Adam亞當

General Information 一般資料

According to the Bible, Adam was the first man.據聖經記載,亞當是第一人。 His name, which means "man" in Hebrew, is probably derived from the Hebrew word for "earth."他的名字,意思是“人”在希伯來文,可能是來自希伯來語意為“地球”。 The first three chapters of Genesis relate that God created Adam from dust, breathed life into him, and placed him in the Garden of Eden, where he lived with his wife, Eve, until they ate the forbidden fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil.前三章的創世記,上帝創造亞當涉及灰塵,呼吸到他的生命,並把他在伊甸園,在那裡他住在一起,他的妻子,除夕夜,直到他們吃了禁果從樹上良好的知識和邪惡。 The biblical account is similar to Egyptian and Mesopotamian accounts, in which the first man was made from clay, infused with life by a divine being, and placed in a paradise of delight.聖經中的帳戶是美索不達米亞類似埃及和帳戶,其中一人是從泥土,洋溢著生活的一個神聖的存在,並放置在一個天堂的喜悅。


Adam亞當

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Adam, red, a Babylonian word, the generic name for man, having the same meaning in the Hebrew and the Assyrian languages.亞當,紅,是巴比倫文字,通用名稱的人,有相同的含義,在希伯來語和亞述人的語言。 It was the name given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and subsequent history and that of his descendants are detailed in the first book of Moses (Gen. 1:27-ch. 5).這是指定的名稱的第一個男人,其創作,秋天,和隨後的歷史,而他的子孫中有詳細的第一本書的摩西(創 1時 27分通道。5)。 "God created man [Heb., Adam] in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them." “上帝造人[河北。,亞當]在他自己的形象,在神的形象創造了他;男性和女性創造了他的。” Adam was absolutely the first man whom God created.亞當是絕對的第一人,上帝創造了人。 He was formed out of the dust of the earth (and hence his name), and God breathed into this nostrils the breath of life, and gave him dominion over all the lower creatures (Gen. 1:26; 2:7).他是從塵土中形成的地球(因此他的名字),神吹了這個鼻孔呼吸的生命,並給了他統治下的所有動物(創 1:26; 2:7)。

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-site相信宗教信息來源
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects我們所列出的2300名宗教科目
E-mail電子郵件
He was placed after his creation in the Garden of Eden, to cultivate it, and to enjoy its fruits under this one prohibition: "Of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die."他被安排在後,他創作的伊甸園,培育它,並享受其成果在此一禁令:“樹的知識,善良與邪惡,你不可吃的它,在你的那一天eatest因此你一定死。“ The first recorded act of Adam was his giving names to the beasts of the field and the fowls of the air, which God brought to him for this end.第一次有記載的行為亞當是他給的名字在野獸的外地和家禽的空氣,而上帝帶給他的這一目的。 Thereafter the Lord caused a deep sleep to fall upon him, and while in an unconscious state took one of his ribs, and closed up his flesh again; and of this rib he made a woman, whom he presented to him when he awoke.此後,主造成一種深度睡眠狀態,降臨他,而在昏迷狀態了一個他的肋骨,他的肉合起來又與此肋骨,他取得了一名女子,就是他送給他時,他醒了過來。 Adam received her as his wife, and said, "This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man."亞當收到了她作為他的妻子,說:“這是我骨中的骨,肉中的肉:可以稱她為女人,因為她完全是出於人的。” He called her Eve, because she was the mother of all living.他叫她夏娃,因為她是母親的全部生活。

Being induced by the tempter in the form of a serpent to eat the forbidden fruit, Eve persuaded Adam, and he also did eat.被誘惑的誘惑,其形式為蛇吃禁果,亞當夏娃說服,他也沒有吃。 Thus man fell, and brought upon himself and his posterity all the sad consequences of his transgression.因此,人倒下了,並把他自己和他的後代在所有的悲慘後果,他的罪過。 The narrative of the Fall comprehends in it the great promise of a Deliverer (Gen. 3:15), the "first gospel" message to man.秋季的敘事中領會它的巨大潛力的一個投遞(創 3:15),“第一福音”消息的人。 They were expelled from Eden, and at the east of the garden God placed a flame, which turned every way, to prevent access to the tree of life (Gen. 3).他們被驅逐出伊甸園,並在東花園裡放置了一個神的火焰,而變成各種方式,以防止進入生命樹(創 3)。 How long they were in Paradise is matter of mere conjecture.多久,他們在天堂是物質單純的猜想。

Shortly after their expulsion Eve brought forth her first-born, and called him Cain.不久後他們驅逐前夕帶來了她的第一個出生的,叫他該隱。 Although we have the names of only three of Adam's sons, viz., Cain, Abel, and Seth yet it is obvious that he had several sons and daughters (Gen. 5:4).雖然我們有名字的只有三個亞當的兒子,即。,該隱,亞伯,和Seth但很明顯,他有幾個兒子和女兒(創 5:4)。 He died aged 930 years.他死於歲九三〇年。 Adams and Eve were the progenitors of the whole human race.亞當和夏娃的祖先整個人類。 Evidences of varied kinds are abundant in proving the unity of the human race.證據的種類豐富多樣在證明團結的人類。 The investigations of science, altogether independent of historical evidence, lead to the conclusion that God "hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth" (Acts 17:26. Comp. Rom. 5:12-12; 1 Cor. 15:22-49).科學的調查,共獨立的歷史證據,導致的結論是上帝“救了一個血液中的所有國家的男子,住在全臉的地球”(使徒17時 26分。比賽。​​光盤。5: 12-12 1肺心病。15:22-49)。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


Adam亞當

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The Hebrew word transliterated "Adam" is found about 560 times in the OT.希伯來文音譯的“亞當”是發現了約 560倍,在加時賽。 In the overwhelming majority of cases it means "man" or "mankind."在絕大多數情況下,它的意思是“人”或“人類”。 This is true of some of the references at the beginning of Genesis (in the creation and Eden stories), and many scholars hold that up to Gen. 4:25 all occurrences of "Adam" should be understood to refer to "man" or "the man."這是真實的一些引用創世紀的開頭(在建立和伊甸園故事),以及許多學者認為,高達創 4時 25分所有出現的“亞當”應理解為是指“人”或“那人。” But there is no doubt that the writer on occasion used the word as the proper name of the first man, and it is with this use that we are concerned.但毫無疑問,筆者有時用這個詞作為適當的名稱的第一人,並且與這個用我們關注。 It is found outside Genesis in 1 Chr.它是發現外面成因1人權委員會。 1:1 and possibly in other passages such as Deut. 1:1,並可能在其他段落,如申。 32:8 (where "the sons of men" may be understood as "the sons of Adam"), and in some important NT passages. 32:8(其中的“兒子們”可以理解為“兒子亞當”),並在一些重要新台幣段落。

Adam in OT Teaching亞當在加時賽教學

We are told that God created man "in his own image" and that he created them "male and female" (Gen. 1:27), statements made about no other creature.有人告訴我們,上帝創造了人“在他自己的形象”,他創造了他們的“男性和女性”(創 1:27),報表作出關於任何其他生物。 Man was commanded to "be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it" (Gen. 1:28).男子被吩咐要“生養眾多,遍滿地面,治理這地”(創 1:28)。 He was not to be idle but was given the task of tending the Garden of Eden.他並沒有被閒置,但由於任務趨於伊甸園。 He was forbidden to eat "of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil" (Gen. 2:15-17).他被禁止吃“樹的知識,善和惡”(創 2:15-17)。 The man was given the privilege of naming all the animals (Gen. 2:20), but no suitable help for him was found among them, so God made woman from a rib taken from the man's body (Gen. 2:21-23).該名男子被給予特權的命名所有的動物(創 2:20),但沒有合適的幫助,他被發現,其中,所以上帝創造女人從肋骨取自該名男子的身體(創 2:21-23 )。 The serpent beguiled the woman into breaking God's command not to eat of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and she then persuaded her husband to do likewise.那蛇引誘女子到違反了神的命令,不要吃樹的知識,善良與邪惡,然後,她說服丈夫也這樣做。 They were punished by being expelled from the garden, and in addition the woman was to have pain in childbirth and be subject to her husband, while Adam would find the ground cursed so that it would bring forth thorns and thistles and he would have to toil hard all his days (Gen. 3).他們被處以被驅逐出花園,再加上女子有疼痛分娩,並接受她的丈夫,而亞當會發現地面受詛咒,以便它會帶來荊棘和蒺藜,他將不得不辛勞他的日子都在努力(創 3)。 But curse is not all; there is the promise of a Deliverer who will crush the serpent (Gen. 3:15).但是,並不是所有的詛咒,有承諾的一個投遞誰將粉碎蛇(創 3:15)。 We are told of the birth of two sons of Adam, Cain and Abel; of Cain's murder of Abel (Gen. 4:1-16); and of the birth of Seth (Gen. 4:25).我們告訴了兩個兒子出生的亞當,該隱和亞伯;該隱的謀殺亞伯(創 4:1-16),以及誕生塞特(創 4:25)。

The meaning of these passages is disputed.這些通道的含義是有爭議的。 Some OT scholars regard them as primitive myth, giving early man the answers to such questions as "Why do snakes lack legs?"有些學者認為它們加時賽原始神話,讓早期人類對這些問題的答案為“蛇為什麼沒有腳?” or "Why do men die?"或“為什麼男人死了?” Others see them as mythological, but as expressing truths of permanent validity concerned with man's origin and constitution or, as others hold, with "a fall upward."別人看到他們作為神話,但作為表達真理永久有效關注人的起源和憲法,或者像有人認為,以“一個秋天向上。” This latter view sees man as originally no more than one of the animals.這後一種觀點認為,人不超過原來的動物之一。 At this stage he could no more sin than any other animal could.在這個階段,他可能沒有更多的罪惡比任何其他動物可以。 It was accordingly a significant step forward when man became aware of something he was doing as wrong.因此這是一個重大的進步,當人意識到他在做的事情是錯誤的。 But it is highly doubtful whether the writer had in mind any such ideas.但它是非常令人懷疑是否有作家心中任何想法。 Clearly he thought of Adam and Eve as the first parents of the human race, and he is telling us of God's purpose that those into whom he had breathed "the breath of life" should live in fellowship with him.顯然,他認為,亞當和夏娃作為第一父母的人的種族,而他卻告訴我們,神的旨意,那些人,他呼吸到“生命的氣息”應該住在金與他。 But Adam and Eve fell from their original blissful state as a result of their first sin.但是亞當和夏娃也從原來的幸福境界,結果他們的第一單。 And that sin has continuing consequences for the whole human race.這罪惡的後果已經持續了整個人類。 In later times the magnitude of the fall has sometimes been emphasized by affirming that Adam was originally endowed with wonderful supernatural gifts, lost when he sinned (in Sir. 49:16 Adam is honored "above every living being in the creation"; cf. the medieval stress on Adam's supernatural graces).在稍後的時間幅度的下降,有時被強調申明亞當原本賦予了美妙超自然的禮物,失去了當他犯了罪(在主席先生。49:16亞當是被譽為“上述每一個活生生的生命在創作”;比照。中世紀脅迫對亞當的超自然的青睞)。 But this is speculation.但是,這是投機。

The creation narratives tell us at least that man is related to the rest of creation (he is made "of dust from the ground," Gen. 2:7; for the beast and the birds cf. vs. 19), and that he is related also to God (he is "in the image of God," Gen. 1:27; cf. 2:7).創造敘述告訴我們,至少這名男子是與其他創作(他是一個“灰塵從地面,”創世紀 2:7;的野獸和鳥類比照。主場迎戰 19),他是也涉及到神(他是“神的形象,”創世紀 1:27;比照。2:7)。 He has "dominion" over the lower creation (Gen. 1:26, 28), and this is symbolized by his naming of the other creatures.他已經“統治”在較低的創造(創 1:26,28),這是象徵著他命名的其他生物。 The fall passage speaks of the seriousness of his sin and of its permanent effects.秋季通過談到他的罪的嚴重性和其永久性的影響。 This is not a topic to which there is frequent reference in the OT, but it underlies everything.這不是一個主題,其中有中經常提到的催產素,但它強調了一切。 It is a fundamental presupposition that man is a sinner, and this marks off the literature of the Hebrews from other literatures of antiquity.這是一個基本的前提,人是一個罪人,這標誌著離文學的希伯來人從其他的古代文獻。 The solidarity of Adam with his descendants is in the background throughout the OT writings, as is the thought that there is a connection between sin and death.亞當的團結與他的子孫在後台整個城市旅遊局的著作一樣,是認為有一個連接的罪惡與死亡。 Whatever problems this poses for modern expositors, there can be no doubt about the fact that the OT takes a serious view of sins or that sin is seen as part of man's nature.這對任何問題的現代解釋者,不可能有任何懷疑的事實,即城市旅遊局非常重視鑑於罪或罪被看作是一部分人的天性。

Adam in Intertestamental and NT Thought亞當 Intertestamental和NT思想

During the intertestamental period there are some striking expressions of solidarity with Adam, such as Ezra's impassioned exclamation: "O Adam, what have you done? For though it was you who sinned, the fall was not yours alone, but ours also who are your descendants" (II Esd. 7:48 [118]; cf. 3.21; 4:30; Wis. 2:23-24; the blame is assigned to Eve in Sir. 25:24).在intertestamental期間也有一些突出表現的團結與亞當,如以斯拉的慷慨激昂的感嘆:“阿丹啊,你會怎麼做?因為雖然這是你誰犯了罪,秋天是不是你的孤獨,但我們還誰是你的子孫“(二可持續發展教育。19:48 [118];比照。3.21; 4:30;威斯康辛州2:23-24;歸咎於被分配到除夕爵士。25:24)。 Adam was seen not as a lone sinner, but as one who influenced all mankind.亞當被看作是一份孤獨的罪人,但作為一個誰影響了整個人類。

In the NT Adam is mentioned in Luke's genealogy (Luke 3:38) and in a similar reference in Jude, where Enoch is "the seventh from Adam" (Jude 14).在新台幣亞當提到,在路加的家譜(路3:38),並以類似的參考裘德,其中伊諾克是“第七次從亞當”(猶大書 14)。 Little need be said about these passages.可以說幾乎不需要對這些段落。 They simply mention the name of Adam to locate him in his genealogical place.他們簡單地提及姓名的亞當找到他在他的家譜的地方。 There is perhaps an implied reference to Adam but without mention of his name (Matt. 19:4-6; Mark 10:6-8).也許有一個隱含的參考,以亞當,但沒有提及他的名字(太19:4-6,馬可福音 10:6-8)。 Then there are three important passages with theological import (1 Tim. 2:13-14; Rom. 5:12-21; 1 Cor. 15:22, 45).然後,有三個重要通道與神學進口(1添。2:13-14;光盤。5:12-21; 1肺心病。15:22,45)。

In 1 Tim.在一添。 2:13-14 the subordinate place of woman is argued from two facts: (1) Adam was created first, and (2) Eve was deceived though Adam was not. 2:13-14下屬地方的女人是辯稱,從兩個事實:(1)亞當是首先建立,(2)前夕被欺騙了,雖然亞當不是。 This passage presumes that the Genesis stories tell us something of permanent significance about all men and women.這段話是假定的故事告訴我們什麼創世紀的永久意義的所有男性和女性。

Romans 5 stresses the connection of mankind at large with Adam.羅馬書 5章強調了連接整個人類與亞當。 It was through that one man that sin came into the world, and the consequence of his sin was death.它是通過有一個人,罪進入了世界,他的罪的後果就是死亡。 This happened long before the law was given, so death cannot be put down to law-breaking.這發生在法律面前長期給予,於是死不能放下來違法。 And even though people did not sin in the same way as Adam, they were caught in the consequences of sin: "death reigned from Adam to Moses" (Rom. 5:12-14).而且即使人們沒有犯罪以同樣的方式作為亞當,他們陷入了罪惡的後果:“死就作了王從亞當到摩西”(羅馬書 5:12-14)。 This brings Paul to the thought that Adam was a "type" of Christ, and he goes on to a sustained comparison of what Adam did with what Christ did.這使保羅向以為亞當是一個“類型”的基督,他又持續做比較亞當與基督沒有什麼。 There are resemblances, mainly in that both acted representatively so that what each did has incalculable consequences for those he heads.有相似之處,主要是在這兩個行事代表性,以便使每個所作所為無法估量的後果,他所領導的。 But the differences are more significant.但差異更為顯著。 Adam's sin brought death and condemnation to all; it made people sinners.亞當的罪帶來死亡和譴責一切,它使人們罪人。 When law came in, that only increased the trespass.當法律進來,這不僅增加了侵害。 It showed up sin for what it was.這表明了什麼是罪惡。 The end result is disaster.最終的結果是災難。 By contrast Christ brought life and acquittal; such words as "free gift," "grace," and "justification" emphasize the significance of Christ's death.相比之下基督帶來了生命和無罪釋放,這樣的話作為“免費贈送”,“寬限期”和“正當理由”強調的意義,基督的死亡。 The end result is blessing.最終的結果是福。 Paul concludes by contrasting the reign of sin in death with the reign of grace "through righteousness to eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord."保羅最後通過對比統治的罪惡與死亡統治的寬限期“,通過義,以永恆的生命,通過我們的主耶穌基督。”

