Semiarians and Semiarianism Semiarians和Semiarianism

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A name frequently given to the conservative majority in the East in the fourth century as opposed to the strict Arians.一個名字頻頻在第四世紀在東方的保守的多數,而不是嚴格的亞利安。 More accurately it is reserved (as by St. Epiphanius, "Hær" lxxiii) for the party of reaction headed by Basil of Ancyra in 358.更準確地說,它是保留(如的聖埃皮法尼烏斯,“Hær”LXXIII)為黨的反應為首羅勒的安該拉358。 The greater number of the Eastern bishops, who agreed to the deposition of St. Athanasius at Tyre in 335 and received the Arians to communion at Jerusalem on their repentance, were not Arians, yet they were far from being all orthodox.更大數量的東部主教,誰同意的沉積聖athanasius在輪胎在335和白羊座的共融在耶路撒冷對他們的懺悔,是不是白羊座的,但他們遠離所有正統。 The dedication Council of Antioch in 341 put forth a creed which was unexceptionable but for its omission of the Nicene "of One Substance".奉獻理事會的安提阿在341提出的信條是無懈可擊的,但其遺漏的尼西亞信經“的一種物質”。 Even disciples of Anius, such as George, Bishop of Laodicea (335-47) and Eustathius of Sebaste (c. 356-80), joined the moderate party, and after the death of Eusebius of Nicomedia, the leaders of the count faction, Ursacius, Valens, and Germinius, were not tied to any formula, for Constantius himself hated Arianism, though he disliked Athanasius yet more.即使弟子Anius,如喬治,主教勞迪西亞(335-47)和歐斯塔修斯的sebaste(丙356-80),加入溫和黨,優西比烏的Nicomedia去世後,計數派的領導人, Ursacius,瓦倫斯,Germinius的,不依賴任何公式,君自己恨阿里烏主義,雖然他不喜歡他那修了更多。 When Marcellus of Ancyra was deposed in 336, he was succeeded by Basil.當馬塞勒斯的安該拉被廢黜,在336,他的繼任者瓦西裡。 Marcellus was reinstated by the Council of Sardica and the pope in 343, but Basil was restored in 350 by Constantius, over whom he gained considerable influence.馬塞勒斯被復原的薩爾迪卡由理事會和教皇在343,但羅勒恢復了350君,他獲得了相當大的影響力。 He was the leader of a council at Sirmium in 351 held against Photinus who had been a deacon at Ancyra, and the canons of this synod begin by condemning Arianism though they do not quite come up to the Nicene standard.他是對誰當過執事在安該拉的Photinus理事會在錫爾繆姆在351舉行的領導人,這一會議的大砲開始譴責阿里烏斯教,雖然他們不太到尼西亞標準。 Basil had afterwards a disputation with the Arian Aëtius.羅勒有事後一個爭議的阿里安Aëtius。 After the defeat of Magnentius at Mursa in 351, Valens, bishop of that city, became the spiritual director of Constantius.經過351瓦倫斯,穆爾沙在的Magnentius失敗,該城市的主教,成為君的精神所長。 In 355 Valens and Ursacius obtained the exile of the Western confessors Eusebius, Lucifer, Liberius, and that of Hilary followed.在355瓦倫斯和Ursacius,獲得的西方的懺悔尤西比烏斯,路西法,利比里奧,希拉里,隨後流亡。 In 357 they issued the second Creed of Sirmium, or "formula of Hosius", in which homoousios and homoiousios were both rejected.在357中,他們發出第二信條舍米安,或“公式侯休斯,其中homoousios和homoiousios的都拒絕了。 Eudoxius, a violent Arian, seized the See of Antioch, and supported Aëtius and his disciple Eunomius. ,暴力阿里安,抓住Eudoxius見安提,並支持Aëtius和他弟子Eunomius的。

