Theodore of Mopsuestia西奧多的Mopsuestia

Catholic Information 天主教信息

Bishop of Mopsuestia in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer; b.主教摩普綏提亞在基利家和教會的作家。 at Antioch about 350 (thus also known as Theodore of Antioch), of wealthy and prominent parents; d.在安提約350(因此也被稱為西奧多的安提阿),富裕的父母和突出的;。 428. 428。

I.

According to Syrian sources Theodore was the cousin of the somewhat younger Nestorius (Nestle, op. cit. in bibliography); Polychromius, afterwards Bishop of Apamea, was a brother of Theodore.據敘利亞來源西奧多是表姐的一些更年輕的聶斯脫裡(雀巢,前引書。參考書目); Polychromius,後來主教的麥穗,是兄弟西奧多。 The clever and highly gifted youth received the education in classical literature usual to his station and studied philosophy and rhetoric in the school of the renowned pagan rhetorician Libanius.聰明,極有天賦的青年接受了教育,古典文學,通常他站和著名的異教的修辭巴尼烏斯在學校學習哲學和修辭。 He here became acquainted with his early friends, St. John Chrysostom and Maximus, later Bishop of Seleucia (perhaps as fellow-student).他在這裡結識了與他早期的朋友,聖約翰金口和Maximus,後來主教的塞琉西亞(也許是老鄉見老鄉,學生)。 Following the example of Chrysostom (Socrates, "Hist. eccl.", VI, iii), Theodore renounced a secular career when about eighteen years old, and devoted himself to the ascetic life in the school of Diodorus (later Bishop of Tarsus) and Carterius, situated near Antiochia.以下的例子金口(蘇格拉底,“歷史。傳道書。”,VI,III),西奧多放棄一個世俗的職業生涯時,大約十八歲,並致力於自己的苦行生活,在學校的狄奧多羅斯(後來的主教塔爾蘇斯) Carterius,靠近安蒂奧基亞。 His youthful and too tempestuous zeal soon grew cold, and, owing chiefly to the memory of Hermione whom he intended to take as wife, he resolved to return to the world (Sozomen, "Hist. eccl.", VIII, 2; Hesychius Hieros., "Hist. eccl." in Mansi, "Concil.", IX, 248).他的青春和暴風雨的熱情很快就冷,而且,由於主要的記憶赫敏他打算採取的妻子,他決心重返世界(Sozomen,“組織胺。傳道書。”,VIII,2赫西基奧斯Hieros ,“歷史。傳道書。”曼西,“Concil。”,IX,248)。 Chrysostom's grief at this step of his friend was so great that he addressed him two letters or treatises ("Ad Theodorum lapsum" in PG, XLVII, 277 sqq.) to recall him to his early resolution. ,金口的悲傷在這一步,他的朋友是如此之大,說他兩個字母或論文(“廣告Theodorum lapsum”PG XLVII,277 SQQ。)記得他為他的早日解決。 A little later Theodore did indeed return to the "divine philosophy" of the ascetic monastic life.過了一會兒,西奧多確實返回到“神哲學”的苦行修道生活。 He quickly acquired a great acquaintance with the Holy Scripture.他很快就獲得了巨大的相識與“聖經”。 Impetuous and restless of character, he had already, when scarcely twenty years old (at eighteen according to Leontius, "Adv. Incorrupticolas", viii, in PG, LXXXVI, 1364), applied himself to theological compositions.浮躁和不安分的性格,他已經幾乎沒有20歲(18 Leontius,“進階Incorrupticolas”,第八條,PG,LXXXVI,1364),應用自己的神學成分。 