West Syrian Rite西敘利亞成年禮

Catholic Information 天主教信息

The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language.禮樂用詹姆斯黨教派在敘利亞和由天主教敘利亞人,是在其原產地,只不過是舊成年禮安提在敘利亞的語言。 Into this framework the Jacobites have fitted a great number of other Anaphoras, so that now their Liturgy has more variant forms than any other.到這個框架中,​​jacobites都裝有一個大量的其他anaphoras的,所以現在,他們的禮儀中有更多的變異形式比任何其他。 The oldest form of the Antiochene Rite that we know is in Greek (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY).最古老的形式,我們知道的安提阿學派成年禮是在希臘文(見安提阿學派禮儀)。 It was apparently composed in that language.這顯然是由這種語言。 The many Greek terms that remain in the Syriac form show that this is derived from Greek.許多希臘條款仍然留在敘利亞的形式顯示,這是來自希臘。 The version must have been made very early, evidently before the Monophysite schism, before the influence of Constantinople and Byzantine infiltrations had begun.該版本必須非常早,顯然前monophysite分裂,君士坦丁堡和拜占庭滲透的影響之前就已經開始。 No doubt as soon as Christian communities arose in the country parts of Syria the prayers which in the cities (Antioch, Jerusalem, etc.) were said in Greek, were, as a matter of course, translated into the peasants' language (Syriac) for their use.毫無疑問,盡快基督教社區發生在該國的部分敘利亞祈禱,其中,在城市(安提阿,耶路撒冷等),據說在希臘,作為的問題,當然,轉化為農民的語言(敘利亞)供其使用。 The "Peregrinatio Silviae" describes the services at Jerusalem as being Greek; but the lessons, first read in Greek, are then translated into Syriac propter populum.的的的“的Peregrinatio Silviae”描述了在耶路撒冷的服務作為希臘的教訓,先讀希臘,然後翻譯到敘利亞的propter的populum的。 As long as all Western Syria was one communion, the country dioceses followed the rite of the patriarch at Antioch, only changing the language.只要所有西方敘利亞是一個共融,為國家教區遵循成年禮的老人家在安提,不但改變了語言。 Modifications adopted at Antioch in Greek were copied in Syriac by those who said their prayers in the national tongue.修改通過在安提阿在希臘抄在敘利亞文說他們祈禱,在全國舌頭。 This point is important because the Syriac Liturgy (in its fundamental form) already contains all the changes brought to Antioch from Jerusalem.這一點很重要,因為敘利亞文禮儀在其基本形式已經包含了所有帶來的變化,從耶路撒冷到安提阿。 It is not the older pure Antiochene Rite, but the later Rite of Jerusalem-Antioch.這是不是舊純安提阿學派成年禮,但後來成年禮的耶路撒冷,安提阿。 "St. James", prays first not for the Church of Antioch, but "for the holy Sion, the mother of all churches" (Brightman, pp. 89-90).安提阿教會的“聖雅各福群會”,祈禱先不要,但“聖錫永,母親的所有教堂”(布萊曼,第89-90頁)。 The fact that the Jacobites as well as the Orthodox have the Jerusalem-Antiochene Liturgy is the chief proof that this had supplanted the older Antiochene use before the schism of the fifth century. jacobites以及東正教有耶路撒冷安提阿學派禮儀的事實,是行政證明這supplanted老安提阿學派使用前第五世紀的分裂。