In Paul's magnificent treatment of the resurrection we read: "As in Adam all die, so also in Christ shall all be made alive" (1 Cor. 15:22).在保羅的宏偉治療的復活,我們讀到:“在亞當裡眾人都死了,所以也應在基督裡眾人也都要復活”(1肺心病。15:22)。 The thought is not unlike that in Rom.思想是沒有什麼不同,在光盤。 5. 5。 Adam was the head of the race and brought death to everyone in it; Christ is the head of the new humanity and brought life to all within it.亞當是頭的比賽,給大家帶來死亡的它,基督是頭的新人類帶來的生命和所有在其中。 Some have argued that the two uses of "all" must refer to the same totality, the entire human race.一些人認為,這兩種用法的“都”必須是指同一整體,整個人類。 There is no question but that this is the meaning in respect to Adam.毫無疑問,這是意在尊重亞當。 The argument runs that similarly Christ raises all from the grave, though some are raised only for condemnation.同樣的論據是提高所有基督從墳墓,儘管有些只提出譴責。 However, "made alive" seems to mean more than "raised to face judgment."然而,“復活”,似乎意味著更多的比“上升到面的判斷。” It is probably best to understand "made alive" to refer to life eternal, so that "all" will mean "all who are in Christ."這可能是最好的認識“復活”來指永恆的生命,使“所有”就意味著“所有的基督是誰。” All these will be made alive, just as all who are in Adam die.這一切都將復活,正如所有的亞當是誰死。

A little later Paul writes, "the first man Adam became a living being'; the last Adam became a life-giving spirit" (I Cor. 15:45).過了一會兒保羅寫道:“第一個人亞當成為一個活的生命'的話,最後的亞當成了賜生命的靈”(我肺心病。15:45)。 Adam became "a living being" when God breathed life into him (Gen. 2:7).亞當成為了一個“生活”時,上帝把他吹的生活(創 2:7)。 Physical life was all the life Adam had and all he could bequeath to his posterity.物質生活是所有生命亞當和所有他能留給他的後代。 But "the last Adam" gave life in the fullest sense, eternal life.但“最後的亞當”們對生活的最充分意義上說,永恆的生命。 Again there is the thought that Christ cancels out the evil Adam did.再有就是認為基督取消了邪惡亞當沒有。 But the emphasis is not negative.但重點是不是消極的。 It is on the life Christ gives.這是對生命的基督所賜的。

The scriptural use of Adam, then, stresses the solidarity of the human race, a solidarity in sin.使用的聖經,亞當的話,講團結的人的種族,一個團結的罪惡。 It reminds us that the human race had a beginning and that all its history from the very first is marked by sin.它提醒我們,人類有一個開端,所有的歷史,從最初的標誌是罪過。 But "the last Adam" has altered all that.但“最後的亞當”已經改變了這一切。 He has replaced sin with righteousness and death with life.他代替了罪惡與正義和死亡的生命。

L Morris L莫里斯

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
CK Barrett, From First Adam to Last; K. Barth, Christ and Adam; BS Childs, IDB, I, 42-44; WD Davies, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism; J. Jeremias, TDNT, I, 141-43; A. Richardson, An Introduction to the Theology of the NT; H. Seebass, NIDNTT, 1, 84-88; AJM Weddeburn, IBD, I, 14-16.對照 Barrett表示,從第一位亞當到去年的K.巴特,基督和亞當;學士爾茲,美洲開發銀行,我,42-44;的WD戴維斯,保羅和拉比猶太教的J. jeremias,TDNT,我,141-43;答理查森介紹在神學的新台幣;閣下澤巴斯,NIDNTT,1,84-88; AJM Weddeburn,雞傳染性法氏囊病,我,14-16。


Adam亞當

Advanced Information 先進的信息

Ad'am, a type. Ad'am,一個類型。

The apostle Paul speaks of Adam as "the figure of him who was to come."使徒保羅談到亞當作為“圖誰是他來了。” On this account our Lord is sometimes called the second Adam.在這個帳戶我們的主有時也被稱為第二個亞當。 This typical relation is described in Rom.這種典型的關係是描述在ROM。 5:14-19. 5:14-19。

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (伊斯頓圖解詞典)


The Last Adam最後亞當

Advanced Information 先進的信息

In I Cor.在我肺心病。 15:45 Paul refers to Jesus Christ as "the last Adam" (ho eschatos Adam) in contrast to "the first man Adam" (ho protos anthropos Adam). 15時 45分保,是指耶穌基督作為“最後的亞當”(何eschatos亞當)與此相反的“第一人亞當”(何【PROTOS anthropos亞當)。 In this antithetic paralelism there is a continuity of humanity, but the second person who represents the new humanity so far excels the first that he is described as the one who became an active "life-giving spirit" (pneuma zoopoioun), where the original Adam (Gen. 2:7) became only "a natural living being" (psychen zosan).在此偶paralelism有一個延續性的人類,但第二次人誰代表新人類迄今優於第一,他被描述為一個誰成為活躍“賦予生命的精神”(牛馬 zoopoioun),其中原亞當(創 2:7)成為唯一一個“自然生活”(psychen zosan)。 The contrast is heightened by Paul's pointed antithetic style, setting Adam as over against Christ in I Cor.對比的是加深了保羅指出對立的風格,場景亞當超過對基督在我肺心病。 15:46-49: 15:46-49:

First Adam 46: "natural" (psychikon) 47: "the first man" (ho protos anthropos) "from the earth, of dust" (ek ges, choikos) 48: "as was the man of dust, so are those who are of dust" (hoios ho choikos, toioutoi kai hoi choikoi) 49: "as we have borne the image of the man of dust" (kathos ephoresamen ten eikona tou choikou)第一亞當 46:“自然”(psychikon)47:“第一人”(何【PROTOS anthropos)“從地球上,塵土”(克朗水電站,choikos)48:“因為是人的灰塵,是那些誰是塵“(hoios浩choikos,toioutoi啟海choikoi)49:”正如我們所承擔的形象,人的灰塵“(kathos ephoresamen十eikona頭 choikou)

Second Adam 46: "spiritual" (pneumatikon) 47: "the second man" (ho deuteros anthropos) "from heaven" (ex ouranou) 48: "as is the man of heaven, so are those who are of heaven" (hoios ho epouranios, toioutoi kai hoi epouranioi) 49: "we shall also bear the image of the man of heaven" (phoresomen kai ten eikona tou epouraniou)第二亞當 46:“精神”(pneumatikon)47:“第二人”(何deuteros anthropos)“從天堂”(前ouranou)48:“因為是男人的天堂,是如此的是那些誰是天堂”(hoios何epouranios,toioutoi啟海epouranioi)49:“我們也應承擔該名男子的形象的天堂”(phoresomen啟十eikona頭 epouraniou)

The same contrast was also made earlier in I Cor.同樣的對比也取得了早些時候我肺心病。 15:21-22 and linked with death and resurrection: 15:21-22和鏈接與死亡和復活:

First Adam 21: "since by a man came death" (epeide gar di' antropou thanatos) 22: "For as in Adam all die" (hosper gar en to Adam pantes apothneskousin)第一亞當 21:“既然來了一名男子死亡”(epeide噶爾迪'antropou thanatos)22:“在亞當裡眾人都死了”(hosper噶爾恩給亞當 pantes apothneskousin)

Second Adam 21: "so also by a man has come the resurrection of the dead" (kai di' anthropou anastasis nekron) 22: "so also in Christ shall all be made alive" (houtos kai en to Christo pantes zoopoiethesontai)第二亞當 21:“所以也由一個人來了復活的死人”(啟二'anthropou anastasis nekron)22:“所以在基督裡眾人也都要復活”(houtos啟恩給克里斯托pantes zoopoiethesontai)

The contrast is expressed again in Rom.對比的是再次表示在ROM。 5:14-19, where Paul describes the first Adam as follows: disobedience, trespass, judgement, condemnation, death, many = all. 5:14-19,保羅描述第一亞當如下:抗命,擅闖,判斷,譴責,死亡,許多 =所有。 But Jesus Christ as the second Adam is described in the following antithetic terms: obedience, grace, free gift, justification, acquittal, righteousness, life, many/all.但耶穌基督作為第二個亞當是描述在以下偶條件:服從,雍容,免費的禮物,理由,無罪釋放,義,生活中,許多 /所有。 The powerful effect of Christ as the second Adam is summed up in one of Paul's favorite expressions, "how much more" (pollo mallon, 5:15, 17, and 8, 10), which makes explicit the Christological implications of the "how much more" in Jesus' own proclamation (Matt. 6:30; 7:11).強大的作用,以基督為第二亞當可以歸結為一個保羅的最愛表情,“更”(pollo馬龍,5:15,17歲,8,10),這使得明確的基督影響了“如何更為“在耶穌自己的宣告(太6:30,7:11)。 These ideas may also be found in John 5:21-29; Rom.這些想法也可能發現在約翰 5:21-29;光盤。 1:3-5; 6:5-11; II Cor. 1:3-5; 6:5-11;二肺心病。 5:1-4, 17; Phil. 5:1-4,17人;菲爾。 2:5-11. 2:5-11。

RG Gruenler的RG Gruenler
Elwell Evangelical Dictionary Elwell宣布了福音字典

Bibliography 參考書目
CK Barrett, From Adam to Last; O. Cullmann, The Christology of the NT; R. Scroggs, The Last Adam; WD Davis, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism.對照 Barrett表示,從亞當到最後;澳Cullmann中,基督的新台幣;河斯克羅格斯,最後的亞當的WD戴維斯,保羅和拉比猶太教。


Adam亞當

Catholic Information 天主教新聞

The first man and the father of the human race.第一個男人和父親的人類。

ETYMOLOGY AND USE OF WORD詞源和使用的字

There is not a little divergence of opinion among Semitic scholars when they attempt to explain the etymological signification of the Hebrew adam (which in all probability was originally used as a common rather than a proper name), and so far no theory appears to be fully satisfactory.沒有一點點猶太人之間的意見分歧scholars當他們試圖解釋詞源意義的希伯來語亞當(這在所有的概率原本是作為一個共同的,而不是一個適當的名稱),迄今沒有任何一種理論似乎是完全令人滿意。 One cause of uncertainty in the matter is the fact that the root adam as signifying "man" or "mankind" is not common to all the Semitic tongues, though of course the name is adopted by them in translations of the Old Testament.一個原因不確定性的問題是事實,即根亞當作為表揚“人”或“人類”是不常見的所有猶太人的舌頭,儘管當然名字是通過他們在翻譯的舊約。 As an indigenous term with the above signification, it occurs only in Phoenician and Sabean, and probably also in Assyrian.作為土著長期與上述意義,但只發生在腓尼基和Sabean,大概也是在亞述和。 In Genesis 2:7, the name seems to be connected with the word ha-adamah ("the ground"), in which case the value of the term would be to represent man (ratione materiæ) as earthborn, much the same as in Latin, where the word homo is supposed to be kindred with humus.在創世記 2:7,這個名字似乎與該字公頃 adamah(“地”),在這種情況下,價值用語將代表的人(屬物)作為 earthborn,在大致相同拉丁語,這個字應該是同源親情與腐殖質。 It is a generally recognized fact that the etymologies proposed in the narratives which make up the Book of Genesis are often divergent and not always philologically correct, and though the theory (founded on Genesis 2:7) that connects adam with adamah has been defended by some scholars, it is at present generally abandoned.這是一個普遍公認的事實,詞源提出的敘述從而彌補了本書的成因往往是不同的,而且並不總是 philologically正確的,雖然理論(成立於創世紀 2:7),連接亞當 adamah一直辯解一些學者,它是目前普遍放棄。 Others explain the term as signifying "to be red", a sense which the root bears in various passages of the Old Testament (eg Genesis 25:50), as also in Arabic and Ethiopic.別人解釋這個術語意味著“要紅色”,從某種意義上說這根熊在各個通道的舊約(如創世紀 25:50),這也是在阿拉伯語和埃塞俄比亞。 In this hypothesis the name would seem to have been originally applied to a distinctively red or ruddy race.在這個假設的名字似乎已成為一種獨特的最初應用紅色或紅潤比賽。 In this connection Gesenius (Thesaurus, sv, p. 25) remarks that on the ancient monuments of Egypt the human figures representing Egyptians are constantly depicted in red, while those standing for other races are black or of some other colour.在這方面格澤紐斯(詞庫,希沃特,第25頁)的言論,在古老的埃及古蹟人物代表埃及人正不斷描繪紅色,而那些站在其他種族是黑人或其他一些顏色。 Something analogous to this explanation is revealed in the Assyrian expression çalmât qaqqadi, ie "the black-headed", which is often used to denote men in general.類似這樣的東西的解釋是發現在亞述表達 çalmât qaqqadi,即“黑頭”,這是經常被用來指男性一般。 (Cf. Delitsch, Assyr. Handwörterbuch, Leipzig, 1896, p. 25.) Some writers combine this explanation with the preceding one, and assign to the word adam the twofold signification of "red earth", thus adding to the notion of man's material origin a connotation of the color of the ground from which he was formed. (參見 Delitsch,Assyr。Handwörterbuch,萊比錫,1896年,第25頁。)有些作家結合這一解釋與前一個,並分配到Word亞當雙重意義的“紅地球”,從而增加了人的觀念的物質起源的內涵的顏色在地上,從他所形成的。 A third theory, which seems to be the prevailing one at present (cf. Pinches, The Old Testament in the Light of the Historical Records and Legends of Assyria and Babylonia, 1903, pp. 78, 79), explains the root adam as signifying "to make", "to produce", connecting it with the Assyrian adamu, the meaning of which is probably "to build", "to construct", whence adam would signify "man" either in the passive sense, as made, produced, created, or in the active sense, as a producer.第三個理論,這似乎是一個普遍存在的,目前(參見捏,舊約中的歷史之光記錄和亞述和巴比倫的傳說,1903年,第78,79),說明根亞當作為表揚“使”,“生產”,連接它與亞述人阿達姆,其中的含義可能是“建”,“建構”,從那裡亞當將標誌著“人”無論是在被動的意義上,作為製造,生產,創建,或在積極意義上說,作為一個製片人。

In the Old Testament the word is used both as a common and a proper noun, and in the former acceptation it has different meanings.在舊約中同時使用這個詞是作為一個共同的一個專有名詞,並在驗收前有不同的含義。 Thus in Genesis 2:5, it is employed to signify a human being, man or woman; rarely, as in Genesis 2:22, it signifies man as opposed to woman, and, finally, it sometimes stands for mankind collectively, as in Genesis 1:26.因此,在創世紀 2:5,它是用來表示一個人,男人還是女人,很少,如創世紀 2時 22分,它標誌著人類,而不是女人,最後,它有時代表著人類的集體,如創世記 1:26。 The use of the term, as a proper as well as a common noun, is common to both the sources designated in critical circles as P and J. Thus in the first narrative of the Creation (P) the word is used with reference to the production of mankind in both sexes, but in Genesis 5:14, which belongs to the same source, it is also taken as a proper name.使用這個詞,作為一個適當的,以及一個普通名詞,是常見的兩種來源指定批評界為 P及J因此,在第一敘事的創作(P)的這個詞是用來參考的生產人類在男女雙方,但在創世紀 5:14,其中屬於同一來源,它也是作為一個適當的名稱。 In like manner the second account of the creation (J) speaks of "the man" (ha-adam), but later on (Genesis 4:25) the same document employs the word as a proper name without the article.同樣地,第二個帳戶的建立(十)講的“人”(公頃亞當),但後來就(創 4:25)相同的文件採用了這個詞作為一個適當的名稱,但不文章。

ADAM IN THE OLD TESTAMENT亞當在舊約

Practically all the Old Testament information concerning Adam and the beginnings of the human race is contained in the opening chapters of Genesis.幾乎所有的有關信息舊約亞當,並開始對人類是包含在開幕章節的成因。 To what extent these chapters should be considered as strictly historical is a much disputed question, the discussion of which does not come within the scope of the present article.到什麼程度,這些章節應被視為嚴格的歷史是一個非常有爭議的問題,不討論的範圍內來本文章。 Attention, however, must be called to the fact that the story of the Creation is told twice, viz.注意,但是,必須調用一個事實,這個故事的創作是說了兩次,即。 in the first chapter and in the second, and that while there is a substantial agreement between the two accounts there is, nevertheless, a considerable divergence as regards the setting of the narrative and the details.在第一章,第二,這雖然是一個實質性的協議之間有兩個帳戶,不過,也有相當大的分歧,關於設置的敘事和細節。 It has been the custom of writers who were loath to recognize the presence of independent sources or documents in the Pentateuch to explain the fact of this twofold narrative by saying that the sacred writer, having set forth systematically in the first chapter the successive phases of the Creation, returns to the same topic in the second chapter in order to add some further special details with regard to the origin of man.這已經是自定義的作家誰是不願意承認存在的獨立消息來源或文件,在pentateuch解釋一個事實,這種雙重的敘述說,神聖的作家,有系統地提出了第一章的各個階段創作,返回同一主題,在第二章,以進一步增加一些特殊的細節與關於人類起源。 It must be granted, however, that very few scholars of the present day, even among Catholics, are satisfied with this explanation, and that among critics of every school there is a strong preponderance of opinion to the effect that we are here in presence of a phenomenon common enough in Oriental historical compositions, viz.它必須是理所當然的,然而,極少數學者的今天,即使是天主教徒,這個解釋很滿意,而且每所學校的批評者之間有較強優勢的意見,大意是我們這裡是存在的這種現象很常見,在東方歷史成分,即。 the combination or juxtaposition of two or more independent documents more or less closely welded together by the historiographer, who among the Semites is essentially a compiler.組合或並列的兩個或多個獨立的文件較多或較少緊密焊接在一起,由史官,中誰的閃米特人基本上是一個編譯器。 (See Guidi, L'historiographie chez les Sémites in the Revue biblique, October, 1906.) The reasons on which this view is based, as well as the arguments of those who oppose it, may be found in Dr. Gigot's Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, Pt. (見圭迪,歐萊雅 historiographie桑切斯萊斯閃米特人在雜誌 biblique,十月,1906年。)上的原因是基於這一觀點,以及這些參數誰反對它,可能會發現在博士羊腿的特別介紹了該研究的舊約,鉑。 I. Suffice it to mention here that a similar repetition of the principal events narrated is plainly discernible throughout all the historic portions of the Pentateuch, and even of the later books, such as Samuel and Kings, and that the inference drawn from this constant phenomenon is confirmed not only by the difference of style and viewpoint characteristic of the duplicate narratives, but also by the divergences and antinomies which they generally exhibit.一,只需在這裡指出,類似的重複敘述的主要事件顯然是在所有的歷史可辨的五部分,甚至後來的書籍,如塞繆爾和國王,而推論從這一現象不斷不僅證實了不同的風格和觀點有特點的重複敘述,但也由二律背反的分歧和他們一般展品。 Be that as it may, it will be pertinent to the purpose of the present article to examine the main features of the twofold Creation narrative with special reference to the origin of man.即使如此,因為它可能,這將是相關的宗旨本文章研究的主要特點的雙重敘事創作,並特別提及人類的起源。