His first work was the commentary on the Psalms, in which his extreme exegetical tendencies in the sense of an almost exclusively grammatico-historical and realistic explanation of the text is already manifest (see below Theodore's Hermeneutics).他的第一個工作是詩篇,在他的極端訓詁傾向,在這個意義上的文字幾乎完全格拉馬蒂科歷史和現實的解釋是已經艙單(見下文西奧多的詮釋)的評注。 Between 383 and 386 he was ordained priest (perhaps together with Chrysostom) by his early teacher (now bishop) Flavian.在383和386之間,他被祝聖司鐸(也許一起金口),他早年的老師(主教)弗拉維安。 Theodore soon displayed a very keen interest in the theologico-polemical discussions of the time, writing and preaching against the Origenists, Arians, Eunomians, Apollinarists, magicians, Julian the Apostate, etc. His keen and versatile literary activity won him the name of "Polyhistor" (Sozomen, op. cit., VIII, ii).西奧多的時間在的神學論戰討論,很快就顯示出非常濃厚的興趣,寫作和講道反對他的敏銳和靈活的文學活動,贏得了他的名字的Origenists,白羊座的,Eunomians,Apollinarists,魔術師,朱利安的叛教者,等等。“ Polyhistor“(Sozomen,前引書,八,二)。 Theodore apparently left Antioch before 392 to join his old teacher Diodorus, who was then Bishop of Tarsus (Hesychius Hier., op. cit., in Mansi, IX, 248).西奧多顯然離開安提前392加入他的老教師狄奧多羅斯,那麼誰是主教塔爾蘇斯(赫西基奧斯海爾,前引書,在曼西,IX,248)。 Probably through the influence of Diodorus he was named Bishop of Mopsuestia in 392, in which capacity he was to labour thirty-six years.也許通過狄奧多羅斯的影響,他被評為主教摩普綏提亞392,在哪些容量他是勞動36年的。 In 394 he attended the Synod of Constantinople, and during its progress preached before the Emperor Theodosius the Great. 394年,他參加了君士坦丁堡的主教會議,並在其進度宣揚皇帝狄奧多西大帝之前。 During the confusion concerning Chrysostom, Theodore remained faithful to his early friend (cf. Chrysostom, "Epp.", cxii, in PG, LII, 668; Latin translation in Facundus, loc. cit., VII, 7).西奧多·在的混亂金口,仍然忠實於他早期的朋友(參見金口,“EPP”,一一二,PG,LII,668拉丁語翻譯在Facundus,前引文。,七,7)。 Later (about 421) he received hospitably Julian of Eclanum and other Pelagians, and doubtless allowed himself to be further influenced by their dogmatic errors. (約421),他收到款待朱利安的eclanum和其他伯拉糾,無疑是讓自己進一步影響他們的教條化的錯誤。 However, he later associated himself with the condemnation of Pelagianism at a synod in Cilicia (Marius Merc. in PL, XLVIII, 1044).不過,後來他自己在基利家(:馬呂斯芝加哥商業交易所。在PL,48,1044)在主教的譴責伯拉糾。 He died in 428, the year in which Nestorius succeeded to the episcopal See of Constantinople.他死了428,涅斯在這一年中成功的主教,君士坦丁堡。 During his lifetime Theodore was always regarded as orthodox and as a prominent ecclesiastical author, and was even consulted by distant bishops on theological questions.在他的一生中,西奧多一直被認為是正統的,作為一個突出的教會作家,甚至遙遠的主教,神學問題諮詢。

