是自己的救贖認真計算困難太大,使他們能夠贏得上帝的友誼。

Both these accusations, of too great leniency and too great severity, proceed as a rule from those who have no experience with the sacrament and only the vaguest ideas of what the Church teaches or of the power to forgive sins which the Church received from Christ.這些指責,太大寬嚴相濟太偉大的嚴重性,繼續作為一項規則,那些沒有經驗的聖餐和教會的教導或赦免人的罪收到來自基督的教會的權力,只有一個模糊的想法。

Teaching of the Church教學中的教會

The Council of Trent (1551) declares:安理會的遄達(1551)宣稱:

As a means of regaining grace and justice, penance was at all times necessary for those who had defiled their souls with any mortal sin.恢復恩典和正義的手段,懺悔是在一切必要情況下對那些玷污了自己的靈魂,任何彌天大罪。 . . . Before the coming of Christ, penance was not a sacrament, nor is it since His coming a sacrament for those who are not baptized.前的基督,懺悔是不是聖禮,也不是對於那些沒有受洗的人,因為他的未來的聖禮。 But the Lord then principally instituted the Sacrament of Penance, when, being raised from the dead, he breathed upon His disciples saying: 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost.但主主要提起的懺悔聖事的時候,從死裡復活,他吸了一口氣後,他的門徒說:“你們受聖靈。 Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained' (John 20:22-23).誰的罪過,你會原諒,他們都赦免了他們的罪過,你會保留,他們保留了“(約翰福音20:22-23)。 By which action so signal and words so clear the consent of all the Fathers has ever understood that the power of forgiving and retaining sins was communicated to the Apostles and to their lawful successors, for the reconciling of the faithful who have fallen after Baptism.通過採取行動,使信號和文字,以便清除所有的父親的同意,寬恕和留住罪的力量傳達給使徒和他們的合法繼承人,就得與神的忠實下跌洗禮後,曾經的理解。 (Sess. XIV, c. i)達(sess.十四,我)

Farther on the council expressly states that Christ left priests, His own vicars, as judges (praesides et judices), unto whom all the mortal crimes into which the faithful may have fallen should be revealed in order that, in accordance with the power of the keys, they may pronounce the sentence of forgiveness or retention of sins" (Sess. XIV, c. v)在理事會遠明確指出,基督左神父,他自己的教區牧師,法官(praesides等judices),祂的人,所有的凡人犯罪的忠實可能下降,應透露,按照與電源的順序鍵,它們可能會發音的句子罪的寬恕或保留“達(sess.十四,五)

Power to Forgive Sins赦罪的權柄

It is noteworthy that the fundamental objection so often urged against the Sacrament of Penance was first thought of by the Scribes when Christ said to the sick man of the palsy: "Thy sins are forgiven thee."值得注意的是,首先想到的,所以經常呼籲從根本上反對對懺悔聖事的文士,當基督病夫的麻痺說:“你的罪赦了。” "And there were some of the scribes sitting there, and thinking in their hearts: Why doth this man speak thus? he blasphemeth. Who can forgive sins but God only?"有一些文士坐在那裡,想著在他們的心中:doth這名男子為何這樣講呢?他褻瀆。誰可以原諒的罪過,但上帝嗎?“ But Jesus seeing their thoughts, said to them: "Which is easier to say to the sick of the palsy: Thy sins are forgiven thee; or to say, Arise, take up thy bed and walk? But that you may know that the Son of man hath power on earth to forgive sins, (he saith to the sick of the palsy,) I say to thee: Arise, take up thy bed, and go into thy house" (Mark 2:5-11; Matthew 9:2-7).但是,耶穌看到他們的想法,對他們說:“哪個更容易癱子說:你的罪赦了,或說,你起來,拿你的褥子和散步嗎?但是,你可知道,兒子人地上有赦罪的權柄,(他說的對癱子),我對你說:起來,拿你的褥子,進入你的房子“(馬可福音2:5-11;馬太福音”第9章: 2-7)。 Christ wrought a miracle to show that He had power to forgive sins and that this power could be exerted not only in heaven but also on earth.基督造成一個奇蹟,以表明他有赦罪的權柄,不僅在地球上的天堂,但也可能會產生這種權力。 This power, moreover, He transmitted to Peter and the other Apostles.此外,他這樣的力量,傳遞給彼得和其他使徒。 To Peter He says: "And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth, it shall be loosed also in heaven" (Matthew 16:19).他對彼得說:“我將天國的鑰匙給你,不管你綁定在地上,被綁定在天上:凡你在地上,它應當被釋放也天堂“(馬太福音16:19)。 Later He says to all the Apostles: "Amen I say to you, whatsoever you shall bind upon earth, shall be bound also in heaven; and whatsoever you shall loose upon earth, shall be loosed also in heaven" (Matthew 18:18).後來,他說,所有的使徒:“阿門我對你說,無論你綁定後,地球,也應受在天上;,無論你在地球上應鬆動,應鬆動也是在天上”(馬太福音18:18) 。 As to the meaning of these texts, it should be noted:至於這些文本的意義,應該注意的是:

that the "binding" and "loosing" refers not to physical but to spiritual or moral bonds among which sin is certainly included; the more so because the power here granted is unlimited -- "whatsoever you shall bind, . . . whatsoever you shall loose"; “綁定”和“松”指的不是身體不適,而是精神或道德罪的債券,其中當然包括更是因為在這裡授予的權力是無限的 - “任何約束力,無論你應寬鬆“;

the power is judicial, ie, the Apostles are authorized to bind and to loose;電源是司法,即,使徒們被授權來綁定和鬆動;

whether they bind or loose, their action is ratified in heaven.他們是否綁定或鬆散的,他們的行動是在天上批准。 In healing the palsied man Christ declared that "the Son of man has power on earth to forgive sins"; here He promises that what these men, the Apostles, bind or loose on earth, God in heaven will likewise bind or loose.在醫治麻痺的人,基督宣告說:“人子,有能力的人原諒的罪過”,在這裡他承諾,這些人,使徒,綁定或鬆散的,上帝在塵世的天堂也同樣綁定或鬆動。 (Cf. also POWER OF THE KEYS.) (參見權力的鑰匙。)

But as the Council of Trent declares, Christ principally instituted the Sacrament of Penance after His Resurrection, a miracle greater than that of healing the sick.但是,作為安理會的遄達宣布,基督主要設立了聖懺悔後,他的復活,大於治病的一個奇蹟。 "As the Father hath sent me, I also send you. When he had said this, he breathed on them; and he said to them: Receive ye the Holy Ghost. Whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them; and whose sins you shall retain, they are retained' (John 20:21-23). While the sense of these words is quite obvious, the following points are to be considered: “父怎樣差遣了我,我也送你,當他說了這話,他的呼吸在他們身上,他對他們說:你們受聖靈誰的罪過,你會原諒,他們是原諒他們,以及他們的罪您應保留,他們保留“(約翰福音20:21-23)。雖然這些話的意義是很明顯的,要考慮以下幾點:

Christ here reiterates in the plainest terms -- "sins", "forgive", "retain" -- what He had previously stated in figurative language, "bind" and "loose", so that this text specifies and distinctly applies to sin the power of loosing and binding.基督在這裡重申,最樸素 - “罪”,“原諒”,“保留” - 他此前曾表示,在形象化的語言,“綁定”和“寬鬆”,使該文本規定,明顯適用於犯罪鬆動和有約束力的權力。

He prefaces this grant of power by declaring that the mission of the Apostles is similar to that which He had received from the Father and which He had fulfilled: "As the Father hath sent me".他的序言權力授予之本,通過聲明的使徒,他收到了來自父親和他已經完成的使命:“作為父親差遣我”。 Now it is beyond doubt that He came into the world to destroy sin and that on various occasions He explicitly forgave sin (Matthew 9:2-8; Luke 5:20; 7:47; Revelation 1:5), hence the forgiving of sin is to be included in the mission of the Apostles.現在,毫無疑問,他來到這個世界毀滅的罪過,在不同的場合,他明確地原諒了罪(馬太福音9:2-8;路加福音5:20,7:47,啟示錄1:5),因此,寬容的罪是被包含在使徒們的使命。 Christ not only declared that sins were forgiven, but really and actually forgave them; hence, the Apostles are empowered not merely to announce to the sinner that his sins are forgiven but to grant him forgiveness-"whose sins you shall forgive".基督不僅宣布的罪被赦免了,但確確實實地原諒了他們,所以,使徒們不僅有權宣布的罪人,他的罪被赦免,但給予他寬恕“的罪過,你會原諒”。 If their power were limited to the declaration "God pardons you", they would need a special revelation in each case to make the declaration valid.如果他們的力量是有限的聲明“上帝赦免你”,他們將需要一個特殊的啟示,在每一種情況下,作出該聲明有效。

The power is twofold -- to forgive or to retain, ie, the Apostles are not told to grant or withhold forgiveness nondiscriminately; they must act judicially, forgiving or retaining according as the sinner deserves.的電源是雙重的 - 原諒或保留,即,使徒也沒有告訴nondiscriminately授予或隱瞞重要事實的寬恕;他們必須採取行動,司法,寬恕或保留的罪人值得的。 The exercise of this power in either form (forgiving or retaining) is not restricted: no distinction is made or even suggested between one kind of sin and another, or between one class of sinners and all the rest: Christ simply says "whose sins".不限制行使這項權力,無論是哪種形式(寬恕或保留):沒有任何區別,甚至之間1種罪和建議,或一類的罪人,所有的休息:基督說:“他們的罪” 。

The sentence pronounced by the Apostles (remission or retention) is also God's sentence -- "they are forgiven . . . they are retained".由使徒(緩解或保留)的宣判是神的一句話 - “他們都赦免了......他們保留”。

It is therefore clear from the words of Christ that the Apostles had power to forgive sins.因此,從基督的話,使徒赦罪的權柄。 But this was not a personal prerogative that was to erase at their death; it was granted to them in their official capacity and hence as a permanent institution in the Church -- no less permanent than the mission to teach and baptize all nations.但是,這不是個人的特權,,是抹去他們的死亡;​​在他們的官方身份,因此它被授予了他們在教會中作為一個常設機構 - 少永久的使命是教導和施洗所有國家。 Christ foresaw that even those who received faith and baptism, whether during the lifetime of the Apostles or later, would fall into sin and therefore would need forgiveness in order to be saved.基督所預見的,即使是那些誰收到的信仰和洗禮,無論是在一生的使徒或更高版本,將陷入罪中,因此,將需要寬恕才能得救。 He must, then, have intended that the power to forgive should be transmitted from the Apostles to their successors and be used as long as there would be sinners in the Church, and that means to the end of time. ,那麼,他必須應轉交由使徒給他們的繼承人的權力,原諒和使用,只要有​​罪人,教會,這意味著到年底的時候。 It is true that in baptism also sins are forgiven, but this does not warrant the view that the power to forgive is simply the power to baptize.這是事實,在洗禮的罪赦了,但是這並不認為值得原諒的是簡單的權力,施洗。 In the first place, as appears from the texts cited above, the power to forgive is also the power to retain; its exercise involves a judicial action.第一,從上面提到的文本,原諒也是保留其工作涉及的司法行動。 But no such action is implied in the commission to baptize (Matthew 28:18-20); in fact, as the Council of Trent affirms, the Church does not pass judgment on those who are not yet members of the Church, and membership is obtained through baptism.但是,沒有這樣的行動是隱含委員會施洗(馬太福音28:18-20);事實上,作為安理會的遄達申明,教會不通過判斷,對那些尚未教會的成員,成員是獲得通過的洗禮。 Furthermore, baptism, because it is a new birth, cannot be repeated, whereas the power to forgive sins (penance) is to be used as often as the sinner may need it.此外,洗禮,因為它是一個新的誕生,不能被重複,而經常被用來作為罪人可能需要的權力,赦免人的罪(苦修)。 Hence the condemnation, by the same Council, of any one "who, confounding the sacraments, should say that baptism itself is the Sacrament of Penance, as though these two sacraments were not distinct and as though penance were not rightly called the second plank after shipwreck" (Sess. XIV, can. 2 de sac. poen.).因此,對號入座,同樣的會,任何一個人,混雜的聖禮,應該說,雖然這兩個聖禮並不顯著,雖然苦修不正確地稱為第二板後的洗禮,本身就是懺悔聖事海難“達(sess.十四,都可以。的囊中。POEN)。

These pronouncements were directed against the Protestant teaching which held that penance was merely a sort of repeated baptism; and as baptism effected no real forgiveness of sin but only an external covering over of sin through faith alone, the same, it was alleged, must be the case with penance.這些聲明是針對新教的教學舉行的懺悔是僅僅是一種反复洗禮和洗禮的影響沒有真正的寬恕的罪,但只需要一個外部覆蓋的罪,僅通過信仰,同樣的,據稱,一定要苦修的情況。 This, then, as a sacrament is superfluous; absolution is only a declaration that sin is forgiven through faith, and satisfaction is needless because Christ has satisfied once for all men.那麼,這作為一個聖餐是多餘的;赦免只是一個聲明,通過信仰的罪惡就赦免和滿意度是不必要的,因為基督一次滿足所有的人。 This was the first sweeping and radical denial of the Sacrament of Penance.這是第一個徹底的和激進的懺悔聖事的拒絕。 Some of the earlier sects had claimed that only priests in the state of grace could validly absolve, but they had not denied the existence of the power to forgive.一些較早的教派聲稱,只有祭司在國家的寬限期,可有效地解除,但他們並沒有否認存在的原諒。 During all the preceding centuries, Catholic belief in this power had been so clear and strong that in order to set it aside Protestantism was obliged to strike at the very constitution of the Church and reject the whole content of Tradition.在所有前面的幾個世紀,天主教的信仰在這個權力是如此清晰和強烈,為了把它放在一邊,基督教(新教)於必須取得的憲法,教會和拒絕傳統的全部內容。

Belief and Practice of the Early Church在早期教會的信仰與實踐

Among the modernistic propositions condemned by Pius X in the Decree "Lamentabili sane" (3 July, 1907) are the following:在現代主義主張譴責庇護十世的法令“lamentabili理智”(1907年7月3日)有以下幾種:

"In the primitive Church there was no concept of the reconciliation of the Christian sinner by the authority of the Church, but the Church by very slow degrees only grew accustomed to this concept. Moreover, even after penance came to be recognized as an institution of the Church, it was not called by the name of sacrament, because it was regarded as an odious sacrament." “在原始的教會有沒有和解的權威,教會的基督教罪人的概念,但教會的很慢度僅增長了習慣這個概念。此外,即使在苦修來作為一個機構的認可教會,這不叫聖餐的名稱,因為它被認為是一種令人憎惡的聖餐“。 (46) "The Lord's words: 'Receive ye the Holy Ghost, whose sins you shall forgive, they are forgiven them, and whose sins you shall retain they are retained' (John xx, 22-23), in no way refer to the Sacrament of Penance, whatever the Fathers of Trent may have been pleased to assert." (46)“主的話:”你們受聖靈,其罪過,你會原諒,他們是原諒他們,和他們的罪過,你會保留保留“(約翰福音XX,22日至23日),在沒有辦法請參閱聖懺悔,無論父親的遄達可能已經斷言。“ (47) (47)

According to the Council of Trent, the consensus of all the Fathers always understood that by the words of Christ just cited, the power of forgiving and retaining sins was communicated to the Apostles and their lawful successors (Sess. XIV, c. i).根據安理會的遄達,一貫相互理解的共識,所有的父親剛才提到基督的話,寬恕和留住捷聯慣導的力量傳達給使徒和他們的合法繼承人達(sess.十四,I)。 It is therefore Catholic doctrine that the Church from the earliest times believed in the power to forgive sins as granted by Christ to the Apostles.因此,這是天主教教義,從最早的時候認為,教會的權力,赦免人的罪授出基督的使徒。 Such a belief in fact was clearly inculcated by the words with which Christ granted the power, and it would have been inexplicable to the early Christians if any one who professed faith in Christ had questioned the existence of that power in the Church.其實這樣的信念與基督的話授予的權力,而且會莫名地,早期的基督徒,如果任何一個宣稱信仰基督的質疑力,在教會的存在,顯然是由灌輸。 But if, contrariwise, we suppose that no such belief existed from the beginning, we encounter a still greater difficulty: the first mention of that power would have been regarded as an innovation both needless and intolerable; it would have shown little practical wisdom on the part of those who were endeavouring to draw men to Christ; and it would have raised a protest or led to a schism which would certainly have gone on record as plainly at least as did early divisions on matters of less importance.但如果相反,我們假設沒有從一開始就存在​​著這樣的信念,我們遇到了更大的困難:首先要提的,權力會被視為不必要的和無法忍受的創新,它會顯示什麼實際的智慧這些努力的人基督,並會提出抗議,或導致了分裂,肯定已經記錄了早部門不太重要的問題,顯然至少一部分。 But no such record is found; even those who sought to limit the power itself presupposed its existence, and their very attempt at limitation put them in opposition to the prevalent Catholic belief.但是,沒有這樣的記錄發現,即使是那些誰尋求限制權力本身的先決條件它的存在,在限制他們的企圖把他們反對流行的天主教​​信仰。

Turning now to evidence of a positive sort, we have to note that the statements of any Father or orthodox ecclesiastical writer regarding penance present not merely his own personal view, but the commonly accepted belief; and furthermore that the belief which they record was no novelty at the time, but was the traditional doctrine handed down by the regular teaching of the Church and embodied in her practice.現在的積極排序的證據,我們必須注意的陳述存在關於苦修的任何父親或正統教會作家的不只是他個人的看法,但普遍接受的信念;而且相信他們記錄沒有新意的時候,但傳統的理論流傳下來的正規的教學,教會和體現在她的做法。 In other words, each witness speaks for a past that reaches back to the beginning, even when he does not expressly appeal to tradition.換句話說,每名證人說的過去,開始觸及到,即使他並沒有明確地向傳統。

St. Augustine (d. 430) warns the faithful: "Let us not listen to those who deny that the Church of God has power to forgive all sins" (De agon. Christ., iii).聖奧古斯丁(四430)警告信徒:“我們不要聽那些誰否認神的教會,有權請原諒所有的罪孽”(德的AGON。基督,III)。

St. Ambrose (d. 397) rebukes the Novatianists who "professed to show reverence for the Lord by reserving to Him alone the power of forgiving sins. Greater wrong could not be done than what they do in seeking to rescind His commands and fling back the office He bestowed. . . . The Church obeys Him in both respects, by binding sin and by loosing it; for the Lord willed that for both the power should be equal" (De poenit., I, ii,6).聖劉漢銓(四397)斥責Novatianists誰“自稱崇敬主保留他一個人的力量寬恕罪孽。大錯誤不能做到比他們做了什麼,在尋求撤銷他的命令,甩回他賜予的辦公室......教會服從他在這兩個方面,通過有約束力的罪和失去它的主的意志,為雙方的權力應該是平等的“(德poenit,一,二,六)。

Again he teaches that this power was to be a function of the priesthood.他又教電源,這是一個函數的神職人員。 "It seemed impossible that sins should be forgiven through penance; Christ granted this (power) to the Apostles and from the Apostles it has been transmitted to the office of priests" (op. cit., II, ii, 12). “這似乎是不可能通過苦修,就得赦免,基督授予(功率)的使徒,從使徒,它已被傳輸到辦公室的牧師”(同上,II,II,12)。

The power to forgive extends to all sins: "God makes no distinction; He promised mercy to all and to His priests He granted the authority to pardon without any exception" (op. cit., I, iii, 10).原諒延伸到所有的罪:“上帝沒有區別,他答應憐憫和他的祭司沒有任何異常,他授予的權力赦免”(同上,I,III,10)。

Against the same heretics St. Pacian, Bishop of Barcelona (d. 390), wrote to Sympronianus, one of their leaders: "This (forgiving sins), you say, only God can do. Quite true: but what He does through His priests is the doing of His own power" (Ep. I ad Sympron, 6 in PL, XIII, 1057).贊成反對同樣的異端街Pacian的主教的巴塞羅那(卒於390年),寫道至Sympronianus,他們的領導人之一:“(寬恕罪孽),你說,只有上帝才能做到。此話不假,但他通過他的祭司是他自己的權力“(插曲我的廣告Sympron,PL,XIII,1057),該做的。

In the East during the same period we have the testimony of St. Cyril of Alexandria (d. 447): "Men filled with the spirit of God (ie priests) forgive sins in two ways, either by admitting to baptism those who are worthy or by pardoning the penitent children of the Church" (In Joan., 1, 12 in PG, LXXIV, 722).在東方,在同一時期,我們的證詞圣西里爾亞歷山大(卒於447年):“男人充滿了上帝的精神(即祭司)赦免人的罪有兩種方式,要么承認的洗禮,誰是值得或者赦免悔改的孩子們的教會“(瓊。,1,12,722 PG,LXXIV)。

St. John Chrysostom (d. 407) after declaring that neither angels nor archangels have received such power, and after showing that earthly rulers can bind only the bodies of men, declares that the priest's power of forgiving sins "penetrates to the soul and reaches up to heaven".聖約翰金口(四407)宣布,既不是天使,也不是天使長收到這樣的實力,之後,地上的統治者可以只約束人的身體後,宣布牧師的權力寬恕罪孽“滲透到靈魂,達到天堂“。 Wherefore, he concludes, "it were manifest folly to condemn so great a power without which we can neither obtain heaven nor come to the fulfillment of the promises. . . . Not only when they (the priests) regenerate us (baptism), but also after our new birth, they can forgive us our sins" (De sacred., III, 5 sq.).因此,他總結說,“這是明顯的愚蠢譴責這麼大的權力,沒有它,我們既不能得到天堂也不來履行承諾......只有當他們(祭司)再生(洗禮),但我們的新出生後,他們可以原諒我們的罪“(德神聖的,III,5平方米)。

St. Athanasius (d. 373): "As the man whom the priest baptizes is enlightened by the grace of the Holy Ghost, so does he who in penance confesses his sins, receive through the priest forgiveness in virtue of the grace of Christ" (Frag. contra Novat. in PG, XXVI, 1315).聖亞他那修(卒於373年):“作為牧師施洗的人,是開明的聖靈的恩典,所以他在懺悔,承認自己的罪,接受基督的恩典透過神父寬恕的美德” (Frag.禁忌Novat。PG,XXVI,1315)。

These extracts show that the Fathers recognized in penance a power and a utility quite distinct from that of baptism.這些提取物顯示,已確認的父親,在懺悔電源和實用截然不同的洗禮。 Repeatedly they compare in figurative language the two means of obtaining pardon; or regarding baptism as spiritual birth, they describe penance as the remedy for the ills of the soul contracted after that birth.他們反复比較形象化的語言兩種方式獲得赦免;或精神出生的洗禮,他們所描述的苦修作為的弊病合同規定的靈魂,出生後的補救措施。 But a more important fact is that both in the West and in the East, the Fathers constantly appeal to the words of Christ and given them the same interpretation that was given eleven centuries later by the Council of Trent.但更重要的事實是,無論在西方和東方,父親不斷向基督的話,並給予他們相同的解釋是11世紀後的安理會的遄達。 In this respect they simply echoed the teachings of the earlier Fathers who had defended Catholic doctrine against the heretics of the third and second centuries.在這方面,他們只是贊同捍衛天主教教義對異教徒的第三和第二世紀的早期父親的教導。 Thus St. Cyprian in his "De lapsis" (AD 251) rebukes those who had fallen away in time of persecution, but he also exhorts them to penance: "Let each confess his sin while he is still in this world, while his confession can be received, while satisfaction and the forgiveness granted by the priests is acceptable to God" (c. xxix).因此,聖,塞浦路斯在他的“德lapsis”(公元251年)責備那些在時間的迫害已經下降了,但他也勸告他們懺悔:“讓每一個承認他的罪,而他仍然在這個世界上,而他的表白可以接收,而滿意度和給予寬恕的祭司是​​可以接受的上帝“(約二十九)。 (See LAPSI.) The heretic Novatian, on the contrary, asserted that "it is unlawful to admit apostates to the communion of the Church; their forgiveness must be left with God who alone can grant it" (Socrates, "Hist. eccl.", V, xxviii). (見LAPSI)的的異教徒諾瓦蒂安,相反,斷言,“這是不合法的承認變節者的共融的教會,必須離開他們的寬恕與上帝誰可以授予它”(蘇格拉底,“歷史。傳道書。 “,V,二十八)。 Novatian and his party did not at first deny the power of the Church to absolve from sin; they affirmed that apostasy placed the sinner beyond the reach of that power -- an error which was condemned by a synod at Rome in 251 (See NOVATIANISM.)諾瓦蒂安和他的黨在第一次沒有拒絕的權力,以免除罪的教會;他們肯定,叛教放在罪人,權力鞭長莫及 - 一個錯誤,被譴責,由主教在羅馬,在251(見NOVATIANISM的。 )

