Bible聖經

General Information 一般資料

The word Bible is derived from the Greek biblia, meaning "books," and refers to the sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity.字聖經,是源自於希臘語快報,意思是"書" ,是指以神聖的著作猶太教和基督教。 The Bible consists of two parts.聖經包括兩部分。 The first part, called the Old Testament by Christians, consists of the sacred writings of the Jewish people and was written originally in Hebrew, except for some portions in Aramaic.第一部分,所謂舊約基督徒,包括神聖的著作猶太人民,並以書面原本以希伯來語,除某些部分在阿拉姆語。 The second part, called the New Testament, was composed in Greek and records the story of Jesus and the beginnings of Christianity.第二部分,所謂的新約聖經,是由希臘文,並記錄了耶穌的故事,並開始了基督教。 Translated in whole or in part into more than 1,500 languages, the Bible is the most widely distributed book in the world. Its influence on history and culture, including literature and the other arts, is incalculable.翻譯部分或全部納入1500多名語言, 聖經是分佈最廣的書在世界上影響力的歷史和文化,包括文學及其他藝術,是無法估量的。

The Old Testament舊約

Major Themes and Characteristics重大的主題和特色

The Hebrew Bible, written over a period of more than 500 years, consists of many types of literature and reflects varying points of view.希伯來文的聖經,書面近一個時期以來的500多年來,包括多種類型的文獻,反映了不同的觀點。 It is essentially religious, but, unlike most ancient religious books, the Old Testament is characterized by a strong sense of history; even laws and exhortations are woven into the narratives.這基本上是宗教,但不像最古老的宗教書籍,舊約的特點是強烈的歷史感,即使法律和囑託,是被編織成的敘述。

The themes are the uniqueness and glory of God (Yahweh), the Covenants he made with Israel, the Law, God's control of history and Israel's special destiny, God's revelation through the Prophets, the nature of humanity, corporate and individual sin and its remedy, and the true worship of God. 主題是獨特性和神的榮耀(雅威) ,盟約,他與以色列,法,上帝的控制的歷史和以色列的特殊命運,上帝的啟示是通過先知,但性質人性,企業和個人的單仲偕及補救和真正的崇拜上帝。

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The Hebrews believed that their religion was founded on covenants that God offered them and that they had accepted. Yahweh had agreed to make them his specially chosen people and to protect them, but only if they obeyed his Law. 希伯來人認為,他們的宗教是建基於盟約,神是他們提供,並表示,他們已經接受了。雅威已同意讓他們自己特意選擇了人民,並保護他們,但只有當他們服從他的法律。 Covenants were made with Noah, which embraced all humankind, and with Abraham and his descendants; but the most important covenant was revealed to Moses.公約提出了諾亞,擁抱全人類,亞伯拉罕和他的後裔,但最重要的盟約,發現摩西。 Later, after the division of the Jews into two kingdoms - Judah and Israel - the people of Judah believed that a special covenant had also been made with King David and his royal descendants.後來,由於分工的猶太人分為兩大演義-J udah和以色列-人民的猶大認為,設立一個特別的公約方面也取得了大衛王和他的皇室後裔。

Yahweh was different from all other deities. Israel was forbidden to worship any other god, and the Mosaic religion perhaps implied that no other existed, although this was not specifically emphasized until the time of the exile during the Babylonian Captivity (587 - 37 BC). 雅威不同於其他一切神靈,以色列禁止崇拜任何其他神,並且鑲嵌宗教也許意味著沒有其他存在的,儘管它不是特別強調,直至當時的流亡在巴比倫囚禁( 587 -公元前3 7) 。 Other gods personified natural forces or tribes and nations, but Yahweh was supreme over everything.其他神人格化的自然力量或部落和國家,但雅威是最高人民法院壓倒一切。 Because he controlled history, he could use Assyria or Babylonia to punish a rebellious Israel.因為他控制的歷史,他可以利用assyria或巴比倫王國,以懲罰一個叛逆以色列。 Plentiful crops depended on his will alone and not on the magical rites by which the Baals of Canaan were worshiped. The concept of the Book of Leviticus was that the Hebrews were to be a holy people, separated from all defilement.豐富的作物取決於他的意願,僅而不是神奇的儀軌,其中baals的迦南人崇拜。 概念,這本書的利未記是希伯來人是一個神聖的人,脫離一切污穢。

Many laws in the Pentateuch, or Torah, the first five books, were not different from those of surrounding nations.許多法律在pentateuch ,或律法,第一個五年書籍,沒有什麼不同,從這些周邊國家。 However, some unique commandments were given, without specific rewards and punishments; most important were the Ten Commandments, which have a high ethical content. The Torah (Law) was a complete religious and civil law for the whole nation. It prescribed sacrifices and festivals similar to those of other nations, but the emphasis was on morality. Yahweh was a God of justice. All sin and injustice was an offense against him; and repentance could bring forgiveness.不過,一些較有特色的誡命獲得,但無具體的獎懲;最重要的十個戒律,其中有一個很高的道德內容。 律法(法) ,是一個完整的宗教和民間法,為全民族的,它明的犧牲和節日類似相對於其他國家,但更多的是強調道德。 雅威是上帝的公義,一切罪惡和不公是一個進攻對他的;悔改可帶來寬恕。

In the Book of Joshua, Yahweh is a God of war who commands the slaughter of the Canaanites, but the Hebrew religion gradually outgrew such a concept, as can be seen in the books of Jeremiah and Jonah. The prophets saw history as an interaction between the living God and his people, and its outcome depended on their obedience. Israel was destined to be a light to the nations, but it always had a special place in God's purpose and love, and the Hebrews always struggled with the two concepts of God's impartial justice and his love toward Israel. Late in the biblical period, writers of Apocalyptic Literature, unlike the earlier prophets, despaired of the normal forces of history and believed that God would put an end to the present age, bringing in a miraculous reign of righteousness.在該書中的約書亞,雅威是一個戰爭之神的人指揮屠殺的canaanites ,但希伯來宗教逐漸增速平均達6.6這樣一個概念,可以看出,在帳簿耶利米和約拿。 先知們看到了歷史上作為一個相互作用活著的上帝和他的人民,其結果取決於他們服從。以色列是注定要成為一盞燈,國家,但它始終有一個特殊的地位,在上帝的宗旨和戀愛,希伯來人總是掙扎與這兩個概念的上帝的公正的司法和他的愛情,對以色列。 下旬在聖經時期,作家的世界末日的文學,不像先前先知,絕望的正常歷史的力量,並認為上帝將結束當今時代,引進一個奇蹟般的統治義。

