Waldenses瓦勒

Catholic Information 天主教信息

An heretical sect which appeared in the second half of the twelfth century and, in a considerably modified form, has survived to the present day.一個異端教派出現在下半年的12世紀,在大大改進,一直保存到現在。

NAME AND ORIGIN NAME及成因

The name was derived from Waldes their founder and occurs also in the variations of Valdesii, Vallenses.的名字來源於Waldes,他們的創始人和也發生變化的Valdesii,Vallenses。 Numerous other designations were applied to them; to their profession of extreme poverty they owed the named of "the Poor"; from their place of origin, Lyons, they were called "Leonistae"; and frequently the two ideas were combined in the title "Poor Men of Lyons".許多其他的名稱適用於他們自己的專業的極端貧困,他們欠命名的“窮人”,從他們的產地,里昂,他們被稱為“Leonistae”,並在標題中常見的兩種思路結合“里昂“可憐的人。 Their practice of wearing sandals or wooden shoes (sabots) caused them to be named "Sandaliati", "Insabbatati", "Sabbatati", Sabotiers". Anxious to surround their own history and doctrine with the halo of antiquity, some Waldenses claimed for their churches an Apostolic origin. The first Waldensian congregations, it was maintained, were established by St. Paul who, on his journey to Spain, visited the valleys of Piedmont. The history of these foundations was identified with that of primitive Christendom as long as the Church remained lowly and poor. But in the beginning of the fourth century Pope Sylvester was raised by Constantine, whom he had cured of leprosy, to a position of power and wealth, and the Papacy became unfaithful to its mission. Some Christians, however, remained true to the Faith and practice of the early days, and in the twelfth century a certain Peter appeared who, from the valleys of the Alps, was called "Waldes". He was not the founder of a new sect, but a missionary among these faithful observers of the genuine Christian law, and he gained numerous adherents. This account was, indeed, far from being universally accredited among the Waldenses; many of them, however, for a considerable period accepted as founded on fact the assertion that they originated in the time of Constantine. Others among them considered Claudius of Turin (died 840), Berengarius of Tours (died 1088), or other such men who had preceded Waldes, the first representatives of the sect. The claim of its Constantinian origin was for a long time credulously accepted as valid by Protestant historians. In the nineteenth century, however, it became evident to critics that the Waldensian documents had been tampered with. As a result the pretentious claims of the Waldenses to high antiquity were relegated to the realm of fable.他們的做法使他們的穿著涼鞋或木製鞋(木鞋)被命名為“Sandaliati”,“Insabbatati”,“Sabbatati”,Sabotiers“。焦慮與古代的光環包圍自己的歷史和教義,一些瓦勒聲稱他們的教會的使徒的起源。第一華爾眾的,也有人認為,成立了由聖保羅,在他的西班牙之旅,參觀了山谷的皮埃蒙特。只要這些基礎與原始基督教的歷史教會保持卑微和可憐,但在開始的第四個世紀的教皇西爾維斯特提出的康斯坦丁,他已治愈的麻風病,到一個位置的權力和財富,和羅馬教皇成為不忠它的使命。有些基督徒,但是,真正的信仰和實踐的初期,並在12世紀一定彼得似乎誰,從山谷的阿爾卑斯山,被稱為“Waldes”。他是不是一個新的教派的創始人,但一個傳教士之間真正的基督徒法律,這些忠實的觀察員,他贏得了眾多的追隨者。此帳戶,的確,遠沒有得到普遍認可的瓦勒之間,他們中的許多,但是,相當一個時期接受以事實為根據,斷言它們起源其中認為在康斯坦丁的時代。其他克勞狄斯的都靈(死於840),berengarius旅行團(死於1088),或要求其君士坦丁的起源是這樣的男人之前Waldes,該教派的代表。很長一段時間輕信接納為有效的新教史學家,在十九世紀,但是,很明顯的批評華爾文件已被篡改。其結果是自命不凡的瓦勒遠古時代​​的要求降級的境界寓言。