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II. II。 WRITINGS WRITINGS

The most complete list of the writings of Theodore is given by Ebedjesu (d. 1318; see Assemani, "Bibl. orient.", III, 30-36).西奧多的著作最完整的列表給出的Ebedjesu(卒於1318,見Assemani,“Bibl。東方”,III,30-36)。 According to this the following works existed in a Syrian translation.根據以下的工程中存在的一個敘利亞翻譯。

A. Exegetical Commentaries A.訓詁評

(a) On the Old Testament: (1) on Genesis, 3 books (Greek fragments in the Nicephoruscatene, Leipzig 1772; Syrian in Sachau, 1-21); (2) on the Psalms, 5 books (Greek fragments in PG, LXVI, 648; Latin translation discovered by Mercati, see bibliography; Greek text discovered by Lietzmann, but not yet edited, cf. ibid.); (3) on the twelve Minor Prophets (extant in its entirety; edited by Mai in PG LXVI, 124-632); (4) on the First and Second Books of Kings, 1 book (lost); (5) on Job, 2 books, dedicated to St. Cyril of Alexandria (only four fragments preserved in PG, loc. cit., 697 sq.); (6) on Ecclesiastes, 1 book (lost); (7) to the four Great Prophets, 4 books (lost). (一):(1)在舊約創世紀3本書(希臘片段的Nicephoruscatene,萊比錫1772;敘利亞在Sachau,1-21);(2)對詩篇,5本書(PG希臘片段, (3)在十二小先知書(現存的全部內容;麥在PG LXVI中編輯648 LXVI,Mercati發現的拉丁文譯本,請參閱書目;發現利茨曼希臘文,但尚未編輯,比照同上); 124-632),(4)(5)的第一次和第二次圖書的國王,1冊書(輸);工作,著作2部,專門圣西里爾亞歷山大(只有四個片段,保存在PG,祿。企業所得稅,697平方米);(6)對傳道書,1冊書(輸)(7)的四個偉大的先知,4本書(丟失)。 Assemani adds "Quæstiones et Responsiones in Sacram Scripturam"; the fragments mentioned by the Fifth Œcumenical Council (Mansi, IX, 225) on the Canticle of Canticles are perhaps taken from a letter. Assemani補充說:“Quæstiones等Responsiones在Sacram Scripturam”頌歌的Canticles的的第五Œcumenical會(曼西,IX,225)中提到的碎片,也許是從一個字母。

(b) On the New Testament: (1) on Matthew, I book (fragments in PG, LXVI, 705 sqq.); (2) on Luke, 1 book (fragments, ibid., 716 sqq.); (3) on John, 1 book (fragments, ibid., 728; Syrian, discovered and edited by Chabot, Paris, 1897); (4) on the Acts, 1 book (fragments in PG, LXVI, 785 sq.); (5) on all the Epistles of St. Paul (Greek fragments in PG, LXVI, 188-968) the Epistles to the Galatians, Colossians, Thessalonians, Philemon, Latin edition by HB Swete, Cambridge, 1880-82). (二):(1)在新約聖經馬太福音,我的書(的片段,PG,LXVI,705 SQQ。);(2)對盧克,1本書(片段,同上,第716 SQQ。)(3)約翰,1本書(片段,同上,728;敘利亞,發現和編輯夏波,巴黎,1897年);(4)的行為,1冊書(片段PG,LXVI,785平方米);(5)所有的書信聖保羅(希臘文的片段,PG,LXVI,188-968)書信的加拉太書,歌羅西書,帖撒羅尼迦前書,腓利門書,正面Swete,劍橋,1880年至1882年拉丁文版)。