These themes were not systematized into a theology but can be discerned from the literature as a whole, which expresses the hopes, fears, laments, thanksgivings, and even the doubts of the Hebrews. Thus the Book of Job criticizes the popular, facile doctrine of reward and punishment, and the Book of Ecclesiastes often approaches skepticism.這些主題均沒有系統化,成為一個神學的,但可以分辨,從文學作為一個整體,它體現了希望,恐懼,感嘆thanksgivings ,甚至懷疑的希伯來人, 所以這本書的工作,批評受歡迎,簡易主義獎勵和處罰,這本書的傳道書通常的做法持懷疑態度。

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The Canon佳能

The canon, or officially accepted list of books in the Hebrew Bible, consists of 24 books according to Jewish reckoning and is divided into three parts: the Law, the Prophets, and the Writings. The Law (Torah), often called the Pentateuch, comprises five books, Genesis through Deuteronomy.佳能,或正式接受書單, 在希伯來語聖經,包括24個圖書按照猶太歷計算,並分為三個部分:有關法律,先知,和著作。法律(律法) ,通常被稱為pentateuch ,包括五本書,成因通過申命記。 The Prophets (Nevi im) are divided into three parts: the earlier prophets (Joshua, Judges, 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings); the later prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, and Ezekiel); and twelve books called the Minor Prophets because of their brevity. The 11 Writings (Ketuvim) include three poetic books (Psalms, Proverbs, and Job); the five scrolls (Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther); an apocalyptic work, Daniel; and Ezra - Nehemiah and 1 and 2 Chronicles. 先知們(痣的IM ) ,分為三部分:較早的先知(約書亞,法官, 1和2薩穆埃爾,與1和2國王隊) ;後來先知(以賽亞書耶利米,以西結書) ,以及12個圖書稱為輕微先知,因為他們的簡潔。 11著作(詩歌智慧書) ,包括3個詩意的書籍(詩篇,諺語,及就業) ;五個春聯(所羅門之歌,羅思,悲嘆,傳道書,和Esther ) ;一種世界末日的工作,丹尼爾;以斯拉-尼希米記和1個和2個地方志。

Christian Bibles arrange the books differently. 基督教聖經,安排不同的書籍。 The Law, or Pentateuch, comes first, then all the historical books. 法律,或pentateuch ,至上,則所有的歷史書籍。 These are followed by the poetical, or wisdom, books and finally the prophetic books. 這些都是其次是詩歌,或智慧,書籍和最後的先知書。 Thus Ruth, Chronicles, Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther appear in the second group and Daniel and Lamentations in the fourth. 因此,羅思,地方志,以斯拉,尼希米記,和Esther出現在第二組和丹尼爾和悲嘆在第四位。

[Editor's Note: Christian Bibles also generally divide apart all of the separate Books, so the Canon is described as being a total of 39 Books, but which are the same text as the 24 Books of the Hebrew Bible. [編者按:基督教聖經,也普遍隔膜除了所有的單獨的書籍,所以佳能公司正在被描述為共出書39冊,但屬於同一文本作為24書籍的希伯來語聖經。 For example, where the Hebrew Bible counts the Twelve Minor Prophets as one Book, Christian Bibles almost universally count them as twelve Books.]例如,在希伯來語聖經計數十二小先知,因為一本書,基督教聖經,幾乎普遍指望他們為12個圖書。 ]

The Jews never ceased writing religious books. Several books composed in Hebrew or Greek after 300 BC are part of the Septuagint, or Old Greek version, and were regarded as Scripture by many Christians.猶太人從來沒有停止過寫作宗教書籍。 幾本書組成的希伯來文或希臘後,公元前300年,是部分的septuagint ,還是舊的希臘語版本,及被視為經文許多基督徒。 Roman Catholics and the Orthodox include these books, called Apocrypha or deuterocanonical books, in the Bible. 羅馬天主教徒和東正教包括這兩本書,名為apocrypha或次經書,在聖經中。 Protestants omit them or print them as an appendix to the Bible. 新教徒略去他們或者打印出來,作為附錄,以聖經。

Divisions of the Old Testament師舊約

[The following discussion uses the Christian classification of books.] [以下討論利用基督教分類的書籍。 ]

Pentateuch pentateuch

Genesis recounts the creation of the universe and the first human beings, the traditions of the Deluge, and the stories of the patriarchs down to the sojourn of the Hebrews in Egypt and the deaths of Jacob and Joseph. Exodus tells how Moses led the people from Egypt and received the covenant and Law on Mount Sinai. Leviticus is largely a legal code; Numbers continues the story of migration toward the Promised Land. Deuteronomy partly repeats the narrative, recording other laws, and concludes with the death of Moses. 成因重新宇宙的形成和第一次一個人,傳統的蜂擁而至,以及故事的patriarchs回落到寄居的希伯來人在埃及和死亡的雅各布和約瑟夫。 外流告訴如何摩西帶領全國人民從埃及,並收到該公約和法律上西乃山。 利未記很大程度上是一個法律規範; 號碼繼續故事的移民走向應許之地。 申命記部分重複敘述,錄音等法律,並得出結論,與死亡的摩西。 It teaches a strict doctrine of corporate reward and punishment.它教導嚴格教義的企業的獎勵和懲罰。

The Pentateuch is based on four principal sources. The oldest, J, was perhaps written in Judah, the southern kingdom, about 950 BC. 該pentateuch基於四個主要來源:歷史最悠久, J以來也許是寫在猶大,南部,英國,大約在公元前950 。 Between 900 and 750, another version from Israel, the northern kingdom, was woven in; this is called Ephraim (E) . 900至750人,是另一種版本,由以色列,英國北部,是編織在這就叫艾弗冷 In the 7th century BC, Deuteronomy, or most of it (D) , was compiled.在公元前7世紀,申命記,或大部份資訊科技 ,彙編成。 About 550 BC, during the exile, the final edition of the Torah added a priestly source (P) , some parts of which are very old.約公元前550 ,在流亡,但最終版本的律法增添了聖源 P )的部分,這是很老的。

Historical Books歷史書籍

Joshua tells of a thorough conquest of Canaan, but Judges contains traditions of the Hebrew tribes in the period before the monarchy that reveal the conquest as partial. 約書亞告訴一個徹底征服迦南,但法官包含傳統的希伯萊各部落,在改制前的時期君主透露征服,作為部分。 The books of Samuel are about the founding of the monarchy under Saul and David and contain a magnificent early source for the life of David, probably written about 961 - 22 BC.帳簿塞繆爾即將成立的君主制度下,掃羅和大衛,並包含宏偉初源,為生命的國寶,大概書面約961 -公元前2 2。 All the above books have been extensively edited by writers who shared the theology of the D source.上述所有書籍已廣泛主編作家,他們共同的神學觀的三維源。