The distinction between sins that could be forgiven and others that could not, originated in the latter half of the second century as the doctrine of the Montanists, and especially of Tertullian.可以原諒的罪,和其他人可能起源於下半年的第二個世紀的教義的Montanists,尤其是特土良之間的區別。 While still a Catholic, Tertullian wrote (AD 200-6) his "De poenitentia" in which he distinguishes two kinds of penance, one as a preparation for baptism, the other to obtain forgiveness of certain grievous sins committed after baptism, ie, apostasy, murder, and adultery.雖然仍是一個天主教徒,良寫了他的“德poenitentia”中,他區分了兩種類型的苦修,作為洗禮的準備,其他的洗禮後,某些嚴重的罪得到寬恕,即叛教(公元200-6) ,謀殺和通姦。 For these, however, he allows only one forgiveness: "Foreseeing these poisons of the Evil One, God, although the gate of forgiveness has been shut and fastened up with the bar of baptism, has permitted it still to stand somewhat open. In the vestibule He has stationed a second repentance for opening to such as knock; but now once for all, because now for the second time; but never more, because the last time it had been in vain. . . . However, if any do incur the debt of a second repentance, his spirit is not to be forthwith cut down and undermined by despair. Let it be irksome to sin again, but let it not be irksome to repent again; let it be irksome to imperil oneself again, but let no one be ashamed to be set free again. Repeated sickness must have repeated medicine" (De poen., VII).然而,對於這些,他允許只有​​一個寬恕:“這些毒藥預見的邪惡,神,雖然寬恕的大門已經關閉,並固定了酒吧的洗禮,已經允許它仍然站在有點開放。前庭他已經駐紮了第二次開放,如敲悔改,但現在一次,因為現在的第二次,但從來沒有,因為它一直在徒勞的最後一次......但是,如果任何人產生第二悔改的債務,他的精神是不是要立即砍伐和破壞的絕望。讓它成為令人厭煩的再犯罪,但不要讓它再次令人側目的悔改;讓它到威脅,自己又令人側目的,但讓沒有人為恥,以自由。反复疾病必須重複藥“(德POEN,VII)。 Tertullian does not deny that the Church can forgive sins; he warns sinners against relapse, yet exhorts them to repent in case they should fall.德爾圖良並不否認,教會可以原諒的罪,他警告說,防止復發的罪人,但告誡他們悔改的情況下,要他們跌倒。 His attitude at the time was not surprising, since in the early days the sins above mentioned were severely dealt with; this was done for disciplinary reasons, not because the Church lacked power to forgive.他的態度在當時並不奇怪,因為在早期上面提到的罪嚴肅處理,這樣做是因紀律原因,而不是因為教會沒有權力原諒。

In the minds, however, of some people the idea was developing that not only the exercise of the power but the power itself was limited.然而,在人的頭腦中,有些人的想法是開發,不僅是權力的行使,但是權力本身是有限的。 Against this false notion Pope Callistus (218-22) published his "peremptory edict" in which he declares: "I forgive the sins both of adultery and of fornication to those who have done penance."這種錯誤的觀念:教皇卡利斯圖斯(218-22)對發表了他的“強制性法令”中,他宣稱:“我都通姦和私通誰做了懺悔,赦免誰的罪。” Thereupon Tertullian, now become a Montanist, wrote his "De pudicitia" (AD 217-22).於是良,現在變成了一個Montanist,寫了他的“德pudicitia”(公元217-22)。 In this work he rejects without scruple what he had taught as a Catholic: "I blush not at an error which I have cast off because I am delighted at being rid of it . . . one is not ashamed of his own improvement."在這項工作中,他無所顧忌地拒絕了他教了一所天主教:“我不要臉紅的錯誤,我已經投了,因為我很高興擺脫它......一個是他自己的改進,不以為恥。” The "error" which he imputes to Callistus and the Catholics was that the Church could forgive all sins: this, therefore, was the orthodox doctrine which Tertullian the heretic denied. “錯誤”,他歸咎於到卡利斯圖斯和天主教徒,教會可以原諒所有的罪孽,因此,德爾圖良的正統學說,拒絕邪教。 In place of it he sets up the distinction between lighter sins which the bishop could forgive and more grievous sins which God alone could forgive.在它的地方,他建立了較輕的罪的主教可以原諒的,更嚴重的罪,只有上帝可以原諒的區別。 Though in an earlier treatise, "Scorpiace", he had said (c. x) that "the Lord left here to Peter and through him to the Church the keys of heaven" he now denies that the power granted to Peter had been transmitted to the Church, ie, to the numerus episcoporum or body of bishops.雖然在前面的論述中,“Scorpiace”,他說了(C. X)說:“主離開這裡,彼得,並通過他向教會天國的鑰匙”,他現在否認已傳送到所賦予的權力,以彼得教會,也就是說,numerus episcoporum或機構的主教。 Yet he claims this power for the "spirituals" (pneumatici), although these, for prudential reasons, do not make use of it.然而,他聲稱這種權力的“靈歌”(pneumatici),雖然,出於謹慎的原因,不使用它。 To the arguments of the "Psychici", as he termed the Catholics, he replies: "But the Church, you say, has the power to forgive sin. This I, even more than you, acknowledge and adjudge. I who in the new prophets have the Paraclete saying: 'The Church can forgive sin, but I will not do that (forgive) lest they (who are forgiven) fall into other sins" (De pud., XXI, vii).的論點,的“Psychici”,他被稱為天主教徒,他回答說:“但是,教會,你說,有赦罪的權力。這是我,甚至比你多,承認和裁定。我在新的先知的聖靈說:“教會可以原諒的罪,但我不會那麼做的(原諒),以免他們(被赦免的人)落入罪”(德pud,二十一,七)。 Thus Tertullian, by the accusation which he makes against the pope and by the restriction which he places upon the exercise of the power of forgiving sin, bears witness to the existence of that power in the Church which he had abandoned.因此,良,通過對教皇和寬恕的罪因行使的權力的限制,他把指責他使,見證,他已經放棄了在教會中,權力的存在。

Not content with assailing Callistus and his doctrine, Tertullian refers to the "Shepherd" (Pastor), a work written AD 140-54, and takes its author Hermas to task for favouring the pardon of adulterers.不,與的調戲卡利斯圖斯和他的學說的內容,特土良是指“牧羊人”(牧師),著作,AD 140-54,和它的作者黑馬有利於赦免姦淫的任務。 In the days of Hermas there was evidently a school of rigorists who insisted that there was no pardon for sin committed after baptism (Simil. VIII, vi).的黑馬在未來的日子顯然是一個學校的rigorists堅持,沒有赦免罪惡的洗禮後,(Simil.第八,六)。 Against this school the author of the "Pastor" takes a resolute stand.筆者對這個學校的“牧師”採取堅決的立場。 He teaches that by penance the sinner may hope for reconciliation with God and with the Church.他教導我們,懺悔的罪人可能希望和解與神與教會的。 "Go and tell all to repent and they shall live unto God. Because the Lord having had compassion, has sent me to give repentance to all men, although some are not worthy of it on account of their works" (Simil. VIII, ii). “去告訴所有悔改,他們將生活所不欲,上帝。因為耶和華就動了慈心,送我給悔改的心,所有的人,雖然有些不值得考慮他們的作品”(Simil.八,二)。 Hermas, however, seems to give but one opportunity for such reconciliation, for in Mandate IV, i, he seems to state categorically that "there is but one repentance for the servants of God", and further on in c.然而,黑馬,似乎給,但這種和解的一個機會,在授權IV,我,他似乎直截了當地說:“有但有悔改上帝的僕人”,並進一步在c。 iii he says the Lord has had mercy on the work of his hands and hath set repentance for them; "and he has entrusted to me the power of this repentance. And therefore I say to you, if any one has sinned . . he has opportunity to repent once". III他說,耶和華有憐憫的工作,他的手和他們所設立的懺悔“,他已委託給我的力量,這悔過書。因此,我對你說,如果任何一個犯了罪......他一次機會悔改“。 Repentance is therefore possible at least once in virtue of a power vested in the priest of God.因此,悔改是可能至少一次憑藉在神的祭司的權力。 That Hermas here intends to say that the sinner could be absolved only once in his whole life is by no means a necessary conclusion.那黑馬在這裡說,被赦免的罪人,他一生中只有一次的是絕不是一個必要的結論。 His words may well be understood as referring to public penance (see below) and as thus understood they imply no limitation on the sacramental power itself.他的話很可能被理解為指的是公開懺悔(見下文),並為因此了解他們聖事的權力本身意味著沒有限制。 The same interpretation applies to the statement of Clement of Alexandria (d. circa AD 215): "For God being very merciful has vouchsafed in the case of those who, though in faith, have fallen into transgression, a second repentance, so that should anyone be tempted after his calling, he may still receive a penance not to be repented of" (Stromata, II, xiii).同樣的解釋適用克萊門特的亞歷山德里亞(D.大約在公元215)的聲明:“上帝很仁慈的賜予的人,雖然在信仰上,已經陷入罪過,第二悔改的情況下,所以應該任何人動心後,他的呼喚,他仍可能會收到一個沒有後悔的苦修“(子座,二,十三)。

The existence of a regular system of penance is also hinted at in the work of Clement, "Who is the rich man that shall be saved?", where he tells the story of the Apostle John and his journey after the young bandit.克萊門特的工作中也暗示了常規系統的苦修的存在,“誰是富人應保存嗎?”,他告訴使徒約翰和他的旅程後,年輕的強盜的故事。 John pledged his word that the youthful robber would find forgiveness from the Saviour; but even then a long serious penance was necessary before he could be restored to the Church.約翰承諾他的話,年輕的強盜會得到寬恕的救世主,但即使再長的嚴重的懺悔是必要的,可以恢復到他的教會。 And when Clement concludes that "he who welcomes the angel of penance . . . will not be ashamed when he sees the Saviour", most commentators think he alludes to the bishop or priest who presided over the ceremony of public penance.而當克萊門特得出結論說,“他歡迎天使的懺悔......不會感到羞愧,當他看到的救世主”,大多數評論家認為,他提到的主教或牧師主持儀式的公眾懺悔。 Even earlier, Dionysius of Corinth (d. circa AD 17O), setting himself against certain growing Marcionistic traditions, taught not only that Christ has left to His Church the power of pardon, but that no sin is so great as to be excluded from the exercise of that power.更早些時候,狄奧尼修斯的科林斯(D.大約公元17O),自己反對一定的增長Marcionistic傳統的,教不僅如此,基督已經離開他的教會的赦免權,但沒有罪是如此之大,被排除在行使的權力。 For this we have the authority of Eusebius, who says (Hist. eccl., IV, xxiii): "And writing to the Church which is in Amastris, together with those in Pontus, he commands them to receive those who come back after any fall, whether it be delinquency or heresy".對於這一點,我們有權威的尤西比烏斯,他說,(Hist.傳道書,四,二十三):“寫的教堂,這是在Amastris,連同那些在龐,他命令他們接受那些他們回來後,任何下降,無論是拖欠或異端邪說“。

The "Didache" (qv) written at the close of the first century or early in the second, in IV, xiv, and again in XIV, i, commands an individual confession in the congregation: "In the congregation thou shalt confess thy transgressions"; or again: "On the Lord's Day come together and break bread . . . having confessed your transgressions that your sacrifice may be pure."的“遺訓”(請參閱)書面結束時的第一個世紀,早在二,四,第十四條,並再次XIV,我命令眾中有一個人的自白:“在會眾中,你要承認你的過犯“或:”在主的日子來到一起,,打破麵包後,交代了你的過犯,你們的犧牲可能是純粹的。“ Clement I (d. 99) in his epistle to the Corinthians not only exhorts to repentance, but begs the seditious to "submit themselves to the presbyters and receive correction so as to repent" (c. lvii), and Ignatius of Antioch at the close of the first century speaks of the mercy of God to sinners, provided they return" with one consent to the unity of Christ and the communion of the bishop".克萊門特(四99),在他的書信給哥林多前書不僅勸勉悔改,但迴避了煽動性的“提交自己的長老和接收校正,悔改”(約LVII),和伊格安提關閉的第一個世紀,講的神的憐憫罪人,他們返回“同意基督的團結和共融的主教”。 The clause "communion of the bishop" evidently means the bishop with his council of presbyters as assessors.該條款“的主教的共融”顯然是指主教與他的議會長老陪審員。 He also says (Ad Philadel,) "that the bishop presides over penance".他還表示,(廣告Philadel,)“,主教主持的懺悔”。

The transmission of this power is plainly expressed in the prayer used at the consecration of a bishop as recorded in the Canons of Hippolytus: "Grant him, 0 Lord, the episcopate and the spirit of clemency and the power to forgive sins" (c. xvii).功率的傳輸,這顯然是在祈禱在神聖的主教,在大砲的西波呂表示:“授予他,主啊,主教和精神寬大的赦罪的權柄”(約十七)。 Still more explicit is the formula cited in the "Apostolic Constitutions" (qv): "Grant him, 0 Lord almighty, through Thy Christ, the participation of Thy Holy Spirit, in order that he may have the power to remit sins according to Thy precept and Thy command, and to loosen every bond, whatsoever it be, according to the power which Thou hast granted to the Apostles."更明確的是,公式中引用的“使徒憲法”(請參閱):“授予他,0萬軍之耶和華,通過你的基督,你的聖靈的參與,為了免去罪孽,他可能有能力根據你的戒律和你的命令,放鬆每一個鍵,任何是,根據祢的使徒授予的權力。“ (Const. Apost., VIII, 5 in P. (i., 1. 1073). For the meaning of "episcopus", "sacerdos", "presbyter", as used in ancient documents, see BISHOP; HIERARCHY. (“組織法”Apost,八,5 P.(即,1。1073)。的意義“episcopus”的中,“sacerdos”,“長老”,古代文獻中所使用的信息,請參閱主教的層次結構。

Exercise of the Power權力的行使

The granting by Christ of the power to forgive sins is the first essential of the Sacrament of Penance; in the actual exercise of this power are included the other essentials.赦罪的權柄授予的基督的懺悔聖事是第一要素,在實際行使這項權力,包括其他必需品。 The sacrament as such and on its own account has a matter and a form and it produces certain effects; the power of the keys is exercised by a minister (confessor) who must possess the proper qualifications, and the effects are wrought in the soul of the recipient, ie, the penitent who with the necessary dispositions must perform certain actions (confession, satisfaction).聖事作為自己的賬戶上有一個質和形式,它產生一定的影響;行使權力的鑰匙由部長(1-20)必須具備適當的資格,而且其作用是何等的靈魂收件人,即,懺悔的必要之處置必須執行某些操作(自白,滿意度)。

Matter and Form物質和形式

According to St. Thomas (Summa, III, lxxiv, a. 2) "the acts of the penitent are the proximate matter of this sacrament".據,聖托馬斯(總結,III,LXXIV,2)“的懺悔的行為是最直接的問題,這聖餐”。 This is also the teaching of Eugenius IV in the "Decretum pro Armenis" (Council of Florence, 1439) which calls the act's "quasi materia" of penance and enumerates them as contrition, confession, and satisfaction (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchir.", 699).這是也葉夫根尼IV教學中的“Decretum親Armenis”(會議的佛羅倫薩,1439年)它調用的行為的“準本草”的懺悔,並列舉了他們的懺悔,懺悔,並滿意度(登青格,Bannwart,“Enchir。 “,699)。 The Thomists in general and other eminent theologians, eg, Bellarmine, Toletus, Francisco Suárez, and De Lugo, hold the same opinion.托馬斯主義在一般和其他著名的神學家,例如,貝拉明,Toletus,弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯和德盧戈,持有相同的看法。 According to Scotus (In IV Sent., d. 16, q. 1, n. 7) "the Sacrament of Penance is the absolution imparted with certain words" while the acts of the penitent are required for the worthy reception of the sacrament.據司各脫(IV發送。,D 16,Q 1,N。7)“的懺悔聖事是的赦免賦予了某些詞”的行為值得接待的聖餐的懺悔所需要的。 The absolution as an external ceremony is the matter, and, as possessing significant force, the form.赦免作為一個外部的儀式是怎麼回事,,具有顯著力,形式。 Among the advocates of this theory are St. Bonaventure, Capreolus, Andreas Vega, and Maldonatus.在這一理論的倡導者聖文德,狍,安德烈亞斯·維加,Maldonatus。 The Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. 3) declares: "the acts of the penitent, namely contrition, confession, and satisfaction, are the quasi materia of this sacrament".安理會的遄達(sess.十四,3)宣稱:“行為的懺悔,這聖餐的懺悔,懺悔和滿意度,是準本草”。 The Roman Catechism used in 1913 (II, v, 13) says: "These actions are called by the Council quasi materia not because they have not the nature of true matter, but because they are not the sort of matter which is employed externally as water in baptism and chrism in confirmation".在1913年的羅馬教理問答(II,V,13)說:“這些行動被稱為由理事會準本草,不是因為他們沒有真正的問題的性質,但因為他們不是那種無論採用外部水的洗禮和聖油在確認“。 For the theological discussion see Palmieri, op.對於神學的討論,請參閱帕爾米耶裡,運。 cit., p.同上,頁。 144 sqq.; Pesch, "Praelectiones dogmaticae", Freiburg, 1897; De San, "De poenitentia", Bruges, 1899; Pohle, "Lehrb. d. Dogmatik". 144 SQQ。佩施,“Praelectiones dogmaticae”,弗賴堡,1897年,德聖,“的poenitentia”,布魯日,1899年; Pohle,“Lehrb。刑法信條學”。

Regarding the form of the sacrament, both the Council of Florence and the Council of Trent teach that it consists in the words of absolution.關於聖餐的形式,對安理會的佛羅倫薩和安理會的遄達教,它包括在赦免的話。 "The form of the Sacrament of penance, wherein its force principally consists, is placed in those words of the minister: "I absolve thee, etc."; to these words indeed, in accordance with the usage of Holy Church, certain prayers are laudably added, but they do not pertain to the essence of the form nor are they necessary for the administration of the sacrament" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 3).聖事的懺悔“的形式,其中主要包括其力,是擺在部長的這些話:”我赦免你,等“,這句話的確,按照使用的神聖的教堂,某些祈禱值得稱讚增加,但他們不涉及到形式的本質,也不是他們必要的行政聖餐“(理事會遄,sess。十四,3)。 Concerning these additional prayers, the use of the Eastern and Western Churches, and the question whether the form is deprecatory or indicative and personal, see ABSOLUTION.關於這些額外的祈禱,東部和西部教會,和問題的形式是否是貶低或指示和個人使用,請參閱赦免。 Cf.比照。 also the writers referred to in the preceding paragraph.也前款所指的作家。

Effect效果

"The effect of this sacrament is deliverance from sin" (Council of Florence). “效果,這聖餐是救我們脫離罪惡”(理事會佛羅倫薩)。 The same definition in somewhat different terms is given by the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. 3): "So far as pertains to its force and efficacy, the effect (res et effectus) of this sacrament is reconciliation with God, upon which there sometimes follows, in pious and devout recipients, peace and calm of conscience with intense consolation of spirit".安理會的遄達(sess.十四,3)相同的定義有所不同:“到目前為止,涉及到它的力量和有效性,效果(水庫等effectus),這聖餐是與神和好,在其有時,在虔誠,虔誠的受助人,有強烈的精神慰藉和平和平靜的良心“。 This reconciliation implies first of all that the guilt of sin is remitted, and consequently also the eternal punishment due to mortal sin.此和解意味著第一有罪,罪匯,因此也是永恆的處罰由於彌天大罪。 As the Council of Trent declares, penance requires the performance of satisfaction "not indeed for the eternal penalty which is remitted together with the guilt either by the sacrament or by the desire of receiving the sacrament, but for the temporal penalty which, as the Scriptures teach, is not always forgiven entirely as it is in baptism" (Sess. VI, c. 14).安理會的遄達宣布,苦修需要表現的滿意度“,的確不是永恆的刑罰,是匯內疚的聖餐或接受聖餐的願望的,但對於時間的罰款,因為聖經教,是不是總是原諒的,完全是因為它是在洗禮“(sess.六,C 14)。 In other words baptism frees the soul not only from all sin but also from all indebtedness to Divine justice, whereas after the reception of absolution in penance, there may and usually does remain some temporal debt to be discharged by works of satisfaction (see below).換句話說洗禮釋放的靈魂,不僅從所有的罪,但還所有債務,以神聖的正義,而在懺悔後接待的赦免,有可能,而且通常不留一些時間的債務就可以出院滿意的作品(見下文) 。 "Venial sins by which we are not deprived of the grace of God and into which we very frequently fall are rightly and usefully declared in confession; but mention of them may, without any fault, be omitted and they can be expiated by many other remedies" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 3). “venial罪孽,我們沒有被剝奪了神的恩典,並在其中非常頻繁下降是正確的和有益宣布在懺悔,但提到他們,沒有出現任何故障,省略和許多其他補救措施,可以贖“(安理會的遄達,sess中。十四,C 3)。 Thus, an act of contrition suffices to obtain forgiveness of venial sin, and the same effect is produced by the worthy reception of sacraments other than penance, eg, by Holy Communion.因此,懺悔足以獲得寬恕原諒的罪,和同樣的效果的行為是有價值的接收以外的苦修,例如,通過聖餐的聖禮。

The reconciliation of the sinner with God has as a further consequence the revival of those merits which he had obtained before committing grievous sin.和解的罪人與神的復興前犯大罪的優點,他獲得了進一步的後果。 Good works performed in the state of grace deserve a reward from God, but this is forfeited by mortal sin, so that if the sinner should die unforgiven his good deeds avail him nothing.執行國家的寬限期,好的作品應該是上帝的恩賜,但沒收,這是彌天大罪,所以,如果死了不可饒恕的罪人,他的善行利用他無關。 So long as he remains in sin, he is incapable of meriting: even works which are good in themselves are, in his case, worthless: they cannot revive, because they never were alive.只要他仍然在罪中,他是不能勝任的,值得進行,甚至作品本身是好的,在他的案件中,不值錢,他們不能復活,因為他們從來還活著。 But once his sin is cancelled by penance, he regains not only the state of grace but also the entire store of merit which had, before his sin, been placed to his credit.但是,一旦取消,他的罪惡懺悔,他不僅是國家的寬限期,但也恢復整個賣場的優點了,之前他的罪,被放置到他的信用。 On this point theologians are practically unanimous: the only hindrance to obtaining reward is sin, and when this is removed, the former title, so to speak, is revalidated.在這一點上,神學家們幾乎一致:獲得的獎勵是唯一的障礙罪,被刪除時,可以這麼說,前題,才可重新生效。 On the other hand, if there were no such revalidation, the loss of merit once acquired would be equivalent to an eternal punishment, which is incompatible with the forgiveness effected by penance.另一方面,如果沒有這樣的重新確認,損失的優點一旦獲得,就等於一個永恆的懲罰,這是不符合寬恕的影響苦修。 As to the further question regarding the manner and extent of the revival of merit, various opinions have been proposed; but that which is generally accepted holds with Francisco Suárez (De reviviscentia meritorum) that the revival is complete, ie, the forgiven penitent has to his credit as much merit as though he had never sinned.至於進一步的問題的方式和程度的復興的優點,各方面的意見已經提出來,但被普遍接受的持有弗朗西斯科蘇亞雷斯(德reviviscentia meritorum)的復興是完整的,也就是說,原諒懺悔者,他的信用盡可能多的優點,雖然他從來沒有犯過罪。 See De Augustinis, "De re sacramentaria", II, Rome, 1887; Pesch, op.見德Augustinis,“德重sacramentaria”,II,羅馬,1887年;佩施,運。 cit., VII; Göttler, "Der hl. Thomas v. Aquin u. die vortridentinischen Thomisten über die Wirkungen d. Bussakramentes", Freiburg, 1904.的前,VII;Göttler,“德升。托馬斯訴阿坎U。死vortridentinischen Thomisten超級死Wirkungen。Bussakramentes”,弗賴堡,1904年。