In the first account (Ch.i, ii, 4a) Elohim is represented as creating different categories of beings on successive days.在第一帳戶(章一,二,4A條)瑩表示為建立不同類別的人在連續幾天。 Thus the vegetable kingdom is produced on the third day, and, having set the sun and moon in the firmament of heaven on the fourth, God on the fifth day creates the living things of the water and the fowls of the air which receive a special blessing, with the command to increase and multiply.因此,植物王國產生第三天,並因設置太陽和月亮在天空中的第四個天堂,上帝第五天創造萬物的水和家禽的空氣,會收到一個特殊的祝福,與命令,以增加和繁殖。 On the sixth day Elohim creates, first, all the living creatures and beasts of the earth; then, in the words of the sacred narrative,到了第六天耶洛因創造,首先,所有的生物和野獸的地球,然後,在文字的神聖敘事,

he said: Let us make man to our image and likeness: and let him have dominion over the fishes of the sea, and the fowls of the air, and the beasts, and the whole earth, and every creeping creature that moveth upon the earth.他說:讓我們的人對我們形象和肖像:讓他有統治權的魚的大海,飛鳥的空氣,和野獸,整個地球上,每一個蠕動的動物,在地上moveth 。 And God created man to his own image: to the image of God he created him: male and female he created them.和上帝創造了人,他自己的形象:以神的形象,他創造了他:男性和女性,他創造了他們。

Then follows the blessing accompanied by the command to increase and fill the earth, and finally the vegetable kingdom is assigned to them for food.然後如下的祝福伴隨著指揮,以增加和填補地球,並最終植物界是分配給它們的食物。 Considered independently, this account of the Creation would leave room for doubt as to whether the word adam, "man", here employed was understood by the writer as designating an individual or the species.認為是獨立的,該帳戶的建立將留有餘地,懷疑是否亞當字,“人”,在這裡就業的理解由作家作為指定的個人或物種。 Certain indications would seem to favour the latter, eg the context, since the creations previously recorded refer doubtless to the production not of an individual or of a pair, but of vast numbers of individuals pertaining to the various species, and the same in case of man might further be inferred from the expression, "male and female he created them."某些跡象似乎贊成後者,如背景,因為先前錄製的創作無疑是指在生產不是某個人或一對,但廣大的個人有關的各種物種,同時在案件男子可能進一步推斷,從表情,“男性和女性,他創造了他們。” However, another passage (Genesis 5:15), which belongs to the same source as this first narrative and in part repeats it, supplements the information contained in the latter and affords a key to its interpretation.然而,另一條通道(創 5:15),屬於同一來源,因為這首敘事和部分重複的,補充資料載於後者,並提供了一個關鍵的解釋。 In this passage which contains the last reference of the so-called priestly document to Adam, we read that God在這個通道,其中包含最後引用了所謂的祭司文件,以亞當,我們讀到神

created them male and female .創造了他們的男性和女性。 . . and called their name adam, in the day when they were created.並呼籲他們的名字亞當,在白天的時候,他們創造的。

And the writer continues:與作家繼續說道:

And Adam lived a hundred and thirty years, and begot a son to his own image and likeness, and called his name Seth.亞當活到一百三十歲,生了一個兒子,他自己的形象和相似性,並呼籲他的名字塞思。 And the days of Adam, after he begot Seth, were eight hundred years and he begot sons and daughters.與天的亞當,他生了塞特之後,八百年了,他生了兒子和女兒。 And all the time that Adam lived came to nine hundred and thirty years, and he died.和所有的時間,亞當活來九三〇年,就死了。

Here evidently the adam or man of the Creation narrative is identified with a particular individual, and consequently the plural forms which might otherwise cause doubt are to be understood with reference to the first pair of human beings.在這裡,很明顯,亞當或敘事的創作人是確定與某一個人,並因此複數形式,否則可能會導致懷疑是可以理解參照第一對人類。

In Genesis, ii, 4b-25 we have what is apparently a new and independent narrative of the Creation, not a mere amplification of the account already given.在創世記,二,四號乙- 25,我們有什麼似乎是一個新的獨立敘事的創造,不是一個單純的擴增該帳戶已經作出。 The writer indeed, without seeming to presuppose anything previously recorded, goes back to the time when there was yet no rain, no plant or beast of the field; and, while the earth is still a barren, lifeless waste, man is formed from the dust by Yahweh, who animates him by breathing into his nostrils the breath of life.筆者事實上,如果沒有似乎已預先假定任何先前錄製的,又回到了當時尚未有沒有下雨,沒有植物或獸的領域;和,而地球仍然是一個光禿禿的,沒有生命的浪費,形成了從人粉塵雅威,他誰的動畫通過呼吸到他的鼻孔呼吸的生命。 How far these terms are to be interpreted literally or figuratively, and whether the Creation of the first man was direct or indirect, see GENESIS, CREATION, MAN.這些條款多遠來解釋字面或形象,以及是否創作的第一人是直接還是間接的,參創,創作,城域網。 Thus the creation of man, instead of occupying the last place, as it does in the ascending scale of the first account, is placed before the creation of the plants and animals, and these are represented as having been produced subsequently in order to satisfy man's needs.因此,創造男子,而不是佔領最近的地方,因為它的規模遞增的第一個帳戶,是擺在創造的植物和動物,這些都是代表為已產生其後,以滿足人的需要。 Man is not commissioned to dominate the whole earth, as in the first narrative, but is set to take care of the Garden of Eden with permission to eat of its fruit, except that of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and the formation of woman as a helpmeet for man is represented as an afterthought on the part of Yahweh in recognition of man's inability to find suitable companionship in the brute creation.男子不委託主宰整個地球,因為在第一敘事,但它的照顧伊甸園經允許吃它的果實,但樹的知識,善良與邪惡,以及形成一個合作者的女人對人的代表在事後對部分雅威在承認人的無法找到合適的伴侶的野蠻創作。 In the preceding account, after each progressive step "God saw that it was good", but here Yahweh perceives, as it were, that it is not good for man to be alone, and he proceeds to supply the deficiency by fashioning the woman Eve from the rib of the man while he is in a deep sleep.在前面的帳戶,在每次的進步“神看著是好的”,但在這裡雅威看待,因為它被認為是不好的人獨居,和他的收益,供應不足所塑造的女人夏娃從肋骨的男子,而他是在深度睡眠。 According to the same narrative, they live in childlike innocence until Eve is tempted by the serpent, and they both partake of the forbidden fruit.根據同樣的敘述,他們生活在童真直到除夕是誘惑毒蛇,他們都參加了禁果。 They thereby become conscious of sin, incur the displeasure of Yahweh, and lest they should eat of the tree of life and become immortal, they are expelled from the Garden of Eden.他們從而成為自覺的罪過,招致不滿耶和華,免得他們應該吃的生命樹,並成為不朽的,他們是被驅逐出伊甸園。 Henceforth their lot is to be one of pain and hardship, and man is condemned to the toilsome task of winning his sustenance from a soil which on his account has been cursed with barrenness.從此他們的命運是成為一個痛苦和困難,而人是譴責,向辛苦工作,贏得了從土壤,寄託對他的帳戶已被詛咒不孕症。 The same document gives us a few details connected with our first parents after the Fall, viz.: the birth of Cain and Abel the fratricide, and the birth of Seth.同一份文件給了我們一些細節聯繫在一起後,我們首先家長秋季,即。:誕生該隱和亞伯的自相殘殺,出生率賽斯。 The other narrative, which seems to know nothing of Cain or Abel, mentions Seth (Chap. v, 3) as if he were the first born, and adds that during the eight hundred years following the birth of Seth Adam begat sons and daughters.另外說明,這似乎什麼都不知道該隱和亞伯,提到賽斯(第五章,3)如果他是第一個出生的,並補充說,在八百年誕生後的亞當生塞特的兒子和女兒。

Notwithstanding the differences and discrepancies noticeable in the two accounts of the origin of mankind, the narratives are nevertheless in substantial agreement, and in the esteem of the majority of scholars they are easiest explained and reconciled if considered as representing two varying traditions among the Hebrews -- traditions which in different form and setting embodied the selfsame central historic facts, together with a presentation more or less symbolical of certain moral and religious truths.儘管有明顯的分歧和差異,在兩個帳戶的起源,人類的敘述,但在實質性的協議,並在尊重多數人的學者,他們是最容易的解釋和協調,如果視為代表兩個不同的傳統,其中希伯來 - - 傳統的不同形式和完全相同的設置體現了中央歷史事實,再加上介紹或多或少象徵性的某些道德和宗教的真理。 Thus in both accounts man is clearly distinguished from, and made dependent upon, God the Creator; yet he is directly connected with Him through the creative act, to the exclusion of all intermediary beings or demigods such as are found in the various heathen mythologies.因此,在兩個帳戶的人明確區分開來,使依賴,上帝的創造者,但他是直接與他通過創造性的行為,要排除一切中介的人或半神,如被發現在各種異教徒神話。 That man beyond all the other creatures partakes of the perfection of God is made manifest in the first narrative, in that he is created in the image of God, to which corresponds in the other account the equally significant figure of man receiving his life from the breath of Yahweh.那人超越其他所有的動物參與大神的完善是由體現在第一敘事,因為他是建立在神的形象,以相當於在其他帳戶的同樣重要人物的人接受他的生活從雅威氣息。 That man on the other hand has something in common with the animals is implied in the one case in his creation on the same day, and in the other by his attempt, though ineffectual, to find among them a suitable companion.那個人另一方面有某種相同之處與動物是隱含在一種情況下他的創作在同一天,在他的其他企圖,但無效,找到一個合適的伴侶其中。 He is the lord and the crown of creation, as is clearly expressed in the first account, where the creation of man is the climax of God's successive works, and where his supremacy is explicitly stated, but the same is implied no less clearly in the second narrative.他是耶和華和皇冠創作,因為是明確表示,在第一個帳戶,在那裡創造的人是高潮上帝的連續工作,並在他的優勢是明確規定,但同樣是隱含同樣清楚的第二敘事。 Such indeed may be the significance of placing man's creation before that of the animals and plants, but, however that may be, the animals and plants are plainly created for his utility and benefit.的確可能是這樣的意義配售人的創造在此之前的動物和植物,但無論怎樣,動物和植物都是赤裸裸地創造了他的效用和利益。 Woman is introduced as secondary and subordinate to man, though identical with him in nature, and the formation of a single woman for a single man implies the doctrine of monogamy.女子介紹,作為次要和服從於人,雖然與他相同的性質,並形成一個單身女子,因為一個人意味著學說的一夫一妻制。 Moreover, man was created innocent and good; sin came to him from without, and it was quickly followed by a severe punishment affecting not only the guilty pair, but their descendants and other beings as well.此外,人類是無辜的,良好的,罪惡來找他從沒有,而且很快其次是嚴厲的懲罰,不僅影響對有​​罪的,但他們的後代和其他人也。 (Cf. Bennett in Hastings, Dict. of the Bible, sv) The two accounts, therefore, are practically at one with regard to didactic purpose and illustration, and it is doubtless to this feature that we should attach their chief significance. (參見班尼特在黑斯廷斯,快譯通。聖經,SV)的兩個帳戶,因此,實際上是在一個方面的教學目的和插圖,這無疑是這一特點,我們應該重視他們的主要意義。 It is hardly necessary to remark in passing that the loftiness of the doctrinal and ethical truths here set forth place the biblical narrative immeasurably above the extravagant Creation stories current among the pagan nations of antiquity, though some of these, particularly the Babylonian, bear a more or less striking resemblance to it in form.這句話幾乎沒有必要順便指出,崇高的教義和倫理的真理在這裡提出了地方的聖經敘事不可估量以上奢侈創作故事,目前在古代異教的國家,儘管其中的一些,特別是巴比倫,承擔更以下驚人的相似之處它的形式。 In the light of this doctrinal and moral excellence, the question of the strict historical character of the narrative, as regards the framework and details, becomes of relatively slight importance, especially when we recall that in history as conceived by the other biblical authors, as well as by Semitic writers generally, the presentation and arrangement of facts -- and indeed their entire role -- is habitually made subordinate to the exigencies of a didactic preoccupation.本著這一學說和美德,這個問題的嚴格歷史人物的敘述,關於框架和細節,成為相對輕微的重要性,特別是當我們回顧歷史,在所設想的其他聖經的作者,因為以及由猶太人作家一般,介紹和安排的事實 - 事實上,他們的整個角色 - 慣常從屬於的迫切需要一個說教的當務之急。

As regards extra-biblical sources which throw light upon the Old Testament narrative, it is well known that the Hebrew account of the Creation finds a parallel in the Babylonian tradition as revealed by the cuneiform writings.至於額外的聖經的來源,光扔在舊約的敘述,這是人所共知的希伯來帳戶的創作找到了平行的巴比倫的傳統,揭示了楔形文字著作。 It is beyond the scope of the present article to discuss the relations of historical dependence generally admitted to exist between the two cosmogonies.它已經超出了本文章的範圍,討論歷史依賴關係普遍承認兩者之間存在cosmogonies。 Suffice it to say with regard to the origin of man, that though the fragment of the "Creation Epic", which is supposed to contain it, has not been found, there are nevertheless good independent grounds for assuming that it belonged originally to the tradition embodied in the poem, and that it must have occupied a place in the latter just after the account given of the production of the plants and the animals, as in the first chapter of Genesis.我只想說對於人類的起源,這雖然片段的“創世史詩”,這是應該加以遏制,並沒有被發現,但有很好的獨立的理由假設它原本屬於傳統體現在詩,它必須在已佔領的地方,後者剛剛結束,帳戶中提供了生產的植物和動物,如在第一章的成因。 Among the reasons for this assumption are:在這個假設的原因是:

the Divine admonitions addressed to men after their creation, towards the end of the poem;神聖的告誡後給他們的創作人,到了最後的詩句;

the account of Berosus, who mentions the creation of man by one of the gods, who mixed with clay the blood which flowed from the severed head of Tiamat; a non-Semitic (or pre-Semitic) account translated by Pinches from a bilingual text, and in which Marduk is said to have made mankind, with the cooperation of the goddess Aruru.帳戶由Berosus,誰提到創造男子由一個神,誰混有泥土的血,流到了首級的魔龍,一個非猶太人(或預閃)帳戶翻譯捏從雙語文本,並在其中馬杜克,據說已造人,與合作的女神Aruru。

(Cf. Encyclopedia Biblica, art. "Creation", also Davis, Genesis and Semitic Tradition, pp. 36-47.) As regards the creation of Eve, no parallel has so far been discovered among the fragmentary records of the Babylonian creation story. (參見百科全書 biblica,藝術。“創作”,也戴維斯,成因和反猶傳統,頁 36-47。)至於創作的除夕夜,沒有並聯迄今已發現零星記載中,巴比倫的創作故事。 That the account, as it stands in Genesis, is not to be taken literally as descriptive of historic fact was the opinion of Origen, of Cajetan, and it is now maintained by such scholars as Hoberg (Die Genesis, Freiburg, 1899, p. 36) and von Hummelauer (Comm. in Genesim, pp. 149 sqq.).該帳戶,因為它矗立在成因,是不是要採取直譯為描述性的歷史事實,是民意​​的淵源,對接cajetan,而現在這些學者為維護霍貝格(模具成因,弗賴堡,1899年,第36歲)和馮 Hummelauer(Comm.在Genesim,第149 sqq。)。 These and other writers see in this narrative the record of a vision symbolical of the future and analogous to the one vouchsafed to Abraham (Genesis 15:12 sqq.), and to St. Peter in Joppe (Acts 10:10 sqq.).這些和其他作家看到這個故事的紀錄願景象徵未來和類似於一個賜予亞伯拉罕(創 15時 12分sqq。),並在聖彼得若佩(使徒10點 10分sqq。)。 (See Gigot, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, pt. I, p. 165, sqq.) (見羊腿,特別介紹了這一研究的舊約,鉑。我,第165 sqq。)