Ezra and Nehemiah were composed after the exile, when these two leaders restored Judaism in Palestine, and Nehemiah's own memoirs make up much of the latter book. 以斯拉和尼希米記者組成後,流亡海外,當這兩位領導人恢復猶太教在巴勒斯坦,並尼希米記自己的回憶錄中做出了很大的,後者的書。 The two Books of Chronicles cover Hebrew history from Ezra's priestly point of view but contain some valuable earlier traditions. Ruth is the story of a foreign woman who became loyal to Israel and was the ancestor of David. Esther is a tale of a Jewish queen of Persia who saved her people from persecution.該兩本書的封面編年史希伯來歷史,從以斯拉的司鐸的角度來看,而是包含了一些寶貴的較早的傳統。 羅思是故事的一個外國女子,她成為忠誠於以色列和被始祖大衛。 埃絲特是一個故事,一個猶太王后波斯的人救了她的人的迫害。

Poetical, or Wisdom, Books詩意,或智慧,書籍

Job contains some of the finest poetry in the Bible. 求職載有一些最優秀的詩歌在聖經中。 Its themes are the problems of suffering and of man's standing before God.其主題是問題的苦難和人的常設上帝面前。 The Psalms were essentially composed for temple worship, although some may be pieces of individual devotion. 詩篇基本上組成,為寺廟崇拜,雖然有些人可能是件單獨的奉獻。 Many are ascribed to David, but some come from an earlier period. Proverbs comprises several collections of ancient wisdom.許多人歸因於國寶,但也有來自較早時期。 諺語包括若干收藏的古代智慧。 Parts of Ecclesiastes are skeptical, but other sections express conventional wisdom.部分傳道書則持懷疑態度,但其他路段表達傳統智慧。 The Song of Solomon is a collection of love poems.首歌的所羅門是一家集愛情詩。

The Prophets眾先知

The great prophets of the 8th century BC were Amos, Hosea, Isaiah, and Micah. They proclaimed God's holiness and his judgment on the idol worship and moral abuses of the Hebrew kingdoms, and called the people back to loyalty to the covenant. Jeremiah, the greatest prophet of the 7th century BC, was unique in recording his inner spiritual struggles and in promising a new covenant.偉大的先知的第八世紀公元前被阿摩司,何西阿,以賽亞書,彌迦,他們宣布了上帝的聖潔和他的判斷,對偶像崇拜和道德行為的希伯萊王國,並號召人們回到忠誠盟約。 傑雷米亞最偉大的先知公元前7世紀,是獨一無二的,在記錄他內心精神的鬥爭和在有前途的一個新的盟約。 Like Isaiah, he opposed military alliances with foreign nations and resistance to the Babylonian invasion. Zephaniah and perhaps Habakkuk belong to the same century. Nahum gloats over the destruction (612 BC) of Nineveh.以賽亞書,他反對軍事同盟,與外國國家和阻力,以巴比倫的入侵。 zephaniah也許哈巴谷書同屬於一個世紀。 公佈在 gloats超過銷毀( 612 BC )的尼尼微。 The most significant prophets during the period of Babylonian exile were the Ezekiel and the unknown authors of chapters 40 - 55 and 56 - 66 of Isaiah, who encouraged the return of the Jews to the Holy Land and promised a glorious national life. Lamentations reflects the miseries of the exile.最顯著的先知期間巴比倫流亡分別以西結和未知的作者章40 -5 5和5 6- 66以賽亞書,他鼓勵歸還猶太人聖地,並許諾光榮國家生活。悲嘆反映悲慘境遇的放逐。

The remaining prophets followed the exile. Obadiah is strongly nationalistic; Jonah expresses God's concern for Gentiles as well as Jews. Haggai and Zechariah 1 - 8 reflect the rebuilding of a small temple in Jerusalem. Joel, Zechariah 9 - 14, and Malachi combine the themes of judgment and restoration and have apocalyptic elements. Daniel is an apocalypse from the Maccabean period (c. 164 BC) and promises God's help to the Jews in time of persecution.其餘先知跟隨流亡。 俄巴底亞書 ,是強烈的民族主義; 約拿感謝上帝的關心外邦人以及猶太人哈該書和zechariah 1 -8反映重建的一個小寺廟在耶路撒冷。的J oel, z echariah9日- 14日,瑪拉基書結合起來主題的判斷和修復,並已世界末日的元素。 丹尼爾是一個啟示,從maccabean期限(長164 BC )的,並承諾在上帝的幫助下向猶太人在當時的迫害。

The New Testament新約聖經

Major Themes and Characteristics重大的主題和特色

Covenant and law are central in the Old Testament, and Jesus Christ is central in the New Testament. The dominant theme is the interpretation of Jesus' nature as Christ or Messiah (the anointed one), Son of man, Son of God, Lord, and Prophet. This was a complete reinterpretation of the Jewish hope for an anointed king descended from David. 公約和法律是中央在舊約中,耶穌基督是黨中央在新的遺書。佔主導地位的主題,是詮釋耶穌的性質,正如基督或彌賽亞(不信任) ,人子,是神的兒子,主啊,和先知,這是一個完整的班簋猶太人的希望是一個不信任國王的後裔,從大衛。 Perhaps before Jesus' death, his disciples had already acclaimed him as Messiah, but they became convinced of this from experiences that proved to them he was again alive.也許以前為耶穌死後,他的弟子已經讚譽他為救世主,但他們成了堅信這一點,從經驗證明,他自己就是再活著。 Thus the Resurrection is the second major theme. The Messiah now came to mean, not a conquering, successful king, but a crucified Lord whose unique relationship to God could be suggested only partially by the titles applied to him. 因此復活已是第二次重大的主題。彌賽亞現在來到的意思,而不是去征服,成功的國王,而是一個被釘十字架的主,其獨特的關係,以上帝的,可以建議只是部分地由職稱適用於他。

In explaining and defending their faith, the disciples of Jesus found passages in the Old Testament that they believed were prophecies of his death, resurrection, and nature (for example, Psalm 110:1, Isaiah 53; Daniel 7:13 - 14). They also preserved Jesus' sayings and the stories of his life, which they interpreted in light of their faith. Jesus had proclaimed the gospel ("good news") of the coming reign, or kingdom, of God and carried on a ministry of teaching, forgiveness, and healing. Although much of his teaching agreed with that of other Jews, his more radical and prophetic sayings made enemies.在闡述和捍衛他們的信仰,弟子耶穌發現通道,在舊約中說,他們認為人的預言,他的死亡,復活,和性質(例如,詩篇110:1 ,以賽亞書第53條;丹尼爾7時13 -1 4) 。他們還保留了耶穌的語錄和故事,他的生命,而他們的解釋,根據他們的信仰。 耶穌宣告了福音( "好消息" )的未來統治,或英國,上帝就進行了一個部的教學,寬恕和醫治,雖然他的大部分教學商定的,與其他猶太人,他更激進的預言果然熟語作出了敵人。 The high priest and his associates feared Jesus as a threat to the established order, and the Roman governor Pontius Pilate was persuaded to have Jesus crucified.高神父和他的助手們擔心耶穌看成是一種威脅,以既定的秩序,羅馬總督,祂比拉多被勸服有耶穌釘在十字架上。 Thus, the gospel tradition contains both the message of Jesus and the proclamation of his divine nature.因此,福音的傳統,既包含的信息,耶穌以及宣布了他的神性。