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Our first Syriac documents come from about the end of the fifth century ("Testamentum Domini," ed. by Ignatius Rahmani II, Life of Severus of Antioch, sixth century).我們的第一個來自敘利亞的文件即將結束的第五世紀(Testamentum多米尼“版由拉赫馬尼II伊格內修斯,生活西弗勒斯的安提阿,公元六世紀)。 They give us valuable information about local forms of the Rite of Antioch-Jerusalem.他們給我們的安提阿,耶路撒冷的成年禮,對於本地形式的有價值的信息。 The Jacobite sect kept a version of this rite which is obviously a local variant.詹姆斯黨教派保持一個版本的儀式,這顯然是一個地方變形。 Its scheme and most of its prayers correspond to those of the Greek St. James; but it has amplifications and omissions, such as we find in all local forms of early rites.其計劃和它的大部分祈禱對應於的希臘聖雅各福群會的,但它已擴增和作為,如我們發現,在所有本地形式的早期儀式。 It seems too that the Jacobites after the schism made some modifications.它似乎過於分裂後,即jacobites做了一些修改。 We know this for certain in one point (the Trisagion).我們知道這一定在一個點(在Trisagion“)。 The first Jacobite writer on their rite is James of Edessa (d. 708), who wrote a letter to a priest Thomas comparing the Syrian Liturgy with that of Egypt.第一詹姆士派作家對自己的成年禮,是詹姆斯的edessa(四708),他寫了一封信給一名牧師托馬​​斯比較敘利亞禮儀與埃及。 This letter is an exceedingly valuable and really critical discussion of the rite.此信是一個極其寶貴的,真正關鍵的討論的成年禮。 A number of later Jacobite writers followed James of Edessa.許多後來的詹姆士派作家詹姆斯隨後的edessa。 On the whole this sect produced the first scientific students of liturgy.在這整個節產生了第一個科學的學生的禮儀。 Benjamin of Edessa (period unknown), Lazarus bar Sabhetha of Bagdad (ninth century), Moses bar Kephas of Mosul (d. 903), Dionysuis bar Salibhi of Amida (d. 1171) wrote valuable commentaries on the Jacobite Rite.本傑明的埃德薩(週期不詳),,巴格達拉撒路酒吧Sabhetha的(第九世紀),摩西酒吧kephas摩蘇爾(卒於903年),阿彌陀dionysuis酒吧Salibhi(卒於1171年)寫了寶貴的評論,詹姆斯黨成年禮。 In the eighth and ninth centuries a controversy concerning the prayer at the Fraction produced much liturgical literature.在第八和第九世紀的爭議有關祈禱,在小生產的許多禮儀文學。 The chronicle of their Patriarch Michael the Great (d. 1199) discusses the question and supplies valuable contemporary documents.紀事他們的牧首邁克爾偉大(卒於1199年)討論了這個問題,並提供了寶貴當代文件。

The oldest Jacobite Liturgy extant is the one ascribed (as in its Greek form) to St. James.禮儀中現存的最古老的詹姆斯是一個屬於(希臘),聖雅各福群會。 It is in the dialect of Edessa.它是在埃德薩的方言。 The pro-anaphoral part of this is the Ordo communis to which the other later Anaphoras are joined.的親,anaphoral的一部分,這是後anaphoras是加入奧群落。 It is printed in Latin by Renaudot (II, 1-44) and in English by Brightman (pp. 69-110).這是印在拉丁語由勒諾多(II 1-44)和英語,由布萊曼(第69-110)。 This follows the Greek St. James (see ANTIOCHENE LITURGY) with these differences.這是繼希臘聖雅各福群會(見安提阿學派禮儀),這些分歧。 All the vesting prayer and preparation of the offering (Proskomide) are considerably expanded, and the prayers differ.全部轉歸的祈禱和編制發售(Proskomide)是大大擴大,並祈禱不同。 This part of the Liturgy is most subject to modification; it began as private prayer only.這部分的禮儀中,最受到改裝,它開始僅作為私人祈禱。 The Monogenes comes later; the litany before the lessons is missing; the incensing is expanded into a more elaborate rite. Monogenes後來的一長串之前教訓丟失; incensing是,擴展到一個更複雜的儀式。 The Trisagion comes after the lessons from the Old Testament; it contains the addition: "who wast crucified for us".該Trisagion從舊約的教訓後,它包含了另外:“誰廢釘在十字架上為我們”。 This is the most famous characteristic of the Jacobite Rite.這是最有名的特點詹姆斯黨成年禮。 The clause was added by Peter the Dyer (Fullo), Monophysite Patriarch of Antioch (d. 488), was believed to imply Monophysism and caused much controversy during these times, eventually becoming a kind of watchword to the Jacobites (see Zacharias Rhetor, "Hist. eccl.", PG 85, 1165).該條款補充說彼得的代爾(fullo)的monophysite牧安提(卒於488年),被認為暗示monophysism的和引起很大爭議,在這些時候,終於成為一種口號,向jacobites(見撒迦利亞rhetor,的“組織胺。傳道書。“,PG 85,1165)。 The litany between the lessons is represented by the word Kurillison said thrice.紙之間的教訓為代表的字Kurillison說三次。 There is no chant at the Great Entrance (a Byzantine addition in the Greek Rite).有沒有呼喊聲,在大門口(拜占庭此外,在希臘的成年禮)。 The long Offertory prayers of the Greek Rite do not occur.的希臘成年禮的長期offertory祈禱不會發生。 The Epiklesis and Intercession are much the same as in Greek.在希臘大致相同的epiklesis和干涉。 The Lord's Prayer follows the Fraction.主禱文如下組分。 At the Communion-litany the answer is Halleluiah instead of Kyrie eleison.在共融的一連串的答案是哈利路亞而非垂憐。