The Minister (ie, the Confessor)部長(即懺悔)

From the judicial character of this sacrament it follows that not every member of the Church is qualified to forgive sins; the administration of penance is reserved to those who are invested with authority.從司法性質,這聖餐,而不是教會的每一個成員的資格赦免人的罪;管理的懺悔是保留給那些誰投資與權威。 That this power does not belong to the laity is evident from the Bull of Martin V "Inter cunctas" (1418) which among other questions to be answered by the followers of Wyclif and Huss, has this: "whether he believes that the Christian . . . is bound as a necessary means of salvation to confess to a priest only and not to a layman or to laymen however good and devout" (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchir.", 670).這種權力不屬於俗人的是顯而易見的,從威克里夫和胡斯的追隨者要回答的問題,其中有:“他是否認為基督教的公牛馬丁五世的”國際cunctas“(1418年)。 ..必將作為一個牧師,而不是只承認一個外行還是外行多麼好,虔誠的“(登青格bannwart,12月31日1652”Enchir得救的必要手段。“,670)。 Luther's proposition, that "any Christian, even a woman or a child" could in the absence of a priest absolve as well as pope or bishop, was condemned (1520) by Leo X in the Bull "Exurge Domine" (Enchir., 753).路德的主張,即“任何一個基督徒,甚至一個女人或孩子”能在一個牧師的情況下免除以及教皇或主教,譴責利奧X在公牛“Exurge Domine”(1520)(Enchir.,753 )。 The Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. 6) condemns as "false and as at variance with the truth of the Gospel all doctrines which extend the ministry of the keys to any others than bishops and priests, imagining that the words of the Lord (Matthew 18:18; John 20:23) were, contrary to the institution of this sacrament, addressed to all the faithful of Christ in such wise that each and every one has the power of remitting sin".安理會的遄達(sess.十四,6)譴責為“虛假和方差延伸的關鍵部比任何其他主教和司鐸,想像,所有的教義與真理的福音的話,主(馬太福音18:18;約翰福音20:23),相反,這聖餐的機構,給所有信徒的基督,在這種明智,每一個有能力的匯款罪“。 The Catholic doctrine, therefore, is that only bishops and priests can exercise the power.天主教教義,因此,只有主教和司鐸可以行使的權力。 These decrees moreover put an end, practically, to the usage, which had sprung up and lasted for some time in the Middle Ages, of confessing to a layman in case of necessity.這些法令,而且,務實,杜絕使用,如雨後春筍般湧現,並持續了一段時間在中世紀,在必要的情況下,以一個門外漢的承認。 This custom originated in the conviction that he who had sinned was obliged to make known his sin to some one -- to a priest if possible, otherwise to a layman.這一習俗起源於這樣的信念,他犯了罪不得不讓一些人知道他的罪 - 如果可能的話,否則一個門外漢到一個牧師。 In the work "On true penance and false" (De vera et falsa poenitentia), erroneously ascribed to St. Augustine, the counsel is given: "So great is the power of confession that if a priest be not at hand, let him (the person desiring to confess) confess to his neighbour."在真正的懺悔和虛假的“在工作”(蘆薈等falsa,poenitentia),錯誤地歸因於聖奧古斯丁的忠告是:“這麼大的權力,如果一個牧師在手,讓他的告白(的人願意承認)承認,他的鄰居。“ But in the same place the explanation is given: "although he to whom the confession is made has no power to absolve, nevertheless he who confesses to his fellow (socio) becomes worthy of pardon through his desire of confessing to a priest" (PL, XL, 1113).但在同一個地方的解釋是:“雖然他的人承認,就沒有權力開脫,但他承認他的同胞(社會),通過他向神父懺悔慾望值得原諒”(PL ,XL,1113)。 Lea, who cites (I, 220) the assertion of the Pseudo-Augustine about confession to one's neighbour, passes over the explanation.李,引用(I,220)的偽奧古斯丁主張關於懺悔的鄰居,經過解釋。 He consequently sets in a wrong light a series of incidents illustrating the practice and gives but an imperfect idea of the theological discussion which it aroused.因此,他在一個錯誤的燈光設置了一系列的事件說明的做法,並給出,但它引起的神學討論一個不完美的想法。 Though Albertus Magnus (In IV Sent., dist. 17, art. 58) regarded as sacramental the absolution granted by a layman while St. Thomas (IV Sent., d. 17, q. 3, a. 3, sol. 2) speaks of it as "quodammodo sacramentalis", other great theologians took a quite different view.雖然Albertus馬格納斯(IV派,被視為聖事的赦免授予由一個門外漢,而聖托馬斯(IV派,D。17,Q 3,3,溶膠2區17,第58條) )談到了這個問題,其他作為“quodammodo sacramentalis”偉大的神學家採取了相當不同的看法。 Alexander of Hales (Summa, Q. xix, De confessione memb., I, a. 1) says that it is an "imploring of absolution"; St. Bonaventure ("Opera', VII, p. 345, Lyons, 1668) that such a confession even in cases of necessity is not obligatory, but merely a sign of contrition; Scotus (IV Sent., d. 14, q. 4) that there is no precept obliging one to confess to a layman and that this practice may be very detrimental; Durandus of St. Pourcain (IV Sent., d. 17, q. 12) that in the absence of a priest, who alone can absolve in the tribunal of penance, there is no obligation to confess; Prierias (Summa Silv., sv Confessor, I, 1) that if absolution is given by a layman, the confession must be repeated whenever possible; this in fact was the general opinion. It is not then surprising that Dominicus Soto, writing in 1564, should find it difficult to believe that such a custom ever existed: "since (in confession to a layman) there was no sacrament .亞歷山大黑爾斯說,這是一個“懇求赦免”(總結,Q.十九,德confessione MEMB,我,一個1),聖文德(“歌劇”,第七章,第345頁,里昂,1668)甚至在必要的情況下,這樣的表白是不是強制性的,但僅僅是一個標誌性的contrition司各脫(IV發送。,D 14,Q 4)有沒有戒律迫使承認一個門外漢,這種做法可能是非常有害的; Durandus聖Pourcain(IV發送。,D。17,Q 12),在一個牧師的情況下,就可以免除在法庭的懺悔,也沒有義務承認; Prierias(總結思慮,SV懺悔,I,1),如果赦免是由一個門外漢,懺悔必須重複只要有可能,這其實是普遍的看法,這是不那麼令人驚訝的是多米尼克斯索托,寫於1564年,應發現它很難相信,曾經存在過這樣一種習俗:“因為(在懺悔一個門外漢)有沒有聖禮。 . . it is incredible that men, of their own accord and with no profit to themselves, should reveal to others the secrets of their conscience" (IV Sent., d. 18, q. 4, a. 1). Since, therefore, the weight of theological opinion gradually turned against the practice and since the practice never received the sanction of the Church, it cannot be urged as a proof that the power to forgive sins belonged at any time to the laity. What the practice does show is that both people -and theologians realized keenly the obligation of confessing their sins not to God alone but to some human listener, even though the latter possessed no power to absolve.這是令人難以置信的是,自己的男人,對自己的不以營利,應該向他人透露的秘密,自己的良心“(IV發送。18,D,Q 4,1)由於,因此,神學意見的重量逐漸轉向反對這種做法,因為這種做法從來沒有收到制裁的教會,它不能被要求作為一個證明,有赦罪的權柄的權力屬於在任何時間的俗人。什麼樣的做法不顯示的,都人敏銳地意識到神學家的責任,不承認他們的罪,只有上帝,但一些人監聽器,儘管後者擁有任何權力開脫。

The same exaggerated notion appears in the practice of confessing to the deacons in case of necessity.同樣誇張的概念出現在懺悔的做法,在必要的情況下向執事。 They were naturally preferred to laymen when no priest was accessible because in virtue of their office they administered Holy Communion.他們自然最好的學問,在沒有牧師的訪問,因為他們憑藉自己的辦公室管理的聖餐。 Moreover, some of the earlier councils (Elvira, AD 300; Toledo, 400) and penitentials (Theodore) seemed to grant the power of penance to the deacon (in the priest's absence).此外,一些較早的議會(埃爾維拉,公元300年,托萊多,400)和penitentials(西奧多)似乎授予的權力的懺悔,執事(在牧師的情況下)。 The Council of Tribur (895) declared in regard to bandits that if, when captured or wounded they confessed to a priest or a deacon, they should not be denied communion; and this expression "presbytero vel diacono" was incorporated in the Decree of Gratian and in many later documents from the tenth century to the thirteenth.理事會Tribur(895)宣布在,如果被俘或受傷時,他們供認向神父或執事,他們不應該被拒絕共融土匪;和“presbytero VEL diacono”的成立在該法令的gratian在許多後來的文件,從10世紀至十三。 The Council of York (1195) decreed that except in the gravest necessity the deacon should not baptize, give communion, or "impose penance on one who confessed".紐約(1195)下令,除了在最嚴重的必要性執事不應該洗禮,給交流,或“強加懺悔誰承認”。 Substantially the same enactments are found in the Councils of London (1200) and Rouen (1231), the constitutions of St. Edmund of Canterbury (1236), and those of Walter of Kirkham, Bishop of Durham (1255).倫敦(1200)和魯昂(1231),憲法的聖埃德蒙坎特伯雷(1236),以及沃爾特Kirkham,達勒姆主教(1255)在安理會大致相同的法規。 All these enactments, though stringent enough as regards ordinary circumstances, make exception for urgent necessity.所有這些成文法則,雖然不夠嚴謹至於一般情況下,迫切需要為例外。 No such exception is allowed in the decree of the Synod of Poitiers (1280): "desiring to root out an erroneous abuse which has grown up in our diocese through dangerous ignorance, we forbid deacons to hear confessions or to give absolution in the tribunal of penance: for it is certain and beyond doubt that they cannot absolve, since they have not the keys which are conferred only in the priestly order".沒有這樣的例外是允許在該法令的主教普瓦捷(1280):“我們希望根除錯誤的濫用已經長大了,我們的主教管區通過危險的無知,禁止執事聽到的供述,或給予赦免在審裁處的懺悔:它是肯定的,毫無疑問是他們不能免除的,因為他們不會只在祭司的命令“所賦予的鑰匙。 This "abuse" probably disappeared in the fourteenth or fifteenth century; at all events no direct mention is made of it by the Council of Trent, though the reservation to bishops and priests of the absolving power shows plainly that the Council excluded deacons.這可能消失在第十四或十五世紀的“濫用”,它在所有比賽中沒有直接提及安理會的遄達,但保留的赦免權力的主教和司鐸清楚地顯示,不包括本會執事。

The authorization which the medieval councils gave the deacon in case of necessity did not confer the power to forgive sins.中世紀的議會授權給執事,在必要的情況下並沒有賦予的權力,赦免人的罪。 In some of the decrees it is expressly stated that the deacon has not the keys -- claves non habent.在某些法令的明文規定,,執事的關鍵 - 的恆山非habent。 In other enactments he is forbidden except in cases of necessity to "give" or "impose penance", poenitentiam dare, imponere.在其他成文法則,他是被禁止的,除非在必要的情況下“給予”或“強加懺悔”,poenitentiam敢,imponere。 His function then was limited to the forum externum; in the absence of a priest he could "reconcile" the sinner, ie, restore him to the communion of the Church; but he did not and could not give the sacramental absolution which a priest would have given (Palmieri, Pesch).然後,他的功能是有限的到論壇externum;在一個牧師的情況下,他可以“調和”的罪人,即恢復他的共融的教會,但他沒有,不能給聖赦免的牧師(帕爾米耶,佩施)。 Another explanation emphasizes the fact that the deacon could faithfully administer the Holy Eucharist.另一種解釋強調了一個事實,執事,忠實地管理聖體聖事。 The faithful were under a strict obligation to receive Communion at the approach of death, and on the other hand the reception of this sacrament sufficed to blot out even mortal sin provided the communicant had the requisite dispositions.忠實地根據嚴格的責任死刑的做法,在接受聖餐,而另一方面,這聖餐足以接收塗抹,甚至是致命的罪過有必要的處置提供了聖餐。 The deacon could hear their confession simply to assure himself that they were properly disposed, but not for the purpose of giving them absolution.執事能聽到他們的懺悔,只是為了保證自己,他們妥善處理,但不給他們赦免的目的。 If he went further and "imposed penance" in the stricter, sacramental sense, he exceeded his power, and any authorization to this effect granted by the bishop merely showed that the bishop was in error (Laurain, "De l'intervention des laïques, des diacres et des abbesses dans l'administration de la pénitence", Paris, 1897).如果他又進一步嚴格,聖事的意義和“強加的懺悔”,他超出了他的能力,和任何授權由主教授予的效果只是表明,主教是錯誤的(Laurain,“德干預DESlaïques, diacres等abbesses的DANS L'管理德拉懺悔“,巴黎,1897年)。 In any case, the prohibitory enactments which finally abolished the practice did not deprive the deacon of a power which was his by virtue of his office; but they brought into clearer light the traditional belief that only bishops and priests can administer the Sacrament of Penance.在任何情況下,禁止成文法則最後被廢除的做法並沒有剝奪執事的權力,這是他憑藉他的辦公室,但他們帶來了更清晰的光的傳統觀念,只有主教和祭司可以管理的懺悔聖事。 (See below under Confession.) (請參閱下面的自白。)

For valid administration, a twofold power is necessary: the power of order and the power of jurisdiction.有效的管理,雙重電源是必要的秩序和權力管轄範圍內的權力。 The former is conferred by ordination, the latter by ecclesiastical authority (see JURISDICTION).前者所賦予的協調,後者由教會的權威(見管轄權)。 At his ordination a priest receives the power to consecrate the Holy Eucharist, and for valid consecration he needs no jurisdiction.在他的協調牧師接收功率為聖,聖體聖事,和有效的奉獻,他需要沒有司法管轄權。 As regards penance, the case is different: "because the nature and character of a judgment requires that sentence be pronounced only on those who are subjects (of the judge) the Church of God has always held, and this Council affirms it to be most true, that the absolution which a priest pronounces upon one over whom he has not either ordinary or delegated jurisdiction, is of no effect" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 7).至於苦修,情況是不同的:“因為判斷的性質和特點的要求宣判的那句話只對那些誰是神的教會,一直持有的對象(法官),及本會確認它是最真實的,那赦免的牧師宣告後,他既不是普通或下放管轄權,是沒有效果“(安理會的遄達,sess中。十四。7)。 Ordinary jurisdiction is that which one has by reason of his office as involving the care of souls; the pope has it over the whole Church, the bishop within his diocese, the pastor within his parish.普通的司法管轄區,其中涉及照顧的靈魂,教皇因他的辦公室整個教會,在他的教區主教,牧師在他的教區。 Delegated jurisdiction is that which is granted by an ecclesiastical superior to one who does not possess it by virtue of his office.委託的司法管轄區被授予由教會優於誰不擁有它憑藉他的辦公室。 The need of jurisdiction for administering this sacrament is usually expressed by saying that a priest must have "faculties" to hear confession (see FACULTIES).通常表示需要管理這聖餐的司法管轄區說一名牧師必須有“學院”聽懺悔(學院)。 Hence it is that a priest visiting in a diocese other than his own cannot hear confession without special authorization from the bishop.因此,它是一個訪問其他比他自己在一個教區的牧師不能聽到供認,無需特別批准的主教。 Every priest, however, can absolve anyone who is at the point of death, because under those circumstances the Church gives all priests jurisdiction.然而,每一個牧師,就可以免除任何人誰是在死亡點,因為在這些情況下,教會給祭司管轄範圍。 As the bishop grants jurisdiction, he can also limit it by "reserving" certain cases (see RESERVATION) and he can even withdraw it entirely.主教授予的司法管轄區,他還可以限制它的“保留”某些情況下(預約),他甚至可以完全退出。

Recipient (ie, the Penitent)收件人(即懺悔)

The Sacrament of Penance was instituted by Christ for the remission of Penance was instituted by Christ for the remission of sins committed after baptism.是由基督的懺悔聖事是由基督的洗禮後,為緩解的罪孽的懺悔緩解。 Hence, no unbaptized person, however deep and sincere his sorrow, can be validly absolved.因此,沒有受洗的人,但深切和誠摯的他的悲傷,可以有效地赦免。 Baptism, in other words, is the first essential requisite on the part of the penitent.的洗禮,換句話說,是第一個必要條件的懺悔。 This does not imply that in the sins committed by an unbaptized person there is a special enormity or any other element that places them beyond the power of the keys; but that one must first be a member of the Church before he can submit himself and his sins to the judicial process of sacramental Penance.這並不意味著中犯下的罪孽由一個unbaptized的人有一個特殊的艱鉅性,或任何其他元素,並將它們超越了權力的鑰匙,但一個人必須首先是一個教會的成員才可以提交自己和自己的罪的司法程序聖事的懺悔。

Contrition and Attrition懺悔和磨損

Without sorrow for sin there is no forgiveness. Hence the Council of Trent (Sess. XIV, c. 4): "Contrition, which holds the first place among the acts of the penitent, is sorrow of heart and detestation for sin committed, with the resolve to sin no more". 不為罪憂傷,罪就不得赦免。因此,安理會的遄達(sess.十四,4):“悔悟,行為的懺悔中佔據首位,是悲傷的心和厭惡的罪犯,決心不再犯罪“。 The Council (ibid.) furthermore distinguishes perfect contrition from imperfect contrition, which is called attrition, and which arises from the consideration of the turpitude of sin or from the fear of hell and punishment.理事會(同上)此外區分的完善con​​trition不完善的懺悔,這就是所謂磨損,考慮的淪喪的罪,或從地獄和懲罰的恐懼而產生的。 See ATTRITION; CONTRITION, where these two kinds of sorrow are more fully explained and an account is given of the principal discussions and opinions.請參閱磨損;懺悔,這兩種悲傷更充分的解釋和帳戶的主要討論和意見。 See also treatises by Pesch, Palmieri, Pohle.也的論文佩施,帕爾邁,Pohle。 For the present purpose it need only be stated that attrition, with the Sacrament of Penance, suffices to obtain forgiveness of sin.對於目前的目的,只需要說明的是消耗戰,聖事的懺悔,足以獲得寬恕的罪。 The Council of Trent further teaches (ibid.): "though it sometimes happens that this contrition is perfect and that it reconciles man with God before the actual reception of this sacrament, still the reconciliation is not to be ascribed to the contrition itself apart from the desire of the sacrament which it (contrition) includes".安理會的遄達(同上)進一步教導:“雖然它有時會發生,這痛悔是十全十美的,協調人與神的實際接收的這聖餐前,仍然是和解不是痛悔自己除了要歸功於願望的聖餐(痛悔)包括“。 In accordance with this teaching Pius V condemned (1567) the proposition of Baius asserting that even perfect contrition does not, except in case of necessity or of martyrdom, remit sin without the actual reception of the sacrament (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchir.", 1071).在按照教學庇護五世譴責(1567年)的命題斷言,即使是完美的悔悟不Baius的必要性或殉難,免除罪,而沒有實際接收的聖餐(登青格bannwart,12月31日1652“Enchir的的情況下,除了”。 ,1071)。 It should be noted, however, that the contrition of which the Council speaks is perfect in the sense that it includes the desire (votum) to receive the sacrament.然而,應該指出,在這個意義上,它包括的慾望(votum)接受聖餐的懺悔理事會說是完美的。 Whoever in fact repents of his sin out of love for God must be willing to comply with the Divine ordinance regarding penance, ie, he would confess if a confessor were accessible, and he realizes that he is obliged to confess when he has the opportunity.條其實悔改他的罪,對神的愛,必須願意遵守神聖的條例,關於苦修,即,他也承認,如果一個懺悔訪問,他意識到,他不得不承認,當他有機會。 But it does not follow that the penitent is at liberty to choose between two modes of obtaining forgiveness, one by an act of contrition independently of the sacrament, the other by confession and absolution.不過,這並不表示懺悔,是在自由選擇兩種模式之間獲得寬恕,一個獨立的行為痛悔的聖餐,其他招供,並赦免。 This view was put forward by Peter Martinez (de Osma) in the proposition: "mortal sins as regards their guilt and their punishment in the other world, are blotted out by contrition alone without any reference to the keys"; and the proposition was condemned by Sixtus IV in 1479 (Denzinger-Bannwart, "Enchir.", 724).的Peter Martinez(奧薩馬)在命題提出了這一觀點:“致命的罪過,至於他們的內疚和對他們的處罰,在另一個世界,抹殺僅悔悟,沒有任何鍵”和主張譴責Sixtus的四,在1479年(-Bannwart登青格,“Enchir。”,724)。 Hence it is clear that not even heartfelt sorrow based on the highest motives, can, in the present order of salvation, dispense with the power of the keys, ie, with the Sacrament of Penance.因此,很明顯,甚至沒有發自內心的悲傷的最高動機的基礎上,可以在現存秩序的救贖,免除權力的鑰匙,即,懺悔聖事的。

Confession (Necessity)自白(必要性)

"For those who after baptism have fallen into sin, the Sacrament of Penance is as necessary unto salvation as is baptism itself for those who have not yet been regenerated" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 2). “對於那些誰的洗禮後,已經陷入罪惡,懺悔聖事是必要的,要救的是洗禮本身對於那些尚未再生”(安理會的遄達,sess中。十四。2)。 Penance, therefore, is not an institution the use of which was left to the option of each sinner so that he might, if he preferred, hold aloof from the Church and secure forgiveness by some other means, eg, by acknowledging his sin in the privacy of his own mind.因此,懺悔,是不是機構使用的被留下來的每一個罪人的選項,這樣他可能會,如果他喜歡,保持遠離教會和安全寬恕的一些其他手段,例如,在承認他的罪隱私,自己的心態。 As already stated, the power granted by Christ to the Apostles is twofold, to forgive and to retain, in such a way that what they forgive God forgives and what they retain God retains.如前所述,由基督的使徒所賦予的權力,是雙重的,原諒和保留,在這樣一種方式,他們神寬恕和原諒他們保留上帝保留。 But this grant would be nullified if, in case the Church retained the sins of penitent, he could, as it were, take appeal to God's tribunal and obtain pardon.但是,這項撥款將無效的情況下,如果教會保留了罪惡的懺悔者,他可以,因為它是神的法庭提出上訴,並獲得赦免。 Nor would the power to retain have any meaning if the sinner, passing over the Church, went in the first instance to God, since by the very terms of the grant, God retains sin once committed so long as it is not remitted by the Church.的權力也不會保留任何意義,如果罪人,經過教會,在第一時間向上帝,因為非常獲授條款,上帝保留罪一旦提交了這麼久,因為它不是由教會匯。 It would indeed have been strangely inconsistent if Christ in conferring this twofold power on the Apostles had intended to provide some other means of forgiveness such as confessing "to God alone".這的確很奇怪地不一致的,如果基督的使徒在這兩個方面的權力授予,旨在提供一些其他的手段,如承認“只有上帝”寬恕。 Not only the Apostles, but any one with an elementary knowledge of human nature would have perceived at once that the easier means would be chosen and that the grant of power so formally and solemnly made by Christ had no real significance (Palmieri, op. cit., thesis X).不僅使徒,但任何一個有知覺的人性化的基本知識,在一次容易的方法來選擇和授予的權力,以便正式和鄭重的基督並沒有真正的意義(帕爾米耶,同上,論文X)。 On the other hand, once it is admitted that the grant was effectual and consequently that the sacrament is necessary in order to obtain forgiveness, it plainly follows that the penitent must in some way make known his sin to those who exercise the power.另一方面,一旦它被承認的補助金是有效的,因此,聖餐是必要的,為了得到寬恕,說白了,懺悔者必須以某種方式使他的罪行使權力。 This is conceded even by those who reject the Sacrament of Penance as a Divine institution.這是承認,甚至拒絕的懺悔聖事的人,作為一個神聖的機構。 "Such remission was manifestly impossible without the declaration of the offences to be forgiven" (Lea, "History etc.", I, p. 182). “這種緩解是不被原諒的罪行的聲明顯然是不可能的”(李,“歷史等等”,我,頁182)。 The Council of Trent, after declaring that Christ left his priests as His vicars unto whom as rulers and judges the faithful must make known their sins, adds: "It is evident that the priests could not have exercised this judgment without knowledge of the cause, nor could they have observed justice in enjoining satisfaction if (the faithful) had declared their sins in a general way only and not specifically and in detail" (Sess. XIV, c. 5).安理會的遄達後,宣布基督離開他的祭司,他vicars祂的人,統治者和法官的忠實一定要知道自己的罪,補充說:“這是明顯的祭司不能行使這個判斷不知道的原因,也不能觀察到正義(忠實的)已經宣布他們的罪,在一般的方式,而不是只在具體和詳細的“達(sess.十四,5)責令滿意。