Other new experiences of ecstasy and prophecy were interpreted as gifts of the Holy Spirit. Indeed, most books of the New Testament ponder the relation of the old and the new. 其他新的經驗,搖頭丸和預言被解釋為聖靈的禮物。事實上,大部分書籍的新約聖經,思考有關的新和舊的。 Christians, and Jesus himself, believed in the same God as other Jews and recognized the authority of the Old Testament.基督教徒,與耶穌本人,相信是在同一個上帝的其他猶太人和公認的權威舊約。 Yet Jesus had made radical statements that undermined the separateness of Judaism and led logically to the admission of Gentiles into the community.然而,耶穌作出激進的聲明說,破壞是分開的猶太教,並導致邏輯上,以接納外邦人融入社會。 Thus, there emerged a Church embracing Jews and non Jews that was interpreted as based on a new covenant inaugurated by Jesus. Paul, the greatest apostle of the Gentile mission, defended his policies by teaching that the basis for acceptance by God is faith in Jesus Christ; yet Paul did not wish to break continuity with the old religion. 因此出現了一所教堂概括性的猶太人和非猶太人被解釋為基於一種新的盟約開幕耶穌。保羅,最大的使徒的gentile使命,捍衛了他的政策,由教學的基礎,接受神的信仰,是在耶穌基督,但保羅不希望打破連續性與舊宗教。

The New Testament contains a strong apocalyptic element.新約聖經包含一個強有力的世界末日的因素。 Jesus' parables and sayings regarding the coming reign of God are enigmatic, and it is not certain that he expected the early end of the world; but many original Christians believed they were living in the last age.耶穌' parables和熟語對於未來的統治是上帝的神秘,而不是肯定的是,他預期提前結束了整個世界,但許多原來的基督教徒相信,他們生活在過去的時代。 Nevertheless, much of the moral teaching of the New Testament is aimed at everyday life in this world, and Christian behavior is a constant theme. The New Testament reflects other concerns of community life, including public worship and church organization, but equal emphasis is placed on individual Prayer and communion with God.不過, 大部分的德育教學的新約聖經是針對日常生活中,在這個世界上,和基督教的行為是一個不斷的主題。新約全書反映了其他令人關注的社會生活,包括公共崇拜和教會組織,而是平等的重點放在對個別祈禱,並與上帝。

The New Testament covers a much shorter period of time than the Old Testament, and its interests are fewer and more intense.新約聖經涵蓋了短得多的時間內,比舊約中,它的利益是越來越激烈。 This is partly because Christians had access to the Old Testament and other Jewish books.這部分是因為基督徒已進入舊約和其他猶太人的書籍。 The New Testament was written concisely.新約聖經作者是言簡意賅。 Almost no attempt was made to imitate the fashionable literature of the time; yet the writings have great rhetorical power.幾乎沒有嘗試了模仿流行文學的時候,但寫作有很大的話語權力。 Natural science had little influence.自然科學有多大的影響力。 The outlook is not unscientific but prescientific; these are writings of faith, not speculation.前景是不是不科學的,但prescientific ;這些著作的信仰,而不是投機。

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The Canon佳能

The process by which the canon of the New Testament was formed began in the 2d century, probably with a collection of ten letters of Paul. Toward the end of that century, Irenaeus argued for the unique authority of the portion of the Canon called the Gospels. Acceptance of the other books came gradually.過程中, 其中佳能的新約聖經是開始形成了在二維的世紀,很可能與收集的10個字母的保羅。年底對這個世紀,愛任紐辯稱,為獨特的權威部分佳能所謂的福音。接受對方書籍來循序漸進。 The church in Egypt used more than the present 27 books, and the Syriac speaking churches fewer.教會在埃及用較目前27書籍,以及敘利亞文談到教會較少。 The question of an official canon became urgent during the 4th century.問題的一個正式佳能成為迫切的,在4世紀。 It was mainly through the influence of Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, and because Jerome included the 27 books in his Latin version of the Bible called the Vulgate, that the present canon came to be accepted.它主要是通過影響athanasius ,主教亞歷山德里亞,而且由於杰羅姆包括27書籍,在他的拉丁語版本的聖經稱為vulgate表示目前佳能公司後來被採納。

Divisions of the New Testament告的新約聖經

The New Testament consists of four Gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, collections of Epistles, and the Book of Revelation.新約聖經包括四福音,行為的使徒,我收藏的書信,和這本書的啟示。

The Gospels福音

Originally gospel meant "good news"(Greek evangelion). The term was later applied to books embodying this message. 本來福音指的是"好消息" (希臘語evangelion ) 。一詞後來被應用於書籍體現了這個訊息。 These are not biographies but proclamations of the good news in story form.這些都不是傳記,而是宣告了一個好消息,在故事的形式。 Although all dates for New Testament books are debated, prevailing opinion dates Mark AD 68 - 72, Luke and Matthew c.雖然所有日期為新約聖經的書籍是辯論,當時的輿論日期標誌廣告68 -7 2,路加和馬太長 85, and John 95 - 100. 85 ,約翰95 -1 00。 The first three, called synoptic because they can be compared side by side, have a complicated literary relationship with each other.前三項,所謂天氣,因為他們可以比較並列在一起,有一個複雜的文學關係。 Probably Matthew and Luke used Mark and a lost document called Q (German Quelle, "source"), consisting mainly of Jesus' sayings. The parables - short illustrative stories told by Jesus, usually reflecting daily life - are prominent in the synoptics. The Gospel of John differs from the others in structure and reflects the theological development of the first century, but it contains traditions independent of the synoptics.也許馬修和盧克使用的標誌和一個丟失文件名為Q (下德語quelle , "源" ) ,主要包括耶穌'的說法。 parables -短期說明性故事告訴耶穌,通常反映日常生活-突出在s y noptics。福音的約翰不同於其他結構,並反映了神學思想建設的發展,第一世紀,但它包含了傳統獨立於synoptics 。

The Acts行為

The Acts of the Apostles was evidently written by Luke as a sequel to his Gospel.該行為的使徒們顯然是寫路加福音作為續集他的福音。 It recounts the traditions of the earliest churches in Palestine and gives the details of Paul's missionary journeys.它記載的傳統,最早的教堂,在巴勒斯坦,並給出了詳細的保羅的傳教行程。