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The real founder of the sect was a wealthy merchant of Lyons who in the early documents is called Waldes (Waldo).真正的創始人,該教派是一個富有的商人里昂的早期文獻中被稱為Waldes(沃爾)。 To this name is added from 1368 the designation of Peter, assumed by him at his "conversion", or more likely, attributed to him by his followers.加入這個名字是從1368指定的彼得,假定他在他的“轉換”,或者更可能的,歸因於他由他的追隨者。 Few details concerning his personal history are known; there are extant, however, two important accounts of the complete change in his religious life; one written about 1220 by a Premonstratensian monk, usually designated as the "anonymous chronicler of Laon"; the other by a Dominican Friar and Inquisitor Stephen of Bourbon (died about 1262), and dates back to about the middle of the thirteenth century.關於他的個人歷史的一些細節是已知的;有現存的,但是,其他兩個重要的賬目完全改變他的宗教生活中,一個寫的Premonstratensian和尚,通常被指定為“無名氏chronicler的拉昂”1220多米尼加修道士和審判官斯蒂芬·波旁(死於約1262),並可以追溯到大約中間的13世紀。 The former writer assigns a prominent place to the influence exercised on Waldes by the history of St. Alexius, while the latter makes no mention of it but speaks of his acquaintance with the contents of the Bible through translations.前者作家分配一個顯眼的地方的影響行使Waldes聖亞歷克修斯的歷史,而後者則沒有提到它,但說他的熟人與“聖經”的內容,通過翻譯。 The history of Waldes's conversion may perhaps be reconstructed in the following manner. Waldes的轉換的歷史也許可以通過以下方式重建。 Desirous of acquiring a knowledge of biblical teaching, Waldes requested two priests to translate for him the four Gospels.希望獲取知識的聖經教導,Waldes要求兩個牧師為他翻譯的四福音書。 In a similar manner he subsequently obtained translations of other Biblical books and of some writings of the Fathers.以類似的方式,他後來獲得了翻譯聖經的書籍和一些著作的父親。

Through the reading of these works he was attracted to the practice of Christian perfection; his fervour increased when one day he heard from an itinerant singer (ioculator) the history of St. Alexius.通過閱讀這些作品中,他被吸引到的基督教完善的實踐,他的熱情增加時,有一天他聽到從一個流動的的歌手(ioculator)聖亞歷克修斯的歷史。 He now consulted a master of theology on the best and surest way to salvation.現在,他諮詢了神學碩士學位的最好的和最可靠的方法來得救。 In answer the words of Christ to the rich young man were cited to him: "If thou wilt be perfect, go sell what thou hast, and give to the poor."在回答被引用基督的話,以豐富的年輕男子對他說:“你若願意作完全人,就去賣什麼,你,並給窮人。” (Matthew 19:21). (馬太福音19:21)。 Waldes immediately put into effect the counsel of the Divine Master. Waldes立即投入影響了律師的神聖的主人。 He made over part of his wealth to his wife, part to those from whom he had acquired it, left some to the nuns of Fontevrault in whose monastery he placed his two little daughters, and distributed the greatest part to the poor.他做了他的財富的一部分,留下了一些修女們的Fontevrault的寺院,他把他的兩個小女兒,並分發給窮人最大的一部分,他的妻子,從他收購了部分。 On the feast of the Assumption, 1176, he disposed of the last of his earthly possessions and shortly after took the vow of poverty.在節日的設想,1176,他最後他的財產出售後不久,宣了誓,貧困。 His example created a great stir in Lyons and soon found imitators, particularly among the lower and uneducated classes.他的例子創建了極大的轟動,在里昂和很快就發現模仿,尤其是在較低的和沒有受過教育的階層。 A special confraternity was established for the practice of apostolic poverty.一個特殊的幫會成立的使徒貧困的做法。 Its members almost immediately began to preach in the streets and public places and gained more adherents.其成員幾乎立即開始傳教,在街道和公共場所,並獲得了更多的信徒。 Their preaching, however, was not unmixed with doctrinal error and was consequently prohibited, according to Stephen of Bourbon, by the Archbishop of Lyons, according to Walter Map, present at the assembly, by the Third General Lateran Council (1179).然而,他們的說教,沒有混合有教義的錯誤,並因此被禁止,根據斯蒂芬的波旁,里昂大主教,根據沃爾特地圖,在大會上,第三代的拉特蘭會議(1179)。 The Waldenses, instead of heeding the prohibition, continued to preach on the plea that obedience is due rather to God than to man.瓦勒度派,而不是不顧禁令,繼續鼓吹認罪,服從,而不是對人,而是由於上帝。 Pope Lucius III consequently included them among the heretics against whom he issued a Bull of excommunication at Verona in 1184.教皇盧修斯III因此包括他們之間的異端,對他發出了牛市的禁教,在維羅納在1184。