References to Adam as an individual in the later Old Testament books are very few, and they add nothing to the information contained in Genesis.引用亞當作為一個個人在後來的舊約書籍很少,而且沒有增加任何新的資料載於成因。 Thus the name stands without comment at the head of the genealogies at the beginning of I Paralipomenon; it is mentioned likewise in Tobias, viii, 8; Osee, vi, 7; Ecclus., xxxv, 24, etc. The Hebrew adam occurs in various other passages, but in the sense of man or mankind.因此,不加評論聯名在頭部的族譜在開始的I Paralipomenon,它是提到同樣在托比亞斯,第八,第8; Osee,六,七; Ecclus。,三十五,24,等發生在希伯來亞當各種其他的通道,但在意義上的人或人類。 The mention of Adam in Zacharias, xiii, 5, according to the Douay version and the Vulgate, is due to a mistranslation of the original.只要提到亞當在撒迦利亞,十三,五,根據 Douay版本和武加大,是由於誤譯原始。

ADAM IN THE NEW TESTAMENT亞當在新約

In the New Testament references to Adam as an historical personage occur only in a few passages.在新約中提到亞當作為一個歷史人物只出現在少數幾個通道。 Thus in the third chapter of St. Luke's Gospel the genealogy of the Saviour is traced back to "Adam who was of God".因此,在第三章聖路加的福音族譜的救世主是追溯到“亞當誰是上帝”。 This prolongation of the earthly lineage of Jesus beyond Abraham, who forms the starting point in St. Matthew, is doubtless due to the more universal spirit and sympathy characteristic of our third Evangelist, who writes not so much from the viewpoint of Jewish prophecy and expectation as for the instruction of the Gentile recruits to Christianity.這延長的人間譜系耶穌超越亞伯拉罕,誰形式的出發點在聖馬太,無疑是由於更具有普遍性的精神和同情​​我們的第三個特點傳播者,誰寫的沒有那麼多猶太人的觀點,從預言和期待作為指令的詹蒂萊新兵基督教。 Another mention of the historic father of the race is found in the Epistle of Jude (verse 14), where a quotation is inserted from the apocryphal Book of Enoch, which, rather strange to say, is attributed to the antediluvian patriarch of that name, "the seventh from Adam."另提的歷史性父親在比賽中發現的書信的裘德(詩 14),其中報價從插入猜測書中的伊諾克,其中,很奇怪地說,是歸因於舊式的族長的這個名字, “第七從亞當​​。” But the most important references to Adam are found in the Epistles of St. Paul.但最重要的參考資料,以亞當被發現,在書信的聖保羅。 Thus in 1 Timothy 2:11-14, the Apostle, after laying down certain practical rules referring to the conduct of women, particularly as regards public worship, and inculcating the duty of subordination to the other sex, makes use of an argument the weight of which rests more upon the logical methods current at the time than upon its intrinsic value as appreciated by the modern mind:因此,在提摩太前書 2:11-14,使徒,奠定了一定的現實後的規則所指的行為的婦女,特別是在公共崇拜,並灌輸責任從屬於另一性別,使得使用一種論點的重量其中更在於邏輯方法後,在當前的時間比在其內在價值讚賞現代思想:

For Adam was first formed; then Eve.對於亞當最初形成的,然後除夕。 And Adam was not seduced; but the woman being seduced, was in the transgression.且不是亞當被引誘,乃是女人被引誘,是在海侵。

A similar line of argument is pursued in I Cor., xi, 8, 9.了類似的爭論,是追求我肺心病。,十一,8,9。 More important is the theological doctrine formulated by St. Paul in the Epistle to the Romans, v, 12-21, and in I Cor., xv, 22-45.更重要的是神學教義制定的聖保祿的書信向羅馬人,五,12-21,並在我肺心病。,十五,22-45。 In the latter passage Jesus Christ is called by analogy and contrast the new or "last Adam."在後者通過耶穌基督是所謂的比喻和對比的新的或“最後的亞當”。 This is understood in the sense that as the original Adam was the head of all mankind, the father of all according to the flesh, so also Jesus Christ was constituted chief and head of the spiritual family of the elect, and potentially of all mankind, since all are invited to partake of His salvation.這是在這個意義上理解,由於原來的亞當是全人類的頭部,父親的所有根據肉,所以也耶穌基督是構成行政和頭部的精神家庭的選舉,並可能對全人類,因為所有被邀請來分享他的救恩。 Thus the first Adam is a type of the second, but while the former transmits to his progeny a legacy of death, the latter, on the contrary, becomes the vivifying principle of restored righteousness.因此,首先的亞當是一個類型的第二,但而前者傳送到他的後代遺留死亡,而後者,相反,成為生機恢復正義的原則。 Christ is the "last Adam" inasmuch as "there is no other name under heaven given to men, whereby we must be saved" (Acts 4:12); no other chief or father of the race is to be expected.基督是“最後的亞當”,因為“有沒有其他的名字給天下人,據此,我們可以靠著得救”(徒4:12),沒有任何其他行政或父親的比賽是可以預料的。 Both the first and the second Adam occupy the position of head with regard to humanity, but whereas the first through his disobedience vitiated, as it were, in himself the stirps of the entire race, and left to his posterity an inheritance of death, sin, and misery, the other through his obedience merits for all those who become his members a new life of holiness and an everlasting reward.第一個和第二亞當佔領陣地的頭部關於人性,但而首先是通過他的抗命而無效,因為它是,在自己是stirps整個比賽,留給他的後代繼承死亡,罪,和苦難,通過他的其他優點,為所有那些服從誰成為其成員的新生活的神聖和永恆的獎賞。 It may be said that the contrast thus formulated expresses a fundamental tenet of the Christian religion and embodies in a nutshell the entire doctrine of the economy of salvation.這可以說,這樣的對比表達了基本原則制定的,體現在基督教的整個學說簡單地說,經濟的救星。 It is principally on these and passages of similar import (eg Matthew 18:11) that is based the fundamental doctrine that our first parents were raised by the Creator to a state of supernatural righteousness, the restoration of which was the object of the Incarnation.其主要通道,在這些和類似的進口(如馬太 18時 11),這是基於基本教義,我們首先家長們提出了一個國家的創造者超自然義,這是恢復對象的化身。 It need hardly be said that the fact of this elevation could not be so clearly inferred from the Old Testament account taken independently.它幾乎用不著說,事實上,這個高程不可能如此清楚地推斷,從舊約考慮獨立。

ADAM IN JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN TRADITION亞當在猶太教和基督教傳統

It is a well-known fact that, partly from a desire to satisfy pious curiosity by adding details to the too meagre biblical accounts, and partly with ethical intent, there grew up in later Jewish as well as in early Christian and Mohammedan tradition a luxuriant crop of legendary lore around the names of all the important personages of the Old Testament.這是一個眾所周知的事實是,部分原因是虔誠的願望,滿足好奇心,加入細節過於微薄聖經的帳戶,另一部分與道德意圖,但在以後成長起來的猶太人以及早期基督教和伊斯蘭教的傳統繁茂傳奇傳說作物周圍的名稱的所有重要人物的舊約。 It was therefore only natural that the story of Adam and Eve should receive special attention and be largely developed by this process of embellishment.因此,它理所當然的故事,亞當和夏娃應受到特別關注,在很大程度上這過程中開發的點綴。 These additions, some of which are extravagant and puerile, are chiefly imaginary, or at best based on a fanciful understanding of some slight detail of the sacred narrative.這些增加,其中一些奢侈和幼稚的,主要是虛數,或充其量幻想的基礎上了解一些輕微的細節的神聖敘事。 Needless to say that they do not embody any real historic information, and their chief utility is to afford an example of the pious popular credulity of the times as well as of the slight value to be attached to the so-called Jewish traditions when they are invoked as an argument in critical discussion.不用說,他們不包含任何實際的歷史資料,他們的主要工具是負擔不起一個例子,虔誠的流行輕信的時代,以及輕微的價值附加到所謂的猶太傳統,當他們作為參數調用關鍵的討論。 Many rabbinical legends concerning our first parents are found in the Talmud, and many others were contained in the apocryphal Book of Adam now lost, but of which extracts have come down to us in other works of a similar character (see MAN).許多猶太教傳說有關,我們首先家長被發現在塔木德,許多人被包含在猜測書中的亞當現在失去了,但其中摘錄已回落到我們在其他類似性質的工程(見文)。 The most important of these legends, which it is not the scope of the present article to reproduce, may be found in the Jewish Encyclopedia, I, art.其中最重要的這些傳說,它是不是範圍本文章複製,可能會發現在猶太百科全書,我的藝術。 "Adam", and as regards the Christian legends, in Smith and Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography, sv “亞當”,至於基督教傳說,在史密斯和wace,詞典基督教傳記,希沃特

Publication information Written by James F. Driscoll.出版信息撰稿:詹姆斯F德里斯科爾。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume I. Published 1907.天主教百科全書,體積一發布 1907年。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特 Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, March 1, 1907. Nihil Obstat,1907年3月1日。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬 lafort,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur.認可。 +John Cardinal Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰法利樞機主教,大主教紐約

Bibliography參考書目

PALIS in VIG., Dict.帕利斯在維格。,快譯通。 de la Bible, sv; BENNETT and ADENEY in HAST., Dict.德拉聖經 sv; Bennett和阿德尼在平安。,快譯通。 of the Bible, sv For New Testament references, see commentaries; for Old Testament, GIGOT, Special Introduction to the Study of the Old Testament, I, iv; VON HUMMELAUER, Comm.對聖經 sv對於新約引用,見評論;為舊約,羊腿,特別介紹了這一研究的舊約,我,四;馮 Hummelauer,通訊。 in Genesis.在成因。


Adam亞當

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

-Biblical Data:聖經的數據:

The Hebrew and Biblical name for man, and also for the progenitor of the human race.希伯來文與聖經名男子,也為祖人類。 In the account of the Creation given in Gen. i.在帳戶的創作給予將軍島 man was brought into being at the close of the sixth creative day, "made in the image of God," and invested with dominion over the rest of the animate world.男子被帶進正在密切在第六屆創意的一天,“在上帝的形象”,並投資與統治權,其餘的動畫世界。 Man was thus created, male and female, charged to replenish the earth with his own kind and to subdue it to his own uses.男子因此而產生了,男性和女性,扣除遍滿了地用自己的實物和制服它自己的用途。 In Gen.ii.在Gen.ii. a more particular account of man's creation is given.更特別考慮人的創造給出。 The scene is in Babylonia, near the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers, in the country of Eden.場景是在巴比倫,匯合處附近的幼發拉底河和底格里斯河,在該國的伊甸園。 After the soil had been prepared by moisture "God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul" (Gen. ii. 7).後土壤水分已編寫了“上帝所造的人的灰塵的地上,呼吸到他的鼻孔呼吸的生命,以及他就成了有靈的活人”(創二7。)。 He was then placed in a garden planted for him in Eden, to "till and tend it."然後他被關在花園裡種下了他在伊甸園,以“免耕和傾向吧。” Of all that grew in the garden he was permitted to eat freely, except "the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil."的所有成長在花園裡,他被允許自由地吃,除了“水果樹的知識,善良與邪惡。” Man next made the acquaintance of all the lower animals, learning their qualities, and giving them names.曼未來所作的熟人所有低等動物,學習他們的素質,使他們的名字。 But among these he found no fit companion.但其中他發現沒有合適的伴侶。 Hence God, by express creative act, made for him a mate, by taking a rib from his side and constructing it into a woman.因此上帝,表達的創意行為,為他的伴侶,採取了一根肋骨從他身邊和建設是一個女人。

Curse of Disobedience.詛咒的不服從。

In Gen. iii.在將軍三。 the first chapter in the moral history of mankind is given.第一章在人類歷史的道德給出。 The woman was tempted by the serpent, who told her that if she and her husband would partake of the forbidden fruit their eyes would be opened, and they "would be as gods, knowing good and evil" (Gen. iii. 5).該名女子被引誘毒蛇,誰告訴她,如果她和她的丈夫會參與的禁果,他們的眼睛將被打開,他們“將被視為神能知道善惡”(創三。5)。 She ate of the fruit, and gave to her husband, who also ate of it.她吃的水果,並給她的丈夫,誰也吃了。 This act of disobedience was followed by a divine judgment.這種行為不服從其次是一個神聖的判斷。 The serpent was cursed because he had tempted the woman, and between his and her descendants there was to be perpetual enmity.蛇被詛咒,因為他動心的女人之間,以及他和她的後代有被永久的敵意。 The woman was condemned to the pangs of child-bearing and to subjection to her husband.該名女子被譴責的痛苦生育,並服從她的丈夫。 As a punishment for the man the ground was cursed: thorns and thistles were to spring up; hard labor would be needed to insure the production of human food; and toil would be the lot of man from childhood to the grave.作為一種懲罰手段,因為那人在地上被詛咒:荊棘和蒺藜是湧現;辛勤勞動,將需要以確保人類食物的生產和辛勞將是很多人從童年到墳墓。 Finally, the man and his wife were expelled from the garden "to till the ground from which he was taken."最後,該名男子和他的妻子被驅逐出園“,直到地面,從他所採取的。” Of Adam and his wife, now called "Eve" () because she was the mother of all living () it is only known that after their exile from the garden they had children born to them (see Gen. v. 3, 4).亞當和他的妻子,現在所謂的“除夕夜”(),因為她是母親的全部生活(),這是唯一已知的,經過他們的流放,從花園,他們所生的子女,給他們(見將軍訴 3,4) 。 JF McC.怡富的MCC。

-In Apocryphal and Rabbinical Literature:在猜測和猶太教文學:

While the generic character that the name of Adam has in the older parts of Scripture, where it appears with the article ("the man"), was gradually lost sight of, his typical character as the representative of the unity of mankind was constantly emphasized (compare Sanh. iv. 5; the correct reading in Tosef., Sanh. viii. 4-9):而一般字符的名稱,亞當已在較舊的部分經文,它出現的文章(“男人”),逐漸失去了視線,他的典型特徵為代表的統一是人類不斷強調(比較葬身。四。五,正確的閱讀 Tosef。,葬身。八。4-9):

"Why was only a single specimen of man created first? To teach us that he who destroys a single soul destroys a whole world and that he who saves a single soul saves a whole world; furthermore, in order that no race or class may claim a nobler ancestry, saying, 'Our father was born first'; and, finally, to give testimony to the greatness of the Lord, who caused the wonderful diversity of mankind to emanate from one type. And why was Adam created last of all beings? To teach him humility; for if he be overbearing, let him remember that the little fly preceded him in the order of creation." “為什麼只有一個人類創造的第一個標本?教導我們說,他一個單一的靈魂,誰破壞誰破​​壞整個世界,他誰拯救一個靈魂拯救整個世界;此外,為了使沒有任何種族或階級可能聲稱是一種高貴的血統,他說,'我們的父親出生第一',以及最後,去證明他們的偉大的主,​​誰造成了精彩的多樣性人類源自一個種類。為什麼是亞當創造了最後所有的人?教他謙卑,因為如果他被咄咄逼人,讓他記得小蒼蠅之前,他在該命令的創造。“

In a dispute, therefore, as to which Biblical verse expresses the fundamental principle of the Law, Simon ben 'Azkai maintained against R. Akiba-who, following Hillel, had singled out the Golden Rule (Lev. xix. 18)-that the principle of love must have as its basis Gen. v. 1, which teaches that all men are the offspring of him who was made in the image of God (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, iv.; Yer. Ned. ix. 41c; Gen. R. 24).在爭議,因此,至於哪個聖經詩句,表達了該法的基本原則,西蒙本'Azkai保持對河秋葉,誰,下面的希勒爾,曾單挑黃金規則(利未記十九。18),該原則的愛,必須有作為其基礎上將訴 1,這教導我們,所有的人都對他的後代是在誰的形象的神(Sifra,Ḳedoshim,四。也門里亞爾。奈德。九。41C條;將軍河24)。 This idea, expressed also by Paul in his speech at Athens, "[God] hath made of one blood all nations of men for to dwell on all the face of the earth" (Acts, xvii. 26), found expression in many characteristic forms.這個想法,也表達了保羅在他的講話在雅典奧運會上,“[神]祂所作出的同一血脈,所有國家的男子,住在全臉的地球”(使徒,十七。26),表現在許多特徵形式。 According to Targ.據塔爾格。 Yer.也門里亞爾。 to Gen. ii.以創二。 7, God took dust from the holy place (as "the center of the earth"; compare Pirḳe R. Eliezer xi., xx.) and the four parts of the world, mingling it with the water of all the seas, and made him red, black, and white (probably more correctly Pirḳe R. El. xi. and Chronicle of Jerahmeel, vi. 7: "White, black, red, and green-bones and sinews white; intestines black; blood red; skin of body or liver green"); compare Philo, "Creation of the World," xlvii.; Abulfeda, "Historia Ante-Islámica." 7,神了灰塵從神聖的地方(稱為“地球的中心”;比較pirḳe傳譯埃利澤十一。,第xx。)和四個部分的世界,它與水混合的所有海域,並提出他的紅色,黑色和白色(可能更正確pirḳe傳譯下午。十一。與歷史演變的耶拉,六。七:“白,黑,紅,綠,白色的骨頭和筋,腸黑色,血紅色,皮膚的機構或肝臟綠色“);比較斐洛,”創造世界“四十七。Abulfeda,”歷史前廳 Islámica。“ The Sibylline Oracles (iii. 24-26) and, following the same, the Slavonian Book of Enoch find the cosmopolitan nature of Adam, his origin from the four regions of the earth, expressed in the four letters of his name: Anatole (East), Dysis (West), Arktos (North), and Mesembria (South). The知未來的簽(iii. 24-26),按照相同,斯拉沃尼亞書伊諾克找到具有國際性的亞當,他的出身來自四個地區的地球,表達了他的名字,四個字母:阿納托利(東),Dysis(西),Arktos(北),和Mesembria(南)。 R. Johanan interprets as being an acrostic of (ashes), (blood), and (gall; see Soṭah, 5a).河Johanan解釋為一的acrostic(骨灰),(血),和(膽,見Soṭah,5a)的。 But this interpretation seems to have originated in other circles; for we find Isidor of Seville ("De Natura Rerum," ix.) declare that Adam was made of blood (sanguis), gall (cholē), black gall (melancholia), and phlegm: the four parts constituting the temperaments, which correspond to the four elements of nature, as does the microcosm to the macrocosm (see Piper, "Symbolik der Christlichen Kirche," 90, 469).但這種解釋似乎都起源於其它各界人士,因為我們找到伊西塞維利亞(“時點的Natura Rerum,”九。)宣布,亞當是由血液(血),膽(膽囊),黑膽(憂鬱症),以及痰:四個部分構成的氣質,這對應於四個要素的性質一樣,到宏觀的縮影(見派,“Symbolik明鏡 Christlichen教堂,”90,469)。 R. Meir (second century) has the tradition that God made Adam of the dust gathered from the whole world; and Rab (third century) says: "His head was made of earth from the Holy Land; his main body, from Babylonia; and the various members from different lands" (Sanh. 38a et seq.; compare Gen. R. viii.; Midr. Teh. cxxxix. 5; and Tan., Peḳude, 3, end).河梅爾(二世紀)的傳統,上帝造亞當的灰塵聚集,從整個世界,饒(三世紀)說:“他的頭是地球從聖地,他的主體,從巴比倫王國;和各成員來自不同的土地“(Sanh. 38A條起。比較將軍傳譯八。Midr。的。cxxxix。5;和棕色。,Peḳude,3月底)。