The Epistles教會

Two kinds of Epistles are attributed to St. Paul in the New Testament. 2種書信,是由於聖保羅,在新約聖經。 Nine of them (ten, if Ephesians is included) are letters addressed by Paul to specific churches and deal mainly with problems of faith, morals, and community life.其中9人( 10 ,如果以弗所列入) ,信保,以具體的教堂和主要面對的問題,信仰,道德和社會生活。 These letters disclose Paul's interpretation of Christianity and his methods of dealing with pastoral problems.這些信件披露保羅的詮釋基督教和他的方法處理與牧靈問題。 The remainder are not actual letters; rather they are writings in letter form, intended for the whole church or large parts of it.其餘的是不實際的信件,而是他們的著作在信的形式,為整個教會或大部份地區。 Thus, the pastoral Epistles - 1 and 2 Timothy and Titus - written in Paul's name, contain directions for church leaders and warn against errors in doctrine and behavior.因此,牧區書信-一日及二日提摩太和提多-寫在保羅的名字,包含方向,教會領袖和警告的錯誤教義和行為。 Hebrews is a carefully constructed sermon by an unknown author and interprets Christ as high priest and urges fidelity in time of persecution.希伯來人是一個精心建造的說教,由一個不知名的作者和詮釋,以基督為大祭司,並敦促富達在時間的迫害。

The general, or catholic, Epistles are so called because they are directed to the church as a whole. The Epistle of James emphasizes the importance of good deeds against an empty type of belief that involves no right action. The first Epistle of Peter proclaims joy in the face of persecution and is addressed particularly to congregations with newly baptized members. The Epistles of John resemble the fourth Gospel.一般,或天主教,書信,是因為它是針對教會作為一個整體。墳墓的詹姆斯強調重要的好人好事,對一個空洞型的,相信不涉及權利的行動。首書信彼得宣告喜悅在面對迫害和處理,特別是教友與新成員的洗禮。書信的約翰肖四福音。 St. John teaches the intimate relationship between love of the brotherhood and the true doctrine about Christ; he also attacks division within the church. 聖約翰教導親密關係,愛的兄弟之情和真正的教義耶穌,他也攻擊分裂教會。

Revelation啟示

The Book of Revelation was probably written to encourage Christians to be faithful during a persecution under Domitian (AD 81 - 96).這本書的啟示,可能是書面,以鼓勵基督信徒忠於期間迫害下domitian (公元81 -9 6) 。 It portrays the future through many symbols, and the prophet expects God's judgment on the Roman Empire, a 1,000 year reign of Christ, and a new heaven and a new Earth.它描繪了未來透過許多符號,以及先知預計上帝的判斷,對羅馬帝國, 1000年間基督教會,一個新的天堂與一顆新的地球。

Versions of the Bible不同版本的聖經

Several Aramaic targums (free translations or paraphrases) of the Old Testament exist; some of them may be older than the Christian Era. 幾個阿拉姆語targums (免費翻譯或段是)的舊約存在,他們中的有些可能是年紀比基督教的時代。 The Greek Septuagint, whose canon was not strictly defined, was gradually produced during the last three centuries BC. 希臘septuagint ,佳能公司並沒有嚴格界定,是逐步產生的,在過去三個世紀的卑詩省。 An Old Latin version of both Testaments was revised by Jerome, producing the Vulgate. 一個老拉丁語版本,都證明了修訂,由Jerome ,生產vulgate 。 Ancient versions exist in Syriac, Coptic, Armenian, and other languages. 古老的版本存在於敘利亞文,科普特人,亞美尼亞人,和其他語言。

During the Middle Ages, parts of the Bible were put into Anglo Saxon and Middle English.在中世紀,部分聖經被放進盎格魯撒克遜和中古英語。 The first English versions of the entire Bible were made (1380 - 93) by John Wycliffe and his associates who used the Latin text.第一個英語版本的整個聖經發了言( 1380 -9 3) ,由約翰w ycliffe和他的同夥人用拉丁文字。 The Reformation gave further impulse to translations into modern languages, notably that of Martin Luther in German and William Tyndale in English.改革作了進一步的衝動翻譯成現代語言,特別是馬丁路德在德國和威廉tyndale英語。 Among later versions are the following: Miles Coverdale's Bible (1535), Matthew's Bible (1537), the Great Bible (1539), Geneva Bible (1560), Rheims - Douai Bible (1582, 1609), King James, or Authorized, Version (1611), English Revised Version (1881 - 85), American Standard Version (1946 - 57), New English Bible (1961 - 70), Jerusalem Bible (1966), New American Bible (1970), Today's English Version (1966 - 76), and the Revised Standard Version (1946 - 1971).其中後的版本有以下幾方面:英里coverdale的聖經( 1535 ) ,馬修的聖經( 1537 ) ,大聖經( 1539 ) ,日內瓦聖經( 1560 ) , rheims -d ouai聖經( 1 582, 1 609年) ,國王詹姆斯,或授權,版本( 1611 ) ,英文修訂版( 1881 -8 5) ,美制標準版( 1 946年- 57 ),新英文聖經(1 9 61年- 7 0) ,耶路撒冷聖經( 19 6 6年),美國的新聖經( 19 7 0),今天的英語版(1 9 6 6年- 76 ) ,及經修訂的標準版( 1946年-1 971年) 。

Interpretation and Study of the Bible釋義及研究聖經

Ancient Interpretations古代的詮釋

Ancient Jews and Christians believed their Scriptures to be inspired by God and intended to guide all generations.古代猶太人和基督徒相信他們的經文,以受到啟發上帝,並打算引導各世代。 The interpretative method called Midrash sought to make the biblical message relevant to the actual needs of the community, to remove obscurities and contradictions, to find fulfillments of prophecies, and to answer questions not raised in the Bible by discovering allegorical meanings.解釋性方法所謂midrash謀求使聖經的訊息,有關向社會的實際需要,以消除obscurities和矛盾,找到fulfillments的預言,並回答問題,並沒有提出在聖經中所發現的寓言意義。 This process is seen in the Dead Sea Scrolls, the paraphrases, or targums, of the Old Testament, and the writings of the philosopher Philo; and it has influenced New Testament theology.這個過程主要出現在死海古卷,該段是,或targums ,舊約和著作的哲學家斐洛;而且影響了新約聖經神學。 The Rabbis used midrash to settle legal problems; it appears in the Talmud as well as in the Midrashim, or homiletical commentaries.拉比用midrash解決法律問題;出現在猶太法典以及在米大示,或homiletical評論文章。