Since the priest in the pardoning of sin exercises a strict judicial function, Christ must will that such tremendous power be used wisely and prudently.由於祭司在赦免的罪實行嚴格的司法職能,基督一定會明智和審慎的使用,這種巨大的力量。 Moreover, in virtue of the grant of Christ the priest can forgive all sins without distinction, quoecumque solveritis.此外,憑藉授出基督的牧師可以原諒你所有的罪不分,quoecumque solveritis。 How can a wise and prudent judgment be rendered if the priest be in ignorance of the cause on which judgment is pronounced?怎樣才能呈現一個明智和審慎的判斷,如果牧師在無知宣判的原因? And how can he obtain the requisite knowledge unless it come from the spontaneous acknowledgment of the sinner?他怎麼能獲得必要的知識,除非它來自自發確認的罪人? This necessity of manifestation is all the clearer if satisfaction for sin, which from the beginning has been part of the penitential discipline, is to be imposed not only wisely but also justly.這種必要性的表現是所有的罪,從一開始就已經有部分的penitential紀律,滿意清楚,如果是被強加不僅是明智的,但也公正地。 That there is a necessary connection between the prudent judgment of the confessor and the detailed confession of sins is evident from the nature of a judicial procedure and especially from a full analysis of the grant of Christ in the light of tradition.這是一個必要的連接之間的懺悔和審慎的判斷,詳細招供的罪孽是顯而易見的,從一個司法程序的性質,特別是從基督在傳統的光授出全面的分析。 No judge may release or condemn without full knowledge of the case.沒有法官可能會釋放,或譴責沒有完全不知情的情況下。 And again the tradition of the earliest time sees in the words of Christ not only the office of the judge sitting in judgment, but the kindness of a father who weeps with the repentant child (Aphraates, "Ep. de Poenitentia", dem. 7) and the skill of the physician who after the manner of Christ heals the wounds of the soul (Origen in PG, XII, 418; PL, Xll, 1086).的傳統,最早的時候再次看到基督不僅在辦公室的法官在審判的話,但善良的哭泣與悔改的的孩子(Aphraates,“EP。的Poenitentia”,DEM 7的父親是誰)和技能的醫生後,基督的方式癒合的傷口的靈魂(淵源,PG,XII,418; PL,XLL,1086)。 Clearly, therefore, the words of Christ imply the doctrine of the external manifestation of conscience to a priest in order to obtain pardon.因此,很顯然,基督的話意味著良心的外在表現形式,以一個牧師的教義,以獲得赦免。

Confession (Various Kinds)自白(各種)

Confession is the avowal of one's own sins made to a duly authorized priest for the purpose of obtaining their forgiveness through the power of the keys.懺悔自己的罪作出正式授權的牧師的目的,獲得他們的寬恕,通過權力的鑰匙是海誓山盟。 Virtual confession is simply the will to confess even where, owing to circumstances, declaration of sin is impossible; actual confession is any action by which the penitent manifests his sin.虛擬供認是簡單的意願,即使承認,由於情況下,申報的罪是不可能的,實際的供認是任何行動懺悔,體現了他的罪。 It may be made in general terms, eg, by reciting the "Confiteor", or it may consist in a more or less detailed statement of one's sins; when the statement is complete, the confession is distinct.它可以由一般條款,例如,通過背誦“Confiteor”,它可能包括一個人的罪的聲明中在或多或少詳細的語句完成時,供認是不同的。 Public confession, as made in the hearing of a number of people (eg a congregation) differs from private, or secret, confession which is made to the priest alone and is often called auricular, ie, spoken into the ear of the confessor.公共供述,在聽證會的人數(如眾),不同於私人,或明或暗,它是由單獨的祭司,通常被稱為耳廓,即進入耳內的懺悔,說供詞。 We are here concerned mainly with actual distinct confession which is the usual practice in the Church and which so far as the validity of the sacrament is concerned, may be either public or private.我們在這裡主要關注與實際不同的供述是在教會的聖餐的有效性而言,可能是公共的或私人的慣常做法。 "As regards the method of confessing secretly to the priest alone, though Christ did not forbid that any one, in punishment of his crimes and for his own humiliation as also to give others an example and to edify the Church, should confess his sins publicly, still, this has not been commanded by Divine precept nor would it be prudent to decree by any human law that sins, especially secret sins, should be publicly confessed. Since, then, secret sacramental confession, which from the beginning has been and even now is the usage of the Church, was always commended with great and unanimous consent by the holiest and most ancient Fathers; thereby is plainly refuted the foolish calumny of those who make bold to teach that it (secret confession) is something foreign to the Divine command, a human invention devised by the Fathers assembled in the Lateran Council" (Council of Trent, Sess. XIV, c. 5). “至於承認偷偷給祭司察看單獨的方法,雖然基督沒有禁止的任何一個,他的罪行的懲罰,為自己的屈辱,也給別人一個例子,造就教會,公開承認他的罪,仍然沒有被吩咐神的戒律,也將是審慎的罪,尤其是秘密罪,應公開承認任何人的法律法令。因為,然後,秘密聖事懺悔,這從一開始一直,甚至現在使用的教會,總是讚揚偉大的一致同意,最神聖和最古老的父親,從而清楚地駁斥了愚蠢的誹謗大膽教(秘密表白)是國外的神聖命令,人類的發明設計的拉特蘭理事會“(安理會的遄達,sess中。十四。5)組裝的父親。 It is therefore Catholic doctrine, first, that Christ did not prescribe public confession, salutary as it might be, nor did He forbid it; second, that secret confession, sacramental in character, has been the practice of the Church from the earliest days.因此,它是天主教的教義,第一,就是基督沒有規定公開承認,有益的,因為它可能是,他也沒有禁止它;第二,秘密懺悔,聖事的性質,一直在實踐的教會從最早的天。

Traditional Belief and Practice傳統的信仰與實踐

How firmly rooted in the Catholic mind is the belief in the efficacy and necessity of confession, appears clearly from the fact that the Sacrament of Penance endures in the Church after the countless attacks to which it has been subjected during the last four centuries.如何牢牢紮根在天主教的態度是信仰的有效性和必要性的告白,出現了明顯的懺悔聖事的事實,忍受無數的攻擊,它一直受到在過去的四個世紀後,在教會中。 If at the Reformation or since the Church could have surrendered a doctrine or abandoned a practice for the sake of peace and to soften a "hard saying", confession would have been the first to disappear.如果在改革或自教會可以交出了一份學說,或放棄一個為了和平與軟化“硬說法”的做法,懺悔將是第一個消失。 Yet it is precisely during this period that the Church has defined in the most exact terms the nature of penance and most vigorously insisted on the necessity of confession.然而,正是在此期間,最準確的定義,教會的性質懺悔,懺悔的必要性,堅持最大力。 It will not of course be denied that at the beginning of the sixteenth century confession was generally practised throughout the Christian world.當然,它不會在十六世紀開始的表白被拒絕,普遍實行整個基督教世界。 The Reformers themselves, notably Calvin, admitted that it had been in existence for three centuries when they attributed its origin to the Fourth Lateran Council (1215).改革者,尤其是加爾文承認,它已經存在了三個世紀,當他們由於其原產地的第四次拉特蘭會議(1215)。 At that time, according to Lea (op. cit., I, 228), the necessity of confession "became a new article of faith" and the canon, omnis utriusque sexus, "is perhaps the most important legislative act in the history of the Church" (ibid., 230).當時,根據LEA(同上,I,228),自白“的必要性,成為一個新的信念”和佳能,OMNIS utriusque sexus,“在歷史上也許是最重要的立法行為教會“(同上,230)。 But, as the Council of Trent affirms, "the Church did not through the Lateran Council prescribe that the faithful of Christ should confess -- a thing which it knew to be by Divine right necessary and established -- but that the precept of confessing at least once a year should be complied with by all and every one when they reached the age of discretion" (Sess., XIV, c. 5).但是,作為安理會的遄達申明,“教會沒有通過拉特蘭理事會訂明,基督信徒應該承認 - 知道的事情,它是由神權的必要和建立 - 但承認在言教的至少每年一次,應遵守的,每個人,當他們到達的自由裁量權“的年齡達(sess.十四,5)。 The Lateran edict presupposed the necessity of confession as an article of Catholic belief and laid down a law as to the minimum frequency of confession -- at least once a year.拉特蘭法令,作為文章的天主教信仰的先決條件是必要的懺悔,並奠定了法律的最低頻率的告白 - 至少每年一次。

In the Middle Ages在中世紀,

In constructing their systems of theology, the medieval doctors discuss at length the various problems connected with the Sacrament of Penance.在建設自己的系統神學,中世紀的醫生討論的各種問題,​​在長度與懺悔聖事的。 They are practically unanimous in holding that confession is obligatory; the only notable exception in the twelfth century is Gratian, who gives the arguments for and against the necessity of confessing to a priest and leaves the question open (Decretum, p. II, De poen., d. 1, in PL, CLXXXVII, 1519-63).他們是在認為供認是強制性的,在12世紀唯一顯著的例外是格拉提安,是誰給的贊成和反對向神父懺悔的必要性,並留下了一個疑問打開(Decretum,第II,德POEN的幾乎一致,四1,在PL,CLXXXVII,1519至1563年)。 Peter Lombard (d. about 1150) takes up the authorities cited by Gratian and by means of them proves that "without confession there is no pardon" .彼得·倫巴第(四約1150年)格拉提安,並通過他們引當局證明“沒有表白,沒有赦免”。 . . "no entrance into paradise" (IV Sent., d. XVII, 4, in PL, CXCII, 880-2). “沒有進入天堂”(IV發送。,D。十七,4,PL,CXCII,880-2)。 The principal debate, in which Hugh of St. Victor, Abelard, Robert Pullus, and Peter of Poitiers took the leading parts, concerned the origin and sanction of the obligation, and the value of the different Scriptural texts cited to prove the institution of penance.的主要辯論,其中休聖維克托,阿貝拉爾,羅伯特·Pullus,和彼得的普瓦捷的引導部分,有關的起源和制裁的義務,以及不同的聖經文本的價值,引用,以證明該機構的懺悔。 This question passed on to the thirteenth century and received its solution in very plain terms from St. Thomas Aquinas.這個問題轉嫁至十三世紀,其解決方案的聖托馬斯阿奎那的很平淡。 Treating (Contra Gentes, IV, 72) of the necessity of penance and its parts, he shows that "the institution of confession was necessary in order that the sin of the penitent might be revealed to Christ's minister; hence the minister to whom the confession is made must have judicial power as representing Christ, the Judge of the living and the dead. This power again requires two things: authority of knowledge and power to absolve or to condemn. These are called the two keys of the Church which the Lord entrusted to Peter (Matthew 16:19). But they were not given to Peter to be held by him alone, but to be handed on through him to others; else sufficient provision would not have been made for the salvation of the faithful. These keys derive their efficacy from the passion of Christ whereby He opened to us the gate of the heavenly kingdom".治療(魂斗羅氏族,第四,72)的苦修和其各部分的必要性,他表明,“的告白機構是必要的,為了是的懺悔的罪可能被發現基督的部長;因此部長到人的自白是必須有代表的活人和死人的基督,法官的司法權。這股力量又需要兩件事情:權威的知識和力量,以免除或譴責,這些被稱為這兩個鍵的主委託的教會彼得(馬太福音16:19)。但是,他們並沒有給彼得將舉行由他一個人,而是要交給他,否則提供充足就不會被拯救的忠實,這些鍵推導出其功效,從基督的激情,讓他向我們敞開天國的門“。 And he adds that as no one can be saved without baptism either by actual reception or by desire, so they who sin after baptism cannot be saved unless they submit to the keys of the Church either by actually confessing or by the resolve to confess when opportunity permits.而且,他補充說,因為沒有人可以保存沒有洗禮無論是通過實際接收或由慾望,所以他們誰的罪洗禮後,可以不被保存,除非它們提交的教會的按鍵無論是通過實際承認或通過的解決,以承認當機會許可證。 Furthermore, as the rulers of the Church cannot dispense any one from baptism as a means of salvation neither can they give a dispensation whereby the sinner may be forgiven without confession and absolution.此外,作為統治者的教會不能免除任何一個洗禮的救贖的一種手段,也不能給予豁免,由此可得赦免的罪人,沒有認罪,並赦免。 The same explanation and reasoning is given by all the Scholastics of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries.同樣的解釋和推理給出了所有的第十三和第十四世紀的經院哲學家。 They were in practical agreement as to the necessity of jurisdiction in the confessor.他們在實際協議的司法管轄區的懺悔的必要性。 Regarding the time at which confession had to be made, some held with William of Auvergne that one was obliged to confess as soon as possible after sinning; others with Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas that it sufficed to confess within the time limits prescribed by the Church (Paschal Time); and this more lenient view finally prevailed.就在表白的時間進行,一些Albertus馬格納斯和聖托馬斯舉行威廉奧弗涅,一個不得不承認後盡快犯罪的,其他的時間內,它足以承認規定的範圍教會(復活節);這更寬鬆的觀點最終佔了上風。 Further subjects of discussion during this period were the choice of confessor; the obligation of confessing before receiving other sacraments, especially the Eucharist; the integrity of confession; the obligation of secrecy on the part of the confessor, ie, the seal of confession.在此期間,進一步的討論主題選擇的懺悔認罪懺悔的部分,即密封的告白之前收到其他聖禮,尤其是聖體聖事;表白的完整性;保密的義務的義務。 The careful and minute treatment of these points and the frank expression of divergent opinions were characteristic of the Schoolmen but they also brought out more clearly the central truths regarding penance and they opened the way to the conciliar pronouncements at Florence and Trent which gave to Catholic doctrine a more precise formulation.小心分鐘的治療,這些點和坦率地表達不同的意見的schoolmen的特點,但他們也提出了更明確中央真理關於苦修,他們開闢了道路,在佛羅倫薩和遄達conciliar的聲明,這給了天主教教義更精確的表述。 See Vacandard and Bernard in "Dict. de theol. cath.", sv Confession; Turmel, "Hist. de la theologie positive", Paris, 1904; Cambier, "De divina institutione confessionis sacramentalis", Louvain, 1884. Vacandard和伯納德在“快譯通。的theol的導管”,SV懺悔; Turmel,“歷史。德拉神學積極的”,巴黎,1904年;坎比爾,“神曲institutione confessionis sacramentalis”,魯汶,1884年。

Not only was the obligation recognized in the Catholic Church throughout the Middle Ages, but the schismatic Greeks held the same belief and still hold it.這不僅是義務,在整個中世紀的天主教教會的認可,但分裂希臘人持有相同的信念,仍然保持它。 They fell into schism under Photius in 869, but retained confession, which therefore must have been in use for some time previous to the ninth century.下,他們陷入分裂Photius,在869,但保留供述,因此必須第九世紀前一段時間一直在使用。 The practice, moreover, was regulated in detail by the Penitential Books (qv), which prescribed the canonical penance for each sin, and minute questions for the examination of the penitent.這種做法,而且,詳細規定了的悔罪書(QV),其中規定規範的懺悔,為每一個罪,考試的懺悔分鐘的問題。 The most famous of these books among the Greeks were those attributed to John the Faster and to John the Monk.這些書籍當中,希臘人最有名的是那些歸因於約翰的速度更快,約翰僧。 In the West similar works were written by the Irish monks St. Columbanus (d. 615) and Cummian, and by the Englishmen Ven.在西方,類似的作品寫的愛爾蘭僧侶聖倫巴努(卒於615年),Cummian,和由英國人尊貴的。 Bede (d. 735), Egbert (d. 767), and Theodore of Canterbury (d. 690).比德(卒於735年),埃格伯特(卒於767年),西奧多·坎特伯雷(卒於690年)。 Besides the councils mentioned above (Minister) decrees pertaining to confession were enacted at Worms (868), Paris (820), Châlons (813, 650), Tours (813), Reims (1113).除了上面提到的議會(部長)法令頒布的有關懺悔的蠕蟲(868),巴黎(820),沙隆(813,650),旅遊(813),蘭斯(1113)。 The Council of Chaleuth (785) says: "if any one (which God forbid) should depart this life without penance or confession he is not to be prayed for".理事會Chaleuth(785)說:“如果任何一個(即上帝保佑)離開人世,沒有懺悔或供認,他是不是有強烈的求知欲”。 The significant feature about these enactments is that they do not introduce confession as a new practice, but take it for granted and regulate its administration.關於這些成文法的顯著特徵是,他們沒有引進自白作為一種新的做法,但想當然,並規範其管理。 Hereby they put into practical effect what had been handed down by tradition.在此,他們投入的實際效果已流傳下來的傳統。

St. Gregory the Great (d. 604) teaches "the affliction of penance is efficacious in blotting out sins when it is enjoined by the sentence of the priest when the burden of it is decided by him in proportion to the offence after weighing the deeds of those who confess" (In I Reg., III, v, n. 13 in PL, LXXIX, 207); Pope Leo the Great (440-61), who is often credited with the institution of confession, refers to it as an "Apostolic rule".聖額我略一世(死於604)的教導:“痛苦的懺悔是有效在遮天蔽日的罪,當它被禁止時,它是由他決定的罪行比例負擔重的事蹟後,牧師的句子這些誰承認“(在我註冊,III,V,N 13 PL,LXXIX,207);教皇利奧大(440-61),誰往往是記入該機構的告白,是指它作為“使徒規則”。 Writing to the bishops of Campania he forbids as an abuse "contrary to the Apostolic rule" (contra apostolicam regulam) the reading out in public of a written statement of their sins drawn up by the faithful, because, he declares, "it suffices that the guilt of conscience be manifested to priests alone in secret confession" (Ep. clxviii in PL, LIV, 1210).寫坎帕尼亞大區的主教,他禁止濫用“相反的使徒規則”(魂斗羅apostolicam regulam)讀出公眾對他們的罪的忠實一份書面聲明中,因為,他宣稱,“這就夠了有罪的良心表現神父獨自秘密懺悔“(插曲clxviii PL,LIV,1210)。 In another letter (Ep. cviii in PL, LIV, 1011), after declaring that by Divine ordinance the mercy of God can be obtained only through the supplications of the priests, he adds: "the mediator between God and men, Christ Jesus, gave the rulers of the Church this power that they should impose penance on those who confess and admit them when purified by salutary satisfaction to the communion of the sacraments through the gateway of reconciliation. "The earlier Fathers frequently speak of sin as a disease which needs treatment, something drastic, at the hands of the spiritual physician or surgeon.在另一封信中(PL,LIV,1011的的插曲CVIII在)後,宣布神聖的條例,而只能通過神的憐憫懇求的祭司,他補充說:“神和人之間的中保,基督耶穌,給了統治者的教會,他們應該強加懺悔承認,承認他們時,經有益的滿意度,通過網關的和解共融的聖禮。“作為一種疾病,需要早期的父親經常講的罪治療,一些激烈,在精神醫生或外科醫生的手中。 St. Augustine (d. 450) tells the sinner: "an abscess had formed in your conscience; it tormented you and gave you no rest. . . . confess, and in confession let the pus come out and flow away" (In ps. lxvi, n. 6).聖奧古斯丁(四450),告訴罪人:“膿腫已經形成了自己的良心,它折磨著你,給你沒有休息......承認,並在供詞讓膿流走”(PS中LXVI,N。6)。 St. Jerome (d. 420) comparing the priests of the New Law with those of the Old who decided between leprosy and leprosy, says: "likewise in the New Testament the bishops and the priest bind or loose . . . in virtue of their office", having heard various sorts of sinners, they know who is to be bound and who is to be loosed" . . . (In Matt., xvi, 19); in his "Sermon on Penance" he says: "let no one find it irksome to show his wound vulnus confiteri) because without confession it cannot be healed." St. Ambrose (d. 397): "this right (of loosing and binding) has been conferred on priests only" (De pen., I, ii, n. 7); St. Basil (d. 397): "As men do not make known their bodily ailments to anybody and everybody, but only to those who are skilled in healing, so confession of sin ought to be made to those who can cure it" (Reg. brevior., 229).圣杰羅姆(卒於420年),新稅法與誰決定麻風病和麻風病的老祭司說:“同樣,在新約聖經的主教和牧師或鬆散的綁定......憑藉自己的辦公室“,聽到各種的罪人,他們知道是誰的約束,誰是被釋放”(在馬特。,十六,19),在他的“登山寶訓懺悔”,他說:“不要讓任何一個發現它令人側目的表現出他的的傷口vulnus confiteri),因為沒有表白,它不能被治愈。“聖劉漢銓(四397):”這個正確的(失去和有約束力的)已經被授予神父只“(筆。一,二,N。7);聖羅勒(卒於397年):“作為男人不使任何人,每個人都知道他們的身體疾病,但只有那些誰是熟練的癒合,所以應該是認罪可以治愈的人“(註冊brevior,229)。

For those who sought to escape the obligation of confession it was natural enough to assert that repentance was the affair of the soul alone with its Maker, and that no intermediary was needed.對於那些試圖逃避責任的告白,這是自然的,足以斷言,悔改的靈魂與它的製造商,這件事並沒有中介,需要。 It is this pretext that St. Augustine sweeps aside in one of his sermons: "Let no one say I do penance secretly; I perform it in the sight of God, and He who is to pardon me knows that in my heart I repent".它是以此為藉口,聖奧古斯丁掃一邊在他的布道:“不要讓任何人說我做懺悔偷偷的,我履行它在神的眼中,他是誰原諒我知道,在我的心裡,我悔改” 。 Whereupon St. Augustine asks: "Was it then said to no purpose, 'What you shall loose upon earth shall be loosed in heaven?'於是聖奧古斯丁會問:“我是說沒有目的,”你在地上所釋放的,在天上也要釋放寬鬆?“ Was it for nothing that the keys were given to the Church?"它沒有任何的鑰匙給教會?“ (Sermo cccxcii, n. 3, in PL, XXXIX, 1711). (,N Sermo cccxcii。3,PL,XXXIX,1711)。 The Fathers, of course, do not deny that sin must be confessed to God; at times, indeed, in exhorting the faithful to confess, they make no mention of the priest; but such passages must be taken in connection with the general teaching of the Fathers and with the traditional belief of the Church.父親,當然,不否認罪必須承認神,有時的確,在勸告信徒承認,他們沒有提及的牧師,但這樣的通道,必須採取與一般的教學父親和與傳統信仰的教會。 Their real meaning is expressed, eg, by Anastasius Sinaita (seventh century): "Confess your sins to Christ through the priest" (De sacra synaxi), and by Egbert, Archbishop of York (d. 766): "Let the sinner confess his evil deeds to God, that the priest may know what penance to impose" (Mansi, Coll. Conc., XII, 232).他們的真實意思表示,例如,通過,阿納斯塔修斯Sinaita(七世紀):“承認你的罪,基督的牧師”(聖餐synaxi),埃格伯特,約克大主教(卒於766年):“讓罪人懺悔神,他的惡行,的牧師可以知道什麼樣的懺悔,以強加“(曼西,科爾。濃度,XII,232)。 For the passages in St. John Chrysostom, see Hurter, "Theol. dogmat.", III, 454; Pesch, "Praelectiones", VII, 165.就在聖約翰金口通道,護角樁石,“theol的dogmat。”,III,454;佩施,“Praelectiones”,第七章,165。