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In the Lent of 358 Basil with many bishops was holding the dedicatory feast of a new church he had built at Ancyra, when he received a letter from George of Laodicea relating how Eudoxius had approved of Aëtius, and begging Macedonius of Constantinople, Basil, and the rest of the assembled bishops to decree the expulsion of Eudoxius and his followers from Antioch, else that great see were lost.在貸出358羅勒許多主教奉獻盛宴的一個新的教會,他已建在安該拉時,他收到了一封信,從喬治的勞迪西亞有關,如何Eudoxius了批准的Aëtius,君士坦丁堡,瓦西裡乞討馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius),和其餘的組裝主教法令驅逐的Eudoxius和他的追隨者,從安提阿,否則,偉大的失去了。 In consequence the Synod of Ancyra published a long reply addressed to George and the other bishops of Phoenicia, in which they recite the Creed of Antioch (341), adding explanations against the "unlikeness" of the Son to the Father taught by the Arians (Anomoeans, from anomoios), and showing that the very name of father implies a son of like substance (homoiousios, or homoios kat ousian) Anathematisms are appended in which Anomoeanism is explicitly condemned and the teaching of "likeness of substance" enforced.因此主教的安該拉發表長篇答复給喬治和其他主教的腓尼基,他們在背誦的信條的安提阿(341),解釋對“不似”的兒子的父親所教的Arians(的Anomoeans,從anomoios),並顯示出這個名字的父親表示了一個兒子狀物質(homoiousios,或homoios的吉ousian)的Anathematisms被追加在這Anomoeanism,明確譴責和教學“相似的物質”執行。 The nineteenth of these canons forbids the use also of homoousios and tautoousios; this may be an afterthought due to the instance of Macedonius, as Basil does not seem to have insisted on it later. 19這些大砲禁止的的使用也homoousios和tautoousios的,這可能是一個事後的想法因的實例馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius),羅勒似乎並沒有堅持。 Legates were dispatched to the Count at Sirmium-Basil, Eustathius of Sebaste, an ascetic of no dogmatic principles, Eleusius of Cyzicus, a follower of Macedonius, and Leontius, a priest who was one of the emperor's chaplains. legates被派遣的伯爵在錫爾繆姆 - 羅勒,歐斯塔修斯的sebaste,沒有教條式的原則,Eleusius的基齊庫斯,馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius)的追隨者,誰是皇帝的牧師,牧師和Leontius一個禁慾主義者。 They arrived just in time, for the emperor had been lending his ear to an Eudoxian; but he now veered round, and issued a letter (Sozomen, IV, xiv) declaring the Son to be "like in substance" to the Father, and condemning the Arians of Antioch.他們來的正是時候,,為皇帝已經把他的耳朵一種eudoxian;但他現在轉向輪,並發出函件,(Sozomen,四,十四)聲明的兒子,是“物質”的父親一樣,和白羊座的安提阿的譴責。

According to Sozomen it was at this point that Libenius was released from exile on his signing three fornmulæ combined by Basil; against this story see LIBERIUS, POPE.據Sozomen它是在這一點上,Libenius被釋放流亡在他簽約的3由羅勒fornmulæ結合的,對這個故事,看到利比里奧,教皇。 Basil persuaded Constantius to summon a general council, Ancyra being proposed then Nicomedia; but the latter city was destroyed by an earthquake; Basil, therefore, was again at Sirmium in 359 where the Arianizers had meanwhile regained their footing With Germinius of Sirmium, George of Alexandria, Ursacius and Valens, and Marcus of Arethusa, he held a conference which lasted until night.瓦西裡勸君召集總理事會,安該拉被提出,然後Nicomedia的,但後者的城市毀於地震,羅勒,因此,再次西錫爾米烏姆359的Arianizers同時重新站穩腳跟的支助,喬治Germinius亞歷山德里亞,Ursacius和瓦倫斯和馬庫斯的蘭科植物,他舉行了一次會議,一直持續到晚上。 A confession of faith, ridiculed under the name of the "dated creed", was drawn up by Marcus on 22 May (Hilary, "Fragment. xv").一個認罪的信仰,嘲笑的“過時的信條”的名義下,制訂了由Marcus 5月22日(希拉蕊,“片段253”)。 Arianism was of course rejected, but the homoios kata ten ousian was not admitted, and the expression kata panta homoios, "like in all things", was substituted.阿里烏斯教的當然拒絕,但的homoios卡塔10 ousian不承認,字panta homoios的表達,“在所有的事情一樣”,被替換下場。 Basil was disappointed, and added to his signature the explanation that the words "in all things" mean not only in will, but in existence and being (kata ten hyparxin kai kata to einai).羅勒感到失望,並增加了他的簽名的解釋是,“在一切事”,是指不僅意志,但存在(字10 hyparxin偕卡塔einai)。 Not content with this, Basil, George of Laodicea, and others published a joint explanation (Epiph., lxxiii, 12-22) that "in all things" must include "substance";沒有內容,羅勒,喬治的勞迪西亞,和其他人發表的聯合解釋“(Epiph.,LXXIII,12-22)說:”在所有的事情“必須包括”物質“;

The court party arranged that two councils should be held, at Rimini and Seleucia respectively.法院黨的安排,兩個市政局應分別在里米尼和塞琉西亞。 At Seleucia (359) the Semiarians were in a majority, being supported by such men as St. Cyril of Jerusalem, his friend Silvanus of Tarsus, and even St. Hilary, but they were unable to obtain their ends.在塞琉西亞(359)Semiarians中的大多數,這種男人圣西里爾耶路撒冷,他的朋友西拉的跗關節,甚至聖希拉里的支持,但他們無法獲得他們的目的。 Basil, Silvanus, and Eleusius, therefore, went as envoys to Constantinople, where a council was held (360) which followed Rimini in condemning homoiousios together with homoousios, and allowed homoios alone, without addition.羅勒,西拉,Eleusius的的,因此,作為使節到君士坦丁堡,在那裡一會舉行(360)里米尼一起譴責homoiousios homoousios,並允許單獨,不加homoios。 This new phrase was the invention of Acacius of Cæsarea, who now deserted the extremer Arians and became leader of the new "Homoean" party.這個新詞是cacius的愷撒,現在冷清的extremer的的亞利安並成為領導者的的新“Homoean”黨的發明。 He procured the exile of Macedonius, Eleusius, Basil, Eustathius, Silvanus, Cyril, and others.他採購的馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius),Eleusius,羅勒,歐斯塔修斯,西拉,西里爾和其他國家的流放。