Christians were influenced both by Jewish tradition and by philosophers who explained Greek myths as allegories.基督徒的影響均是由猶太傳統和哲學家們解釋了希臘神話作為寓言。 The Alexandrian scholar Origen distinguished literal and allegorical meanings in the Old Testament, and his followers found three or four ways to interpret a specific text. The school of Antioch, represented by commentators such as Theodore of Mopsuestia and the great preacher John Chrysostom, insisted on the natural and literal meaning of Scripture. During the Middle Ages the allegorical method largely prevailed.在亞歷山大的學者尊敬的淵源字面和寓言的意思,在舊約聖經,和他的追隨者發現三或四種方式來解釋一個特定的文本。 學派的安提派評論家如西奧多的摩普綏提亞和偉大的傳教士約翰金口,堅持自然和字面意思的經文,在中世紀的寓言方法,在很大程度上佔了上風。

Modern Study現代研究

During the Renaissance, a revival of the study of Greek and Latin classics occurred that led Christian scholars to study Hebrew.在文藝復興時期,他們死灰復燃學習希臘語和拉丁語經典發生導致基督教學者研究希伯來語。 Literary and historical criticism, which had been carried on in ancient times, now received a new impetus.文學和史學批評,並已進行了在遠古時代,現在已經收到了新的動力。 Although the allegorical method never died out in Catholicism and Protestantism, the new learning influenced the study of the Bible, and in the 18th century the techniques of classical studies began to be employed systematically.雖然寓言方法卻永不凋謝在天主教和基督教,新的學習影響的研究聖經,並在18世紀的技巧經典研究開始受僱於系統。 Improved dictionaries and grammars were part of this process.改進字典和語法都是這一進程的一部分。

Textual Criticism考據學

Textual criticism is an important part of biblical interpretation.考據學的一個重要組成部分聖經的解釋。 This is the comparison of manuscripts of the Bible in the original languages and versions, including quotations by ancient authors, to determine as nearly as possible the original wording.這是比較手稿聖經在原來的語言和版本,包括報價單,由古代作者,以確定為盡量貼近原來的措詞。 Literary criticism is the study of the document itself in comparison with other books - biblical and nonbiblical - to disclose the method, style, and purpose of the author; the author's identity; the written and oral sources used by the author; and the date and place of the writing. This has led to theories regarding sources of the Pentateuch and the Gospels, the dating of Paul's letters, and the distinctions between parts of Isaiah.文學批評的是,這項研究的文件本身相比,與其他書籍-聖經與n onbiblical-披露方法,風格和宗旨決定的作者;作者的身份;書面和口頭源所使用的,作者及日期和地方的寫作, 這導致了理論來源的pentateuch和福音,約會保羅的信件,並區分零件的以賽亞書。

Form Criticism形式批評

Form criticism studies the oral tradition behind a document.形式批評研究的口頭傳說背後的一份文件。 Every oral tradition is modified by the life situations in which it is transmitted, and the stages of change can often be discerned, as in the stories of Abraham and Sarah.每口頭傳統是修飾生活在何種情況下,它是傳播,並轉變階段的人往往可以發現,在故事的亞伯拉罕和薩拉。 One may classify the Psalms according to their probable uses in worship.一個可以把詩篇根據自己的可能用途在崇拜。 In the parables of Jesus, the original purpose can be distinguished from the church's interpretations and modifications. Form critics believe that the elements in Jesus' teaching that do not match the interests of Judaism or of the early church reflect his specific point of view.在parables的耶穌,原來的目的可區別於教會的解釋和修改。 形式批評者認為,該元素在耶穌的教學不相匹配的利益猶太教或早期教會反映他的具體的觀點。

Redaction Criticism編撰學批評

Redaction criticism, the study of editing, assumes that the authors of biblical books had a definite theology and purpose and were not mere collectors of traditions.編撰學的批評,這項研究的編輯,前提是作者的聖經書籍產生了一定的神學和目的,而不是僅僅是收藏者的傳統。 Thus the traits of the writer of a book or a source can be distinguished from those of the materials by observing style and editorial method.因此,性狀的作家的一本書或來源可區別於那些材料所觀測的風格和編輯的方法。 Both form and redaction criticism involve the individual judgments of scholars; perfect agreement cannot be expected.無論形式和節錄的批評涉及個人判斷的學者;完美的協議,也不能指望。

Historical Criticism史學批評

Historical criticism, which is the method of all serious historians, applies all these disciplines to the Bible and takes into account all historical evidence available, in both written documents and archaeological discoveries.史學批評,這是該方法的所有嚴重的歷史學家,適用於所有這些學科的聖經,並考慮到所有的歷史證據,在雙方的書面文件和考古發現。 Thus Ugaritic, Babylonian, Assyrian, Egyptian, Persian, and other records used with the Bible, aid in reconstructing the course of Hebrew history.因此烏加里特文,巴比倫,亞述,埃及,波斯,及其他紀錄用聖經的援助,改造過程中希伯來語的歷史。 New Testament history and the development of early Christian theology are illuminated by studying the documents of the Jewish and Greco Roman religions and Christian writings outside the New Testament.新約聖經的歷史和發展早期基督教神學是光度,在學習文件的猶太人和希臘,羅馬的宗教和基督教的著作以外的新約聖經。

Sherman E Johnson謝爾曼e約翰遜

Bibliography 參考書目
Old Testament 舊約
BW Anderson, Understanding the Old Testament (1986); GW Coats and BO Long, eds., Canon and Authority (1977); JL McKenzie, The Two Edged Sword (1956); JA Sanders, Torah and Canon (1972); G Von Rad, Old Testament Theology (1962).體重安德森,了解舊約( 1986年) ;毛重大衣和波龍編,佳能和權力( 1977年) ;的JL麥肯齊,兩個雙刃劍( 1956年) ; JA部桑德斯,律法和佳能( 1972 ) 100馮RAD數據通信公司,舊約神學( 1962 ) 。

New Testament 新約全書
RM Grant, The Formation of the New Testament (1966); HC Kee, Understanding the New Testament (1983); CFD Moule, The Birth of the New Testament (1981); JM Robinson and H Koester, Trajectories through Early Christianity (1971).馬幣補助金,成立新的遺囑( 1966 ) ;高等法院記,了解新約全書( 1983年) ;計算流體力學moule ,誕生了新約全書( 1981年) ; jm魯賓遜和H尼維斯,軌跡,透過早期基督教( 1971 ) 。

History and Criticism 歷史與批評
R Alter and F Kermode, eds., The Literary Guide to the Bible (1987); FF Bruce, History of the Bible in English (1978); CH Dodd, The Bible Today (1946); RE Friedman, Who Wrote the Bible? r改變和F kermode編,文學指南聖經( 1987 ) ;法郎布魯斯史,聖經,英文( 1978年) ;甲烷多德,聖經今天( 1946 ) ;重新弗里德曼,他寫了聖經? (1987); RM Grant and D Tracy, A Short History of the Interpretation of the Bible (1984); K Koch, The Growth of Biblical Tradition (1969); N Perrin, What Is Redaction Criticism? ( 1987 ) ;馬幣贈款和D特雷西,歷史較短的詮釋聖經( 1984年) ; k科赫,但增長的聖經傳統( 1969 )氮波倫,什麼是節錄的批評? (1969). ( 1969年) 。