B. Opascula B. Opascula

(1) "De sacramentis", 1 book (lost); (2) "De fide", 1 book ("Liber ad baptizatos", according to Facundus, op. cit., LX, 3; fragments in Swete, II, 323-27); (3) "De sacerdotio", 1 book (lost); (4) "De Spiritu Sancto", 2 books, against the Macedonians (lost); (5) "De Incarnatione", 15 books (cf. Facundus, IX, 3; Gennadius, 12; written at Antioch about 382-92 against the Apollinarians and Eunomians; Greek fragm. in PG, LXVI, 969 sqq., and Swete, II, 290-3l2); (6) "Contra Eunomium", 2 books (one fragment in Facundus, IX, 3; (7) "Contra dicentes: peccatum naturae inesse" 2 books (cf. Photius, "BibI.", 177); (8) "Contra magicam artem", 2 books (cf. Photius, 81); (9) "Ad monachos", 1 book (lost); (10) "De obscura locutione" 1 book (lost); (11) "De perfectione operum", 1 book (lost); (12) "Contra allegoristas", 5 books (cf. Facundus, III, 6: "De allegoria et historia"); (13) "De Assumente et Assumpto", 1 book (lost); (14) "De legislatione", 1 book (lost). Many unidentified fragments are perhaps taken from lost works. The fifteen hooks "De mysteriis" or "Opus mysticum", mentioned by Assemani (III, 1, 563), are probably identical with the "Codex mysticus" cited by Facundus (III, 2). Concerning the "Symbolum fidei" (Facundus, III, 2; Leontius, PG, LXXXVI, 1367), cf. Fritzsche in PG, LXVI, 73 sqq. Leontius Byzant. ("Advers. Incorr.", xx, in PG, LXXXVI, 1368) says, perhaps with reference to the so-called Nestorian Liturgy, that Theodore had also introduced a new Liturgy. (1)“sacramentis”,1冊書(輸)(2)“德善意”,1冊書(“LIBER廣告baptizatos”的,根據Facundus,前引書,LX,3; Swete,II片段, 323-27)(3)“sacerdotio”,1書(輸);(4)“Spiritu Sancto”,著作2部,對馬其頓(丟失);(5)“Incarnatione”,15本書(CF 。Facundus,IX,3煙粉蝨,12;書面在安提約382-92對的Apollinarians和Eunomians的;希臘fragm。PG,LXVI,969 SQQ。,並S​​wete,II,290-3L2),(6)“魂斗羅Eunomium“,2本書(一個片段Facundus,IX,3條修訂;(7)”魂斗羅dicentes:peccatum naturae inesse“2冊(參見photius,老人家”週筆暢“,177),(8)”魂斗羅magicam阿爾喬姆“ ,2本書(參見photius,老人家81)(9)“廣告monachos”,1冊書(輸)(10)“暗箱locutione”1書(輸)(11)“perfectione operum”,1本書(丟失);(12)“魂斗羅allegoristas”,5冊(參見Facundus,三,六:“德allegoria等史記”)(13)“Assumente等Assumpto”,1冊書(輸)(14) “的legislatione”,1冊書(輸)。許多不明身份的片段也許是從失去工作的15掛鉤“德mysteriis”或“作品mysticum”,提到Assemani(III,1,563),可能是相同的“法典mysticus”引由Facundus(III,2)關於“Symbolum信”(:III,Facundus,2 Leontius,PG,LXXXVI,1367),,在PG LXVI,73時12 sqq Leontius Byzant。弗里切比照。( “Advers。Incorr。”,XX,PG,LXXXVI,1368)說,也許是參照所謂景教禮儀,西奧多也推出了新的禮儀。

C. Letters C.快報

These were collected in one volume which is now lost.這些被收集在一個卷,這是現在失去了。

III. III。 THEODORE'S DOCTRINE西奧多的學說

A. Hermeneutics and Canon A.詮釋學與佳能

As regards the Old Testament, Theodore seems to have accepted Flavius Josephus's idea of inspiration and his canon.至於舊約,西奧多·約瑟夫弗拉維奧的想法的靈感和他的佳能似乎已經接受。 He rejected as uncanonical the Book of Job, the Canticle of Canticles, the Book of Esdras, and the deutero-canonical books.他拒絕明顯不規範的約伯記,canticle的canticles,這本書的埃斯德拉斯,和deutero - 典型的書籍。 From the New Testament he excised the Catholic Epistles (except I Peter and I John) and the Apocalypse (cf. Leontius, loc. cit., III, 13-17, in PG, LXXXVI, 1365-68).在新約聖經中,他切除了天主教教會(除彼得和約翰)和啟示(參見Leontius,上述引文中,III,13-17,PG,LXXXVI,1365年至1368年)。 In his explanation of the Holy Writ Theodore employs primarily the prevailing historical and grammatical method of the Antiochene school.在他的解釋的神聖令狀西奧多採用的安提阿的學校主要是當時的歷史和語法的方法。 Of all the Psalms he recognized only ii, vii, xiv, and cx as containing direct prophetic reference to the Messias; the Canticle of Canticles was pronounced by him a vulgar nuptial poem.所有的詩篇,他只承認二,七,十四,和CX含有直接的彌賽亞的預言的參考;他一個庸俗的婚禮詩,頌歌的Canticles是明顯的。