DOCTRINE教義

The organization of the Waldenses was a reaction against the great splendour and outward display existing in the medieval Church; it was a practical protest against the worldly lives of some contemporary churchmen.該組織的瓦勒反應對偉大的輝煌和向外展示在中世紀的教會存在的,它是一個實際的世俗生活的一些當代牧師抗議。 Amid such ecclesiastical conditions the Waldenses made the profession of extreme poverty a prominent feature in their own lives, and emphasized by their practice the need for the much neglected task of preaching.伴隨著如此教會的瓦勒專業的在自己的生活極端貧困的一個突出特點,並強調他們的實踐需要備受忽視的任務的說教。 As they were mainly recruited among circles not only devoid of theological training, but also lacking generally in education, it was inevitable that error should mar their teaching, and just as inevitable that, in consequence, ecclesiastical authorities should put a stop to their evangelistic work.他們主要是中招募界不僅缺乏神學訓練,但還缺乏普遍的教育,這是不可避免的錯誤破壞教學,是不可避免的,因此,教會當局應制止他們的福音工作。 Among the doctrinal errors which they propagated was the denial of purgatory, and of indulgences and prayers for the dead.他們傳播的理論錯誤是否定的煉獄,以及indulgences和為死者祈禱。 They denounced all lying as a grievous sin, refused to take oaths and considered the shedding of human blood unlawful.他們譴責所有說謊,一個嚴重的罪,拒絕宣誓,並認為人體血液中的脫落非法。 They consequently condemned war and the infliction of the death penalty.因此,他們譴責戰爭和施加死刑。 Some points in this teaching so strikingly resemble the Cathari that the borrowing of the Waldenses from them may be looked upon as a certainty.在這個教學的幾點如此驚人的相似卡塔利,從他們的瓦勒的借款可能會被看作是板上釘釘的事情。 Both sects also had a similar organization, being divided into two classes, the Perfect (perfecti) and the Friends or Believers (amici or credentes).這兩個教派也有一個類似的組織,被分成兩個班,的完美(perfecti)和朋友或信徒(阿米奇或credentes)。 (See CATHARI and ALBIGENSES.) (見卡塔利和比根斯派)。