Bible聖經

Advanced Information 先進的信息

The English word "Bible" is derived from the Greek biblion, "roll" or "book."英文的"聖經" ,是取自希臘biblion , "強強滾"或"書" 。 (While biblion is really a diminutive of biblos, it has lost this sense in the NT. See Rev. 10:2 where biblaridion is used for a "little scroll.") More exactly, a biblion was a roll of papyrus or byblus, a reedlike plant whose inner bark was dried and fashioned into a writing material widely used in the ancient world. (同時biblion實在是一個微小的biblos ,它已經失去這個意義上講,在新台幣見牧師10時02分那裡biblaridion是用一個"小渦旋" ) ,更確切地說,一個biblion被唱名的紙莎草紙或畢布勒, 1 reedlike植物,其樹皮內被乾燥和年代成為書寫材料被廣泛應用在古代世界。

The word as we use it today, however, has a far more significant connotation than the Greek biblion.這個詞,因為我們今天就使用,但是,有一個更重要的內涵比希biblion 。 While biblion was somewhat neutral, it could be used to designate books of magic (Acts 19:19) or a bill of divorcement (Mark 10:4) as well as sacred books, the word "Bible" refers to the Book par excellence, the recognized record of divine revelation.而biblion有點中性的,它可被用來指定書籍的魔術(使徒19時19分) ,或法案離婚(馬克10:4 ) ,以及神聖的書籍,將"聖經" ,是指這本書出色公認的紀錄是神聖的啟示。

Although this meaning is ecclesiastical in origin, its roots go back into the OT.雖然這意思是教會在原產地,其根源回去納入城市旅遊局。 In Dan.在丹。 9:2 (LXX) ta biblia refers to the prophetic writings. 9時02分( lxx )此快報指以先知性的著作。 In the Prologue to Sirach it refers generally to the OT Scriptures.在序幕西拉奇它是指一般以城市旅遊局經文。 This usage passed into the Christian church (II Clem. 14:2) and about the turn of the fifth century was extended to include the entire body of canonical writings as we now have them.這種用法通過成為基督教堂(二克蘭姆。 14時02分)左右之交,五世紀擴大到包括整個車身的典型著作,因為我們現在有他們。 The expression ta biblia passed into the vocabulary of the Western church and in the thirteenth century, by what Westcott calls a "happy solecism," the neuter plural came to be regarded as a feminine singular, and in this form the term passed into the languages of modern Europe.表達達快報通過成為詞彙的西方教會,並在13世紀,由什麼westcott所謂的"快樂solecism , "中性文字來被視為一個女性奇異,並在此形成中期通過成為語文現代歐洲。 This significant change from plural to singular reflected the growing conception of the Bible as one utterance of God rather than a multitude of voices speaking for him.這顯著的變化,從文字到奇異反映了越來越多的構想聖經作為一個話語的上帝,而不是眾多的聲音講他。

The process by which the various books in the Bible were brought together and their value as sacred Scripture recognized is referred to as the history of the canon.這個過程,其中各種書籍在聖經中被帶起來,其價值作為神聖經文承認是被稱為歷史上的佳能公司。 Contrary to prevailing critical opinion, there existed, prior to the Exile, a large body of sacred literature.相反,當時的尖銳的批評意見,有存在的,事先向流亡,一個大型機構的神聖的文學作品。 Moses wrote "all the words of the Lord" in the "book of the covenant" (Exod. 21-23; 24:4, 7).摩西寫道: "所有的話上帝" ,在"本書的盟約" ( exod. 21-23 ; 24:4 , 7 ) 。 Joshua's farewell address was written "in the book of the law of God" (Josh. 24:26).約書亞發表告別演說的作者" ,在這本書的法神" ( josh. 24:26 ) 。 Samuel spoke concerning the manner of the kingdom and "wrote it in a book" (I Sam. 10:25).塞繆爾以有關方式的王國, "寫一本書" (我心。 10:25 ) 。 "Thus saith the Lord" was the common preface to the utterances of the prophets. "因此,仰上帝" ,是常見的序言論的先知。

This revelatory literature, although not reaching a fixed form until late in the second century BC, was nevertheless regarded from the very first as the revealed will of God and therefore binding upon the people.這啟示文學,雖然沒有達到一個固定的形式,直到晚在公元前二世紀,卻被認為是從最初的作為顯示上帝的意志,因而具有約束力的人。 The "oracles of God" were held in highest esteem, and this attitude toward the Scriptures was quite naturally carried over into the early church. "簽的神"舉行了最高的敬意,這是實事求是的態度對待經典,是很自然結轉到早期教會的使命。 Few will deny that Jesus regarded the OT as an inspired record of God's self-revelation in history.很少人會否認,耶穌把城市旅遊局作為一個靈感記錄上帝的自我啟示的歷史。 He repeatedly appealed to the Scriptures as authoritative (Matt. 19:4; 22:29).他一再呼籲,以聖經的權威性。 ( 19時04分; 22時29分) 。 The early church maintained this same attitude toward the OT, but alongside of it they began to place the words of the Lord.早期教會的這種保持相同態度,職能治療,但旁邊的,它開始的地方的話主。 While the OT canon had been formally closed, the coming of Christ had, in a sense, opened it again.而城市旅遊局佳能公司已正式關閉,未來的基督了,從某種意義上說,打開了它。 God was once again speaking.上帝再次發言。 Since the cross was the central redemptive act of God in history, the NT became a logical necessity.既然兩岸是中央救贖的上帝的旨意,在歷史上,新台幣成為一個符合邏輯的必然。 Thus the voice of the apostles, and later their writings, were accepted as the divine commentary on the Christ event.因此聲音的使徒,後來他們的著作,被接納為神的評論對基督事件。

Viewed as a historical process, the formation of the NT canon occupied some 350 years.看作是一個歷史過程,可以形成新台幣佳能佔領了一些350年。 In the first century the various books were written and began to be circulated through the churches.在第一世紀的各種書籍寫的,並開始分發給透過教堂。 The rise of heresy in the second century, especially in the form of Gnosticism with its outstanding spokesman, Marcion was a powerful impulse toward the formation of a definite canon.崛起的異端,在公元二世紀,特別是在形式的靈知以其傑出的發言人, marcion是一個強有力的衝擊,對形成一個明確的佳能公司。 A sifting process began in which valid Scripture distinguished itself from Christian literature in general on the basis of such criteria as apostolic authorship, reception by the churches, and consistency of doctrine with what the church already possessed. 1篩選過程開始,其中有效經文尊敬自己,從基督教文獻一般就根據這些標準為使徒著作權,接待由教會和一致性的教義與教會已經擁有。 The canon was ultimately certified at the Council of Carthage (397).佳能最終認證在安理會的迦太基( 397 ) 。