B. Anthropology and Doctrine of Justification B.人類學和學說的理由

Theodore's doctrine concerning justification gave rise to very grave misgivings, even if we reject the accusations of Leontius (loc. cit., 20-37) as exaggerated.西奧多的學說有關的理由產生了非常嚴重的疑慮,如果我們拒絕這些指控Leontius(如上20-37),誇張的。 According to Theodore, the sin of Adam rendered himself and mankind subject to death, because he was then mutable.根據西奧多,亞當的罪,使自己和人類受死,因為他當時是可變的。 But that which was the consequence of sin in the case of Adam is in his descendants its cause, so that in consequence of mutability all men in some manner or other sin personally.但是,這是罪惡的後果的情況下,亞當是他的後裔,它的原因,因此,在結果的可變性所有的人以某種方式或其他罪的個人。 The object of the Redemption was to transfer mankind from this condition of mutability and mortality to the state of immutability and immortality. ,贖回的目的是將人類從不變性和不朽的狀態,這種情況下的可變性和死亡率。 This happened first in the case of Christ, fundamentally by the union with the Logos, to a greater extent at His baptism, and completely at His Resurrection.這首先發生在基督的情況下,從根本上由工會與標識,在他的洗禮,在更大程度上,完全在他的復活。 In mankind this change is effected by union with Christ.這種變化是影響人類與基督聯合。 The union begins in baptism, through which (1) all (personal) sins are remitted, (2) the grace of Christ is granted, which leads us to immutability (sinlessness) and immortality.工會開始的洗禮,通過(1)所有的罪匯(個人),(2)基督的恩典是理所當然的,這使我們的不變性(無罪)和不朽。 At the baptism of children only this second effect occurs.在孩子們的洗禮,只有這第二次的效果。 That these ideas show a certain resemblance to the fundamental thoughts of Pelagianism is not to be denied; whether, however, Theodore influenced Pelagius and Caelestius (according to Marius Mercator, through the medium of the Syrian Rufinus; PL, XLVIII, 110), or whether these influenced Theodore, is very difficult to determine.這些思想的伯拉糾主義的基本想法是有一定的相似性不能否認,無論然而,西奧多影響伯拉糾和Caelestius的(根據馬呂斯墨卡托,通過媒體的敘利亞Rufinus,PL,48,110),或這些影響是否西奧多,是很難確定的。