The Fathers, knowing well that one great difficulty which the sinner has to overcome is shame, encourage him in spite of it to confess.父親,一個偉大的罪人,要克服的困難,明知是恥辱,鼓勵他,儘管它承認。 "I appeal to you, my brethren", says St. Pacian (d. 391), ". . . you who are not ashamed to sin and yet are ashamed to confess . . . I beseech you, cease to hide your wounded conscience. Sick people who are prudent do not fear the physician, though he cut and burn even the secret parts of the body" (Paraenesis ad poenit., n. 6, 8). :“我呼籲你們,我的弟兄們說,聖Pacian(四391),”......你不以為恥罪,卻羞於承認......我求求你,不再隱藏自己受到的傷害,良心生病的人是謹慎的人不要害怕醫生,儘管他砍燒甚至身體各部位的秘密“(Paraenesis廣告poenit。,N。6,8)。 St. John Chrysostom (d. 347) pleads eloquently with the sinner: "Be not ashamed to approach (the priest) because you have sinned, nay rather, for this very reason approach. No one says: Because I have an ulcer, I will not go near a physician or take medicine; on the contrary, it is just this that makes it needful to call in physicians and apply remedies. We (priests) know well how to pardon, because we ourselves are liable to sin. This is why God did not give us angels to be our doctors, nor send down Gabriel to rule the flock, but from the fold itself he chooses the shepherds, from among the sheep He appoints the leader, in order that he may be inclined to pardon his followers and, keeping in mind his own fault, may not set himself in hardness against the members of the flock" (Hom. "On Frequent Assembly" in PG, LXIII, 463).聖約翰金口(四347),雄辯地與罪人懇求:“不要羞於方法(牧師),因為你犯了罪,不僅如此,而這個原因的方法,沒人會說:因為我有一個潰瘍,我不會去附近的醫生或吃藥,相反,它僅僅是這一點,使得它要緊打電話給醫生和採取補救(祭司)知道如何原諒,因為我們自己有責任罪。為什麼上​​帝沒有給我們的天使,我們的醫生,也沒有發下來加布里埃爾統​​治羊群,但他的褶皺本身選擇的牧羊人,羊從他任命的領導者,為了他可能會傾向於原諒他的追隨者,牢記自己的錯,可能無法設置自己的硬度對成員的羊群“(Hom. 3時頻繁的大會”在PG,LXIII,463)。

Tertullian had already used the same argument with those who, for fear of exposing their sins, put off their confession from day to day -- "mindful more of their shame than of their salvation, like those who hide from the physician the malady they suffer in the secret parts of the body, and thus perish through bashfulness. . . . because we withhold anything from the knowledge of men, do we thereby conceal it from God? . . . Is it better to hide and be damned than to be openly absolved?"德爾圖良已經使用了相同的參數,害怕暴露自己的罪,把他們的懺悔每一天 - “銘記他們的恥辱,而不是他們的救贖,就像那些隱藏的醫生的弊病,他們遭受的在的秘密身體各部位,從而通過臊滅亡......因為我們隱瞞任何東西,從人的知識,我們藉此掩蓋它從上帝嗎?......它是更好的隱藏和被定罪,而不是公開免除嗎?“ ("De poenit.", x). (“德poenit。”,X)。 St. Cyprian (d. 258) pleads for greater mildness in the treatment of sinners, "since we find that no one ought to be forbidden to do penance and that to those who implore the mercy of God peace can be granted through His priests. . . . And because in hell there is no confession, nor can exomologesis be made there, they who repent with their whole heart and ask for it, should be received into the Church and therein saved unto the Lord" (Ep. lv, "Ad Antonian.", n. 29).聖塞浦路斯(四258)罪人的治療更溫和的懇求,“因為我們發現,沒有一個人應該被禁止做懺悔,懇求仁慈的上帝和平通過他的祭司可以授予。 ,因為在地獄裡有沒有表白,也可以exomologesis在那裡,他們懺悔,他們的整個的心和要求,應該接收到的教會,其中保存所不欲,主“(插曲LV,”廣告Antonian。“,N 29)。 Elsewhere he says that many who do not do penance or confess their guilt are filled with unclean spirits; and by contrast he praises the greater faith and more wholesome fear of those who, though not guilty of any idolatrous action, "nevertheless, because they thought of [such action], confess [their thought] in sorrow and simplicity to the priests of God, make the exomologesis of their conscience, lay bare the burden of their soul, and seek a salutary remedy even for wounds that are slight" ("De lapsis", xxvi sqq.).在其他地方,他說,許多都充滿了污穢的靈,誰不這樣做懺悔或承認自己有罪,相比之下,他讚揚了更大的信心和更害怕那些人,雖然沒有犯任何偶像崇拜的行動,“不過,因為他們認為這樣的行動,承認他們的思想神的祭司,在悲傷和簡單,使自己良心的exomologesis,道破了他們的靈魂的負擔,並尋求一個有益的補救辦法,即使是輕微的傷口“(”德lapsis“的,二十六SQQ)。 Origen (d. 154) compares the sinner to those whose stomachs are overloaded with undigested food or with excess of humours and phlegm if they vomit, they are relieved, "so, too, those who have sinned, if they conceal and keep the sin within, they are distressed and almost choked by its humour or phlegm. But if they accuse themselves and confess, they at the same time vomit the sin and cast off every cause of disease" (Homil. on Ps. xxxvii, n. 6, in PG, XII, 1386).奧利(卒於154年)比較罪人那些肚子超載未消化的食物或多餘的體液和痰,如果他們嘔吐,他們都鬆了一口氣,“這樣,太,那些犯了罪的人,如果他們隱瞞,並保持罪內,他們都心疼,它的幽默或痰幾乎窒息,但如果他們指責自己承認,他們同時嘔吐的罪,擺脫一切的病因病“(詩三十七Homil. 6,N,在PG,十二,1386)。 St. Irenæus (130-102) relates the case of certain women whom the Gnostic Marcus had led into sin.聖愛任紐(130-102)的諾斯底馬庫斯導致入罪的情況下,一些婦女。 "Some of them", he says, "perform their exomologesis openly also [etiam in manifesto], while others, afraid to do this, draw back in silence, despairing to regain the life of God" ("Adv. haer.", I, xiii, 7, in PG, VII, 591). “有些人”,他說,“執行他們的exomologesis的公開也etiam宣言],而其他人,不敢這樣做,退縮沉默,絕望的重新恢復神的生命”(“進階haer。”我,十三,7,PG,VII,591)。 This etiam in manifesto suggests at least that they had confessed privately, but could not bring themselves to make a public confession.這etiam在宣言,表明至少,他們已經私下承認,但不能使自己做一個公開的表白。 The advantage of confession as against the concealment of sin is shown in the words of St. Clement of Rome in his letter to the Corinthians: "It is better for a man to confess his sins than to harden his heart" (Ep. I, "Ad Cor.", li, 1).的優勢,的自白作為對犯罪的隱蔽性,在聖克萊門特的羅馬,他寫信給在哥林多前書的話:“這是更好的男人承認自己的罪,而不是硬化他的心臟”(插曲我, “廣告哥林多前書”,李,1)。

This outline of the patristic teaching shows:這個大綱的教父教表示:

that the Fathers insisted on a manifestation of sin as the necessary means of unburdening the soul and regaining the friendship of God; ,父親堅持的必要手段unburdening的靈魂和恢復上帝的友誼罪的一種表現;

that the confession was to be made not to a layman but to priests;的表白是不是一個門外漢,但牧師;

that priests exercise the power of absolving in virtue of a Divine commission, ie, as representatives of Christ;那道士美德的神聖使命,即免除在行使這項權力,代表基督;

that the sinner, if he would be saved, must overcome his shame and repugnance to confession.的罪人,他將被保存,必須克服懺悔自己的羞恥和厭惡。

And since the series of witnesses goes back to the latter part of the first century, the practice of confession must have existed from the earliest days.由於該系列的證人可以追溯到第一世紀的後半部分,懺悔的做法必須已經存在從最早的天。 St. Leo had good reason for appealing to the "Apostolic rule" which made secret confession to the priest sufficient without the necessity of a public declaration.聖利奧有很好的理由秘密懺悔牧師足夠的公開聲明,而無需的“使徒規則”的呼籲。 Nor is it surprising that Lactantius (dc 330) should have pointed to the practice of confession as a characteristic of the true Church: "That is the true Church in which there is confession and penance, which applies a wholesome remedy to the sins and wounds whereunto the weakness of the flesh is subject" ("Div. lnst.", IV, 30).也不是什麼令人驚訝的是潭修斯(DC 330)應該指出的做法為特徵的真教會的告白:“這是真正的教會,其中有認罪和懺悔,它適用於一個健康的補救措施的罪和傷口豫的肉體是虛弱“(”息。lnst。“,IV,30)。

WHAT SINS ARE TO BE CONFESSED是承認什麼罪

Among the propositions condemned by the Council of Trent is the following: "That to obtain forgiveness of sins in the Sacrament of Penance, it is not necessary by Divine law to confess each and every mortal sin which is called to mind by due and careful examination, to confess even hidden sins and those that are against the last two precepts of the Decalogue, together with the circumstances that change the specific nature of the sin; such confession is only useful for the instruction and consolation of the penitent, and of old was practised merely in order to impose canonical satisfaction" (Can de poenit., vii).在譴責安理會的遄達的命題是:“獲得寬恕的罪孽的懺悔聖事,它是沒有必要的,神聖的法律承認每一個彌天大罪,被稱為介意審慎及仔細檢查,承認甚至是隱藏的罪,和那些對過去兩年戒律的十誡,連同罪的具體性質的改變的情況下,這樣的表白是唯一有用的指導和安慰的懺悔,和老練習只是為了強加規範的滿意度“(可以poenit。,七)。 The Catholic teaching consequently is: that all mortal sins must be confessed of which the penitent is conscious, for these are so related that noone of them can be remitted until all are remitted.因此天主教教學:所有凡人的罪過的懺悔,必須承認是有意識的,這些都讓他們相關的是,沒有人可以匯出,直到所有的匯出。 Remission means that the soul is restored to the friendship of God; and this is obviously impossible if there remain unforgiven even a single mortal sin.減免的靈魂恢復到神的友誼,,如果仍有寬赦甚至一個單一的彌天大罪,這顯然是不可能的。 Hence, the penitent, who in confession willfully conceals a mortal sin, derives no benefit whatever; on the contrary, he makes void the sacrament and thereby incurs the guilt of sacrilege.因此,懺悔,他在懺悔故意隱瞞彌天大罪,源於沒有任何好處什麼,相反,他讓聖餐無效,由此所產生的內疚褻瀆。 If, however, the sin be omitted, not through any fault of the penitent, but through forgetfulness, it is forgiven indirectly; but it must be declared at the next confession and thus submitted to the power of the keys.但是,如果罪省略,不通過任何故障的懺悔,但通過健忘,它間接地被原諒的,但它必須聲明在未來的表白,提交給權力的鑰匙。

While mortal sin is the necessary matter of confession, venial sin is sufficient matter, as are also the mortal sins already forgiven in previous confessions.雖然彌天大罪的表白是必要的,可原諒的罪是足夠的問題,也都是致命的罪過在以前的供述中已經原諒。 This is the common teaching of theologians, in accord with the condemnation pronounced by Leo X on Luther's assertion, 'By no means presume to confess venial sins .的神學家來說,這是常見的教學,在符合譴責利奧十宣判路德的說法,“假定決不承認venial罪孽。 . . in the primitive Church only manifest mortal sins were confessed" (Bull, "Exurge Domine"; Denzinger, "Enchir.", 748). In the constitution "Inter cunctas" (17 Feb., 1304), Benedict XI, after stating that penitents who had confessed to a priest belonging to a religious order are not obliged to reiterate the confession to their own priest, adds: "Though it is not necessary to confess the same sins over again, nevertheless we regard it as salutary to repeat the confession, because of the shame it involves, which is a great part of penance; hence we strictly enjoin the Brothers (Dominicans and Franciscans] to admonish their penitents and in sermons 'exhort them that they confess to their own priests at least once a year, assuring them that this will undoubtedly conduce to their spiritual welfare" (Denzinger, "Enchir.", 470). St. Thomas gives the same reason for this practice: the oftener one confesses the more is the (temporal) penalty reduced; hence one might confess over and over again until the whole penalty is cancelled, nor would he thereby offer any injury to the sacrament" (IV Sent., d. xvii, q. 3, sol. 5 ad 4).在原始的教會唯一明顯的事實供認不諱致命的罪過“(牛,”Exurge Domine“,登青格,”Enchir。“,748)。在憲法”國際cunctas“(1304年2月17號),本篤十一,經說明不一定要重申自己的牧師懺悔懺悔交代了屬於一個宗教秩序的祭司,補充說:“雖然這是沒有必要承認一遍又一遍同樣的罪,但我們把它作為有益的重複的自白,因為它涉及的恥辱,這是一個偉大的苦修,因此,我們嚴格責成兄弟(多米尼加和方濟各會告誡他們的懺悔,並在布道“勸他們,他們承認自己的祭司在每年至少一次,向他們保證,這無疑將有助於他們的精神福利“(登青格,”Enchir。“,470)。聖托馬斯給出了同樣的理由,這種做法更經常承認,更多的是降低(時間)罰,因此可能承認,一次又一次,直到整個的處罰被取消​​,他也不會給予任何傷害的聖事“(四派,四十七,Q 3,溶膠。5個廣告4)。

SATISFACTION滿意度

As stated above, the absolution given by the priest to a penitent who confesses his sins with the proper dispositions remits both the guilt and the eternal punishment (of mortal sin).如上所述,赦免一個懺悔牧師,他承認他的罪,用適當的處置匯款的內疚和永恆的懲罰(彌天大罪)。 There remains, however, some indebtedness to Divine justice which must be cancelled here or hereafter (see PURGATORY).但是,仍然存在,以神聖的正義必須取消或以下的(見煉獄)的一些債務。 In order to have it cancelled here, the penitent receives from his confessor what is usually called his "penance", usually in the form of certain prayers which he is to say, or of certain actions which he is to perform, such as visits to a church, the Stations of the Cross, etc. Alms, deeds, fasting, and prayer are the chief means of satisfaction, but other penitential works may also be enjoined.為了把它取消了在這裡接收從他的懺悔,懺悔什麼通常被稱為他的“懺悔”,通常是在某些祈禱的形式,他說,他是執行某些行動,如訪問有教堂,監測站的十字架,等施捨,事蹟,禁食,並祈禱滿意度的主要手段,但也可能被禁止其他悔罪的作品。 The quality and extent of the penance is determined by the confessor according to the nature of the sins revealed, the special circumstances of the penitent, his liability to relapse, and the need of eradicating evil habits.的質量和程度的懺悔懺悔的罪的性質透露,特殊情況下的懺悔,他的責任復發,消除壞習慣的需要。 Sometimes the penance is such that it may be performed at once; in other cases it may require a more or less considerable period, as, eg, where it is prescribed for each day during a week or a month.有時苦修是這樣的,它可以執行一次,在其他情況下,它可能需要更多或更少的相當的期間,因為,例如,在那裡它被規定的每一天,一個星期或一個月。 But even then the penitent may receive another sacrament (eg, Holy Communion) immediately after confession, since absolution restores him to the state of grace.但即使如此,懺悔,可能會收到其他聖禮(例如,聖餐)後,立即表白,因為赦免恢復他的國家的寬限期。 He is nevertheless under obligation to continue the performance of his penance until it is completed.不過,他也有義務繼續履行他的苦修,直到它完成。

In theological language, this penance is called satisfaction and is defined, in the words of St. Thomas: "The payment of the temporal punishment due on account of the offence committed against God by sin" (Suppl. to Summa, Q. xii, a. 3).在神學語言,這苦修被稱為滿意度和定義,在聖托馬斯的話:“支付的顳處罰,由於考慮所犯的罪行是對上帝的罪”(增刊總結,Q.十二, 。3)。 It is an act of justice whereby the injury done to the honour of God is required, so far at least as the sinner is able to make reparation (poena vindicativa) ; it is also a preventive remedy, inasmuch as it is meant to hinder the further commission of sin (poena medicinalis).它是一種正義的行為,做神的榮耀的傷害是必需的,到目前為止至少罪人能夠作出賠償(無明文不vindicativa),它也是一種預防的補救措施,因為它是阻礙進一步佣金的罪(無明文不為罪醫科大學)。 Satisfaction is not, like contrition and confession, an essential part of the sacrament, because the primary effect, ie, remission of guilt and eternal punishment -- is obtained without satisfaction; but it is an integral part, because it is requisite for obtaining the secondary effect -- ie, remission of the temporal punishment.滿意度不一樣,懺悔和認罪,聖餐的重要組成部分,因為沒有滿意的主要作用,即緩解內疚和永恆的懲罰 - 但它是不可缺少的組成部分,因為它是獲得所需要的二次效應 - 即緩解顳處罰。 The Catholic doctrine on this point is set forth by the Council of Trent, which condemns the proposition: "That the entire punishment is always remitted by God together with the guilt, and the satisfaction required of penitents is no other than faith whereby they believe that Christ has satisfied for them"; and further the proposition: "That the keys were given to the Church for loosing only and not for binding as well; that therefore in enjoining penance on those who confess, priests act contrary to the purpose of the keys and the institution of Christ; that it is a fiction [to say] that after the eternal punishment has been remitted in virtue of the keys, there usually remains to be paid a temporal penalty" (Can. "de Sac. poenit.", 12, 15; Denzinger, "Enchir.", 922, 925).天主教教義在這一點上提出的安理會的遄達,譴責的命題:“整個處罰匯出神的內疚,和滿意的penitents沒有以外的信心,使他們相信,基督已為他們感到滿意“;和進一步的命題:”考慮到教會的關鍵,而不是只為失去的結合,以及在責令懺悔對那些誰承認,因此,牧師的行為相反的目的的關鍵機構的基督,它是虛構的[說],永恆的處罰後,已​​匯憑藉鍵,通常要付出時間的罰款“(Can.”de Sac的。poenit。“ 12,15,登青格,“Enchir。”,922,925)。 As against the errors contained in these statements, the Council (Sess. XIV, c. viii) cites conspicuous examples from Holy Scripture.對這些陳述中所包含的錯誤,會(Sess.十四,第八節)從聖經中列舉了顯著的例子。 The most notable of these is the judgment pronounced upon David: "And Nathan said to David: the Lord also hath taken away thy sin: thou shalt not die. Nevertheless, because thou hast given occasion to the enemies of the Lord to blaspheme, for this thing, the child that is born to thee, shall surely die" (2 Samuel 12:13, 14; cf. Genesis 3:17; Numbers 20:11 sqq.).其中最引人注目的是大衛的宣判:“拿單對大衛說:耶和華也奪去了你的罪,你必不會死,但是,因為你所賜給場合褻瀆主的敵人,這件事情,你的孩子出生,必死“(撒母耳記下12:13,14;創世紀3:17;號20:11分sqq。)。 David's sin was forgiven and yet he had to suffer punishment in the loss of his child.大衛的罪被赦免,但他必須受到懲罰的損失,他的孩子。 The same truth is taught by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 11:32): "But whilst we are judged, we are chastised by the Lord, that we be not condemned with this world".同樣的道理,教聖保羅(哥林多前書11:32):“不過,雖然我們判斷,我們的主懲戒,我們不譴責這個世界”。 The chastisement here mentioned is a temporal punishment, but a punishment unto Salvation.這裡提到的是一個時間的刑罰處罰,但處罰就可以得救。

"Of all the parts of penance", says the Council of Trent (loc. cit.), "satisfaction was constantly recommended to the Christian people by our Fathers". “的所有部件的懺悔”說,安理會的遄達(如上),“滿意度不斷建議的基督教人民,我們的父親”。 This the Reformers themselves admitted.這是改革者自己承認。 Calvin (Instit., III, iv, 38) says he makes little account of what the ancient writings contain in regard to satisfaction because "nearly all whose books are extant went astray on this point or spoke too severely".卡爾文(Instit.,III,IV,38)說,他很少考慮了古代著作包含在滿意度方面,因為“幾乎所有的書,是現存走迷了路在這一點上或說話太嚴重的”。 Chemnitius ("Examen C. Trident.", 4) acknowledges that Tertullian, Cyprian, Ambrose, and Augustine extolled the value of penitential works; and Flacius Illyricus, in the "Centuries", has a long list of Fathers and early writers who, as he admits, bear witness to the doctrine of satisfaction. Chemnitius(“Examen C.三叉戟”,4)承認,良,塞浦路斯,劉漢銓,奧古斯丁吹捧的的悔罪作品價值;在“百年”,Flacius Illyricus,有一長串的父親和早期作家,他承認,見證的學說滿意。 Some of the texts already cited (Confession) expressly mention satisfaction as a part of sacramental penance.一些文本引用(自白)明確提到滿意的一部份聖事的懺悔。 To these may be added St. Augustine, who says that "Man is forced to suffer even after his sins are forgiven, though it was sin that brought down on him this penalty. For the punishment outlasts the guilt, lest the guilt should be thought slight if with its forgiveness the punishment also came to an end" (Tract. cxxiv, "In Joann.", n. 5, in PL, XXXV, 1972); St. Ambrose: "So efficacious is the medicine of penance that [in view of it] God seems to revoke His sentence" ("De poenit.", 1, 2, c. vi, n. 48, in PL, XVI, 509); Caesarius of Arles: "If in tribulation we give not thanks to God nor redeem our faults by good works, we shall be detained in the fire of purgatory until our slightest sins are burned away like wood or straw" (Sermo civ, n. 4).為了這些可能會增加聖奧古斯丁,他說,“人是被迫雪上加霜後,他的罪被赦免,但它是罪,使他這個點球。的的處罰outlasts的內疚,以免被認為有罪輕微的,如果它的寬恕的處罰也來結束“(Tract. CXXI​​V,”喬安“,正5,PL,第三十五卷,1972年),聖劉漢銓:”因此,有效的懺​​悔,是藥[鑑於上帝似乎吊銷他的句子“(”poenit。“,1,2,C。六,N 48,PL,XVI,509); Caesarius的阿爾勒:”如果我們在患難中給予不感謝上帝,也沒有贖回本公司的錯,好作品,我們應當被關押在煉獄之火,直到我們絲毫罪被燒掉,如木材或稻草“(Sermo文明,注4)。 Among the motives for doing penance on which the Fathers most frequently insist is this: If you punish your own sin, God will spare you; but in any case the sin will not go unpunished.其中上最頻繁的父親堅持做懺悔的動機是這樣的:如果你懲罰自己的罪,神會饒你,但在任何情況下的罪惡必將受到懲罰。 Or again they declare that God wants us to perform satisfaction in order that we may clear off our indebtedness to His justice.他們再次宣布,神要我們執行的滿意度,我們可以清除我們的債務,他的公義。 It is therefore with good reason that the earlier councils -- eg, Laodicaea (AD 372) and Carthage IV (397) -- teach that satisfaction is to be imposed on penitents; and the Council of Trent but reiterates the traditional belief and practice when it makes the giving of "penance" obligatory on the confessor.因此,這是有充分理由的(以較早者為準)的議會 - 例如,Laodicaea(公元372)和迦太基IV(397) - 教,滿意的罰款,對懺悔者和安理會的遄達,但重申傳統的信仰和實踐時“贖罪”的懺悔,必須提供。 Hence, too, the practice of granting indulgences, whereby the Church comes to the penitent's assistance and places at his disposal the treasury of Christ's merits.因此,也給予放縱的做法,即教會的懺悔者的援助和地方國庫在他的處置基督的功勞。 Though closely connected with penance, indulgences are not a part of the sacrament; they presuppose confession and absolution, and are properly called an extra-sacramental remission of the temporal punishment incurred by sin.雖然緊密相連的懺悔,贖罪券的聖餐的一部分;他們假定招供,並赦免,並正確地調用了一個額外的聖禮緩解的時間所產生的罪惡的懲罰。 (See INDULGENCES.) (見恕罪。)