Among the Waldenses the perfect, bound by the vow of poverty, wandered about from place to place preaching.其中瓦勒完美的,貧困的誓言的約束,從地方到另一個地方講道洪荒之約。 Such an itinerant life was ill-suited for the married state, and to the profession of poverty they added the vow of chastity.這樣的江湖生活是不適合已婚狀態,和專業的貧困,他們加入了誓言的貞潔。 Married persons who desired to join them were permitted to dissolve their union without the consent of their consort.允許已婚人士誰想要加入他們的行列,他們的勾勾搭搭不同意解散他們的結合。 Orderly government was secured by the additional vow of obedience to superiors.有秩序的政府,抵押額外的誓言服從上級的。 The perfect were not allowed to perform manual labour, but were to depend for their subsistence on the members of the sect known as the friends.完美不允許從事體力勞動,但要取決於他們的生活,該教派的成員被稱為朋友。 These continued to live in the world, married, owned property, and engaged in secular pursuits.這些繼續活在世上,結婚,自有物業,並從事世俗的追求。 Their generosity and alms were to provide for the material needs of the perfect.他們的慷慨和施捨提供物質需求的完美。 The friends remained in union with the Catholic Church and continued to receive its sacraments with the exception of penance, for which they sought out, whenever possible, one of their own ministers.留在工會與天主教會的朋友,並繼續接受其聖禮除懺悔,他們尋求的,只要有可能,自己的部長之一。 The name Waldenses was at first exclusively reserved to the perfect; but in the course of the thirteenth century the friends were also included in the designation.瓦勒的名稱在第一次專門保留的完美,但在十三世紀的過程中,朋友們也包含在指定。 The perfect were divided into the three classes of bishops, priests, and deacons.完美分為三類主教,司鐸和執事。 The bishop, called "major" or "majoralis", preached and administered the sacraments of penance, Eucharist, and order.主教,被稱為“大”或“majoralis”,鼓吹和管理聖禮的懺悔,聖體聖事,和秩序。 The celebration of the Eucharist, frequent perhaps in the early period, soon took place only on Holy Thursday.慶祝聖體聖事,也許在初期頻繁,很快就只在聖週四的地方。 The priest preached and enjoyed limited faculties for the hearing of confessions.牧師講道,並享有有限的院系聽證會的供述。 The deacon, named "junior" or "minor", acted as assistant to the higher orders and by the collection of alms relieved them of all material care.執事,名為“初級”或“小”,擔任助理較高的訂單和收集的施捨解除了他們的所有物質照顧。 The bishop was elected by a joint meeting of priests and deacons.司鐸和執事,主教當選的聯席會議。 In his consecration, as well as in the ordination of the other members of the clergy, the laying-on of hands was the principal element; but the recitation of the Our Father, so important in the Waldensian liturgy, was also a prominent feature.他的奉獻,以及在協調其他成員的神職人員,鋪設的手是主要的因素,但我們的父親背誦,所以重要的在華爾禮儀,也是一個突出的特點。 The power of jurisdiction seems to have been exercised exclusively by one bishop, known as the "rector", who was the highest executive officer.似乎已經完全由一位主教,被稱為“校長”,誰是最高行政長官行使權力管轄範圍內。 Supreme legislative power was vested in the general convention or general chapter, which met once or twice a year, and was originally composed of the perfect but at a later date only of the senior members among them.最高立法權歸屬於一般的慣例或一般章,並舉行了一次或兩次,一年,原本是完美的,但在以後的日子只有其中的資深成員組成的。 It considered the general situation of the sect, examined the religious condition of the individual districts, admitted to the episcopate, priesthood, or diaconate, and pronounced upon the admission of new members and the expulsion of unworthy ones.它認為該教派的總體情況,考察了宗教狀況的個別地區,承認的主教,神職人員,或執事,宣判後接納新成員,並驅逐不值得的。

The Lombard communities were in several respects more radical than the French.倫巴第社區在以下幾個方面比法國人更激進。 Holding that the validity of the sacraments depends on the worthiness of the minister and viewing the Catholic Church as the community of Satan, they rejected its entire organization in so far as it was not based on the Scriptures.聖禮的有效性依賴於老有所為的部長和觀看天主教教會作為社會的撒旦,他們拒絕了其整個組織,到目前為止,因為它不是基於聖經。 In regard to the reception of the sacraments, their practice was less radical than their theory.對於接收的聖禮,比他們的理論,他們的做法是不那麼激進。 Although they looked upon the Catholic priests as unworthy ministers, they not infrequently received communion at their hands and justified this course on the grounds that God nullifies the defect of the minister and directly grants his grace to the worthy recipient.雖然他們看不值得部長的天主教神父,他們經常收到他們的手交流和這門課程的理由,理由是上帝的部長和無效的缺陷,直接授予他的恩典,值得收件人。 The present Waldensian Church may be regarded as a Protestant sect of the Calvinistic type.本華爾教會可能會被視為一個新教教派的calvinistic類型。 It recognizes as its doctrinal standard the confession of faith published in 1655 and based on the Reformed confession of 1559.它認識到作為其教義標準的信仰告白於1655年出版,並根據1559年的改革表白。 It admits only two sacraments, baptism and the Lord's Supper.它承認只有兩個聖禮,洗禮和主的晚餐。 Supreme authority in the body is exercised by an annual synod, and the affairs of the individual congregations are administered by a consistory under the presidency of the pastor.在體內行使最高權力機構,每年主教,在牧師的主持下由consistory和個別教會的事務進行管理。