Two Natures in Adam.兩個性質,在亞當。

There are, however, two points of view regarding man's nature presented in the two Biblical stories of man's creation; and they are brought out more forcibly in the Haggadah, and still more so in the older Hellenistic literature.不過有兩點的意見,認為人的本質提出了聖經故事中的兩個人的創造,他們是帶出更強行在haggadah,還有更多的是在舊的希臘文學。 "Both worlds, heaven and earth, were to have a share in man's creation; hence the host of angels were consulted by the Lord when He said, 'Let us make man'" (Gen. i. 26, Gen. R. viii.). “兩個世界,天地,中有一個共享的人的創造,因此主機的天使進行了協商主時,他說,'讓我們的人'”(創一26,將軍河八。)。 But the old haggadists loved especially to dwell on the glory of God's first-created before his fall.但舊 haggadists喜愛,尤其是住在榮耀神的第一個創建之前,他的下降。 He was "like one of the angels" (Slavonic Book of Enoch, xxx. 11; compare Christian Book of Adam, i. 10; also Papias in Gen. R. xxi.; Pirḳe R. El. xii.; Ex. R. xxxii.; Targ. Yer. Gen. iii. 22).他是“像一個天使”(斯拉夫書伊諾克,三十。11;比較基督教書籍的亞當,一,10歲;也帕皮亞在將軍傳譯二十一。pirḳe傳譯下午。十二。前。ř 。三十二。塔爾格。也門里亞爾。將軍三。22)。 "His body reached from earth to heaven [or from one end of the world to the other] before sin caused him to sink" (Ḥag. 12a, Sanh. 38b; compare also Philo, "Creation of the World," ed. Mangey, i. 33, 47). “他的身體達到了從地球到天堂[或從世界的一端向其他]前罪,使他沉淪”(Ḥag.12A條,葬身。38B條;比較,也斐洛,“創造世界”版。Mangey島 33,47)。 "He was of extreme beauty and sunlike brightness" (BB 58a). “他是極端美麗和sunlike亮度”(BB心跳58A條)。 "His skin was a bright garment, shining like his nails; when he sinned this brightness vanished, and he appeared naked" (Targ. Yer. Gen. iii. 7; Gen. R. xi.; Adam and Eve, xxxvii.). “他的皮膚是一個明亮的服裝,閃閃發光,宛如他的指甲,當他犯了罪這個亮度消失了,他似乎裸露”(targ.層。將軍三。七;創傳譯十一。亞當和夏娃,三十七。) 。 When God said: "Let us make man in our image," the angels in heaven, filled with jealousy, said: "What is man that Thou thinkest of him? A creature full of falsehood, hatred, and strife!"當神說:“讓我們的人在自己的形象,”天上的使者,充滿了嫉妒,說:“人算什麼,你先向他嗎的生物充滿了謊言,仇恨和衝突!” But Love pleaded in his favor; and the Lord spoke: "Let truth spring forth from the earth!"但愛承認對他有利,耶和華說話了:“讓真理的春天,提出了從地球!” (Gen. R. viii.; Midr. Teh. viii.). (創傳譯八。Midr。了。八。)。 Far older, and blended with Babylonian mythology (Isa. xiv. 12), is the story preserved in Adam and Eve, the Slavonic Book of Enoch, xxxi.遠東年齡較大,混紡與巴比倫神話(以賽亞十四。12),是故事保存在亞當和夏娃,斯拉夫書伊諾克,三十一。 3-6 (compare Bereshit Rabbati, ed. Epstein, p. 17; Pirḳe R. El. xiii.; Chronicle of Jerahmeel, xxii.; and Koran, sura ii. 34; xv. 30), according to which all the angels were commanded by Michael the archangel to pay homage to the image of God; whereupon all bowed before Adam except Satan, who, in punishment for his rebelliousness, was hurled from his heavenly heights to the depth of the abyss, while his vacant throne was reserved for Adam, to be given to him at the time of the future resurrection. 3-6(比較 Bereshit Rabbati,教育署。愛潑斯坦,第17頁;pirḳe傳譯下午。十三。紀事耶拉,二十二。與古蘭經,蘇拉二。34;十五。30),根據所有的天使被指揮天使長米迦勒來頂禮膜拜的神的形象;於是,除了在亞當之前所有鞠躬撒旦,誰在懲罰他的叛逆,被摔,從他在天上的高度,以深度的深淵,而他的空缺王位被保留為亞當,必須考慮到他當時對未來的復活。 Henceforth, Satan became the enemy of man, appearing to him in the guise of an angel of light to seduce him (compare II Cor. xi. 14).從此,撒旦成了敵人的男子,他出現在偽裝天使的光去勾引他(指比較二肺心病。十一。14)。 A somewhat modified midrashic legend (Gen. R. viii.) relates that the angels were so filled with wonder and awe at the sight of Adam, the image of God, that they wanted to pay homage to him and cry "Holy!"一個有點修訂 midrashic傳說(創傳譯八。)涉及的天使是如此充滿了好奇和敬畏亞當在見票時,神的形象,他們想要去祭奠他,叫“神聖的!” But the Lord caused sleep to fall upon him so that he lay like a corpse, and the Lord said: "Cease ye from man, whose breath is in his nostrils: for wherein is he to be accounted of?"但主造成的睡眠狀態,降臨他,使他躺在像一具屍體,主說:“停止你們的人,他的呼吸在他的鼻孔:對於其中,是他被佔的?” (Isa. ii. 22). (以賽亞書二。22)。 Another version (Pirḳe R. El. xi.; Tan., Peḳude, 3) is that all other creatures, marveling at Adam's greatness, prostrated themselves before him, taking him to be their creator; whereon he pointed upward to God, exclaiming: "The Lord reigneth, He is clothed with majesty!"另一個版本(pirḳe傳譯下午。十一。談。,Peḳude,3)是所有其他動物,在驚嘆亞當的偉大,跪拜在他面前,以他為他們的創造者;向上拖著他指出神,嚷著: “耶和華作王,他是豐衣足食,與陛下!” (Ps. xciii. 1). (詩篇 xciii。1)。 Still, the Book of Wisdom (ii. 23, 24) seems to allude to the older legend when saying, "God created man for immortality, but through the envy of Satan death entered the world" (compare Josephus, "Ant." i. 1, § 4; Ab. RN i.; Gen. R. xviii., where the serpent is represented as moved by jealousy).儘管如此,這本書的智慧(白介素23,24),似乎暗示老的傳說時說:“上帝創造了人不死的,而是通過羨慕撒旦死亡進入了世界”(比較約瑟夫,“螞蟻。”我。1,§ 4;抗體。氡一;將軍傳譯十八。,那裡的蛇是代表作為感動嫉妒)。

The Fall.秋天。

Adam in paradise had angels (agathodæmons or serpents) to wait upon and dance before him (Sanh. 59b, BB 75a, Pirḳe R. El. xii.).亞當在天堂了天使(agathodæmons或蛇)等待在他面前時,舞蹈(Sanh. 59B條,BB心跳75A條,pirḳe傳譯下午。十二。)。 He ate "angel's bread" (compare Ps. lxxiii. 26; Yoma, 75b; Vita Adæ et Evæ, § 4).他吃了“天使的麵包”(比較的PS。lxxiii。26;山脈,勞資審裁;維塔 Adæ等Evæ,§ 4)。 All creation bowed before him in awe.所有創作在他面前敬畏鞠躬。 He was the light of the world (Yer. Shab. ii. 5b); but sin deprived him of all glory.他是世界的光(yer.沙巴。二。5B條),但被剝奪了他罪惡的一切榮耀。 The earth and the heavenly bodies lost their brightness, which will come back only in the Messianic time (Gen. R. xii.; Vita Adæ et Evæ, § 21; Philo, "Creation of the World," p. 60; Zohar, iii. 83b).地球和天體失去了光明,這將回來只有在救世主的時候(創傳譯十二。維塔 Adæ等Evæ,§ 21;斐洛,“創造世界”第60頁;佐哈爾,三。83B條)。 Death came upon Adam and all creation.死亡來到亞當和所有的創造。 God's day being a thousand years (Ps. xc. 4), Adam was permitted to live 930 years-threescore and ten less than one thousand (Book of Jubilees, iv. 28, and Gen. R. xix.), so that the statement "in the day that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die" might be fulfilled.上帝的一天是一個千年(詩篇越野。4),亞當被允許活930年-七十個不到一千(書 jubilees,四。28,創傳譯 19。),從而使聲明“的日子,你eatest因此,你一定死”可能實現。 The brutes no longer stood in awe of man as their ruler; instead, they attacked him.該畜生不再感到敬畏的人作為他們的統治者,相反,他們襲擊了他。 But while sin was of fatal consequence, and the effect of the poison of the serpent is still felt by all following generations, unless they should be released from it by the covenant of Sinai ('Ab. Zarah, 22b; IV Book of Esdras; Apoc. Mosis, xx.; see articles Sin and Fall), the Jewish haggadists emphasize one point not mentioned in the Bible, but of great doctrinal importance in comparison with the teachings of Paul and his followers.不過,雖然罪是致命的後果,其效果的毒的蛇是仍然感受到所有以下世代,除非他們應該被釋放,從它的盟約的西奈('抗體。Zarah,22B款;四書埃斯德拉斯;載脂蛋白C。Mosis,二十。見文章仙及秋季),猶太 haggadists強調一點,在聖經中沒有提及,但在比較大的重要理論與教義的保羅和他的追隨者。 The deadly effect of sin can be removed by repentance.致命的效果罪可去除悔改。 Hence, Adam is represented as a type of a penitent sinner.因此,亞當被表示為一個類型一個懺悔的罪人。 Thus, he is described in Vita Adæ et Evæ, as well as by the rabbis of the second century ('Er. 18b; 'Ab. Zarah, 8a; Ab. RN i.; Pirḳe R. El.), as undergoing a terrible ordeal while fasting, praying, and bathing in the river for seven and forty days (seven weeks, Pirḳe R. El.), or twice seven weeks-the shortening of the days after Tishri being taken by Adam as a sign of God's wrath, until after the winter solstice the days again grew longer, when he brought a sacrifice of thanksgiving.因此,他被描述在維塔 Adæ等Evæ,以及由拉比的第二個世紀('呃。18B條;'抗體。Zarah,8A條;抗體。氡一;pirḳe傳譯下午。)作為經歷可怕的磨難而禁食,祈禱,沐浴在河中的七四十天(七星期,pirḳe傳譯下午。),或兩次七週,在縮短幾天後,提斯利正在採取的亞當作為一種標誌,上帝的憤怒直到冬至後的日子也變得更長,當他帶著一種犧牲的感恩節。 Another view is that when the sun rose the following morning he offered his thanksgiving, in which the angels joined him, singing the Sabbath Psalm (Ps. xcii.).另一種觀點是,當太陽升起的時候,第二天早上他提供他的感恩節,在其中加入了他的天使,唱安息日詩篇(詩篇 xcii。)。 About Adam and the one-horned ox (the Persian gaiomarth), see Kohut, in "ZDMG" xxv.關於亞當和一個角牛(波斯gaiomarth),見胡特,在“ZDMG”二十五。 78, n. 78,注 6. 6。

On account of the Sabbath the sun retained its brightness for the day; but as darkness set in Adam was seized with fear, thinking of his sin.有關帳戶的安息日太陽保留其亮度為天,但由於黑暗定在亞當被扣押的恐懼,以為他的罪過。 Then the Lord taught him how to make fire by striking stones together.然後主教他如何讓敲擊石頭一起火災。 Thenceforth the fire is greeted with a blessing at the close of each Sabbath day (Pesiḳ. R. xxiii.; Pirḳe R. El. xx.; similarly, Pes. 54a).此後,火是在迎接一個祝福的密切每個安息日(pesiḳ.二傳譯二十三。pirḳe傳譯下午。二十。同樣,瘟。54A條)。

When Adam heard the curse, "Thou shalt eat of the herbs of the earth," he staggered, saying: "O Lord, must I and my ass eat out of the same manger?"當亞當聽到詛咒,“你應該吃的藥的地球,”他搖搖晃晃,他說:“主啊,要我和我的屁股吃了同樣的馬槽?” Then the voice of God came reassuringly: "With the sweat of thy brow shalt thou eat bread!"然後來到神的聲音放心:“隨著你的額頭的汗水你要吃飯!” There is comfort in work.有舒適的工作。 The angels taught Adam the work of agriculture, all the trades, and also how to work in iron (Book of Jubilees, iii. 12; Gen. R. xxiv.; Pes. 54a).天使告訴亞當的農業工作,所有的行業,以及如何工作的中鐵(書 jubilees,三。12;創傳譯二十四。瘟。54A條)。 The invention of writing was ascribed to Adam.本發明的寫作是歸因於亞當。

Adam in the Future World.亞當在未來的世界。

On the day Adam covered his naked body for the first time, he beheld in clothing a mark of human dignity, and offered God a thanksgiving of incense (Book of Jubilees, iii. 22).在當天亞當蓋他的赤裸裸的身體第一次,他看到在服裝的商標人的尊嚴,並提供上帝感恩香(書 jubilees,三。22)。 The garments made by God were not of skin, but of light (Gen. R. xx.), and robes of glory were made of the serpent's skin (Targ. Yer. Gen. iii. 21).這些服裝由上帝沒有皮膚,但光(創傳譯二十。)和長袍的榮耀是由蛇的皮膚(targ.層。將軍三。21)。 Adam, "the first to enter Hades" (Sibylline Oracles, i. 81), was also the first to receive the promise ofresurrection (Gen. R. xxi. 7, after Ps. xvii. 15).亞當“,第一個進入地獄”(知未來的簽,一81),也是第一家獲得承諾 ofresurrection(創傳譯二十一。七,經詩。十七。15)。 According to the Testament of Abraham, Adam sits at the gates, watching with tears the multitude of souls passing through the wide gate to meet their punishment, and with joy the few entering the narrow gate to receive their reward.根據聖經的亞伯拉罕,亞當坐在門口,看著眼淚眾人的靈魂穿過寬的柵,以滿足他們的處罰,並與喜悅少數進入狹窄的大門,接受他們的賞賜。 The Jewish view concerning Adam's sin is best expressed by Ammi (Shab. 55a, based upon Ezek. xviii. 20): "No man dies without a sin of his own. Accordingly, all the pious, being permitted to behold the Shekinah (glory of God) before their death, reproach Adam (as they pass him by at the gate) for having brought death upon them; to which he replies: 'I died with but one sin, but you have committed many: on account of these you have died; not on my account'" (Tan., Ḥuḳḳat, 16).猶太查看有關亞當的罪是最好的表達茴香(Shab.第55A基於以西結書。十八。20):“沒有人死亡,沒有自己的罪過。因此,所有虔誠的,被允許見舍吉拿(榮耀神),然後他們的死,非議亞當(如由他們通過他在門口)後,因他們帶來了死亡;在他回答說:'我死時只有一個罪,但你卻犯下了許多:在考慮這些,你死亡;不在我的賬戶'“(Tan.,Ḥuḳḳat,16)。