C. Christology C.基督

Theodore's Christology exercised a more direct and eventful influence on the doctrine of his (mediate) disciple Nestorius.西奧多的基督行使他(調解)的弟子聶斯脫利的教義更直接的和多事的影響。 The contemporary polemics against Arianism and Apollinarianism led the Antiochenes (Diodorus, Theodore, and Nestorius) to emphasize energetically the perfect Divinity and the unimpaired Humanity of Christ, and to separate as sharplv as possible the two natures.阿里烏斯教和亞波里拿留主義的當代論戰導致的Antiochenes(狄奧多羅斯,西奧多和聶斯脫利),強調大力完美的神性和人性的基督不受影響的,並單獨作為sharplv盡可能兩個性質。 Thus, in a sermon which he delivered at Antioch (perhaps the first as bishop), Theodore vehemently attacked the use of the term theotokos, long employed in ecclesiastical terminology, because Mary was strictly speaking anthropotokos, and only indirectly theotokos.因此,在講道中,他發表在安提阿(也許是第一個主教),西奧多猛烈抨擊使用的術語子,長在宗教術語,因為瑪麗嚴格來說anthropotokos,只有間接子。 It was only by recalling his words and correcting himself that Theodore could appease the excitement resulting from this view (see John of Antioch, "Epist. ad Theodosium imper." in Facundus Herm., "Pro defensione trium capp.", X, 2; PL, LXXXVII, 771).這是回顧他的話,糾正自己,西奧多安撫從這個觀點(見約翰安提,“Epist。廣告Theodosium imper。”在Facundus赫姆,“defensione釷CAPP的興奮。”,X,2 PL,LXXXVII,771)。 It cannot indeed be denied that the Antiochene separation of the natures must result in an improper weakening of the union in Christ.它不能是被拒絕的安提阿分離的性質導致的不當削弱工會在基督裡。 Like Nestorius, Theodore expressly declares that he wished to uphold the unity of person in Christ; perhaps they recognized some distinction between nature and person, but did not know exactly what was the distinguishing factor, and therefore used faulty paraphrases and comparisons, and spoke of the two natures in a way which, taken strictly, presupposed two persons.像聶斯脫裡,西奧多明確聲明,他希望堅持團結在基督裡的人,也許他們認識到自然與人之間的一些區別,但不知道究竟是什麼的顯著因素,因此,使用錯誤的釋義和比較,並談到兩個性質,採取嚴格的方式,預設了兩個人。 Thus, according to Theodore, the human nature of Christ was not only passibilis, but also really tentabilis, since otherwise His actual freedom from sin would be the result of His physical union with God, not a merit of His free wilt.因此,根據西奧多,人性的基督是沒有只有passibilis,但也真的tentabilis的,因為否則的話,他的實際自由罪的結果會被他的身體工會與上帝,而不是他的自由枯萎的優點。 The union of the human and Divine nature happens not kat ousian nor kat energeian, but kat eudokian (at will), and indeed a eudokia hos en houio, which effects a enosis eis en prosopon.工會的人力和神聖的性質發生不吉ousian也不吉energeian,但吉eudokian的(意志),確實是一個eudokia的居屋連接houio,影響一個希塞統一EIS連接成蟲。 The two natures form a unity, "like man and wife" or "body and soul".兩個性質,形成了一個團結,“像丈夫和妻子”或“身體與靈魂”。 Consequently, according to Theodore, the communicato idiomatum, fundamentally speaking, is also lawful.因此,根據西奧多,傳播者idiomatum,從根本上說,是合法的。