HISTORY歷史

The Waldenses in France and Spain在法國和西班牙的瓦勒

The preaching of Waldes and his disciples obtained immediate success not only in France, but also in Italy and Spain.獲得的Waldes和他的弟子們說教立即獲得了成功,不僅在法國,而且在意大利和西班牙。 The Italian adherents at a very early date constituted themselves independently.意大利的信徒在非常早的日期構成自己的獨立。 In France the movement gained ground particularly in the South, whence it spread to Northern Spain.在法國運動抬頭,特別是在南方,從那裡蔓延到西班牙北部。 The Church sought to avert by persuasion the danger of numerous defections.教會試圖避免通過說服眾多倒戈的危險。 As early as 1191 a religious conference was held between Catholics and Waldenses at a place which has not been recorded; it was followed by a second held at Pamiers in 1207.早在1191年,一個宗教會議之間舉行天主教徒和瓦勒在一個地方,沒有被記錄,其次是帕米耶在1207年舉行的第二。 The latter meeting brought about a return to the Church of Duran of Huesca and several other Waldenses.後一次會議上對教會的杜蘭,韋斯卡和其他幾個瓦勒帶來的回報。 With the authorization of Innocent III they organized themselves into the special religious order of the Poor Catholics for the conversion of Waldenses.隨著英諾森三世的授權,他們自己組織的瓦勒轉換到特殊的宗教秩序的差天主教徒。 This purpose was attained only in a very small degree; but force soon checked the heretical movement.達到這個目的只有一個非常小的程度,但力很快就檢查了邪教運動。 In 1192 Bishop Otto of Toul ordered all Waldenses to be put in chains and delivered up to the episcopal tribunal.在1192主教奧托TOUL下令所有瓦勒鏈,發表的主教法庭。 Two years later King Alphonso II of Aragon banished them from his dominions and forbade anyone to furnish them with shelter or food.兩年後,阿拉貢國王阿方索二世放逐從他的統治,並禁止任何人向它們提供住房或食物。 These provisions were renewed by Pedro II at the Council of Gerona (1197), and death by burning was decreed against the heretics.這些條文續期佩德羅二世理事會的赫羅納(1197),並通過燃燒死亡下令對異教徒。

The French authorities seem to have proceeded with less severity for a time.法國當局似乎已經嚴重程度不高的時間進行。 The Albigensian wars, however, also reacted on the policy towards the Waldenses, and in 1214 seven of these suffered the death penalty at Maurillac.阿爾比派的戰爭,但是,也反應對瓦勒的政策,並於1214年7這些遭受死刑,Maurillac。 But it was only toward the middle of the thirteenth century that the heresy lost ground in Provence and Languedoc.但它只是向中間的13世紀,普羅旺斯和朗格多克的異端邪說失地。 It did not disappear in these provinces until it was merged in the Protestant Reformation movement, while Spain and Lorraine were freed from it in the course of the thirteenth century.它並沒有消失,在這些省份,直到它被合併,在新教改革運動,而西班牙和洛林被釋放,從它在使用過程中的13世紀。 The most conspicuous centre of Waldensian activity in France during the later middle ages was Dauphiné and the western slope of the Cottian Alps.在中世紀晚期的法國華爾活動中最引人注目的中心,是多菲和的Cottian阿爾卑斯山的西坡。 The sect seems to have been introduced in to this territory from Lombardy.該教派似乎已被引入到這個地方從倫巴第大區。 From Dauphiné and the valleys of the Alps it carried on missionary work in all Southern France to the Atlantic seaboard.從多菲和阿爾卑斯山的山谷,它在所有法國南部的大西洋海岸進行傳教工作。 In 1403 a determined effort was made to win back the Waldenses of the valleys of Louise, Argentière, and Freissinièeres; but the apostolic labours of even a St. Vincent Ferrer were powerless.於1403年下決心贏回瓦勒的路易絲,Argentière,Freissinièeres的的山谷的,但即使是聖文森特費雷爾的使徒勞動力無能為力。 The Inquisition was equally unsuccessful, as were also the stern measures of the local civil authorities.宗教裁判所同樣不成功,作為當地公務員主管部門的嚴厲措施。 The policy of repression was temporarily abandoned under King Louis XI, who, believing them to be orthodox, extended to the Waldenses of the above-mentioned valleys his royal protection in an ordinance of 1478.政策的壓制下暫時放棄了國王路易十一的人,相信他們是正統的,擴展到瓦勒上述的山谷,他的王室保護條例“,1478。