SEAL OF CONFESSION SEAL的告白

Regarding the sins revealed to him in sacramental confession, the priest is bound to inviolable secrecy.關於聖招供透露,他的罪,祭司是必然到不可侵犯的保密。 From this obligation he cannot be excused either to save his own life or good name, to save the life of another, to further the ends of human justice, or to avert any public calamity.從這個責任,他不能原諒無論是保存自己的生活還是不錯的名字,另一拯救生命,促進人類正義的兩端,以避免任何公共災難。 No law can compel him to divulge the sins confessed to him, or any oath which he takes -- eg, as a witness in court.沒有法律可以強迫他透露他的罪供認不諱,或任何誓言,他需要 - 例如,在法庭上作為證人。 He cannot reveal them either directly -- ie, by repeating them in so many words -- or indirectly -- ie, by any sign or action, or by giving information based on what he knows through confession.他不能透露他們無論是直接 - 即,通過重複他們在這麼多的話 - 或間接的 - 即任何跡象或行動,或提供信息的基礎上,通過供認,他所知道的。 The only possible release from the obligation of secrecy is the permission to speak of the sins given freely and formally by the penitent himself.唯一可能的釋放保密的義務是允許發言的自由和正式的懺悔自己的罪過。 Without such permission, the violation of the seal of confession would not only be a grievous sin, but also a sacrilege.如果沒有這樣的權限,違反印章的懺悔不僅是一個嚴重的罪,但也是一種褻瀆。 It would be contrary to the natural law because it would be an abuse of the penitent's confidence and an injury, very serious perhaps, to his reputation.這將是違背自然法則,因為這將是一個濫用的懺悔者的信心和受傷,很嚴重,也許,他的名聲。 It would also violate the Divine law, which, while imposing the obligation to confess, likewise forbids the revelation of that which is confessed.這也違反了神聖的法律,而承認強加的義務,同樣禁止的啟示,這是事實供認不諱。 That it would infringe ecclesiastical law is evident from the strict prohibition and the severe penalties enacted in this matter by the Church.違反教會法是顯而易見的,從嚴格的禁止,在這個問題上制定,由教會的嚴厲處罰。 "Let him beware of betraying the sinner by word or sign or in any other way whatsoever. . . we decree that he who dares to reveal a sin made known to him in the tribunal of penance shall not only be deposed from the priestly office, but shall moreover be subjected to close confinement in a monastery and the performance of perpetual penance" (Fourth Lateran Council, cap. xxi; Denzinger, "Enchir.", 438). “讓他的字或符號或以其他任何方式任何提防背叛罪人,我們的法令,他敢於揭示了罪,他在法庭的懺悔不僅被廢黜從祭司的職分,但應當而且受到禁閉在一個修道院和性能永恆的懺悔“(第四次拉特蘭會議,帽。二十一登青格,”Enchir。“,438)。 Furthermore, by a decree of the Holy Office (18 Nov., 1682), confessors are forbidden, even where there would be no revelation direct or indirect, to make any use of the knowledge obtained in confession that would displease the penitent, even though the non-use would occasion him greater displeasure.此外,通過一項法令的神聖辦公室(1682年11月18日),懺悔者是被禁止的,即使會有任何直接或間接的啟示,使任何使用獲得的知識在懺悔,不悅的懺悔者,即使不使用場合他更大的不滿。

These prohibitions, as well as the general obligation of secrecy, apply only to what the confessor learns through confession made as part of the sacrament.這些禁令,以及一般的保密義務,僅適用於什麼懺悔學習,通過供認的聖餐的一部分。 He is not bound by the seal as regards what may be told him by a person who, he is sure, has no intention of making a sacramental confession but merely speaks to him "in confidence"; prudence, however, may impose silence concerning what he learns in this way.他並沒有必然的密封至於什麼可以告訴他一個人,他是肯定的,無意的聖事的供詞,但只是說他“信心”,要採取謹慎態度,但是,可以並處沉默關於什麼他學會了這種方式。 Nor does the obligation of the seal prevent the confessor from speaking of things which he has learned outside confession, though the same things have also been told him in confession; here again, however, other reasons may oblige him to observe secrecy.也沒有義務的密封,防止懺悔說的東西,他了解到外面表白,但同樣的事情也被告知,他在懺悔在這裡再次,然而,其它一些原因可能迫使他保守秘密。 The same obligation, with the limitations indicated, rests upon all those who in one way or another acquire a knowledge of what is said in confession, eg, an interpreter who translates for the priest the words of the penitent, a person who either accidentally or intentionally overhears the confession, an ecclesiastical superior (eg, a bishop) to whom the confessor applies for authorization to absolve the penitent from a reserved case.同樣的義務的局限性,在於呼籲所有那些誰在這種或那種方式獲取知識,在供詞中說的是什麼,例如,一個解釋器轉化為牧師的懺悔的話,一個人是意外或故意偷聽的表白,一個教會上(例如,一個主教)向誰懺悔申請授權免除懺悔,從保留的情況下。 Even the penitent, according to some theologians, is bound to secrecy; but the more general opinion leaves him free; as he can authorize the confessor to speak of what he has confessed, he can also, of his own accord, speak to others.即使是懺悔,根據一些神學家,勢必保密,但更普遍的觀點讓他自由,他可以授權的懺悔說什麼,他已經承認,他也可以,自己的,別人說話。 But he is obliged to take care that what he reveals shall cast no blame or suspicion on the confessor, since the latter cannot defend himself.但他有責任照顧他透露,應投的懺悔,沒有指責或懷疑,因為後者無法為自己辯護。 In a word, it is more in keeping with the intention of the Church and with the reverence due to the sacrament that the penitent himself should refrain from speaking of his confession.總之,它的意圖,教會和與崇敬的聖事,懺悔,自己不應該說他的表白。 Such, undoubtedly, was the motive that prompted St. Leo to condemn the practice of letting the penitent read in public a written statement of his sins (see above); and it needs scarcely be added that the Church, while recognizing the validity of public confession, by no means requires it; as the Council of Trent declares, it would be imprudent to prescribe such a confession by any human enactment.這樣,毫無疑問,是的動機,促使聖利奧譴責的做法,讓懺悔的閱讀公眾的書面聲明,他的罪(見上文);,它幾乎可以被添加,教會,同時也認識到公眾的有效性供述,沒有辦法要求,作為安理會的遄達宣布,這將是輕率的任何人的成文法則,以訂明這樣的表白。 (For provisions of the civil law regarding this matter, see SEAL OF CONFESSION.) (關於此事的民事法律的規定,印章的懺悔。)

PUBLIC PENANCE公開懺悔

An undeniable proof both of the practice of confession and of the necessity of satisfaction is found in the usage of the early Church according to which severe and often prolonged penance was prescribed and performed.一個不可否認的證據中發現的懺悔和實踐的必要性滿意度根據嚴重和經常處方,並進行長時間的懺悔是早期教會使用。 The elaborate system of penance exhibited in the "Penitentials" and conciliar decrees, referred to above, was of course the outcome of a long development; but it simply expressed in greater detail the principles and the general attitude towards sin and satisfaction which had prevailed from the beginning.苦修表現出複雜的系統,在“Penitentials”和conciliar法令,上面提到的,當然是一個長期發展的結果,但它只是表示更詳細的原則和一般罪和滿意的態度戰勝開始。 Frequently enough the latter statutes refer to the earlier practice either in explicit terms or by reiterating what had been enacted long before.常見足夠後者早先的做法在明確或重申很久以前已頒布的法規。 At times, also, they allude to documents which were then extant, but which have not yet come down to us, eg, the libellus mentioned in the African synods of 251 and 255 as containing singula capitum placita, ie, the details of previous legislation (St. Cyprian, Ep. xxi).有時,他們暗示當時現存的,但還沒有下來,我們的文件,例如,在非洲主教會議的251和255提到的libellus,包含的細節,以前的立法,即singula capitum placita (聖塞浦路斯,第二十一集)。 Or again, they point to a system of penance that was already in operation and needed only to be applied to particular cases, like that of the Corinthians to whom Clement of Rome wrote his First Epistle about AD 96, exhorting them: "Be subject in obedience to the priests (presbyteris) and receive discipline [correctionem) unto penance, bending the knees of your hearts" (Ep. I "Ad Cor.", lvii).又或者,他們指出,一個系統的懺悔,已經在操作,而且只需要被應用到特殊情況下,如哥林多前書的人克萊門特的羅馬約公元96年寫了他的第一書信,勸他們:“主題服從到的祭司(presbyteris)和接收紀律[correctionem)對苦修,彎曲的膝蓋你的心“(插曲我”的廣告哥林多前書“,LVII)。 At the close, therefore, of the first century, the performance of penance was required, and the nature of that penance was determined, not by the penitent himself, but by ecclesiastical authority.截至收盤,因此,在第一個世紀,苦修的性能要求,該懺悔的性質決定的,而不是自己的懺悔的​​,但教會的權威。 (See EXCOMMUNICATION.) (見逐出教會。)

Three kinds of penance are to be distinguished canonical, prescribed by councils or bishops in the form of "canons" for graver offences.三種苦修來加以區分的規範,規定由議會或主教更嚴重的罪行“大砲”的形式。 This might be either private, ie, performed secretly or public ie, performed in the presence of bishop, clergy and people.這可能是私人的,即暗中或公開,即執行,執行中存在的主教,神職人員和人民。 When accompanied by certain rites as prescribed in the Canons, it was solemn penance.伴隨著一定的儀式時,在大砲的規定,它是莊嚴的懺悔。 The public penance was not necessarily canonical; it might be undertaken by the penitent of his own accord.公開懺悔不一定是規範的,它可能承擔自己的懺悔,。 Solemn penance, the most severe of all, was inflicted for the worst offences only, notably for adultery, murder, and idolatry, the "capital sins".莊嚴的懺悔,最嚴重的,造成的最嚴重的罪行只,特別是通姦,謀殺,和偶像崇拜,“資本罪”。 The name of penitent was applied especially to those who performed public canonical penance.特別是對那些履行公共規範苦修懺悔的名稱。 "There is a harder and more grievous penance, the doers of which are properly called in the Church penitents; they are excluded from participation in the sacraments of the altar, lest by unworthily receiving they eat and drink judgment unto themselves "(St. Augustine, "De utilitate agendae poenit.", ser. cccxxxii, c. iii). “有一個更硬,更嚴重的懺悔,實干家,這是正常調用在教堂懺悔,他們被排除在參與聖禮的祭壇,以免混跡接收他們吃的,喝你們自己的判斷”(聖奧古斯丁,“utilitate agendae poenit。”,輯cccxxxii,C三)。

The penitential process included a series of acts, the first of which was confession.悔罪的過程包括一系列的行為,其中第一個是表白。 Regarding this, Origen, after speaking of baptism, tells us: "There is a yet more severe and arduous pardon of sins by penance, when the sinner washes his couch with tears, and when he blushes not to disclose his sin to the priest of the Lord and seeks the remedy" (Homil. "In Levit.", ii, 4, in PG, XII, 418).在這方面,俄,說的洗禮後,告訴我們:“有赦免的罪孽懺悔是一種更嚴重的,艱鉅的,當罪人洗他的沙發上,眼淚,而當他臉紅不透露他的罪,祭司的主,並尋求補救辦法“(Homil.”萊維特“,二,四,PG,XII,418)。 Again he says: "They who have sinned, if they hide and retain their sin within their breast, are grievously tormented; but if the sinner becomes his own accuser, while he does this, he discharges the cause of all his malady. Only let him carefully consider to whom he should confess his sin; what is the character of the physician; if he be one who will be weak with the weak, who will weep with the sorrowful, and who understands the discipline of condolence and fellow-feeling. So that when his skill shall be known and his pity felt, you may follow what he shall advise. Should he think your disease to be such that it should be declared in the assembly of the faithful-whereby others may be edified, and yourself easily reformed-this must be done with much deliberation and the skillful advice of the physician" (Homil. "In Ps. xxxvii", n. 6, in PG, XII, 1386).他又說:“他們都犯了罪的人,如果他們隱藏和保留他們的罪,她們的乳房內,甚是疼苦,但如果罪人變成了他自己的原告,而他這樣做的,只有讓他履行他的所有弊病的原因。他仔細考慮他承認他的罪是什麼性格的醫生,如果他是一個誰弱弱,會哭泣,悲哀的,了解本學科的慰問和同胞感。所以,當他的技巧被稱為感覺到他的憐憫,你可以按照他應當告知,如果他認為你的病是這樣的,它應該被宣布在裝配的忠實的,其他人可能會造就,和自己很容易改革後,這必須完成想來想去和熟練的醫師的意見“(Homil.”詩三十七“,正6,PG,XII,1386)。 Origen here states quite plainly the relation between confession and public penance.奧利這裡規定很清楚地懺悔和公眾懺悔之間的關係。 The sinner must first make known his sins to the priest, who will decide whether any further manifestation is called for.罪人必須首先要知道他的罪,給祭司察看,他們將決定是否有進一步的表現被稱為。

Public penance did not necessarily include a public avowal of sin.公開懺悔並沒有必然的公開誓詞的罪。 As St. Augustine also declares, "If his sin is not only grievous in itself, but involves scandal given to others, and if the bishop [antistes] judges that it will be useful to the Church [to have the sin published], let not the sinner refuse to do penance in the sight of many or even of the people at large, let him not resist, nor through shame add to his mortal wound a greater evil" (Sermo cli, n. 3).正如聖奧古斯丁也宣稱,“如果沒有他的罪是嚴重的本身,而是涉及醜聞給別人,而如果主教antistes法官,這將是非常有用的教會[發表的罪,讓沒有看見許多的人,在大,讓他無法抗拒的,也不是通過羞辱他的致命傷,一個更大的邪惡“(Sermo CLI,正3)在做懺悔的罪人拒絕。 It was therefore the duty of the confessor to determine how far the process of penance should go beyond sacramental confession.因此,這是懺悔,以確定多遠的過程中,懺悔應該超越聖招供的義務。 It lay with him also to fix the quality and duration of the penance: "Satisfaction", says Tertullian, "is determined by confession; penance is born of confession, and by penance God is appeased" (De poenit., viii).它躺在他也修復的質量和工期的懺悔:“滿意”,良,說:“是由懺悔,懺悔的懺悔出生,和懺悔,上帝是安撫”(德poenit,八)。 In the East there existed from the earliest times (Sozomen, HE, VII, xvi) or at least from the outbreak of the Novatianist schism (Socrates, HE, V, xix) a functionary known as presbyter penitentiarius, i, e, a priest especially appointed on account of his prudence and reserve to hear confessions and impose public penance.在東方存在著從最早的時候(Sozomen,HE,七,十六),或至少爆發的Novatianist分裂(蘇格拉底,HE,V,十九)的職能被稱為長老penitentiarius,I,E,一個牧師特別是任命他的謹慎和儲備聽到的供述,並處公開懺悔。 If the confessor deemed it necessary, he obliged the penitent to appear before the bishop and his council [presbyterium) and these again decided whether the crime was of such a nature that it ought to be confessed in presence of the people.如果懺悔者認為有必要,他有義務懺悔,之前出現的主教和他的議會presbyterium)而這些又決定犯罪是否具有這樣的性質,它應該承認在場的人。 Then followed, usually on Ash Wednesday, the imposition of public penance whereby the sinner was excluded for a longer or shorter period from the communion of the Church and in addition was obliged to perform certain penitential exercises, the exomologesis.隨後,通常在復活節前的第七個星期三,實施公開懺悔的罪人被排除一個或長或短的時間,從共融的教會,除了必須執行一定的悔罪演習,exomologesis。 This term, however, had various meanings: it designated sometimes the entire process of penance (Tertullian), or again the avowal of sin at the beginning or, finally, the public avowal which was made at the end -- ie, after the performance of the penitential exercises.這個詞,但是,有不同的含義:它指定了有時在開始的整個過程中苦修(良),或再次海誓山盟的罪,或者,最後,的公開誓詞結束時, - 即,之後的表現的悔罪練習。

The nature of these exercises varied according to the sin for which they were prescribed.這些演習的性質不同,按照他們規定的罪。 According to Tertullian (De poenit., IX), "Exomologesis is the discipline which obliges a man to prostrate and humiliate himself and to adopt a manner of life that will draw down mercy. As regards dress and food, it prescribes that he shall lie in sackcloth and ashes, clothe his body in rags, plunge his soul in sorrow, correct his faults by harsh treatment of himself, use the plainest meat and drink for the sake of his soul and not of his belly: usually he shall nourish prayer by fasting, whole days and nights together he shall moan, and weep, and wail to the Lord his God, cast himself at the feet of the priests, fall on his knees before those who are dear to God, and beseech them to plead in his behalf".戴爾都良(德poenit,IX),“Exomologesis的紀律規定,一個人匍匐在羞辱自己,並採取生活的方式,將吸引憐憫。至於衣服和食物,它規定,他應位於披麻蒙灰,穿破爛的衣服,他的身體他的靈魂在悲傷大幅下挫,糾正他的缺點,粗暴對待自己,用最樸素的肉和飲料,為了他的靈魂和他的腹部通常他要養活祈禱禁食,全日日夜夜,他應呻吟,哭泣,哀號耶和華他的神,他自己祭司的腳,落在他的膝蓋以前的那些親愛的上帝,求他們在他的懇求代表“。 At a very early period, the exomologesis was divided into four parts or "stations", and the penitents were grouped in as many different classes according to their progress in penance.在一個非常早期階段,exomologesis分為四個部分,“站”,悔罪者進行分組在許多不同的類,在懺悔自己的進步。 The lower class, the flentes (weeping) remained outside the church door and besought the intercession of the faithful as these passed into the church.在較低的等級,flentes(哭泣)留在外面了教堂的門,懇求代禱,因為這些忠實的傳遞到教堂。 The audientes (hearers) were stationed in the narthex of the church behind the catechumens and were permitted to remain during the Mass of the Catechumens, ie, until the end of the sermon.駐紮在教堂後面的慕道者的前廳的audientes(聽眾),被允許留在群眾的慕道者,也就是說,直到最後的說教。 The substrati (prostrate), or genuflectentes (kneeling), occupied the space between the door and the ambo, where they received the imposition of the bishop's hands or his blessing. substrati(匍匐),或genuflectentes(跪),佔用的空間之間的門,安博,在那裡他們得到實施主教的手或他的祝福。 Finally, the consistentes were so called because they were allowed to hear the whole Mass without communicating, or because they remained at their place while the faithful approached the Holy Table.最後,的consistentes如此命名是因為他們被允許聽到的整體質量不溝通,或因為他們仍然在他們的地方,而忠實的接近神聖的表。 This grouping into stations originated in the East, where at least the three higher groups are mentioned about AD 263 by Gregory Thaumaturgus, and the first or lowest group by St. Basil (Ep. cxcix, e. xxii; ccxvii, c. lvi).這種分組的電台起源於東方,其中至少有三個組提到公元263年由格雷戈里Thaumaturgus,和第一個或最低組聖羅勒(E。二十二插曲cxcix,ccxvii,LVI。) 。 In the West the classification did not exist, or at any rate the different stations were not so clearly marked; the penitents were treated pretty much as the catechumens.在西方的分類不存在,或在任何速度的不同站位沒有清楚地標明;非常的慕道者,悔罪者進行治療。 The exomologesis terminated with the reconciliation, a solemn function which took place on Holy Thursday just before Mass. The bishop presided, assisted by his priests and deacons.終止與和解,這只是發生在聖週四前馬薩諸塞州主教主持的莊嚴功能,協助他的司鐸和執事的exomologesis。 A consultation (concilium) was held to determine which of the penitents deserved readmission; the Penitential Psalms and the litanies were recited at the foot of the altar; the bishop in a brief address reminded the penitents of their obligation to lead henceforth an upright life; the penitents, lighted candles in hand, were then led into the church; prayers, antiphons and responses were said, and, finally, the public absolution was given.舉行的諮詢(concilium)確定的懺悔值得再住院,悔罪的詩篇和背誦禱腳下的祭壇,主教在一個簡短的講話中提醒悔罪者,他們有責任帶領今後一個正直的生活;悔罪者,手持點燃的蠟燭,然後帶領進入教堂祈禱,antiphons和答复說,最後,公眾赦免。 (See Schmitz, "Die Bussbucher u. die Bussdisciplin d. Kirche", Mainz, 1883; Funk in "Kirchenlex.", sv "Bussdisciplin"; Pohle in "Kirchl. Handlex.", sv "Bussdisciplin"; Tixeront, "Hist. des dogmes", Paris, 1905; Eng. tr., St. Louis, 1910.) Regarding the nature of this absolution given by the bishop, various opinions have been put forward. (見施密茨,“模具Bussbucher U。死Bussdisciplin D。KIRCHE”,美因茨,1883年;恐怖在“Kirchenlex。”,SV“Bussdisciplin”; Pohle在“Kirchl。Handlex。”,SV“Bussdisciplin”; Tixeront,“歷史。DES dogmes“,巴黎,1905年;工程TR。,聖路易斯,1910年。)關於赦免由主教的性質,提出了各方面的意見。 According to one view, it was the remission, not of guilt but of the temporal punishment; the guilt had already been remitted by the absolution which the penitent received in confession before he entered on the public penance.有一種觀點認為,這是緩解,而不是內疚,但在時間上的處罰;赦免的​​懺悔者在懺悔,在他進入的公開懺悔的罪孽已經匯出。 This finds support in the fact that the reconciliation could be effected by a deacon in case of necessity and in the absence of a priest, as appears from St. Cyprian (Ep. xviii).這個發現支持的事實的和解可以在必要的情況下,在沒有一個牧師,執事的影響,似乎從聖塞浦路斯(插曲十八)。

Speaking of those who had received libelli from the martyrs he says: "If they are overtaken by illness, they need not wait for our coming, but may make the exomologesis of their sin before any priest, or, if no priest be at hand, and death is imminent, before a deacon, that thus, by the imposition of his hands unto penance, they may come to the Lord with the peace which the martyrs had besought us by letters to grant."說起這些從烈士已經收到libelli的,他說:“,如果他們都化做疾病的,他們不需要等待我們的未來,但他們的罪之前,牧師,或可能使exomologesis,如果沒有牧師就在眼前,死亡是迫在眉睫的,前一個執事,因此,實施對苦修,他的手,他們可以來到主的和平烈士懇求我們用字母授予的。“ On the other hand, the deacon could not give sacramental absolution; consequently, his function in such cases was to absolve the penitent from punishment; and, as he was authorized herein to do what the bishop did by the public absolution, this could not have been sacramental.另一方面,執事不能給聖赦免,因此,在這種情況下,他的作用是免除處罰的懺悔,從和,因為他被授權在此做公眾赦免的主教,這是不可能被聖事。 There is the further consideration that the bishop did not necessarily hear the confessions of those whom he absolved at the time of reconciliation, and moreover the ancient formularies prescribe that at this time a priest shall hear the confession, and that the bishop, after that, shall pronounce absolution.有進一步的考慮,主教並不一定聽到的自白那些人和解的時候,在他開脫,而且古老的處方規定,祭司要在這個時候聽到的表白,和主教,在這之後,應宣布赦免。 But sacramental absolution can be given only by him who hears the confession.但聖赦免,可以只給他所聽到的表白。 And again, the public penance often lasted many years; consequently, if the penitent were not absolved at the beginning, he would have remained during all that time in the state of sin, incapable of meriting anything for heaven by his penitential exercises, and exposed to the danger of sudden death (Pesch, op. cit., p. 110 sq. Cf. Palmieri, op. cit., p. 459; Pignataro, "De disciplina poenitentiali", Rome, 1904, p. 100; Di Dario, "II sacramento della penitenza nei primi secoli del cristianesimo", Naples, 1908, p. 81).再次,公開懺悔往往要持續多年,因此,如果懺悔,不能開脫開始時,他會一直保持在這麼長的時間,在國家的罪過,不能天上的任何東西值得他的悔罪演習,並暴露猝死的危險(佩施,前引書,頁110平方米CF帕爾米耶裡,前引書,第459頁; Pignataro,“disciplina poenitentiali”,羅馬,1904年,第100頁;迪達里奧,“II薩克拉門托德拉penitenza巾幗不讓鬚眉普米族secoli德爾cristianesimo”,那不勒斯,1908年,頁81)。