IV. IV。 THE CONDEMNATION OF THE DOCTRINE OF THEODORE西奧多的學說的譴責

While during his lifetime (apart from the episode at Antioch) Theodore was regarded as orthodox (cf. Theodoret, "Hist. eccl.", V, xxxix; John of Antioch, in Facundus, II, 2), a loud outcry was raised against him when the Pelagians and Nestorians appealed to his writings.而在他的一生中(除了在安提阿的情節)西奧多被視為正統的(參見theodoret公司,“歷史。傳道書”,第39屆,V;約翰安提,在Facundus,二,2),一個響亮的叫價提高對他Pelagians和景教呼籲他的著作。 The first to represent him as the father of Pelagianism was Marius Mercator in his work "Liber subnotationum in verba Juliani, Praef."第一次代表他的父親伯拉糾馬呂斯墨卡托在他的作品“的LIBER subnotationum在維巴胡利亞尼,Praef。” (about 431; in PL, XLVIII, 111). (約431 PL,48,111)。 He was accused of Nestorianism by Hesychius of Jerusalem in his Church History (about 435) Rabulas of Edessa went so far as to pronounce anathema on Theodore.他被指控景教赫西基奧斯耶路撒冷,在他的教會歷史(約435)Rabulas的edessa竟然發音上西奧多的詛咒。 Acting under the influence of the latter, St. Cyril of Alexandria expressed himself in fairly sharp terms concerning Theodore, naming him with Diodorus the "patres Nestorii blasphemæe" ("Ep. lxxi ad Theodosium imp.", in PG. LXXVII, 34l-44); he was, however, unwilling to condemn Theodore, as he had died in peace with the Church.後者的影響下,圣西里爾亞歷山大表示自己的關於西奧多相當尖銳,他命名與狄奧多羅斯的“元老一樣Nestoriiblasphemæe”(“EP。LXXI廣告Theodosium小鬼”,在PG。LXXVII,34L的44),但是,他不願譴責西奧多,他已經死了在和平與教會。 Meanwhile the Nestorian strife passed by without any official action being taken by the Church against Theodore, although his writings stood in higher favour among the Nestorians of Edessa and Nisibis than those of Nestorius himself.同時,景教內亂通過沒有任何官方所採取的行動對西奧多的教會,雖然他的著作站在更高的青睞比埃德薩和尼西比斯的之間的nestorians涅斯自己的。 The General Council of Chalcedon seemed rather to favour Theodore, when it declared his disciples and admirers, Theodoret and Ibas of Edessa, orthodox, although the latter in his epistle to Maris had referred to Theodore in terms of the highest praise.總理事會的卡爾西似乎相當有利於西奧多,當它宣布他的門徒和崇拜者,theodoret公司和IBAS埃德薩的,正統的,儘管後者在他的書信馬里斯提到西奧多方面的最高褒獎。 The Monophysitic reaction against the Council of Chalcedon in the sixth century first succeeded in bringing Theodore's person and writings under the ban of the ecclesiastical anathema through the ill-famed dispute of the Three Chapters.的Monophysitic反應,對安理會的卡爾西在六世紀的第一個成功地使西奧多的人,著作的教會爭議的三個章節,通過虐待著名的詛咒下禁令。 Theodore was for the first time condemned as a heretic by the Emperor Justinian in his edict against the Three Chapters (544).西奧多是由皇帝查士丁尼在他的法令,對三個章節(544)第一次作為一個邪教組織的譴責。 Under the influence of imperial pressure Pope Vigilius composed (553) at Constantinople a document in which sixty propositions taken from Theodore's writing were declared heretical.在帝國壓力教皇Vigilius組成,在君士坦丁堡(553)的文件,其中60西奧多的寫作從命題被宣布為異端的影響。 Finally, at the Fifth General Synod (553), at which, however, Vigilius did not participate, the three Chapters, including Theodore's writings and person, were placed under anathema.最後,在第五次總主教(553),在其中,但是,Vigilius沒有參加,三個章節,包括西奧多的著作和人下詛咒,被安置。 It was only on 8 December that Vigilius, broken with exile, gave his approval to the decrees of the synod.這是12月8日,Vigilius,打破流亡,給他批准的主教法令。 Among the most zealous defenders of Theodore and the Three Chapters, besides Pope Vigilius (until 533), were the African Facundus of Hermiana ("Pro defensione trium capitulorum libri XII", in PL, LXVII, 527 sqq.) and the bishops, Paulinus of Aquileia and Vitalis of Milan.其中最熱心的捍衛者西奧多和三個章節,除了教皇Vigilius的(至533),非洲Facundus Hermiana(“臨defensione釷capitulorum利布里XII”,在PL,LXVII,527 SQQ)和主教,Paulinus阿奎萊亞和維塔利斯米蘭。