This period of peace was followed in 1488 by a crusade summoned by Innocent VIII against the Waldenses.隨後在1488召見英諾森八世的十字軍東征,對瓦勒這一時期的和平。 The war did not succeed in stamping them out.沖壓出來的戰爭並沒有成功。 But, soon after, the Reformation profoundly modified the sect's history and doctrinal development.但是,不久之後,改革極大地改變該教派的歷史和理論的發展。 A deputation composed of G. Morel and P. Masson was sent in 1530 to Switzerland for information concerning the new religious ideas. G.莫雷爾和P.馬尾組成的一個代表團,於1530年被派往瑞士的信息,新的宗教觀念。 On their return journey Masson was arrested at Dijon and executed; Morel alone safely accomplished his mission.在他們的回歸之旅馬森在第戎被逮捕和執行;莫雷爾獨自安全地完成了他的使命。 The report of this journey led to the assembling of a general convention to which Farel and other Swiss Reformers were invited.這個旅程的報告的裝配法惹勒和瑞士其他改革者被邀請的一般慣例。 The meeting was held at Chanforans in the valley of Angrogne and the Reformed teaching substantially adopted (1532).舉行了一次會議在Chanforans在Angrogne的山谷和改革教學大大通過(1532年)。 A minority opposed this course and vainly sought to stem the tied of radicalism by an appeal for assistance to the Bohemian Brethren.少數人反對這門課程,徒勞地試圖阻止協助的波希米亞弟兄們的上訴被捆綁的激進主義。 A new convention held in the valley of St. Martin in 1533 confirmed the decisions of Chanforans.在山谷中的聖·馬丁在1533年舉行的一項新的公約證實了的決定Chanforans。 The open adoption of Protestantism soon led to the persecution in which Waldensianism disappeared from Provence (1545).開放式採用的新教很快導致的迫害的Waldensianism消失普羅旺斯(1545)。 The history of the communities in other districts became henceforth identified with that of Protestantism in France.其他地區的社區成為今後與法國新教的歷史。

The Waldenses in Italy and Other Countries在意大利和其他國家的瓦勒

Italy became a more permanent home of Waldensianism and more active in missionary work than France.意大利成為一個更永久的家Waldensianism,比法國更積極的傳教工作。 During the very first years of Waldes's preaching, converts to his views are mentioned in Lombardy.在最初幾年的Waldes的說教,把他的觀點中提到的倫巴第大區。 They increased rapidly in number and were joined by some members of the Order of Humiliati.他們的數量迅速增加,並加入了一些成員的順序Humiliati。 But dissensions soon arose between the Waldensians in France and in Lombardy.但韋爾在法國和倫巴第大區之間的糾紛很快就出現了。 The latter organized guilds of craftsmen, desired leaders of their own, and refused admission among the perfect to married persons without the consent of their consort.後者組織工匠的行會,期望他們自己的領導人,並拒絕接受之間的完美已婚人士不同意他們的勾勾搭搭。 On Waldes's refusal to sanction these points, his followers in Italy seceded during the first decade of the thirteenth century.在Waldes的拒絕制裁這些點的,他的追隨者在意大利的13世紀第一個十年中分離出去。 After his death a vain attempt at reunion was made at Bergamo in 1218.在他去世後,妄圖在留尼汪是在貝加莫於1218年。 The Italian branch after some time not only prospered in the valleys of western Piedmont, but also established important colonies in Calabria and Apulia.意大利分公司不僅繁榮了一段時間後,在山谷的西部山前平原,而且還建立了重要的殖民地,在卡拉布里亞和普利亞。 In the fifteenth century communities hardly less important are mentioned in the Papal States and other parts of Central Italy.在15世紀社區幾乎同樣重要的是提到在教皇國和意大利中部的其他地區。