The writers who hold that the final absolution was sacramental, insist that there is no documentary evidence of a secret confession; that if this had been in existence, the harder way of the public penance would have been abandoned; that the argument from prescription loses its force if the sacramental character of public penance be denied; and that this penance contained all that is required in a sacrament.作家誰持有,最終赦免聖事的,堅持一個秘密的表白,沒有任何書面證據,如果已經存在,更難的公開懺悔的方式將被拋棄的說法,從處方失去了它的力,如果被拒絕的公開懺悔聖事的性質和,這苦修包含了所有的聖禮中所需要的。 (Boudinhon, "Sur l'histoire de la pénitence" in "Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses", II, 1897, p. 306 sq. Cf. Hogan in "Am. Cath. Q. Rev.", July, 1900; Batiffol, "Etudes d'histoire et de theologie positive", Paris, 1902, p. 195 sq.; Vacandard in "Dict. de theol.", sv "Absolution", 156-61; O'Donnell, "Penance in the Early Church", Dublin 1907, p. 95 sq.) While this discussion concerns the practice under ordinary circumstances, it is commonly admitted that sacramental absolution was granted at the time of confession to those who were in danger of death. (Boudinhon,“SUR L'史懺悔”中的“諷刺時事的滑稽劇的故事等文學修女”,II,1897年,第306平方比照。霍根在“我導管。問:牧師”,七月, 1900年Batiffol,“練習曲的歷史與神學積極的”,巴黎,1902年,頁195平方米;,Vacandard在“快譯通。theol的”SV“赦免”,156-61;奧唐奈,“懺悔雖然這個討論涉及的做法,一般情況下,在早期的教會“,都柏林1907年,頁95平方米),它被普遍承認,聖赦免被授予在懺悔的時候,那些誰是在面臨死亡的危險的情況下。 The Church, in fact, did not, in her universal practice, refuse absolution at the last moment even in the case of those who had committed grievous sin.教會,事實上,沒有,在她普遍的做法,拒絕赦免在最後時刻,即使是在那些誰犯了大罪。 St. Leo, writing in 442 to Theodore, Bishop of Fréjus, says: "Neither satisfaction is to be forbidden nor reconciliation denied to those who in time of need and imminent danger implore the aid of penance and then of reconciliation."聖利奧,寫在442西奧多,弗雷瑞斯,主教說:“無論是滿意度是被禁止的,也不和解拒絕那些他們需要的時間和迫在眉睫的危險,懇求援助的懺悔和和解。” After pointing out that penance should not be deferred from day to day until the moment "when there is hardly space either for the confession of the penitent or his reconciliation by the priest"; he adds that even in these circumstances "the action of penance and the grace of communion should not be denied if asked for by the penitent" (Ep. cviii, c. iv,in PL, LIV, 1011).在指出不應該被推遲,苦修每一天直到那一刻才反應過來,“幾乎沒有空間,無論是他的懺悔或和解的牧師”的懺悔,他補充說,即使在​​這種情況下,“行動的懺悔和共融的恩典,不應該被剝奪的懺悔“(插曲CVIII。四,PL,LIV,1011)的要求。 St. Leo states expressly that he was applying the ecclesiastical rule (ecclesiastica regula).聖利奧條明確規定,他將教會的的規則(ecclesiastica法規)。

Shortly before, St. Celestine (428) had expressed his horror at learning that "penance was refused the dying and that the desire of those was not granted who in the hour of death sought this remedy for their soul"; this, he says, is "adding death to death and killing with cruelty the soul that is not absolved" (Letter to the bishops of the provinces of Vienne and Narbonne, c. ii).不久之前,聖聖境(428)學習“贖罪被拒絕垂死的,而那些沒有被授予的願望誰在死亡的時辰尋求這種補救措施為他們的靈魂”,這表達了他的恐怖,他說, “死亡與殘酷的死亡和殺戮的靈魂,是不能開脫”(信主教的省份維埃納省和Narbonne。)。 That such a refusal was not in accordance with the earlier practice is evident from the words of the Council of Nicaea (325): "With respect to the dying, the ancient canonical law shall now also be observed, namely, that if any one depart from this life, he shall by no means be deprived of the last and most necessary viaticum" (can. xiii).這樣的拒絕並沒有按照以往的做法是顯而易見的,從理事會的尼西亞(325)的話:“關於對臨死的,古規範的法律現在也可以觀察到,即如果任何一個出發從這樣的生活,他絕不應被剝奪的最後和最需要的viaticum“(can.十三)。 If the dying person could receive the Eucharist, absolution certainly could not be denied.如果死的人能接受聖體,赦免當然不能否認。 If at times greater severity seems to be shown, this consisted in the refusal, not of absolution but of communion; such was the penalty prescribed by the Council of Elvira (306) for those who after baptism had fallen into idolatry.如果更嚴重,有時似乎顯示,包括拒絕,而不是赦免,但共融,這樣的洗禮後,已經陷入偶像崇拜的埃爾維拉(306)由理事會訂明的刑罰。 The same is true of the canon (22) of the Council of Arles (314) which enacts that communion shall not be given to "those who apostatize, but never appear before the Church, nor even seek to do penance, and yet afterwards, when attacked by illness, request communion".同樣是真正的佳能理事會阿爾勒(22)(314)負責制定交流,不得給予“那些人背道,但從來沒有出現之前,教會,甚至也不尋求做懺悔,但後來,當受到攻擊時生病,要求共融“。 The council lays stress on the lack of proper disposition in such sinners, as does also St. Cyprian when he forbids that they who "do no penance nor manifest heartfelt sorrow" be admitted to communion and peace if in illness and danger they ask for it; for what prompts them to seek (communion] is, not repentance for their sin, but the fear of approaching death" (Ep. ad Antonianum, n. 23).理事會強調在缺乏適當的配置在這樣的罪人,也一樣聖塞浦路斯時,他禁止他們“沒有懺悔,也沒有明顯發自內心的悲傷”被承認的共融與和平,如果在疾病和危險,他們所要求的是什麼促使他們尋求(聖餐是,不悔改自己的罪,但接近死亡的恐懼“(插曲廣告Antonianum,注23)。

A further evidence of the severity with which public penance, and especially its solemn form, was administered is the fact that it could be performed only once.嚴重性與公眾懺悔,特別是它的莊嚴的形式,是管理的另一個證據是事實,即它可以只執行一次。 This is evident from some of the texts quoted above (Tertullian, Hermas).這是顯而易見的,從上面引述的一些文本(良,黑馬)。 Origen also says: "For the graver crimes, there is only one opportunity of penance" (Hom. xv, "In Levit.", c. ii); and St. Ambrose: "As there is one baptism so there is one penance, which, however, is performed publicly" (De poenit., II, c. x, n. 95).奧利也說:“對於嚴重的犯罪,是只有一次機會的懺悔”(XV Hom. 3時,“萊維特。”,。)和聖劉漢銓:“有一個洗禮,所以有一個苦修,其中,然而,進行公開“(德poenit,II角第x,正95)。 St. Augustine gives the reason: "Although, by a wise and salutary provision, opportunity for performing that humblest kind of penance is granted but once in the Church, lest the remedy, become common, should be less efficacious for the sick . . . yet who will dare to say to God: Wherefore dost thou once more spare this man who after a first penance has again bound himself in the fetters of sin?"聖奧古斯丁給出的理由:“雖然,一個明智的和有益的規定,已授出但有一次在教堂表演,卑微的一種懺悔的機會,以免補救措施,成為共同的,應該是有效的為病人...但誰還敢對神說:除此以外,你為什麼再一次放過這個男人誰再次綁定後的第一懺悔自己的罪的羈絆?“ (Ep. cliii, "Ad Macedonium"). (插曲CLIII,“的廣告Macedonium”)。 It may well be admitted that the discipline of the earliest days was rigorous, and that in some Churches or by individual bishops it was carried to extremes.很可能被承認的最早的天是嚴格的紀律,在一些教會或個別主教進行了極端的。 This is plainly stated by Pope St. Innocent (405) in his letter (Ep. vi, c. ii) to Exuperius, Bishop of Toulouse.這顯然是教宗聖無辜的(405)所指出的,在他的信(插曲六,II。)為Exuperius,主教圖盧茲。

The question had been raised as to what should be done with those who, after a lifetime of licentious indulgence, begged at the end for penance and communion.這個問題已經提出應該做些什麼的人,一生的荒淫放縱後的懺悔和交流,求。 "Regarding these", writes the pope, "the earlier practice was more severe, the later more tempered with mercy. The former custom was that penance should be granted, but communion denied; for in those times persecutions were frequent, hence, lest the easy admission to communion should fail to bring back from their evil ways men who were sure of reconciliation, very rightly communion was refused, while penance was granted in order that the refusal might not be total. . . . But after Our Lord had restored peace to his Churches, and terror had ceased, it was judged well that communion be given the dying lest we should seem to follow the harshness and sternness of the heretic Novatian in denying pardon. Communion, therefore, shall be given at the last along with penance, that these men, if only in the supreme moment of death, may, with the permission of Our Saviour, be rescued from eternal destruction." “關於這些,寫的教宗,”早先的做法是更嚴重的,後來更多的鍛煉與憐憫。是苦修應該給予前者的習俗,但共融否認,在那個時代迫害頻繁,因此,免得容易進入共融失敗帶回離他們的惡行確保和解的人,非常正確地交流被拒絕,而懺悔是為了授予,拒絕可能不是總......但在我們的主已經恢復和平他的教會,和恐怖活動已經停止,判斷,以及給予交流死,免得我們似乎應該遵循的苛刻和嚴厲,拒絕赦免的邪教諾瓦蒂安的。因此,聖餐,應在最後一起苦修這些人,如果只在死亡的最高時刻,可我們的救世主的許可,被救出永恆的毀滅。“

The mitigation of public penance which this passage indicates continued throughout the subsequent period, especially the Middle Ages.這段話表明繼續進行隨後的時期,尤其是中世紀的公開懺悔的緩解。 The office of poenitentiarius had already (390) been abolished in the East by Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, in consequence of a scandal that grew out of public confession.辦公室poenitentiarius已經(390)被取消在東聶斯脫裡,君士坦丁堡牧首,在結果的醜聞公開承認的增長。 Soon afterwards, the four "stations" disappeared, and public penance fell into disuse.不久之後,的四個“站”消失,並公開懺悔落入廢棄。 ln the West it underwent a more gradual transformation.在西方,經歷了一個漸進的轉變。 Excommunication continued in use, and the interdict was frequently resorted to.逐出教會繼續使用,禁令頻頻使出。 The performance of penance was left in large measure to the zeal and good will of the penitent; increasing clemency was shown by allowing the reconciliation to take place somewhat before the prescribed time was completed; and the practice was introduced of commuting the enjoined penance into other exercises or works of piety, such as prayer and almsgiving.的表現懺悔的懺悔的熱情和良好的意願留在很大程度上增加的赦免,表現出和解發生,有些在規定的時間前完成;引入和實踐上下班責成懺悔到其他演習或工作的虔誠,如祈禱和施捨。 According to a decree of the Council of Clermont (1095), those who joined a crusade were freed from all obligation in the matter of penance.根據克萊蒙特會議(1095年)的一項法令,加入了十字軍東征的懺悔,在這個問題上的一切義務中解脫出來。 Finally it became customary to let the reconciliation follow immediately after confession.最後,它成了習慣,讓和解後,立即招供。 With these modifications the ancient usage had practically disappeared by the middle of the sixteenth century.通過這些修改,中間的16世紀古老的用法實際上已經消失。 Some attempts were made to revive it after the Council of Trent, but these were isolated and of short duration.進行了一些嘗試復甦後的安理會的遄達,但這些孤立的和短暫的。 (See INDULGENCES.) (見恕罪。)

IN THE BRITISH AND IRISH CHURCHES在英國和愛爾蘭教會

The penitential system in these countries was established simultaneously with the introduction of Christianity, was rapidly developed by episcopal decrees and synodal enactments, and was reduced to definite form in the Penitentials.的悔罪系統在這些國家同時建立與基督教的引進,迅速發展起來的主教法令和主教會議的成文法則,並減少到一定的形式在Penitentials。 These books exerted such an influence on the practice in Continental Europe that, according to one opinion, they "first brought order and unity into ecclesiastical discipline in these matters" (Wasserschleben, "Bussordnungen d. abendlandischen Kirche", Halle, 1851, p. 4. -- For a different view see Schmitz, "Die Bussbucher u. die Bussdisciplin d. Kirche", Mainz, 1888, p. 187).這些書產生這種影響在歐洲大陸上的做法,一種意見認為,“首先帶來秩序和團結教會的紀律在這些事情上”(Wasserschleben,“Bussordnungen。abendlandischen KIRCHE”,哈雷,1851年,頁。 4 - 不同的看法,請參閱施密茨,“模具Bussbucher U。死Bussdisciplin D。KIRCHE”,美因茨,1888年,第187頁)。 In any case, it is beyond question that in their belief and practice the Churches of Ireland, England, and Scotland were at one with Rome.在任何情況下,這是毫無疑問的,在自己的信仰和實踐,愛爾蘭,英格蘭和蘇格蘭的教會在與羅馬。

The so-called Synod of St. Patrick decrees that a Christian who commits any of the capital sins shall perform a year's penance for each offence and at the end shall "come with witnesses and be absolved by the priest" (Wilkins, "Concilia", I, p. 3).所謂的聖帕特里克主教會議的法令,基督徒犯的資本罪,應執行一年的每項罪行懺悔,並在年底應“與證人和可以免除由牧師”(威爾金斯,“Concilia” ,I,第3頁)。 Another synod of St. Patrick ordains that "the Abbot shall decide to whom the power of binding and loosing be committed, but forgiveness is more in keeping with the examples of Scripture; let penance be short, with weeping and lamentation, and a mournful garb, rather than long and tempered with relaxations "(Wilkins, ibid., p. 4).主教的聖帕特里克節注定,“方丈決定約束力和鬆動犯的力量,但寬恕是更符合聖經的例子,讓苦修很短,哭泣和哀嘆和悲傷的外衣,而不是長期和鍛煉與鬆弛“(威爾金斯,同上,第4)。 For various opinions regarding the date and origin of the synods, see Haddan and Stubbs, "Councils", II, 331; Bury, "Life of St. Patrick", London, 1905.對於各種意見的主教會議的日期和產地信息,請參閱Haddan及司徒拔,“議會”,II,331;收回“爛”,“聖帕特里克”,倫敦,1905年的生活。 The confessor was called anmchara (animae carus), ie, "soul's friend".的懺悔被稱為anmchara的(animae卡魯斯),即“靈魂的朋友”。 St. Columba was anmchara to Aidan, Lord of Dalraida, AD 574 (Adamnan's "Life of St. Columba", ed. Reeves, p. lxxvi); and Adamnan was "soul's friend" to Finnsnechta, Monarch of Ireland, AD 675 (ibid., p. xliii).聖科倫巴anmchara到,AD 574(阿達姆南的“生命聖科倫巴”,里夫斯版,第LXXVI)艾丹,上帝的Dalraida;阿達姆南是“靈魂的朋友”Finnsnechta,君主愛爾蘭,公元675(同上,頁四十三)。 The "Life of St. Columba" relates the coming of Feachnaus to Iona, where, with weeping and lamentation, he fell at Columba's feet and "before all who were present confessed his sins. “生命的聖科倫巴”涉及的到來Feachnaus到IONA的,在那裡,哭泣和哀嘆,他倒在鴿的腳“之前,所有在場的人承認自己的罪。

Then the Saint weeping with him, said to him: 'Arise, my son and be comforted; thy sins which thou hast committed are forgiven; because, as it is written, a contrite and humble heart God doth not despise,'" (ibid., I, 30). The need and effects of confession are explained in the Leabhar Breac: "Penance frees from all the sins committed after baptism.然後聖與他哭泣,他說:“起來,我的兒子和安慰,你的罪被赦免你所承諾的,因為它寫的是一個痛悔和謙卑的心,神所不鄙視,”(同上解釋的必要性和效果的告白,I,30)。在Leabhar Breac:“的懺悔釋放的洗禮後,從所有的罪。 Every one desirous of a cure for his soul and happiness with the Lord must make an humble and sorrowful confession; and the confession with the prayers of the Church are as baptisms to him.與主為他的靈魂和幸福的一種治療方法,每一個渴望必須謙卑和悲哀的的告白;和懺悔與祈禱的教會是他的洗禮。 As sickness injures the body, so sin injures the soul; and as there is a cure for the disease of the body, so there is balm for that of the soul.由於疾病傷害身體,所以罪傷害的靈魂;和有一個治愈的疾病的身體,這樣有唇膏的靈魂。 And as the wounds of the body are shown to a physician, so, too, the sores of the soul must be exposed.醫生證明身體的創傷,因此,太,的瘡的靈魂必須被暴露出來。 As he who takes poison is saved by a vomit, so, too, the soul is healed by confession and declaration of his sins with sorrow, and by the prayers of the Church, and a determination henceforth to observe the laws of the Church of God.當他需要毒藥的人的嘔吐物保存,因此,太,靈魂治愈了他的罪與悲傷的告白和聲明,並祈禱的教會,並決定從今以後遵守法律的上帝的教會。 . . . Because Christ left to His Apostles and Church, to the end of the world, the power of loosing and binding."因為基督留給他的門徒和教會,到年底的世界,鬆動和有約束力的力量。“

That confession was required before Communion is evident from the penitential ascribed to St. Columbanus, which orders (can. xxx) "that confessions be given with all diligence, especially concerning commotions of the mind, before going to Mass, lest perchance any one approach the altar unworthily, that is, if he have not a clean heart. For it is better to wait till the heart be sound and free from scandal and envy, than daringly to approach the judgment of the tribunal; for the altar is the tribunal of Christ, and His Body, even there with His Blood, judges those who approach unworthily. As, therefore, we must beware of capital sins before communicating, so, also, from the more uncertain defects and diseases of a languid soul, it is necessary for us to abstain and to be cleansed before going to that which is a conjunction with true peace and a joining with eternal salvation".這表白之前,必須聖餐是顯而易見的,從悔罪所賦予的訂單“(can. XXX)的供詞與所有的努力,特別是關於騷亂的頭腦之前,要質量,以免或許任何一種方法,聖倫巴努壇混跡,也就是說,如果他有不乾淨的心,因為這是更好的等待,直到心的聲音和自由的從醜聞和羨慕,大膽地接近法庭判決的壇是法庭基督,他的身體,甚至還出現了他的血,法官那些誰接近不相稱。,因此,我們必須提防的資本罪通訊之前,因此,也從一個慵懶的靈魂更不明朗的缺陷和疾病,它是必要的我們放棄和清洗前要與真正的和平和加入永恆的救贖“這是一個結合。 In the "Life of St. Maedoc of Ferns" it is said of the murdered King Brandubh: "And so he departed without confession and the communication of the Eucharist."在“生命的聖Maedoc蕨類植物”,是說的被謀殺國王Brandubh:“讓他離開沒有懺悔和聖體聖事的通信。” But the saint restored him to life for a while, and then, "having made his confession and received absolution and the viaticum of the Body of Christ, King Brandubh went to heaven, and was interred in the city of St. Maedoc which is called Ferns, where the kings of that land are buried" (Acta SS. Hib., col. 482).但聖人恢復了他生活了一段時間,然後,“他的供詞,並獲得赦免和viaticum基督的身體,王Brandubh去了天堂,而被埋葬在聖Maedoc市被稱為蕨類植物,其中的君王,土地被埋葬“(SS。學報乙型流感嗜血桿菌。,山坳。482)。

The metrical "Rule of St. Carthach", translated by Eugene O'Curry, gives this direction to the priest: "If you go to give communion at the awful point of death, you must receive confession without shame, without reserve."的格律“規則聖Carthach”,翻譯的尤金O'Curry,給這個方向的祭司:“如果你去給共融可怕的死亡,你必須接受表白毫無羞恥,毫無保留。” In the prayer for giving communion to the sick (Corpus Christi Missal) we read: "O God, who hast willed that sins should be forgiven by the imposition of the hands of the priest . . ."在給生病的(科珀斯克里斯蒂彌撒)聖餐的祈禱中,我們讀到:“上帝啊,竟任性,就得赦免的祭司手中的實施......” and then follows the absolution: "We absolve thee as representatives of blessed Peter, Prince of the Apostles, to whom the Lord gave the power of binding and loosing."然後跟隨赦免:“我們免除你的祝福彼得王子的使徒,主給的權力的約束力和鬆動的代表。” That confession was regularly a part of the preparation for death is attested by the Council of Cashel (1172) which commands the faithful in case of illness to make their will "in the presence of their confessor and neighbours", and prescribes that to those who die "with a good confession" due tribute shall be paid in the form of Masses and burial (can. vi, vii).定期供認死亡的準備工作的一部分,由理事會卡瑟爾(1172),該命令在生病的情況下,在他們的懺悔和鄰居“的存在,使他們的意志”的忠實證明,並規定,那些誰具有良好的自白“應有的敬意,須繳付的質量和埋葬的形式(can.六,七)死”。

The practice of public penance was regulated in great detail by the Penitenitials.公開懺悔的做法,調節非常詳細的Penitenitials的。 That of St. Cummian prescribes that "if any priest refuses penance to the dying, he is guilty of the loss of their souls . . . for there can be true conversion at the last moment, since God has regard not of time alone, but of the heart also, and the thief gained Paradise in the last hour of his confession" (C. xiv, 2).這聖Cummian規定,“如果任何教士拒絕懺悔,垂死的,他是有罪的損失,他們的靈魂在最後時刻因為有可能是真實的轉換,因為上帝單獨考慮的時間,但的心,所取得的小偷天堂在最後一個小時,他的懺悔“(C.十四,2)。 Other Penitentials bear the names of St. Finnian, Sts.其他Penitentials承擔的聖Finnian,STS的名字。 David and Gildas, St. Columbanus, Adamnan.大衛和吉爾達斯,聖倫巴努,阿達姆南。 The collection of canons known as the "Hibernensis" is especially important, as it cites, under the head of "Penance" (bk. XLVII), the teaching of St. Augustine, St. Jerome, and other Fathers, thus showing the continuity of the Irish faith and observance with that of the early Church.收集的大砲被稱為“Hibernensis”是特別重要的,因為它引用了,“贖罪”(墨子·經上XLVII),教學,圣杰羅姆,聖奧古斯丁和其他父親的頭下,因此表現出的連續性的愛爾蘭早期教會的信仰和遵守。 (See Lanigan, "Eccl. Hist. of Ireland", Dublin, 1829; Moran, "Essays on the Early Irish Church", Dublin, 1864; Malone, "Church Hist. of Ireland", Dublin, 1880; Warren, "The Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic Church", Oxford, 1881; Salmon, "The Ancient Irish Church", Dublin, 1897.) (見Lanigan,“傳道書。歷史。”愛爾蘭,都柏林,1829年莫蘭,“散文早期的愛爾蘭教會”,都柏林,1864年,馬龍,“教會歷史。”愛爾蘭,都柏林,1880年,沃倫“凱爾特教會“,牛津大學,1881年鮭魚,禮儀和儀式的”古代愛爾蘭教會“,都柏林,1897年)。