To Adam are ascribed Ps.亞當是認定的PS。 v., xix., xxiv., and xcii.五,十九。,二十四。,和xcii。 (Midr. Teh. v. 3; Gen. R. xxii., end; Pesiḳ. R. xlvi.; see Bacher, "Ag. Pal. Amor." ii. 337 et seq.). (midr.了。訴 3;將軍傳譯二十二。月底;Pesiḳ。河四十六。見巴切爾,“銀。帕爾。奧馬爾。”二。337起。)。 His body, made an object of worship by some semi-pagan Melchisedician sect, according to the Christian Book of Adam, was shown in Talmudic times at Hebron, in the cave of Machpelah (BB 58a, Gen. R. lviii.), while Christian tradition placed it in Golgotha near Jerusalem (Origen, tract 35 in Matt., and article Golgotha).他的身體,作出了崇拜對象由一些半異教 Melchisedician節,根據基督教書籍的亞當,結果表明在塔木德時代在希伯倫,在山洞裡麥比拉(BB心跳58A條,創傳譯 lviii。),而基督教的傳統,把它在各各他在耶路撒冷附近(淵源,道35馬特。項和第墓地)。 It is a beautiful and certainly an original idea of the rabbis that "Adam was created from the dust of the place where the sanctuary was to rise for the atonement of all human sin," so that sin should never be a permanent or inherent part of man's nature (Gen. R. xiv., Yer. Naz. vii. 56b).這是一個美麗和原來的想法肯定是對拉比說:“亞當創造了從粉塵的地方聖殿是崛起為贖罪所有人類罪”,讓罪惡從來不應該是永久性的或固有的一部分人的本質(創傳譯十四。,也門里亞爾。納茲。七。56B條)。 The corresponding Christian legend of Golgotha was formed after the Jewish one.基督教傳說中的相應後形成的各各猶太人之一。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Ginzberg, Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvätern, in Monatsschrift, 1899; Kohut, in ZDMG xxv.金茲伯格,模具Haggada北巢穴Kirchenvätern,在月刊,1899年;科胡特,在ZDMG二十五。 59-94; Grünbaum, Neue Beiträge zur Semitischen Sagenkunde, pp. 54,79; Dillman, Das Christliche Adambuch; Malan, Book of Adam and Eve, 1882; Bezold, Die Schatzhöhle, 1883, 1888; Siegfried, Philo von Alexandrien. 59-94; Grünbaum,Neue Beiträge楚Semitischen Sagenkunde,第54,79;迪爾曼,達斯 Christliche Adambuch,馬蘭,圖書的亞當和夏娃,1882年,Bezold,模具Schatzhöhle,1883年,1888年;齊格弗里德,斐洛馮 Alexandrien。 For further bibliographical references see Schürer, Geschichte, 3d ed.如需進一步參考書目見 Schürer,歷史館,三維版。 iii.三。 288-289.K. 288 - 289.K。

-In Mohammedan Literature:在伊斯蘭教文學:

No mention is made of Adam in the early suras of the Koran.沒有提到的是亞當在早期章節可蘭經。 Though Mohammed speaks of the creation of man in general from a "clot of blood" or a "drop of water" (suras lxxv. 34, lxxvii. 20, xcvi. 1), it is only in the later Meccan suras that the original creation of man is connected with a particular individual.雖然穆罕默德談到了創造男子一般從“凝塊血”或“一滴水”(章節 lxxv。34,lxxvii。20 xcvi。1),它只是在後來的麥加章節,原來創造男子是與特定個人。 But in these suras the theory is already developed that Satan's designs against man are consequent upon the expulsion of the former from paradise at the time of man's creation.但在這些章節的理論是已經開發了撒旦的設計人是因應反對驅逐前從天堂當​​時人類的創造。 Geiger has incorrectly remarked ("Was Hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume Aufgenommen?" p. 100) that this is not a Jewish idea (see Vita Adæ et Evæ, § 16).蓋格說了不正確的(“帽子穆罕默德是澳大利亞 DEM Judenthume Aufgenommen?”第100頁),這是不是一個猶太人的思想(見履歷表 Adæ等Evæ,§ 16)。 It belongs also to the cycle of the Christian-Syriac Midrash (see Budge, "The Book of the Bee," p. 21, trans.; Bezold, "Die Schatzhöhle," pp. 5, 6, trans.).它也屬於循環的基督教,敘利亞文midrash(見讓步,“這本書的蜜蜂”,第21,跨。Bezold,“模具Schatzhöhle,”第5,6,跨。)。 In the earliest account the name Adam does not occur; nor does Iblis vow vengeance upon a single individual, but rather upon the whole race of mankind:在最早的帳戶名稱亞當不會發生,也不Iblis發誓復仇後,一個人,而是對整個種族的人類:

Iblis, the Devil, Respited. Iblis,魔鬼,Respited。

"When thy Lord said to the angels, 'Verily, I am about to create a mortal out of clay; and when I have fashioned him, and breathed into him of My spirit, then fall ye down before him adoring.' “當你的主說,以天使,'能眾志成城,我即將創造一個凡人出粘土,而當我已經過時了他,他注入了我的精神,那麼你們要在他面前跌倒崇拜。' And the angels adored, all of them save Iblis, who was too big with pride, and was of the misbelievers. Said He, 'O Iblis! what prevents thee from adoring what I have created with My two hands? Art thou too big with pride? or art thou amongst the exalted?'與天使崇拜,他們都保存Iblis,誰是太大的驕傲,是的misbelievers。他說,澳Iblis!什麼阻止你從崇拜什麼,我創建了我的兩隻手?藝術與你太大驕傲?或藝術,你躋身崇高?' Said he, 'I am better than he; Thou hast created me from fire, and him Thou hast created from clay.'他說,'我比他;祢創造了我的火,他創建的粘土祢。' Said He, 'Then go forth therefrom; for verily thou art pelted, and verily upon thee is My curse unto the day of judgment.'他說,'然後帶著由此,為眾志成城祢投擲,並能眾志成城,在你身上是我的詛咒你們一天的判斷。' Said he, 'My Lord! then respite me until the day when they are raised.'他說,'我的上帝!然後喘息我,直到有一天,他們提出的。' Said He, 'Then thou art amongst the respited until the day of the stated time.'他說,'那你的藝術躋身 respited,直到有一天在規定的時間。' Said he, 'Then, by Thy might, I will surely seduce them all together, except Thy servants amongst them who are sincere!'他說,'然後,用你的實力,我一定會勾引他們都在一起,除非你的僕人在他們之間誰是真誠的! Said He, 'It is the truth, and the truth I speak; I will surely fill hell with thee and with those who follow thee amongst them all together'" (sura xxxviii. 70-85).他說,'這是真理,真理我發言,我一定會補地獄與你和那些在他們中間誰跟你在一起'“(蘇拉三十八。70-85)。

At a later period Mohammed develops the personal character of the first man and his direct relationship to God, whose vicegerent (khalifah, calif) he is to be on earth.在後一時期穆罕默德品德發展的第一個男子和他直接關係到神的,他vicegerent(哈利法,加利福尼亞州),他是要在地球上。 At the same time Satan is represented as being the one who drove Adam from paradise: Adam as Vicegerent of God.同時,撒旦是代表,因為這是一個誰開車亞當從天堂:亞當 Vicegerent神。

"And when thy Lord said unto the angels, 'I am about to place a vicegerent in the earth,' they said, 'Wilt Thou place therein one who will do evil therein and shed blood? We celebrate Thy praise and hallow Thee.' “當你的主說,祂的天使,'我將要設立一個 vicegerent在地上,'他們說:'祢地方,有一個誰做邪惡的,並流血?我們慶祝你的讚美與神化你。' Said [the Lord], 'I know what ye know not.'說 [主],'我知道你們不知道。' And He taught Adam the names, all of them; then He propounded them to the angels and said, 'Declare to Me the names of these, if ye are truthful.'他教了亞當的名字,他們都,然後他提出,他們以天使說,'聲明對我的名字這些,如果你們是誠實的。' They said, 'Glory be to Thee! no knowledge is ours but what Thou Thyself hast taught us; verily, Thou art the knowing, the wise.'他們說,'光榮歸於你!不知道什麼是我們的,但你將自己竟告訴我們,能眾志成城,祢知道,聰明。' Said the Lord, 'O Adam, declare to them their names'; and when he had declared to them their names He said, 'Did I not say to you, I know the secrets of the heavens and of the earth, and I know what ye show and what ye are hiding?'上帝說,澳亞當,宣布他們自己的名字',而當他宣布他們的名字,他說,'我不是告訴你,我知道的秘密,天上和地上,我知道你們有什麼節目,什麼你們是在隱瞞什麼?' And when He said to the angels, 'Adore Adam,' they adored him save only Iblis, who refused and was too proud, and became one of the misbelievers.當他說,以天使,'崇拜亞當,他們崇拜他,僅保存Iblis,誰拒絕和太驕傲,並成為一個的misbelievers。

"And He said, 'O Adam, dwell, thou and thy wife, in paradise, and eat therefrom amply as you wish; but do not draw near this tree or ye will be of the transgressors.' “他說,澳亞當糾纏,你和你的妻子,在天堂,並因此而吃足可作為你想,但不要臨近這棵樹或你們將成為罪人。' And Satan made them backslide therefrom, and drove them out from what they were in, and He said, 'Go down, one of you the enemy of the other; and in the earth there are an abode and a provision for a time.'而撒但,使他們由此倒退,並迫使他們從他們在什麼,他說,'去吧,你的敵人之一的除外;並在地球上有一個居留權,並規定一段時間。' And Adam caught certain words from his Lord, and He turned toward him; for He is the Compassionate One easily turned. He said, 'Go down therefrom altogether, and haply there may come from Me a guidance, and whoso follows My guidance no fear is theirs, nor shall they grieve'" (sura ii. 29-36).與亞當陷入某些詞從他的主,他轉向他,因為他是一個富有同情心很容易轉向。他說:'走由此加起來,並或許有可能來自於我一個指導,無論誰遵守我的引導沒有恐懼是他們的,也不得傷心'“(蘇拉二。29-36)。

In sura vii.在蘇拉七。 10 et seq. 10起。 the same story is repeated, though with several additions.重複同樣的故事,雖然有一些補充。 In particular, Mohammed has now learned the manner in which Satan tempted Adam:特別是,穆罕默德已經學會了以何種方式在撒旦誘惑亞當:

Satan Beguiles Adam.亞當撒旦俘虜。

"But Satan whispered to them to display to them what was kept back from them of their shame, and he said, 'Your Lord has only forbidden you this tree lest ye should be twain angels or should become of the immortals'; and he swore to them both, 'Verily, I am unto you a sincere adviser'; and he beguiled them by deceit, and when they twain tasted of the tree their shame was shown them, and they began to stitch upon themselves the leaves of the garden. And their Lord called unto them, 'Did I not forbid you from that tree there, and say to you, Verily, Satan is to you an open foe?' “嗣後,向他們展示給他們有什麼不斷回他們自己的恥辱,他說,'你的主只禁止你這棵樹以免你們將要分離,天使還是應該成為神仙,他就發誓他們都'能眾志成城,我對你們的真誠顧問';和他騙他們的欺騙,當他們嚐到了吐溫把他們的恥辱結果表明他們,他們就開始縫合後,自己留下的花園。而他們的主呼喚他們,'我不是不讓你從該樹那裡,對你說,能眾志成城,撒旦是給你一個公開的敵人?' They said, 'O our Lord, we have wronged ourselves-and if Thou dost not forgive us and have mercy on us, we shall surely be of those who are lost!'他們說,'我們的主啊,我們有委屈自己,如果你也許不原諒我們,憐憫我們,我們將肯定會為那些誰丟失! He said, 'Go ye down, one of you to the other a foe; but for you in the earth there are an abode and a provision for a season.'他說,'你們去了,你們一個人到其他敵人,但你在地球上有一個居留權,並規定一個賽季。' He said, 'Therein shall ye live and therein shall ye die; from it shall ye be brought forth'" (sura vii. 19-24).In suras xvii.他說,'你們的生活和雖經內,你們就死了,你們是從它帶來了'“(蘇拉七。19-24)。在章節十七。 63, xviii. 63,十八。 48, references are also made to the refusal of Iblis to worship Adam. 48,引用也向拒絕 Iblis崇拜亞當。 The latter was created from earth (iii. 51) or from clay (xxxii. 5).後者是創建的地球(iii. 51)或粘土(xxxii. 5)。 That Adam is the first of the prophets is only hinted at in the Koran. ,亞當是第一個先知,只是暗示在可蘭經。 In the passage (ii. 35) cited above, "And Adam caught certain words [kalimat] from his Lord," the reference may be to a supposed revelation to Adam.在過道裡(白介素35)上文提到,“與亞當陷入某些字[kalimat]從他的主,”引用可能是一個假設的啟示亞當。 For this reason, in iii.出於這個原因,在三。 30, Mohammed says, "Verily, God has chosen Adam, and Noah, and Abraham's people, and Imram's people [the Christians]"; making Adam the representative of the antediluvian period. 30日,穆罕默德說,“誠然,上帝選擇了亞當,諾亞,亞伯拉罕的人,Imram的人[基督徒]”,使亞當的代表古風時期。

Adam's Creation.亞當的創造。

To these somewhat meager accounts later Arabic writers and commentators have added various details which find their parallel in the Jewish and Christian Midrash.為了這些有點微薄的帳戶後阿拉伯語作家,評論家已經加入各種細節,其中找到自己平行的猶太教和基督教米德拉士。 Ḥamzah al-Ispahani expressly says that a Jewish rabbi in Bagdad, Zedekiah by name, told him, among other things, that Adam was created in the third hour of the sixth day, and Eve in the sixth hour; that they were made to dwell in Gan-Eden (), from which they were expelled after the ninth hour; that God sent an angel to them, who taught Adam how to sow and to perform all the other work connected with agriculture.哈姆扎鋁 Ispahani明確指出,一個猶太拉比在巴格達,西底家的名字,對他說,除其他事項外,亞當是建立在第三個小時的第六天,與夏娃在第六小時,那他們是由住在贛伊甸園(),從他們被開除後,第九屆小時;上帝派一個天使對他們來說,誰教亞當如何播種,並執行所有其他工作與農業。 The same angel instructed Eve how to perform all manner of household duties.同樣的天使指示除夕如何執行的方式,所有家務。 The historians Tabari, Masudi, Al-Athir, etc., have evidently culled from similar sources.歷史學家塔巴里,Masudi,基地Athir等等,都從類似的來源顯然撲殺。 They tell us that when God wished to form Adam He sent first Gabriel, then Michael, to fetch soil for that purpose.他們告訴我們,當上帝希望形成亞當首先發送加布里埃爾,那麼邁克爾,取土壤用於這一目的。 The earth, however, refused to give the soil, and yielded only to the Angel of Death, who brought three kinds of soil, black, white, and red.地球,但拒絕給土壤,並取得了只向死亡天使,是誰把三種土,黑,白,紅三色。 Adam's descendants, therefore, belong either to the white, the black, or the red race.亞當的後裔,因此,無論是屬於白色,黑色或紅色的比賽。

The soul of Adam had been created thousands of years previously, and at first refused to enter the body of clay.亞當的靈魂,已經建立了數千年以前,在第一次拒絕進入人體的粘土。 God forced it violently through Adam's nose, which caused him to sneeze.神迫使它粗暴地通過亞當的鼻子,這使他打噴嚏。 As it descended into his mouth, he commenced to utter the praises of God.由於陷入了他的嘴裡,他開始說出了歌頌神。 He tried to rise; but the soul had not yet descended into his feet.他試圖上升,但靈魂還沒有降臨到他的腳。 When he did stand upright, he reached from earth up to the throne of God, and had to shade his eyes with his hand because of the brilliancy of God's throne.當他挺立,他伸手從地球​​到神的寶座,並以他的眼睛遮陽用自己的手,因為輝煌的上帝的寶座。 His height was gradually diminished, partly as a punishment for his sin, and partly through grieving at the death of Abel.他的身高是逐漸減少,部分原因是懲罰他的罪,部分是透過在悲痛之死阿貝爾。

The Future Unveiled to Him.未來展現在他。

Adam wished to see the generations which were to come from him.亞當希望看到幾代其中來自他。 God drew them all from out of his back; they stood in two rows-one of the righteous, the other of the sinners.他們都來自神畫了他的後背,他們站在兩排,一義,其他的罪人。 When God told Adam the span of life given to each, he was surprised to find that only a small number of years had been allotted to David, and made him a present of forty years; of which present, says the Mohammedan Midrash, a formal document was drawn up and signed.當上帝告訴亞當跨度的生活給予每個,他驚訝地發現,只有少數年已撥出大衛,使他成為目前的四十年,其中本說,穆罕默德米德拉士,正式文件,是制定和簽署。

When Adam was driven from paradise, he first alighted on the island of Sarandib (Ceylon).當亞當被逐出天堂,他首先下車島上 Sarandib(錫蘭)。 Here his footprint (seventy ells long) is still to be seen, as is that of Abraham in Mecca.在這裡,他的足跡(七十尺進長)仍然有待觀察,因為是亞伯拉罕在麥加。 From Ceylon Adam journeyed to the holy city in Arabia, where he built the Kaaba, having through fasting and silence gained the partial forgiveness of God.從錫蘭亞當旅行至聖城阿拉伯的,他在那裡修建了天房後,通過禁食和沉默獲得了局部寬恕的上帝。