The appearance of the Waldenses in the Diocese of Strasburg is recorded in 1211 and the years 1231-1233 were marked in Germany by resolute efforts to stamp out their errors.瓦勒在斯特拉斯堡教區的外觀被記錄在1211年1231-1233年在德國的堅決努力,以杜絕他們的錯誤標記。 But soon, adherents of the sect were found in Bavaria, Austria, and other sections.但很快發現,該教派的信徒在巴伐利亞,奧地利和其他部分。 They spread in the north to the shores of the Baltic Sea, and in the east to Bohemia, Poland and Hungary.他們分佈在北部的波羅的海沿岸,在東波西米亞,波蘭和匈牙利。 With the appearance of new heresies they at times partly lost their distinctive character.隨著出現新的異端邪說,他們有時部分失去了其鮮明的時代特色。 In Bohemia they amalgamated with the Hussites and the Bohemian Brethren without losing all their peculiarities.在波希米亞胡斯派的的波希米亞弟兄們沒有失去其特點與他們合併。

Protestantism was still more readily accepted.新教仍然是更容易被接受。 Not only were its teachings universally adopted, but numerous Waldensian communities were merged in the Protestant churches, the Italian congregations alone retaining an independent existence and the original name.不僅其教義的普遍採用,但​​許多華爾社區合併,在新教教會,意大利眾單獨保留一個獨立的存在,原來的名稱。 Those in the Piedmont valleys enjoyed religious peace from 1536-1559, owing to the political dependence of the districts upon France.那些在皮埃蒙特大峽谷享有宗教和平從1536年至1559年,由於在法國的政治依賴的地區。 A contrary policy was pursued by the Dukes of Savoy; but the Waldenses at the very outset successfully resisted, and in 1561 were granted in certain districts the free exercise of their religion.相反的政策所追求的薩伏伊公爵,但,瓦勒在一開始就成功地抵禦了,並於1561年被授予在某些地區自由地行使他們的宗教。 In 1655 violence was again fruitlessly resorted to.在1655年的暴力行動再次徒勞地使出。 Later in the same century (1686, 1699) some of them, under stress of renewed persecution, emigrated to Switzerland and Germany.後來在同一個世紀(1686,1699),其中的一些,在壓力下再次迫害,移居到瑞士和德國。 In Piedmont, civil equality was granted them in 1799 when the French occupied the country.在皮埃蒙特,公民平等權被授予了他們在1799年時,法國人佔領了該國。 They enjoyed this peace until the downfall of Napoleon I, but again lost it at the return of the house of Savoy.他們享有和平,直到拿破崙一世的倒台,但再次失去了它的房子的薩伏伊的回報。 From 1816 onward, however, gradual concessions were made to the Waldenses, and in 1848 Charles Albert granted them complete and permanent liberty.然而,從1816年起,逐步讓步的瓦勒,並在1848年查爾斯·阿爾伯特給予他們完全和永久的自由。 Renewed activity has since marked their history.恢復活動,標誌著他們的歷史。 They founded in 1855 a school of theology at Torre Pellice and transferred it to Florence in 1860.他們於1855年成立一所學校的神學Torre Pellice的,並於1860年轉移到佛羅倫薩。 Through emigration they have spread to several cities of Southern France, and also to North and South America.通過移民,他們已經蔓延到法國南部的幾個城市,也是北美和南美。 There are five congregations in Uruguay and two in Argentina.有五個教會在烏拉圭和阿根廷的兩個。 Three colonies have settled in the United States: at Wolfe Ridge, Texas; Valdese, North Carolina; and Monett, Missouri.三殖民地定居在美國:在沃爾夫嶺,得克薩斯州,北卡羅萊納州Valdese和旅遊Monett,密蘇里。 The communities which in the seventeenth century settled in Germany have since severed their connection with the church and abandoned their original language.社區,在17世紀定居在德國已斷絕了與教會,放棄了他們原來的語言。 In Hesse-Darmstadt they were prohibited the use of French in 1820-21; in Würtemberg they joined the Lutheran State Church in 1823.在黑森州達姆施塔特他們被禁止使用法國在1820至1821年,在符騰堡在1823年,他們加入了路德教會。 Later on, they began receiving financial support from the "American Waldensian Aid Society" founded in 1906, and from a similar organization in Great Britain.後來,他們開始接受“美國華爾援助協會”成立於1906年,並從一個類似的組織在英國的金融支持。

Publication information Written by NA Weber.出版信息作者:NA韋伯。 Transcribed by Anthony A. Killeen.轉錄由Anthony A.基林。 Aeterna non caduca The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XV.永恆非caduca天主教百科全書,卷XV。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, October 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat,1912年10月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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