Constantius died at the end of 361.君死在年底的361。 Under Julian the exiles returned.在朱利安的流亡者返回。 Basil was probably dead.瓦西裡可能已經死了。 Macedonius organized a party which confessed the Son to be kata panta homoios, while it declared the Holy Ghost to be the minister and servant of the Father and a creature.馬其頓紐斯(Macedonius)組織了一個政黨,交待了兒子,字panta homoios,而它宣稱聖靈成為部長和僕人的父親和一個生物。 Eleusius joined him, and so did Eustathius for a time. Eleusius加入他的行列,所以沒有歐斯塔修斯的時間。 This remnant of the Semiarian party held synods at Zele and elsewhere.這剩下的的Semiarian方舉行的主教會議在ZELE和其他地方。 The accession of Jovian, who was orthodox, induced the versatile Acacius, with Meletius of Antioch and twenty-five bishops, to accept the Nicene formula, adding an explanation that the Nicene Fathers meant by homoousios merely homoios kat ousian.加入木星,誰是正統的,誘導多功能Acacius,安提阿和25主教與Meletius,接受尼西亞公式,添加解釋,尼西亞的父親的意思homoousios只是homoios吉ousian。 Thus Acacius had taken up the original formula of the Semiarians.因此Acacius的Semiarians已經採取了原來的公式。 In 365 the Macedonians assembled at Lampsacus under the presidency of Eleusius, and condemned the Councils of Ariminum and Antioch (360), asserting again the likeness in substance.在365馬其頓集結在蘭普薩庫斯根據Eleusius主席,並譴責了議會的Ariminum和安提阿(360)的,再次聲稱相似的物質。 But the threats of the Arian emperor Valens caused Eleusius to sign an Arian creed at Nicomedia in 366.但威脅的阿里安皇帝瓦倫斯造成Eleusius簽署一項阿里安信條在Nicomedia的366。 He returned to his diocese full of remorse, and begged for the election of another bishop; but his diocesans refused to let him resign.他回到他的教區充滿了悔恨,乞求另一個主教的選舉,但他的diocesans拒絕讓他辭職。 The West was at peace under Valentinian, so the Semiarians sent envoys to that emperor and to the pope to get help.西方國家是在和平下瓦倫蒂安,這樣的Semiarians派出特使,皇帝和教宗的得到幫助。 Liberius refused to see them until they presented him with a confession of faith which included the Nicene formula.利比里奧拒絕見他們,直到他們送給他一個認罪的信仰,其中包括尼西亞公式。 He seems to have been unaware that the party now rejected the Divinity of the Holy Ghost; but this was perhaps not true of the envoys Eustathius and Silvanus.他似乎已經不知道黨現在拒絕了神的聖靈,但或許這還不算真正的使節歐斯塔修斯和西拉。 On the return of the legates, the documents they brought were received with great joy by a synod at Tyana, which embraced the Nicene faith.在返回的使節,收到的文件,他們所帶來的巨大的喜悅,由主教在的蒂亞納,其中接受了尼西亞信經的信仰。 But another synod in Caria still refused the homoousion.但另一位主教在卡里亞仍然拒絕的homoousion。 For the rest of the history of the sect, who are now to be called Macedonians, see PNEUMATOMACHI.對於剩下的,該教派的歷史,誰是現在被稱為馬其頓人,看到PNEUMATOMACHI。

Publication information Written by John Chapman.出版信息的書面由約翰·查普曼。 Transcribed by Douglas J. Potter.轉錄由道格拉斯·J.·波特。 Dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus Christ The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIII.獻給耶穌基督的聖心天主教百科全書,卷十三。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, February 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年2月1日。 Remy Lafort, DD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,DD,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
In addition to bibliography under ARIANISM and BISHOP EUSEBIUS OF NICOMEDIA, see articles Basilius of Ancyra, Eleusius, Eustathius of Sebaste by VENABLES in Dict .Christ.此外書目下阿里烏斯教和主教優西比烏的Nicomedia,請參閱文章聖殿的安該拉,Eleusius,的sebaste歐斯塔修斯的維納布爾斯在字典。基督。 Biog.; LICHTENSTEIN, Eusebius von Nikomedien (Halle, 1903); LOOFS, Eustathius von Sebaste und die Chronologie der Basilius-Briefe (Halle, 1898). Biog。LICHTENSTEIN,尤西比烏斯馮Nikomedien(哈莉·1903年); LOOFS,歐斯塔修斯·馮·Sebaste與Chronologie德聖殿 - Briefe(哈雷,1898年)。


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