IN THE ANGLO-SAXON CHURCH在盎格魯 - 撒克遜教會

In the Anglo-Saxon Church penance was called behreowsung, from the verb hreowan, whence our word "to rue".在盎格魯 - 撒克遜教會苦修被稱為behreowsung,從的動詞hreowan的,何處,我們的“後悔”字。 The confessor was the scrift; confession, scrift spraec; and the parish itself was the scriftscir, ie, "confession district" -- a term which shows plainly the close relation between confession and the work of religion in general.是scrift的懺悔,懺悔,scrift spraec;,和教區本身的scriftscir,即“告白區” - 一個術語,這表明清楚地懺悔和宗教工作中的密切關係。 The practice in England can be traced back to the times immediately following the country's conversion.英國的實踐可以追溯到緊隨時代的轉換。 Ven.法師。 Bede (HE, IV, 23 [25]) gives the story of Adamnan, an Irish monk of the seventh century, who belonged to the monastery of Coldingham, England.比德(HE,IV,23 [25])給出的阿達姆南,七世紀,屬於修道院的科爾丁厄姆,英國的愛爾蘭修士的故事。 In his youth, having committed some sin, he went to a priest, confessed, and was given a penance to be performed until the priest should return.在他的青年時期,犯了罪,他去了一個牧師,事實供認不諱,並給出了苦修執行,直到牧師應該返回。 But the priest went to Ireland and died there, and Adamnan continued his penance to the end of his days.但去愛爾蘭的祭司,死在那裡,和阿達姆南繼續他的懺悔,他的日子的結束。 When St. Cuthbert (635-87) on his missionary tours preached to the people, "they all confessed openly what they had done, . . . and what they confessed they expiated; as he commanded them, by worthy fruits of penance" (Bede, op. cit., IV, 25).當聖·庫斯伯特(635-87)傳福音的人對他的傳教之旅,“他們都交代了公開他們做了什麼,...,他們承認,他們贖,他吩咐他們的,有價值的成果,苦修”(比德,前引書,四,25)。 Alcuin (735-804) declares that "without confession there is no pardon" (PL, C, 337); that "he who accuses himself of his sins will not have the devil for an accuser in the day of judgment" (PL, CI, 621); that "he who conceals his sins and is ashamed to make wholesome confession, has God as witness now and will have him again as avenger" (ibid., 622).阿爾昆(735-804)宣稱:“沒有表白有沒有赦免”(PL,C,337);,“他指責自己的人,他的罪原告在審判的日子,不會有魔鬼”(PL, CI,621);說:“他從不隱瞞他的罪,是羞愧,使健康的表白,有上帝的見證現在,他再次復仇者”(同上,622)。 Lanfranc (1005-89) has a treatise, "De celunda confessione", ie, on keeping confession secret, in which he rebukes those who give the slightest intimation of what they have heard in confession (PL, CL, 626).蘭弗朗克(一零零五年至1089年)的一篇論文,“celunda confessione”,即,保持告白秘密,他責備那些誰給他們所聽到的懺悔(PL 626),CL,絲毫暗示的。

The penitentials were known as scrift bocs.被稱為“penitentials scrift房屋所有權證。 The one attributed to Archbishop Theodore (602-90) says: "The deacon is not allowed to impose penance on a layman; this should be done by the bishop or priests" (bk. II, 2): and further; "According to the canons, penitents should not receive communion until their penance is completed; but we, for mercy's sake, allow them to receive at the end of a year or six months" (I, 12).一個大主教西奧多(602-90)說:“執事不允許強加懺悔一個門外漢,這應該是由主教或神父”(墨子·經II,2),並進一步根據的大砲,懺悔不應該接受聖餐,直到完成他們的懺悔,但我們憐憫的緣故,讓他們接受一年或半年結束時的“(I,12)。 An important statement is that "public reconciliation is not established in this province, for the reason that there is no public penance"- which shows that the minute prescriptions contained in the penitential were meant for the guidance of the priest in giving penance privately, ie, in confession.一個重要的聲明是“公共和解不成立的這個省的原因是沒有公開懺悔” - 這表明,在苦修私人,即是牧師的指導分鐘的處方中包含的懺悔,在懺悔。 Among the excerptiones, or extracts, from the canons which bear the name of Archbishop Egbert of York (d. 766), canon xlvi says that the bishop shall hear no cause without the presence of his clergy, except in case of confession (Wilkins, "Concilia", I, 104).在的excerptiones,或提取,從大砲承擔的名稱是約克大主教埃格伯(卒於766年),佳能四十六說,主教應沒有聽到他的僧侶不存在的原因,除供述的情況下(威爾金斯, “Concilia”,I,104)。 His Penitential prescribes (IX) that "a bishop or priest shall not refuse confession to those who desire it, though they be guilty of many sins" (ibid., 126).他的悔罪規定(IX),“主教或神父不得拒絕供認那些誰想要它,雖然他們犯了許多的罪”(同上,126)。 The Council of Chalcuth (AD 787): "If any one depart this life without penance or confession, he shall not be prayed for" (can. xx).理事會Chalcuth(公元787年):“如果有任何人離開人世,沒有懺悔或懺悔,他不得祈禱”(can. XX)。 The canons published under King Edgar (960) have a special section "On Confession which begins: "When one wishes to confess his sins, let him act manfully, and not be ashamed to confess his misdeeds and crimes, accusing himself; because hence comes pardon, and because without confession there is no pardon; confession heals; confession justifies" (ibid., 229). The Council of Eanham (1009): "Let every Christian do as behooves him, strictly keep his Christianity, accustom himself to frequent confession, fearlessly confess his sins, and carefully make amends according as he is directed" (can. xvii, Wilkins, ibid., 289). Among the ecclesiastical laws enacted (1033) by King Canute, we find this exhortation: "Let us with all diligence turn back from our sins, and let us each confess our sins to our confessor, and ever [after] refrain from evil-doing and mend our ways" (XVIII, Wilkins, ibid., 303).該炮有一個特殊的部分“懺悔開始的:”當一個人願意承認他的罪,讓他勇敢地採取行動,而不是羞於承認他的劣跡和罪行,指責自己的國王埃德加(960)公佈,因為由此而來原諒,因為沒有表白,沒有赦免;表白癒合;供述證明“(同上,229)。理事會Eanham(1009):”讓每一個基督徒理應他,謹守他的基督教信仰,習慣自己頻繁供述,無畏地承認自己的罪,並小心地將功補照他的指示“(can.十七,威爾金斯,同上,289)。在教會制定的法律(1033)國王克努特,我們覺得這是勸勉:”讓我們回頭所有的努力從我們的罪,讓我們每個人都承認我們的罪,我們的懺悔,和以往任何時候[後]不要邪惡和修補辦法“(XVIII,威爾金斯,同上,303)。

The Council of Durham (c. 1220): "How necessary is the sacrament of penance, those words of the Gospel prove: Whose sins, etc. . . . But since we obtain the pardon of our sins by true confession, we prescribe in accordance with the canonical statutes that the priest in giving penance shall carefully consider the amount of the penance, the quality of the sin, the place, time, cause, duration and other circumstances of the sin; and especially the devotion of the penitent and the signs of contrition."理事會達勒姆(約1220):“需要做的就是聖事的懺悔,那些話的福音證明:誰的罪過,等等......但是,獲得赦免我們的罪,因為我們的真情告白,我們規定給苦修,應認真考慮,牧師懺悔的罪,質量,地點,時間,原因,時間及其他情況的罪量按照規範的法規,特別是奉獻的懺悔和悔悟的跡象。“ Similar directions are given by the Council of Oxford (1222), which adds after various admonitions: "Let no priest dare, either out of anger or even through fear of death, to reveal the confession of anyone by word or sign . . . and should he be convicted of doing this he ought deservedly to be degraded without hope of relaxation" (Wilkins, ibid., 595).類似的方向由理事會牛津大學(1222),後增加的各種告誡:“我們沒有牧師,無論是出於憤怒,甚至通過對死亡的恐懼,敢字或符號透露任何人的自白...應該被定罪,他這樣做,他應該當之無愧地被降解沒有希望的放鬆“(威爾金斯,同上,595)。 The Scottish Council (c. 1227) repeats these injunctions and prescribes "that once a year the faithful shall confess all their sins either to their own [parish] priest or, with his permission, to some other priest" (can. lvii).蘇格蘭議會(約1227年)重複這些禁令和規定“,每年一次的忠誠應承認他們的罪自己的教區]牧師,或者在他的許可,其他一些牧師”(can.第五十七)。 Explicit instructions for the confessor are found in the statutes of Alexander, Bishop of Coventry (1237), especially in regard to the manner of questioning the penitent and enjoining penance.明確說明的懺悔中發現的章程,考文垂主教亞歷山大(1237),尤其是在關於質疑的懺悔,並責令苦修的方式。 The Council of Lambeth (1261) declares: "Since the sacrament of confession and penance, the second plank after shipwreck, the last part of man's seafaring, the final refuge, is for every sinner most necessary unto salvation, we strictly forbid, under pain of excommunication, that anyone should presume to hinder the free administration of this sacrament to each who asks for it" (Wilkins, ibid., 754).該委員會的蘭貝斯(1261)宣稱:“由於聖餐的懺悔和苦修的第二板後,沉船的最後一部分人的航海,在最後的避難所,是每一個罪人,最必要的,要救的,我們嚴格禁止,痛下逐出教會的,任何人都應該相信,這聖餐阻礙自由管理的每個要求“(威爾金斯,同上,754)。

To give some idea of the ancient discipline, the penalties attached to graver crimes are cited here from the English and Irish Penitentials.為了讓一些想法,古老的學科,更嚴重的犯罪懲罰的引用在這裡英國和愛爾蘭Penitentials。 For stealing, Cummian prescribes that a layman shall do one year of penance; a cleric, two; a subdeacon three; a deacon, four; a priest, five; a bishop, six.盜竊,Cummian規定,一個門外漢做一年的苦修,一個牧師,一個副執事三,執事,四,牧師,五,主教,6。 For murder or perjury, the penance lasted three, five, six, seven, ten or twelve years according to the criminal's rank.對於謀殺罪或偽證罪,懺悔持續了三,五,六,七,十或十二年根據犯罪的排名。 Theodore commands that if any one leave the Catholic Church, join the heretics, and induce others to do the same, he shall, in case he repent, do penance for twelve years.西奧多命令,如果任何人離開了天主教教會,加入異端,並誘使他人做同樣的,他,如果他懺悔,懺悔十二年。 For the perjurer who swears by the Church, the Gospel, or the relics of the saints, Egbert prescribes seven or eleven years of penance.埃格伯特對於作偽證的教會,福音,或在聖徒的遺物發誓,規定七,十多年的苦修。 Usury entailed three years; infanticide, fifteen; idolatry or demon-worship, ten.高利貸entailed三年;女嬰,15,偶像崇拜或惡魔崇拜,10。 Violations of the sixth commandment were punished with great severity; the penance varied, according to the nature of the sin, from three to fifteen years, the extreme penalty being prescribed for incest, ie, fifteen to twenty-five years.違反第六誡被處以極嚴重的的苦修變化,根據性質的罪,從三到十五年中,極端的刑罰規定亂倫,即15到25年。 Whatever its duration, the penance included fasting on bread and water, either for the whole period or for a specified portion.不管它的持續時間,懺悔包括麵包和水禁食,無論是在整個期間或指定的部分。 Those who could not fast were obliged instead to recite daily a certain number of psalms, to give alms, take the discipline (scourging) or perform some other penitential exercise as determined by the confessor.誰也快了責任,而不是每天背誦一定數量的詩篇,施捨,採取的紀律(鞭打),或執行一些其他的悔罪運動所確定的懺悔。 (See Lingard, "Hist. and Antiq. of the Anglo-Saxon Church", London, 1845; Thurston, "Confession in England before the Conquest" in "The Tablet", February and March, 1905.) (林加德,“歷史。Antiq酒店的盎格魯 - 撒克遜人的教會”,倫敦,1845年,瑟斯頓,“懺悔征服”,“平板”,二月,三月,1905年,在英格蘭前)。

CONFESSION IN THE ANGLICAN CHURCH英國國教的教堂懺悔

In the Anglican Church, according to the rule laid down in the "Prayer Book", there is a general confession prescribed for morning and evening Service, also for Holy Communion; this confession is followed by a general absolution like the one in use in the Catholic Church.在聖公會,根據“祈禱書”中所定下的規則,一般早上和晚上服務,也為聖餐規定的供詞,供認其次是像一個在使用中的一般赦免天主教會​​。 Also in the "Prayer Book" confession is counselled for the quieting of conscience and for the good that comes from absolution and the peace that arises from the fatherly direction of the minister of God.此外,在“祈禱書”懺悔是輔導,為平息良知和良好的赦免和來自神的用人,慈父方向的和平。 There is also mention of private confession in the office for the sick: "Here shall the sick person be moved to make a special confession of his sins if he feel his conscience troubled with any weighty matter. After which the priest shall absolve him (if he humbly and heartily desire it) after this sort: 'Our Lord Jesus Christ, who has left the power to his Church' etc."也有在辦公室裡為病人提的私人不打自招:“在這裡生病的人被轉移到一個特殊的供認了他的罪,如果他覺得他的良心不安與任何有份量的問題。祭司後,應免除他(他謙虛地並衷心希望)後這種:“我們的主耶穌基督,誰留下的權力,他的教會”等。“ Since the beginning of the Oxford Movement confession after the manner practised in the Catholic Church has become more frequent among those of the High Church party.年初以來的牛津運動表白後,在那些高教會黨的方式實行天主教會變得更加頻繁。 In 1873 a petition was sent to the Convocation of the Archdiocese of Canterbury asking provision for the education and authorization of priests for the work of the confessional.在1873年發出了一份請願書,要求提供的教育和工作的懺悔神父授權的坎特伯雷大主教管區評議會的。 In the joint letter of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York disapprobation of such course was markedly expressed and the determination not to encourage the practice of private confession openly avowed.在坎特伯雷和約克大主教的聯名信非難這樣的過程中顯著表達,並決心不鼓勵私人不打自招的做法,公開宣稱的。 The Puseyites replied citing the authority of the "Prayer Book" as given above.援引權威的“祈禱書”,上面給出的Puseyites回答。 In our time among the High Church folk one notices confessionals in the churches and one hears of discourses made to the people enjoining confession as a necessity to pardon.在我們的時代之間的高教會民間一個告示懺悔的教堂和聽到的話語作出責令的供詞作為一個必要赦免的人。 Those who hear confessions make use generally of the rules and directions laid down in Catholic "Manuals", and especially popular is the "Manual" of the Abbé Gaume (AG Mortimer "Confession and Absolution", London, 1906).聽到的供述,利用一般的規則及指示天主教“手冊”中規定的,特別是流行的是,神甫Gaume(AG莫蒂默“招供,並赦免”,倫敦,1906年)的“手冊”。

UTILITY OF CONFESSION實用的告白

Mr. Lea ("A History of Auricular Confession", Vol. II, p. 456) says: "No one can deny that there is truth in Cardinal Newman's argument: 'How many souls are there in distress, anxiety and loneliness, whose one need is to find a being to whom they can pour out their feelings unheard by the world. They want to tell them and not to tell them, they wish to tell them to one who is strong enough to hear them, and yet not too strong so as to despise them'"; and then Mr. Lea adds: "It is this weakness of humanity on which the Church has speculated, the weakness of those unable to bear their burdens . . . who find comfort in the system built up through the experience of the ages", etc. It has been made clear that the Church has simply carried out the mind of Christ: "Whatever you shall loose shall be loosed"; still we do not hesitate to accept Mr. Lea's reason, that this institution answers in large measure to the needs of men, who morally are indeed weak and in darkness. LEA先生(耳廓自白“歷史”,第二卷,頁456)說:“沒有人能否認有真相紅衣主教紐曼的說法:”有多少靈魂的窘迫,焦慮和孤獨,其人需要的是找到一個人,他們可以倒出來自己的感受前所未聞的世界,他們想告訴他們,不要告訴他們,他們想告訴他們,一個是足夠強大的,聽到他們的聲音,但不會太強,使鄙視他們“,然後LEA先生補充說:”這是人類的弱點上教堂的推測,建立起來的弱點,那些無法承受的負擔,在系統中找到了安慰通過經驗的年齡“等,已明確指出,教會只是基督的心:”不管你會鬆動應鬆動“,我們仍然毫不猶豫地接受先生Lea的原因,該機構在很大程度上回答的男人,在道德上是弱,在黑暗中的需求。 True, Mr. Lea denies the probability of finding men capable of exercising aright this great ministry, and he prefers to enumerate the rare abuses which the weakness of priests has caused, rather than to listen to the millions who have found in the tribunal of penance a remedy for their anxieties of mind, and a peace and security of conscience the value of which is untold.先生,執法機關拒絕的概率找到的人能夠正確地行使這一偉大的事工,他更喜歡列舉了難得的濫用祭司的弱點造成的,而不是聽數以百萬計的發現在法庭的懺悔他們的焦慮的心態,一個和平與安全的良心其價值的一種補救措施是數不清的。 The very abuses of which he speaks at such length have been the occasion of greater care, greater diligence, on the part of the Church. ,其中他談到了這麼長的非常濫用之際,更加小心,更加注意,對部分教會。 The few inconveniences arising from the perversity of men, which the Church has met with admirable legislation, should not blind men to the great good that confession has brought, not only to the individual, but even to society.一些不便而產生的乖僻的人,教會會見了令人欽佩的立法,不應該盲目的偉大,懺悔,不僅帶來了個人,但即使是對社會的男人。

Thinking men even outside the Church have acknowledged the usefulness to society of the tribunal of penance.思考甚至在教會之外的人已經承認了對社會有用的法庭的懺悔。 Amongst these the words of Leibniz are not unknown ("Systema theologicum", Paris, 1819, p. 270): "This whole work of sacramental penance is indeed worthy of the Divine wisdom and if aught else in the Christian dispensation is meritorious of praise, surely this wondrous institution. For the necessity of confessing one's sins deters a man from committing them, and hope is given to him who may have fallen again after expiation. The pious and prudent confessor is in very deed a great instrument in the hands of God for man's regeneration. For the kindly advice of God's priest helps man to control his passions, to know the lurking places of sin, to avoid the occasions of evil doing, to restore ill-gotten goods, to have hope after depression and doubt, to have peace after affliction, in a word, to remove or at least lessen all evil, and if there is no pleasure on earth like unto a faithful friend, what must be the esteem a man must have for him, who is in very deed a friend in the hour of his direst need?"在這些的話,萊布尼茨是未知的(“SYSTEMA theologicum”,巴黎,1819年,頁270):“這整個工作的神聖智慧聖事的懺悔,確實值得,如果任何事物都在基督教的福音,讚美是一件好事, ,這個奇妙的機構。對於必須承認自己的罪,肯定能阻止一個人從它們提交,並希望是給他誰可能已下降再之後贖罪。的虔誠和審慎的懺悔是很契約中一個巨大的儀器在手中神對人的再生。對於的好心建議的神的祭司幫助的人,以控制自己的感情,到知道的潛伏地的罪孽,以避免該場合的惡行,恢復贓物,後抑鬱症和疑問,希望,和平後的痛苦,一個字,以消除或至少減少所有的邪惡,形狀像一個忠實的朋友,如果沒有地球上的樂趣,什麼是必須的尊重,一個人必須有他,是誰在很契約一個小時中,他最可怕的需要的朋友嗎?“

Nor is Leibniz alone in expressing this feeling of the great benefits that may come from the use of confession.也不是萊布尼茨單獨表達這種感覺的巨大利益,可能來自使用的告白。 Protestant theologians realize, not only the value of the Catholic theological position, but also the need of the confessional for the spiritual regeneration of their subjects.新教神學家的實現,不僅看重的天主教神學立場,但也需要為他們的臣民的精神再生的懺悔。 Dr. Martensen, in his "Christian Dogmatics" (Edinburgh, 1890), p.博士馬敦生,在他的“基督教教義”(愛丁堡,1890年),頁。 443, thus outlines his views: "Absolution in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, derived from the full power of binding and loosing which the church has inherited from the apostles, is not unconditional, but depends on the same condition on which the gospel itself adjudges the forgiveness of sins, namely, change of heart and faith. If reform is to take place here, it must be effected either by endeavouring to revive private confession, or, as has been proposed, by doing away with the union between confession and the Lord's Supper, omitting, that is, the solemn absolution, because what it presupposes (personal confession of sin) has fallen into disuse, and retaining only the words of preparation, with the exhortation to self-examination, a testifying of the comfortable promises of the gospel, and a wish for a blessing upon the communicants." 443,從而概括了自己的看法:“赦免的名字,父親和聖子和聖靈,來自全功率的約束力和鬆動繼承從使徒的教會,不是無條件的,而是取決於福音本身adjudges罪的赦免,即心臟和信仰的變化。相同的條件下,如果改革是在這裡舉行,它必須對通過努力重振私人表白,或已提出,取消與工會之間的懺悔和主的晚餐,忽略,那就是,在莊嚴的赦免,因為它的先決條件(個人懺悔的罪)已下降到廢棄,並保留唯一的話的準備,用的勸告自我檢查,一個舒適的承諾的福音作證,並希望的祝福後聖餐。“ Under the head of "Observations" he states: "It cannot easily be denied that confession meets a deep need of human nature. There is a great psychological truth in the saying of Pascal, that a man often attains for the first time a true sense of sin, and a true stayedness in his good purpose, when he confesses his sins to his fellow man, as well as to God. Catholicism has often been commended because by confession it affords an opportunity of depositing the confession of his sins in the breast of another man where it remains kept under the seal of the most sacred secrecy, and whence the consolation of the forgiveness of sins is given him in the very name of the Lord."下的“觀察”的頭,他指出:“它可以不容易被拒絕,表白滿足一個深需要的人性化。有是一個很大的心理真相的說,帕斯卡爾,,一個人往往達到在第一時間成為真正意義上的,當他承認他的罪,他的同胞,以及神的罪,和真正的stayedness成就他的美意。天主教經常受到表揚,因為它提供了一個機會表白的沉積供認了他的罪在乳房另一名男子,但它仍然保存在密封的最神聖的秘密,並從那裡來的安慰,使罪得赦,給了他這個名字的主。“

True, he believes that this great need is met more fully with the kind of confession practised in Lutheranism, but he does not hesitate to add: "It is a matter of regret that private confession, as an institution, meeting as it does this want in a regular manner, has fallen into disuse; and that the objective point of union is wanting for the many, who desire to unburden their souls by confessing not to God only but to a fellowman, and who feel their need of comfort and of forgiveness, which anyone indeed may draw for himself from the gospel, but which in many instances he may desire to hear spoken by a man, who speaks in virtue of the authority of his holy office."誠然,他認為,這非常需要更充分地滿足實踐,在路德教什麼樣的表白,但他不猶豫地補充道:“這是一個問題,遺憾的是,作為一個機構,私人供述,滿足,因為它本想常規的方式,落入廢棄和工會,客觀上是想的很多,誰願意表白自己的靈魂承認不是上帝,而是一個同胞,誰覺得他們需要安慰和寬恕,任何人都確實可以為自己繪製的福音,但在許多情況下,他可能會願意聽一個人講的,誰說話憑藉他的神聖職責的權威。“

Publication information Written by Edward J. Hanna.出版信息的書面由愛德華·漢納。 Transcribed by Donald J. Boon.轉錄由Donald J.恩賜。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XI.天主教百科全書,卷席。 Published 1911.發布時間1911年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1911. Nihil Obstat,1911年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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