Publication information Written by Chrysostom Baur.出版信息寫金口鮑爾。 Transcribed by Marjorie Bravo-Leerabhandh.轉錄馬喬裡·布拉沃Leerabhandh。 In loving memory of my grandmother, Rosario Bravo The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.在紀念我的祖母,羅薩里奧·布拉沃天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat 7月1日,1912。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography 參考書目
The most complete edition of Theodore's works is given in PG, LXVI, 124 sqq.; see also: SWETE, Theodori Ep.最完整版的西奧多的作品的PG,LXVI,124 SQQ。另見:EP SWETE,THEODORI。 Mopsuesteni in epistolas B Pauli. Mopsuesteni在epistolas乙聖保利。 The Latin Version with the Greek Fragments (2 vols., Cambridge, 1880-52)., SACHAU, Theodori Mopsuesteni fragmenta siriaca, (Leipzig, 1169); and some fragments in S. Innocenti ep.拉丁版的希臘片段(第2卷,劍橋,1880年至1852年),SACHAU,THEODORI Mopsuesteni fragmenta siriaca,(萊比錫,1169年)和S.因諾琴蒂EP中的一些片斷。 Maronioe: De his qui unum ex trinitate vel unum Subsistentiam seu personam Dominum nostrum Jesus Christurn dubitant confieri, ed. Maronioe:DE他的魁UNUM前trinitate VEL UNUM Subsistentiam SEU以個人身份Dominum妙方耶穌Christurn dubitant confieri,編輯。 AMELLI in Spicilegium Casinensi I (1888). AMELLI Spicilegium Casinensi我(1888年)。 148-54. 148-54。 TILLEMONT, Memoires, XII (1732), 433 sqq.; FRIZSCHE, De Theodori Mopsuesteni vita et scriptis (Halle, 1836; reprinted in PG, LXVI. 9 sqq.; SWETE in Dict. Christ. Biog., sv; SPECHT, Der exeget Standpunkt des Theodor u. Theodoret in Auslegung der messian. Weissagungen (Munich, 1871) KIHN Theodore von M. u. Junilius Africanus als Exegeten (Freiburg 1880); ZAHN, Das Neue Testament Theodors v. M. u. der ursprungl Kanon der Syrer in Neue kirchl. Zeitschr., XI (1900), 788-806; DENNEFELD, Der alttestam, Kanon der Antiochen. Schule (Freiburg 1909). 44-61 (Bibl. Studien, 14, 4); BAETHGEN, Der Psalmenkommentar des Theodor v. M. syrischer Bearbeitung in Zeitschr. fur alttestam. Wissenschaft, V (1885) 53-101; VI (1886) 261-88, VII (1887), 1-60; LIETZMANN, Der Psalmenkommentar Theodors v. M. in Sitzungsberichteder kgl. preussichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1902), 334-46 MERCATI, Un palimpsesto Ambrosiano dei Salmi Esapli (Turin, 1896); cf. ASCOLI, Il codice erlandese dell' Ambrosiana in Archivio glattologico itatiano, V, VI; VON DOBSCHUTZ in American Journal of Theology, II (1898), 353-87; FENDT, Die Christologie des Nesotorius (Kempten, 1910), 9-12; Theodore v. Mopsuesta; NESTLE, Theodor von M. u. Nestorius; Eine Mitteilung aus syrischen Quellen in Theolog. Studien aus Wurttemberg (1881), 210-11.第十二蒂耶蒙,回憶錄,(1732年),433 SQQ。FRIZSCHE,THEODORI Mopsuesteni VITA等scriptis(哈雷,1836年在PG轉載,LXVI。9 SQQ。的字典SWETE。基督。Biog,,SV SPECHT,德exeget Standpunkt DES西奧多U。theodoret公司在梅西安。Weissagungen Auslegung德(慕尼黑,1871年)KIHN西奧多·馮·M. U。Junilius非洲種ALS Exegeten(弗賴堡,1880年); ZAHN,達斯NEUE約Theodors訴M. U。得ursprungl加隆DER在NEUE kirchl。Zeitschr。Syrer,XI(1900),788-806; DENNEFELD,alttestam德,,加隆得Antiochen。學派(弗賴堡1909年)。44-61(Bibl.(研究),14,4); BAETHGEN,德Psalmenkommentar DES西奧多訴M. syrischer Bearbeitung在Zeitschr。毛皮alttestam。Wissenschaft,V(1885)53-101 VI(1886)261-88,VII(1887),1-60;利茨曼,的德Psalmenkommentar Theodors訴M. Sitzungsberichteder DER學問preussichen學院大廈(1902),334-46 MERCATI元palimpsesto Ambrosiano DEI薩爾米Esapli(都靈,1896年);比照ASCOLI,Il codice erlandese的戴爾的安布羅西亞支持存檔glattologico itatiano,V,VI VON DOBSCHUTZ在KGL。美國雜誌神學,二(1898),353-87; FENDT,模具Christologie DES Nesotorius(肯普滕1910年),9-12;西奧多訴Mopsuesta,雀巢,西奧多·馮·M. U。涅斯> Mitteilung AUS syrischen Quellen Theolog。(研究)澳大利亞符騰堡州(1881),210-11。


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