Another legend connects the building of the Kaaba with Abraham.另一種傳說連接建設的天房與亞伯拉罕。 When the time came for Adam to die, he had forgotten the gift of forty years to David, and had to be reminded of it by the Angel of Death.當時間來到,為亞當死了,他已經忘記了四十年的禮物大衛,不得不提醒它是由死亡天使。 He is said to have been buried in the "Cave of Treasures"-a Christian, rather than a Jewish, idea.據說他已被埋葬在“洞雄風”,是基督徒,而不是猶太人,想法。 Several of these peculiar features are found again in the Pirḳe de-Rabbi Eliezer, a work that was compiled under Arabic influence (Zunz, "GV" 2d ed., pp. 289 et seq.).這些特有的功能,幾個被發現再次在Pirḳe去拉比埃利澤,一個工作,是阿拉伯語的影響下編譯(Zunz,“顆粒”2版。,第289頁起。)。

J. Frederic McCurdy, Kaufmann Kohler, Richard Gottheil j的弗雷德里克麥柯迪,考夫曼科勒,理查德高澤爾
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Koran, suras xxxviii.古蘭經章節三十八。 71-86. 71-86。 ii.二。 28-32, vii. 28-32,七。 10-18, xv. 10-18,十五。 28-44, xvii. 28-44,十七。 63-68, xviii. 63-68,十八。 48, xx. 48,二十。 115, and the commentaries on these passages; Gottwaldt, HamzœIspahanensis Annalium Libri x. 115,和評注對這些通道; Gottwaldt,HamzœIspahanensis Annalium利布里十 pp. 84 et seq.; Tabari, Annales, ii.第84頁起。塔巴里,年鑑,二。 115 et seq.; Ibn al-Athir, Chronicon, ed. 115起。伊本Athir,Chronicon,編輯。 Tornberg, i. Tornberg島 19 et seq.; Al-Nawawi, Biographical Dict. 19起。瑙威,傳記字典。 of Illustrious Men, ed.顯赫男子,主編。 Wüstenfeld, pp. 123 et seq.; Yakut, Geographisches Wörterbuch, ed. Wüstenfeld,第123頁起。雅庫特,Geographisches Wörterbuch,編輯。 Wüstenfeld, vi. Wüstenfeld,六。 255 (index). 255(指數)。 Compare Geiger, Was Hat Mohammed aus dem Judenthume Aufgenommen ?比較蓋格,是穆罕默德澳大利亞 DEM Judenthume帽子Aufgenommen? pp. 100 et seq.; Weil, Biblische Legenden der Muselmänner, pp. 12 et seq.; Grünbaum, Neue Beiträge zur Semitischen Sagenkunde, pp. 54 et seq., where a large number of rabbinical parallels will be found.G.第100頁起。韋伊,Biblische Legenden明鏡 Muselmänner,第12起。Grünbaum,Neue Beiträge楚Semitischen Sagenkunde,第54頁起。,那裡有一個很大的數目將 found.G猶太教的相似之處。

-Critical View:臨界查看:

According to modern critics, the story of the creation of man is presented in two sources.根據現代的批評,這個故事的創作人提出的兩個來源。 One of these forms the beginning of the document known as the Priestly Code (P), and the other is written by the so-called Jahvist (J).一開始,這些形式的文件被稱為祭司碼(P)和另一種是寫的所謂 Jahvist(十)。 The former makes the Creation to be the first of a series of stages in the development of the history of Israel and the theocracy, which is the great end of the divine government.前者使創作成為第一個系列的階段,在發展的歷史,以色列和神權政治,這是偉大的結束的神聖政府。 Each event is to man a gradation leading up to a final act of Providence.每個事件是一個層次的人到最後導致行為的普羅維登斯。 This first stage fitly ends with the making of man in the image of God, which follows upon the creation of light, the sky, the earth, and the sea; of plants, and of animals of the water, the air, and the land.這恰好結束第一階段的製作人在神的形象,這是繼建立後,光,天空,大地,和海的植物,動物,水,空氣,土地。 This narrative as found in the final form of the Hexateuch is interrupted in Gen. ii.這說明作為最終形式中找到的hexateuch中斷在將軍二。 4 by the second narrator, and is not resumed till Gen. v. 1, where the second stage begins with the "generations [toledot] of Adam." 4第二敘述者,並沒有恢復到將軍訴 1,在第二階段開始於“世代[toledot]亞當”。

The second narrative (Gen. ii. 4-iv.) is the beginning of a history written much earlier than the priestly document.第二敘事(創二。四四。)是一個歷史的開始遠早於書面文件的祭司。 Its interest centers in Adam not as the first link in the chain of the history of Israel, but as the founder of the human race.它的利益中心在亞當不及第一環節鏈中,以色列的歷史,但隨著人類的創始人。 The descriptions are naive and anthropomorphic, telling of man's home in Eden, his divinely given mate, his progress in knowledge, his sin, his banishment from paradise, and the fate of his children.的描述是幼稚和擬人化,講述人的家在伊甸園,神給予他的隊友,他的進步在知識,他的罪過,他的流放,從天堂,他的孩子的命運。

Etymology of "Adam."詞源“亞當”。

The etymology of the word "Adam" is of importance.這個詞的詞源“亞當”是非常重要的。 The writer of Gen. ii.筆者的創二。 7 gives his own explanation when he says: "God formed man of dust of the ground." 7給他自己的解釋時,他說:“上帝所造的人的灰塵的地面。” That is to say, the man was called "Man" or "Adam" because he was formed from the ground (adamah).這就是說,該名男子被稱為“人”或“亞當”,因為他是形成了從地面(adamah)。 Compare Gen. iii.比較將軍三。 19. 19。 This association of ideas is more than an explanation of the word: it is also suggestive of the primitive conception of human life.該協會的想法是一個多解釋這個詞:它也是暗示的原始構想人的生命。 According to the oldest Semitic notions, all nature was instinct with life; so that men not only came from and returned to the earth, but actually partook of its substance.據最古老的閃族的觀念,所有的性質是本能與生命,所以,男人不僅​​來自和返回地球,但實際上分享了其實質內容。 The same notion declares itself in the Latin homo and humanus, as compared with humus and the Greek χαμαί, in the German gam (in Bräutigam), and the English groom; also in the Greek έπιχθόνιος and similar expressions.同樣的概念,宣布自己在拉丁語 HOMO與 humanus,相對於腐殖質和希臘χαμαί,在德國自由亞齊運動(在Bräutigam)和英國新郎;也是在希臘έπιχθόνιος及類似表述。 Modern critics are the less inclined to ridicule this as a mere barbaric fancy now that the doctrine of evolution has made them familiar with the unity of nature.現代的批評就越傾向於嘲笑這一野蠻僅僅是一個幻想,現在該學說的演變,使他們熟悉統一的性質。 This view of the word implies that it was originally not a proper name; for names of persons (for which fanciful etymologies are often given by the sacred writers) are not made up after such a fashion.這種觀點的話意味著它本來沒有一個適當的名稱,姓名的人(其詞源幻想往往賦予的神聖作家)不是由經過這樣一種時尚。

A closer examination of the narrative will show that the word is primarily used in a generic sense, and not as the name of an individual.再仔細檢查的敘述將顯示,這個詞主要是用在一般意義上,而不是作為一個單獨的名稱。 In Gen. i.在將軍島 its use is wholly generic.它的使用是完全通用的。 In Gen. ii.在將軍二。 and iii.及iii。 the writer weaves together the generic and the personal senses of the word.作家編織在一起的通用和個人感覺這個詞。 In all that pertains to the first man as the passive subject of creative and providential action the reference is exclusively generic.在所有涉及到的第一人作為被動主體的創造性和天賜的行動完全是通用的參考。 Indeed, it is doubtful whether "Adam" as a proper name is used at all before Gen. iv.事實上,這是值得懷疑的“亞當”作為一個適當的名稱是用在所有前將軍四。 25 (J) and v. 3 (P). 25(J)和訴 3(P)的。 Here the same usage is manifest: for in the two opening verses of chap.在這裡,相同的使用,是體現:在兩個開放的詩句的第一章。 v. the word is used generically.訴詞是用來統稱。 It may also be observed that the writer in Gen. ii., iii.它也可以觀察到,作家在將軍二。,三。 always says "the man" instead of "Adam," even when the personal reference is intended, except after a preposition, where, however, a vowel has probably been dropped from the text.總是說“男人”,而不是“亞當”,甚至還當個人參考的目的,除了一個介詞後,在那裡,不過,韻母可能已下降至文本。 The explanation of the variation of usage apparently is that, as in the case of most of the early stories of Genesis, the material of popular tradition, which started with the forming of man out of the earth, was taken up and worked over for higher religious uses by thinkers of the prophetic school.該解釋的使用明顯的變化是,在大多數情況下,早期的故事的起源,物質的流行傳統,開始與人形成了地球,被帶到了更高的和工作過宗教用途的思想家的預言學校。 Adam is not referred to in the later Old Testament books, except in the genealogy of I Chron.亞當沒有提到在後來的舊約書籍,除了在族譜的I專欄。 JF McC.怡富的MCC。


Book of Adam亞當書

Jewish Viewpoint Information 猶太觀資料

The Talmud says nothing about the existence of a Book of Adam, and Zunz's widely accepted assertion to the contrary ("GV" 2d ed., p. 136) is erroneous, as appears upon an inspection of the passage in 'Ab.猶太法典沒有提到存在一部書的亞當,和聰茨的被廣泛接受的說法與此相反的(“顆粒”2版。,第136頁)是錯誤的,因為出現後一檢查:通過在'抗體。 Zarah, 5a, and Gen. R. xxiv. Zarah,5A和將軍河二十四。 2. 2。 There can be no doubt, however, that there existed at an early date, perhaps even before the destruction of the Second Temple, a collection of legends of Adam and Eve which have been partially preserved, not in their original language, but somewhat changed.不可能有任何疑問,然而,存在著早日,甚至可能破壞之前,第二聖殿,集合的傳說,亞當和夏娃已部分保存下來,而不是在原來的語言,但有所改變。 It is possible to prove that the apocryphas, Apocalypsis Mosis- as Tischendorf, following a copyist's erroneous inscription, called the book-and Vita Adæ et Evæ, and to a certain degree even their Slavonic, Syriac, Ethiopic, and Arabic offshoots, are of identical Jewish origin.它可以證明 apocryphas,Apocalypsis Mosis作​​為提申多夫,後抄寫的錯誤題詞,稱圖書和Vita Adæ等Evæ,並在一定程度甚至他們的斯拉夫語,敘利亞,埃塞俄比亞,阿拉伯語分支,是相同的猶太血統。 According to these apocryphal works and to the Eastern and Western forms of the Apocalypsis, the Jewish portion of the Book of Adam must have read somewhat as follows (the parallels in apocryphal and rabbinical literature are placed in parentheses):根據這些未經證實的工程,以及東部和西部形式的Apocalypsis,猶太部分的書必須讀亞當有所如下(平行的猜測和猶太教文學放置在括號內):

Adam in the Garden of Eden.亞當在伊甸園。

Adam, the handiwork of the Lord (Ab. RN i., end), lived with Eve in the Garden of Eden, which was situated in the East (Book of Enoch, xxxii.; BB 84a).亞當,手工勳爵(Ab.氡一,結束),居住與夏娃的伊甸園,這是坐落在東(書伊諾克,三十二。BB心跳84A條)。 Their food, which they also distributed to the lower animals (Gen. R. xix. 5), consisted of the fruit of the trees in the garden, the only nourishment then allowed to living beings (Sanh. 59b).他們的食物,他們還分發到較低的動物(創傳譯十九。五),包括水果的樹木在園林,唯一的養料,然後讓眾生(Sanh. 59B條)。 For their protection two angels were set apart (Ḥag. 16a), known (Ber. 60b) as or the partakers of the majesty () (kabod), called in Latin virtutes, from virtus, corresponding to kabod.保護他們的兩個天使被選派(Ḥag.16A條),已知的(Ber. 60B章)作為或有分的威嚴()(kabod),所謂拉美virtutes,從 virtus,對應 kabod。 But one day when the guarding angels had ascended to heaven to sing their hymn () to the Lord (Ḥul. 91b), Satan thought the time opportune to carry out his evil designs against Adam.但是有一天,當護衛天使已升天,唱自己的讚歌()的主(Ḥul.91b),撒旦認為適當的時間來進行他的罪惡企圖對亞當。 Satan hated Adam, for he regarded him as the cause of his fall.撒旦痛恨亞當,因為他認為他的事業,他的下降。 After God had created man, He ordered all the angels to prostrate themselves before Adam, but Satan rebelled against God's command, despite the direct bidding of Michael "to worship the image of YHW" (), and answered proudly: "If God be angry against me, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God" (compare Isa. xiv. 13).之後,上帝創造了人,他下令所有天使頂禮膜拜自己以前亞當,但撒旦違背上帝的命令,儘管直接競標的邁克爾“來崇拜的形象YHW”(),並回答了驕傲地說:“如果上帝會生氣反對我,我要高舉我的寶座以上星級的上帝“(比較伊薩。十四。13)。 Whereupon God "cast him out from heaven with all his host of rebellious angels" (Slavonic Book of Enoch, xxxi. 18, and Mek., Shirah, § 2).於是上帝“把他趕出去,從天上與他的所有主機的墮落天使”(斯拉夫書伊諾克,三十一。18,和MEK。,希雷,§ 2)。 And Satan the Adversary (Suk. 52a) selected the serpent for his tool, as it was not only the most subtle of all animals, but also very similar to man, for it had been endowed with hands and legs like him (Gen. R. xix. 1).和撒旦的對手(淑52A條)選擇的蛇為他的工具,因為它不僅是最微妙的所有動物,但也很相似的人,因為它已經被賦予了雙手和雙腿像他(創 ř 。十九。1)。 And Satan spoke to the serpent: "Be my instrument, and through thy mouth will I utter a word which shall enable thee to seduce man" (Pirḳe R. El. xiii.).和撒旦說話的蛇:“我的儀器,並通過你的嘴將我說出一個字,其中應使你勾引男人”(pirḳe傳譯下午。十三。)。 After some pleading the serpent succeeded in persuading Eve to eat of the forbidden fruit of the tree of knowledge-a fig-tree (Gen. R. xv. 7)-which the serpent had shaken for her (Ab. RN i. 4, ed. Schechter).經過一番懇求蛇成功地說服夏娃吃了禁果的樹知識的無花果樹(創傳譯十五。七),而蛇也動搖她(Ab.氡一,四,教育署。Schechter已)。 But the serpent had infused lust into the fruit, and when Eve had eaten of it the sexual desire awoke in her (Slavonic Book of Baruch, xcvii.; Apoc. Abraham, xxiii., and Pirḳe R. El. xxi.), and at the same moment she became aware that she had been undone and "had lost the garment of righteousness in which she had been clothed" (Gen. R. xix. 6, Pirḳe R. El. xiv.).但注入了慾望的蛇進入果子,夏娃吃了它的性慾在她醒來(斯拉夫書巴魯克,xcvii。載脂蛋白C。亞伯拉罕,二十三。,並pirḳe傳譯下午。二十一。)和在同一時刻,她意識到她已被撤消和“已失去了正義的服裝,她一直穿”(創傳譯十九。六,pirḳe傳譯下午。十四。)。 Adam, too, after he had eaten of the forbidden fruit, experienced a sense of loss and cried out: "What hast thou done? Thou hast removed me from the glory of the Lord" (Ab. RN i. 6, ed. Schechter).亞當也吃了後,他的禁果,經歷了意義上的損失,並高喊:“你做的是什麼事呢?你使我的榮耀上帝”(Ab.氡一六,編輯。謝克特)。

The Divine Verdict.神聖的判決。

Soon after they had sinned they heard the trumpet-blast (shofar) of Michael ("BH" ed. Jellinek, ii. 61) calling the angels: "Thus saith the Lord, 'Come with me into the Garden of Eden and hear the sentence which I will pass on Adam'" (Gen. R. xix. 8).不久後,他們犯了罪,他們聽到了小號爆(羊角號),邁克爾(“波黑”版。耶利內克,二。61)天使的呼喚:“耶和華如此說,'來跟我到伊甸園,並聽取了一句話,我將通過對亞當'“(創傳譯十九。8)。 And the Lord then spoke to Adam, saying: "Where art thou hidden? Dost thou think I can not find thee? Can a house hide itself from its builder? [Targ. Yer. to Gen. iii. 9]. Because thou hast broken my commandment I will inflict seventy-two ailments upon thy body" (Mishnah Neg. i. 4).而主,然後以亞當,他說:“如果你隱藏的藝術?難道你以為我找不到你是否可以隱藏自己的房子從它的建造者?[塔爾格。也門里亞爾。將軍三到9。]。由於祢打破我的誡命,我會造成七十二疾病後,你的身體“(米示拿否定詞。島 4)。 And to the woman He said: "Because thou didst not hearken to my commandment I shall multiply thy labor-pains, and vainly [ἐν ματαιοīς of the Greek, by a mistake in reading (habalim) for (ḥabalim) in the Hebrew] thou wilt then confess and cry: 'Lord, save me, and I will not turn any more to carnal sin.'而他又對女人說:“因為祢不聽我的誡命,我會乘你的勞動的痛苦,而妄想[ἐνματαιοīς希臘,由一個錯誤的讀數(habalim)為(ḥabalim)在希伯來文]你枯萎然後再坦白和呼喊:'上帝,救救我,我不會把任何更多的肉慾罪。' But thy desire shall be again to thy husband" (a midrashic explanation of Gen. iii. 16, based on the hermeneutic rule of semikot-explanation by context-and to be found word for word in Gen. R. xx. 7).但你的願望,應再次向你的丈夫“(一midrashic解釋將軍三。16的基礎上,解釋學規則 semikot -闡發上下文,並找到逐字逐句在將軍傳譯二十。7)。 Nor did the serpent escape punishment, for it lost its hands and legs (Gen. R. xx. 5), and a spirit of enmity was established between it and man unto the day of judgment; according to Targ.蛇也沒有逃脫懲罰,因為它失去了它的手和腳(創傳譯二十。5),一種精神的敵意,建立了它與人到審判的日子,據塔爾格。 Yer.也門里亞爾。 Gen. iii.將軍三。 15, "until the time of Messiah" (see Soṭah, 49b). 15日,“到時候彌賽亞”(見Soṭah,第49B)。