In this Syriac Liturgy many Greek forms remain: Stomen kalos, Kurillison, Sophia, Proschomen, etc. Renaudot gives also a second form of the Ordo communis (II, 12-28) with many variants.在這敘利亞文禮儀,許多希臘形式存在:索菲亞,stomen的Kalos,Kurillison,Proschomen,等勒諾多也給另一種形式的奧群落(12-28),與許多變種。 To the Ordo communis the Jacobites have added a very great number of alternative Anaphoras, many of which have not been published.奧群落內,jacobites都增加了一個非常了不起的數字的的替代Anaphoras,其中有許多尚未公佈。 These Anaphoras are ascribed to all manner of people; they were composed at very different periods.這些anaphoras是歸因於各種各樣的人,他們在在非常不同時期組成。 One explanation of their attribution to various saints is that they were originally used on their feasts.它們的歸屬問題,以各種聖人的一種解釋是,他們原本是用在他們的節日。

Renaudot translated and published thirty-nine of these.勒諾39的翻譯和出版。 After that, the Liturgy of St. of St. James follows (in his work) a shortened form of the same.在那之後,禮儀聖的聖雅各福群會(他的工作)的縮寫形式相同。 This is the one commonly used today.這是一個常用的今天。 Then:然後:

Xystus, which is placed first in the Maronite books; of St. Peter; another of St. Peter; of St. John; of the Twelve Apostles; of St. Mark; of St. Clement of Rome; of St. Dionysius; of St. Ignatius; of St. Julius of Rome; of St. Eustathius; of St. John Chrysostom; of St. Chrysostom (from Chaldaean sources); of St. Maruta; of St. Cyril; of Dioscor; of Philoxenus of Hierapolis; a second Liturgy also ascribed to him; of Serverus of Antioch; of James Baradæus; of Mathew the Shepherd; of St. James of Botnan and Serug; of James of Edessa, the Interpreter; of Thomas of Heraclea; of Moses bar Kephas; of Philoxenus of Bagdad; of the Doctors, arranged by John the Great, Patriarch; of John of Basora; of Michael of Antioch; of Dionysius Bar-Salibhi; of Gregory Bar-Hebraeus; of St. John the Patriarch, called Acoemetus (Akoimetos); of St. Dioscor of Kardu; John, Patriarch of Antioch; of Ignatius of Antioch (Joseph Ibn Wahib); of St. Basil (another version, by Masius). Xystus,這是擺在第一的龍族的書籍的聖彼得大教堂的聖彼得大教堂,聖約翰的十二使徒岩(Twelve Apostles),聖馬可的聖克萊門特的羅馬聖狄奧尼修斯;聖依納爵聖朱利葉斯的羅馬聖歐斯塔修斯的聖約翰金口,聖金口(從chaldaean源)聖丸田的圣西里爾; Dioscor希拉波利斯的Philoxenus;第二個禮拜儀式,也歸功於他的安提阿的Serverus;詹姆斯·Baradæus;馬修牧羊人的聖雅各福群會的botnan和serug;詹姆斯的edessa,口譯;托馬斯赫刺克勒斯;摩西酒吧kephas;的巴格達的醫生,安排在約翰的偉大,牧首;,約翰的Basora;邁克爾安提;,狄奧尼修斯酒吧Salibhi;,格雷戈里酒吧Hebraeus Philoxenus聖約翰祖師,稱為Acoemetus(Akoimetos) ;聖Dioscor的Kardu;約翰,牧,安提阿的伊格內修斯的安提阿(約瑟夫伊本wahib);聖羅勒(另一版本中,馬修斯)。