Adam Exiled from the Garden of Eden.亞當流亡從伊甸園。

However, the heaviest punishment for Adam was his expulsion from the Garden of Eden.然而,最重處罰為亞當是他逐出伊甸園。 All his supplications, as well as those of the angels, to mitigate the sentence only induced God to promise him, saying: "If after having left the Garden of Eden thou wilt guard against evil until thou diest" ["be prepared to die" is not correct, being based on the confusion of the Hebrew (wilt die) with the Aramaic (prepared)], "I will raise thee at the time of resurrection" (an old haggadic Targum to Gen. iii. 17, 22, which is also found in Targ. Yer. i. and Gen. R. xx. 10; compare the benediction meḥayye ha-metim (He raises the dead), in Apost. Const. vii. chap. xxxiv).他所有的懇求,以及那些天使,以減輕刑期只有誘導上帝答應他,說:“如果後離開伊甸園祢防範邪惡,直到你迪斯特”[“願意死”是不正確的,即立足於混亂的希伯來語(枯萎死亡)與阿拉姆語(準備)],“我會提高你在時間的復活”(舊阿haggadic根的將軍三。17,22,也見於塔爾格。也門里亞爾。將軍傳譯二十一和。10;比較功德meḥayye公頃 metim(他引起死亡),在Apost。常量。七。第一章。三十四)。 In the future world God will be among men (Tan., Num. 145, ed. Buber), and the Evil Spirit will be no more (Gen. R. xlviii. 11).在未來的世界上帝會男子(Tan.,序號。145版。布伯),與邪惡的精神將沒有更多的(創傳譯 48。11)。

The sentence of God was carried into effect.這句話被帶進神的效果。 Banished from the garden, which was henceforward surrounded by a sea of ice (Book of Enoch, Hebrew version; "BH" iv. 132), Adam and Eve settled in the neighborhood of Eden in the East (Gen. R. xxi. 9).放逐,從花園,這是從今以後一海包圍的冰(書伊諾克,希伯來文版;“波黑”四。132),亞當與夏娃安置在附近的東方伊甸園(創傳譯二十一9。 )。 They were no sooner out of their blissful abode than a paralyzing terror befell them.他們剛一離開自己幸福的居留權比癱瘓恐怖降臨他們。 Unaccustomed to the earthly life and unfamiliar with the changes of the day and of the weather-in paradise an eternal light had surrounded them (Gen. R. xi. 2)-they were terrified when the darkness of night began to fall upon the earth ('Ab. Zarah, 8a), and the intercession of God's word () was necessary to explainto them the new order of things.不習慣俗世的生活和不熟悉的變遷白天的天氣在天堂一個永恆的光包圍了他們(創傳譯十一。2)-們嚇壞了,當黑暗的夜晚開始降臨地球('抗體。Zarah,8A)條,以及代禱神的話語()是必要的explainto他們對事物的新秩序。 From this moment the sufferings of life began; for Adam and Eve were afraid to partake of earthly food, and fasted for the first seven days after their expulsion from paradise, as is prescribed in Talmudic law before an imminent famine (Mishnah Ta'anit, i. 6).從這一時刻的痛苦生活的開始;為亞當和夏娃不敢分享人間的食物,禁食後的第一個七天他們驅逐出樂園,因為是法律規定之前,在塔木德即將飢荒(米示拿Ta'anit,一6)。

Repentance of Adam.悔改亞當。

Humiliated and weakened by hunger and suffering, Adam became conscious of the gravity of his sin, for which he was now prepared to atone ('Er. 18b, Gen. R. xxii. 13).屈辱和削弱了飢餓和痛苦,亞當成為自覺的嚴重性,他的罪過,為此,他現在準備來贖罪('呃。18B條,創傳譯二十二。13)。 He, therefore, like Moses, Elijah, and Abraham (Apoc. Abraham, 12), fasted for forty days, during which he stood up to his neck in the waters of the river Gihon (), the name of which is etymologically connected by the writer with the roots "to stoop" and "to pray aloud" (Pirḳe R. El. xx.).因此,他像摩西,以利亞,亞伯拉罕(Apoc.亞伯拉罕,12),禁食四十天,在此期間,他站起來向他的脖子,在該河水域由基紅(),這個名字相連的是由詞源筆者歸根“屈尊”和“大聲祈禱”(pirḳe傳譯下午。二十。)。 According to the Vita Adæ et Evæ, Adam stood in the Jordan-a version which may be ascribed to the Christian copyists, who, for obvious reasons, wished to represent Adam as having had his baptism in the Jordan, forgetting that since Eve, as they themselves stated, bathed in the Tigris, Adam would have selected another of the rivers of paradise for that purpose.根據簡歷 Adæ等Evæ,亞當站在約旦一個版本,可能歸因於基督教抄寫員,誰,顯而易見的原因,希望代表亞當有過他的洗禮,在約旦,忘了自前夕,他們自己說,沐浴在底格里斯河,亞當會選擇另一河流的天堂用於這一目的。

The days of repentance having passed, the twins Cain and Abel were born to Adam and Eve (Gen. R. xxii. 2).悔改的日子已經過去,這對雙胞胎該隱和亞伯出生的亞當和夏娃(創傳譯二十二。2)。 And soon Cain rose, ran away, and brought a reed to his mother (; compare Gen. R. xxii. 8): "Cain killed his brother with a reed ()"; for, according to the unanimous opinion of the Haggadah, the children of Adam and Eve were born fully developed (Gen. R. xxii. 2).很快該隱玫瑰,逃跑了,並帶來了蘆葦給他的母親(;比較將軍河二十二。八):“該隱殺害他的兄弟與蘆葦()”,因為,​​根據一致意見的哈加達,孩子們的亞當與夏娃出生的充分發展(創傳譯二十二。2)。 Eve saw in a dream that Cain had assassinated his brother, and Abel was found slain with a stone (Gen. R. xxii. 8; Book of Jubilees, iv. 31); but the earth refused to receive his blood (Giṭ. 57b).除夕夜在夢中看到該隱暗殺他的弟弟,和阿貝爾被發現被殺用石頭(創傳譯二十二。八,書籍的jubilees,四。31);但地球拒絕接受他的血液(Giṭ.57B條)。 As a compensation for the murdered Abel, God promised Adam a son who should "make known everything that thou doest."作為補償的謀殺亞伯,神應許亞當的兒子誰應“知道你所做的一切。”

Illness and Death of Adam.疾病和死亡的亞當。

Adam, at the age of nine hundred and thirty years, became very ill; for God had cursed him with seventy-two ailments.亞當,在年齡九百三十○年,開始變得很糟糕,因為神詛咒他,七十二疾病。 He sent his son Seth, with Eve, to the Garden of Eden for the oil of healing, to restore him to health (Pirḳe R. El. xxxv).他派他的兒子塞思,與夏娃的伊甸園為石油的癒合,恢復他的健康(pirḳe傳譯下午。三十五)。 On his way to paradise Seth was attacked by a wild animal.途中曾遭到了天堂塞思野生動物。 Upon Eve's demanding how an animal could dare to attack an image of God, the animal replied that she herself, through her sin, had forfeited the right to rule over the animal kingdom (Pesiḳ. v. 44b, ed. Buber, and Sanh. 106b).當除夕的要求如何將動物可不敢攻擊一個形象的神,動物回答說,她自己,通過她的罪惡,已沒收權統治的動物王國(pesiḳ.二訴 44B條,編輯。布​​伯,並葬身。 106B章)。 Not until Seth exclaimed: "Wait until the day of judgment !"直到賽斯叫道:“等一等,直到有一天的判決!” or, "Stop! If not, thou wilt be brought to judgment before God" (both readings based on ) did the animal let him go.或者,“住手!如果不是,那你被帶到判斷上帝面前”(兩個讀數的基礎上)沒有動物,讓他去。 However, the mission of Seth was in vain, for the angel Michael, to whom God had given the control over the human body-for he it was who had gathered the dust for Adam's creation (Midr. Konen, in "BH" ii. 27), told him that his father's life was at an end, and his soul would depart from him within the course of a week.然而,使命塞特徒勞的,為天使邁克爾,向誰上帝給了控制人體,因為他是誰,聚集灰塵為亞當的創造(midr.了Konen,在“波黑”二。 27),告訴他,他父親的生命也走到盡頭,他的靈魂會離開他在課程的一個星期。

Funeral of Adam.葬禮的亞當。

Three days after the death of Adam (Gen. R. vii), which took place, as in the case of Moses and Aaron, in the presence of many angels and even in the presence of the Lord, his soul was handed over by God to Michael, who assigned it an abode in the third heaven (Ḥag. 12b) until the day of resurrection.三天後死亡的亞當(創傳譯七),這一事件發生後,如在案件摩西和亞倫,在存在許多天使,甚至存在的主,他的靈魂交給了上帝邁克爾,誰賦予它一個居留權,在第三天堂(Ḥag.12B條),直到有一天復活。 The body was interred with exceptional honors; the four archangels, Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael (in the exact order of enumeration given by the Haggadah; see Kohut, "Angelologie," p. 25), buried it in the neighborhood of paradise, the precise spot being (Pirḳe R. El. xii. and xx.) Hebron near Jerusalem; for the site of the altar in the Temple, whence the dust of Adam was taken, is the gate to paradise.屍體被埋葬的特殊榮譽;四個天使,邁克爾,加布里埃爾,烏利爾,拉斐爾(確切順序的統計給予哈加達,見胡特,“Angelologie”,第25頁),它埋在附近的天堂,精確的現貨正(pirḳe傳譯下午。十二。和xx。)希伯倫附近耶路撒冷為現場的祭壇在寺廟中,何時會有灰塵的亞當被帶走,是天堂之門。 A few days after the interment of Adam by the virtutes, Eve felt that her end was approaching.幾天後,安葬在virtutes亞當,夏娃認為,她即將結束。 She called her children together and ordered them to write down the names of the first two human beings on two slabs of clay and stone, for she had learned from Michael that God had decided to bring a flood and a destructive fire over the earth and that only these slabs would escape destruction (Josephus, "Ant." i. 2, § 3).她叫她的孩子在一起,並命令他們寫下的名字第一次兩個人在兩個板塊,粘土和石料,因為她學會了從邁克爾,上帝已決定把洪水和破壞性的火災,而在地球只有這些磚將難逃毀滅(約瑟夫,“螞蟻。”一,二,§ 3)。 Eve passed away after a lapse of six days-that is, after the mourning week of Adam-as the (shib'ah) may consist, according to Talmudic law, of six days only and a few moments of the seventh day (M. Ḳ. 19b).除夕去世後失效的六天,也就是哀悼一周後的亞當,作為(shib'ah)可能包括,根據塔木德法,六天僅幾分鐘的第七天(米K表。19B條)。 Eve was buried by the angels at the side of Adam, and the angels instructed Seth not to mourn more than six days, and to rest and rejoice on the seventh day, for on that same day God and the angels would receive in gladness the soul which is lifted above all earthly matter (Sanh. 65b), and, moreover, rest upon the seventh day was to be the symbol of the resurrection in future ages (Sanh. 97a).夏娃被安葬由天使在一旁的亞當,與天使指示塞思不超過 6天哀悼,並以休息和歡呼的第七天,就在同一天上帝與天使將獲得在歡喜的靈魂這是解除上述世間的一切物質(sanh. 65 B條),此外,休息後第七天是成為象徵復活在未來的時代(Sanh. 97A條)。

The reconstruction of the Jewish Book of Adam here attempted may be hypothetical in some points, for neither the Apoc.重建的猶太書亞當這裡可能是假設的企圖在某些方面,因為無論是載脂蛋白C。 Mosis nor the Vita can be considered to represent a true copy of the original. Mosis也不是維塔可以被認為代表了真正的副本原件。 But it makes clear that these two apocryphas are based on the Hebrew or Aramaic Book of Adam and that the latter belongs to the midrashic literature, as many of its allusions can only be explained by the Midrash.但它清楚地表明這兩個 apocryphas是根據希伯來文或阿拉姆書亞當,而後者屬於 Midrashic文學,因為它的許多典故,只能解釋為米德拉士。 The legends of Adam with which rabbinical literature abounds seem to point to the same source.在傳說中的亞當與猶太教文學比比皆是,似乎指向同一個源頭。 Thus the statement in Abot de-Rabbi Nathan (i. 6, ed. Shechter) that Eve always addressed Adam as "lord" is apparently not intelligible, until compared with the Vita and the Slavonic Book of Adam, both of which contain similar statements, which, therefore, must have existed in the original, from which they both drew independently of each other.因此,聲明 abot德拉-拉比彌敦道(一6,編輯。Shechter)表示,亞當夏娃總是解決“上帝”顯然是不理解,直到比Vita和斯拉夫語書籍的亞當,都包含類似的聲明,其中,因此,必須在原已存在,他們從兩個相互獨立制定。 With regard to the alleged Christian elements and reminiscences of the New Testament in the Apoc.至於所謂的基督教元素和回憶新約中的載脂蛋白C。 Mosis and Vita they will be sufficiently characterized by the following examples: Apoc. Mosis和Vita他們將得到充分的特點是下面的例子:載脂蛋白C。 Mosis, iii., "Child of Wrath," is based on a haggadic etymology of the name Cain, and has nothing to do with Eph. Mosis,三。“孩子的憤怒”,是基於阿haggadic詞源的名字該隱,並已無關弗。 ii.二。 3; and Apoc. 3;和載脂蛋白C。 Mosis, xix., "Lust is the beginning of all sin," is thoroughly Jewish (see above), and need not therefore have been taken from such a source as James, i. Mosis,十九。“慾望是一切罪惡的開始”,是徹底的猶太人(見上文),而不必因此已採取了從這樣的來源地詹姆斯島 15. 15。 This, moreover, is the case with all the other alleged Christian passages in the Apoc.這一點,而且,是與所有其他案件涉嫌在基督教經文載脂蛋白C。 Mosis, which would prove nothing, even if they were of Christian origin; for it can not be surprising to find Christian allusions in the language of a book so widely read among Christians as the Apocrypha. Mosis,這將證明什麼,即使他們是基督教的起源,因為它不能找到基督教典故,令人驚訝的語言中如此廣泛閱讀的書,基督徒為偽經。 Even passages where one would expect that a Christian editor or compiler would interject Christological notions are quite free from them; all of which tends to show that neither the Apoc.即使通道的地方人會期望一個基督教編輯器或編譯器將插嘴基督的觀點是可以自由離開他們,所有這些傾向顯示,無論是載脂蛋白C。 Mosis nor the Vita was in any way tampered with by Christian writers. Mosis也不簡歷被以任何方式篡改的基督教作家。

Louis Ginzberg路易斯金茲伯格
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.猶太百科全書出版01年至1906年之間。

Bibliography: 參考書目:
Schürer, Gesch. Schürer,Gesch。 3d ed., iii., 288 et seq.; Fuchs, in Die Apokryphen und Pseudepigraphen des Alten Testaments (trans. and ed. by E. Kautzsch), ii.三維版。,三。,288起。福克斯,在模具Apokryphen有限公司Pseudepigraphen萬老聖經(譯和ED。由E.的Kautzsch),二。 506-529; Ginzberg, Die Haggada bei den Kirchenvätern, in Monatsschrift, 1899, pp. 63 et seq. 506-529;金茲伯格,模具Haggada北巢穴Kirchenvätern,在月刊,1899年,第63起。 The most important editions of the Books of Adam are: Apoc.最重要的版本圖書的亞當是:載脂蛋白C。 Mosis, in Apocalypses Apocryphœ, ed. Mosis,在啟示 Apocryphœ,編輯。 Tischendorf, 1866; Vita Adœ et Evœ, ed.提申多夫,1866年;維塔 Adœ等Evœ,編輯。 H. Meyer, in Abhandlungen der Bayrischen Akademie der Wissenschaften; Philosophisch-Philologische Klasse, xiv.閣下邁耶,在Abhandlungen明鏡 Bayrischen Akademie明鏡學問; Philosophisch - Philologische Klasse,14。 (1878); the Old Slavonic Book of Adam; Jagic, in Denkschriften der Wiener Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philosophisch-Historische Klasse (1893), i. (1878年),舊斯拉夫書亞當; Jagic,在Denkschriften明鏡維納 Akademie明鏡學問,Philosophisch - Historische Klasse(1893年),島 et seq., xlii.; Malan, Book of Adam and Eve, translated from the Ethiopic, London, 1882.LG起。,四十二。馬蘭,圖書的亞當和夏娃,翻譯來自埃塞俄比亞,倫敦,1882.LG


Also, see:此外,見:
Original Sin 原罪
Eden, Eve 伊甸,夏娃

This subject presentation in the original English language本主題介紹在原來的英文


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mail發送電子郵件的問題或意見給我們:電子郵箱

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at主要相信網頁(和索引科目),是在