Brightman (pp. lviii-lix) mentions sixty-four Liturgies as known, at least by name.布萊曼(第LVIII-59)中提到64的禮儀所知,至少名字。 Notes of this bewildring number of Anaphoras will be found after each in Renaudot.被發現後,在勒諾多的這bewildring的Anaphoras的注意事項。 In most cases all he can say is that he knows nothing of the real author; often the names affixed are otherwise unknown.在大多數情況下,他可以說的是,他什麼都不知道了真正的作者,經常的名字貼在其他方面不明。 Many Anaphoras are obviously quite late, inflated with long prayers and rhetorical, expressions, many contain Monophysite ideas, some are insufficient at the consecration so as to be invalid.許多anaphoras是顯然已經很晚了,,膨脹很長的禱告和修辭,表達,多含有基督一性論的思想,一些奉獻是不夠的,因此是無效的。 Baumstark (Die Messe im Morgenland, 44-46) thinks the Anaphora of St. Ignatius most important, as containing parts of the old pure Antiochene Rite.鮑姆施塔克(模具展覽的IM Morgenland,44-46)認為照應的聖依納爵最重要的,因為含有部分舊純安提阿學派成年禮。 He considers that many attributions to later Jacobite authors may be correct, that the Liturgy of Ignatius of Antioch (Joseph Ibn Wahib; d. 1304) is the latest.他認為,許多屬性,以後來詹姆士派作家可能是正確的,即禮儀的安提阿的伊格內修斯(約瑟夫伊本wahib; 1304)是最新的。 Most of these Anaphoras have now fallen into disuse.大多數的這些anaphoras已陷入廢棄。 The Jacobite celebrant generally uses the shortened form of St. James.詹姆斯監禮人通常使用的聖雅各福群會縮短。 There is an Armenian version (shortened) of the Syriac St. James.有一個亞美尼亞語版(縮短)的敘利亞聖雅各福群會。 The Liturgy is said in Syriac with (since the fifteenth century) many Arabic substitutions in the lessons and proanaphoral prayers. (自十五世紀)許多阿拉伯語替換在的經驗和proanaphoral的祈禱禮儀中,是說在敘利亞。 The Lectionary and Diaconicum have not been published and are badly known. Lectionary和diaconicum尚未發表,並受到嚴重眾所周知的。 The vestments correspond almost exactly to those of the Orthodox, except that the bishop wears a latinized mitre.的法衣幾乎完全符合,除了東正教主教穿的是拉丁化的人字。 The Calendar has few feasts.日曆已經數節日。 It follows in its main lines the older of Antioch, observed also by the Nestorians, which is the basis of the Byzantine Calendar.因此,在其主要線路上了年紀的安提阿,也觀察到的nestorians,這是基礎的拜占庭式的日曆。 Feasts are divided into three classes of dignity.節氣分為三類尊嚴。 Wednesday and Friday are fast-days.週三和週五都是快餐天。 The Divine Office consists of Vespers, Compline, Nocturns, Lauds, Terce, Sext, and None, or rather of hours that correspond to these among Latins.神聖的辦公室,由晚禱,compline,Nocturns,讚美,泰爾塞,SEXT,和“無”,或者更確切地說,對應於這些之間的拉丁人的時間。 Vespers always belongs to the following day.晚禱永遠屬於下列的一天。 The great part of this consists of long poems composed for the purpose, like the Byzantine odes.偉大的一部分,這包括長詩組成為目的,如拜占庭式的讚歌。 Baptism is performed by immersion; the priest confirms at once with chrism blessed by the patriarch.洗禮,是由浸泡;神父證實,在一次與chrism得天獨厚的族長。 Confession is not much used; it has fallen into the same decay as in most Eastern Churches.自白是沒有多大用的,它已被納入同一衰減,因為在大多數東歐教會。 Communion is administered under both kinds; the sick are anointed with oil blessed by a priest -- the ideal is to have seven priests to administer it.共融是管理下的兩種;有病是不信任與石油有福了,由一名牧師 - 理想的是有七個祭司來管理它。 The orders are bishop, priest, deacon, subdeacon, lector, and singer.訂單主教,司鐸,執事,副執事,讀者,和歌手。 There are many chorepiscopi, not ordained bishop.有的很多chorepiscopi,沒有被任命主教。 It will be seen, then, that one little Jacobite Church has followed much the same line of development in its rites as its powerful Orthodox neighbour.然後,我們將看到,一個小詹姆士派教會有許多遵循同一路線發展,其儀軌,因為其強大的東正教鄰居。

The Syrian Catholics use the same rite as the Jacobites.敘利亞天主教會使用相同的儀式,詹姆斯黨。 But (as is the case with most Eastern Rite Catholic Churches) it is better organized with them.但(的情況下,與最東部成年禮的天主教教堂),它是更好地組織與他們同在。 There is not much that can be called Romanizing in their books; but they have the advantage of well-arranged, well-edited, and well-printed books.沒有太多的在他們的著作可以被稱為羅馬,但他們的優勢在於,周密安排,精心編輯器,以及印刷的書籍。 All the great students of the West-Syrian Rite (the Assemani, Renaudot, etc.) have been Catholic.所有偉大的學生西敘利亞成年禮(Assemani,勒諾多等)一直信奉天主教。 Their knowledge and the higher Western standard of scholarship in general are advantages of which the Syrian Catholics rather than the Jacobites profit.他們的知識和較高的西方標準的獎學金,一般有優勢,其中敘利亞天主教徒,而不是向jacobites利潤。 Of the manifold Syrian Anaphoras the Catholics use seven only -- those of St. James, St.John, St. Peter, St. Chrysostom, St. Xystus, St. Mathew, and St. Basil.歧管敘利亞anaphoras天主教徒,可使用7只 - 聖雅各福群會,聖約翰,聖彼得大教堂,聖金口,聖Xystus,聖馬修,和聖羅勒。 That of St. Xystus is attached to the Ordo communis in their official book; that of St. John is said on the chief feasts.這聖Xystus的奧群落,在他們的官書;聖約翰說的主要節日。 The lessons only are in Arabic.不僅是在阿拉伯語中的經驗教訓。 It was inevitable that the Syrian Liturgies, coming from Monophysite sources, should be examined at Rome before they are allowed to Syrian Catholics.這是不可避免的,敘利亞禮儀,來自monophysite來源​​,應研究在羅馬,才讓他們到敘利亞的天主教徒。 But the revisers made very few changes.但審校變化很小。 Out of the mass of Anaphoras they chose the oldest and purest, leaving out the long series of later ones that were unorthodox, or even invalid.出,的質量Anaphoras的,他們選擇了最古老和最純潔的,留下了長長的一系列後來說是非正統的,甚至是無效的。 In the seven kept for Syrian Catholic use what alterations have been made chiefly the omission of redundant prayers, simplication of confused parts in which the Diaconicum and the Euchologion had become mixed together.在七個保存敘利亞天主教使用什麼樣的變化已取得主要是省略重複的祈禱,簡化混淆的部分,其中diaconicum和Euchologion已成為混在一起。 The only important correction is the omission of the fatal clause: "Who was crucified for us" in the Trisagion.唯一重要的是改正遺漏致命的條文:“誰被釘在十字架上為我們在Trisagion”。 There is no suspicion of modifying in the direction of the Roman Rite.有沒有猜疑的方向羅馬成年禮的修改。 The other books of the Catholics -- the Diaconicum, officebook, and ritual -- are edited at Rome, Beirut, and the Patriarchal press Sharfé; they are considerably the most accessible, the best-arranged books in which to study this rite.其他書籍的天主教徒 - 的Diaconicum,officebook,禮儀 - 編輯在羅馬,貝魯特,並宗法新聞sharfé中,他們是相當大的最方便,最好安排的書籍,其中以研究這一儀式。

The West-Syrian Rite has also been used at intervals by sections of the (schismatical) Malabar Church.西敘利亞成年禮也被用於在間隔時間由部分(分裂的)馬拉巴爾教會。 Namely, as the Malabar Christians at various times made approaches to the Jacobite Patriarch or received bishops from him, so did they at such times use his Liturgy.也就是說,馬拉巴爾基督徒在不同時期制定辦法,以詹姆斯黨元老或收到主教從他的,所以他們在這種時候用他的禮儀。 Most of Malabar has now returned to the Nestorian communion; but there are still Jacobite communities using this rite among them.大部分馬拉巴爾現在已經回到了景教的交流,但仍然有詹姆士派社區使用這其中的儀式。

The Maronite Rite is merely a Romanized adaptation of that of the West Syrians.馬洛尼成年禮只不過是羅馬拼音適應西方敘利亞人。

Publication information Written by Adrian Fortescue.出版信息寫的阿德里安Fortescue的。 Transcribed by Joseph P. Thomas.轉錄由約瑟夫托馬斯。 In memory of Father Mathew Alakulam The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume XIV.在內存的父親馬修Alakulam的天主教百科全書,體積十四。 Published 1912.發布時間1912年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特·阿普爾頓公司。 Nihil Obstat, July 1, 1912. Nihil Obstat 7月1日,1912。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.的認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約


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