The claim of the Bible to divine origin is amply justified by its historical influence.索賠的聖經,以神的起源,是有充分理由支持它的歷史影響。 Its manuscripts are numbered in the thousands.其手稿已經屈指可數,在數千人。 The NT had barely been put together before we find translations in Latin, Syriac, and Egyptian.新台幣剛剛被放在一起,才找到翻譯,在拉丁語,敘利亞,埃及和沙特阿拉伯。 Today there is not a language in the civilized world that does not have the word of God.今天,世界上還有沒有一種語言在文明世界沒有上帝的話。 No other book has been so carefully studied or had so much written on it.沒有其他該書已由這麼仔細研究,還是這麼多寫上。 Its spiritual influence cannot be estimated.其精神的影響無法估計。 It is preeminently the Book God's word in man's language.這是preeminently書神的話語在人的語言。

RH Mounce銠mounce
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) ( Elwell宣布了福音字典)

Bibliography 參考書目
FF Bruce, The Books and the Parchments; BF Westcott, The Bible in the Church; PR Ackroyd et al., eds., The Cambridge History of the Bible, 3 vols.; DE Nineham, ed., The Church's Use of the Bible; A. Harnack, Bible Reading in the Early Church; NO Hatch and MA Noll, The Bible in America; B. Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages; A. Richardson, The Bible in the Age of Science; J. Barr, The Bible in the Modern World.法郎布魯斯,書籍和parchments ;高爐westcott ,聖經在教會;公關ackroyd等人合編,劍橋歷史上的聖經, 3卷;德寧哈姆,海關,教會使用的聖經;答的Harnack ,閱讀聖經,在早期教會;沒有艙口和馬精靈,聖經在美國;乙Smalley ) ,學習聖經,在中世紀;甲理查森,在聖經時代的科學; j 。巴爾,聖經在現代世界。


The Bible聖經

Catholic Information 天主教資訊

A collection of writings which the Church of God has solemnly recognized as inspired.收藏的著作,其中神的教會已經鄭重確認為靈感。

The name is derived from the Greek expression biblia (the books), which came into use in the early centuries of Christianity to designate the whole sacred volume.名稱取自希臘表達快報(圖書) ,其中投入使用的我國早在幾百年的基督教指定整個神聖的體積。 In the Latin of the Middle Ages, the neuter plural for Biblia (gen. bibliorum) gradually came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun (biblia, gen. bibliae, in which singular form the word has passed into the languages of the Western world. It means "The Book", by way of eminence, and therefore well sets forth the sacred character of our inspired literature. Its most important equivalents are: "The Divine Library" (Bibliotheca Divina), which was employed by St. Jerome in the fourth century; "the Scriptures", "the Holy Scripture" -- terms which are derived from expressions found in the Bible itself; and "the Old and New Testament", in which collective title, "the Old Testament" designates the sacred books written before the coming of Our Lord, and "the New Testament" denotes the inspired writings composed since the coming of Christ.在拉丁美洲的中世紀,中性文字為快報(創bibliorum )逐漸地被視為一個女性奇異名詞(快報,根。 bibliae ,其中單數字已經過去了納入語文西方世界這意味著, "書" ,由單程322 ,因此,闡述了神聖的品格激勵著我們的文學,其最重要的等值分別是: "神聖圖書館" (書目divina ) ,它是受僱於聖杰羅姆在四世紀的"經文" , "聖經" -條款都源自表情中發現聖經本身,以及"舊的和新約聖經" ,在這種集體稱號, "舊約"指定神聖書,然後在未來我們的主, "新約全書" ,是指著作的啟發組成的,因為未來的基督。

It is a fact of history that in the time of Christ the Jews were in possession of sacred books, which differed widely from one another in subject, style, origin and scope, and it is also a fact that they regarded all such writings as invested with a character which distinguished them from all other books.這是一個事實的歷史,在時間的基督猶太人擁有神聖的書籍,其中大不相同,從一個在另一個主題,風格,產地和範圍,這也是一個事實,即他們把所有這些著作作為投資同一個人物,其中尊敬他們從所有其他書籍。 This was the Divine authority of every one of these books and of every part of each book.這是神聖的權威,每一個人的,這些書和每一部分的每一本書。 This belief of the Jews was confirmed by Our Lord and His Apostles; for they supposed its truth in their teaching, used it as a foundation of their doctrine, and intimately connected with it the religious system of which they were the founders.這種信仰的猶太人證實了我們的主及他的門徒,因為他們假定其真理在他們的教學,用它作為一個基礎,其學說,並密切相連,與它的宗教制度,其中,他們的創辦人。 The books thus approved were handed down to the Christian Church as the written record of Divine revelation before the coming of Christ.書籍,因此,通過審查者流傳基督教教會作為書面紀錄的神聖啟示之前,在未來的基督。 The truths of Christian revelation were made known to the Apostles either by Christ Himself or by the Holy Ghost.真理的基督教啟示作了眾所周知的使徒們要么由基督本人或由聖靈。 They constitute what is called the Deposit of Faith, to which nothing has been added since the Apostolic Age.它們構成什麼是所謂存款的信念,一事無成已添加自宗徒時代。 Some of the truths were committed to writing under the inspiration of the Holy Ghost and have been handed down to us in the books of the New Testament.有些道理都致力於寫作靈感的聖靈,並已被移交到我們在書籍的新約聖經。 Written originally to individual Churches or persons, to meet particular necessities, and accommodated as they all were to particular and existing circumstances, these books were gradually received by the universal Church as inspired, and with the sacred books of the Jews constitute the Bible.書面原本以個別教會或個人,以滿足特定的必需品,並吸納了,因為他們都是為了特定的和現有的情況下,這些書籍則逐漸得到普世教會作為靈感,並以神聖的書籍的猶太人構成了聖經。

In one respect, therefore, the Bible is a twofold literature, made up of two distinct collections which correspond with two successive and unequal periods of time in the history of man.在某一方面,因此,聖經是一個雙重的文學,取得了兩個不同的藏品,其中符合連續兩期和不平等長一段時間,在歷史上的男子。 The older of these collection, mostly written in Hebrew, corresponds with the many centuries during which the Jewish people enjoyed a national existence, and forms the Hebrew, or Old Testament, literature; the more recent collection, begun not long after Our Lord's ascension, and made up of Greek writings, is the Early Christian, or New Testament, literature.老一輩的這些收藏,大多寫在希伯來語,符合許多世紀期間,猶太人民享有一個國家的存在,並形成了希伯萊語,或舊約,文學;較近期的收集,開始沒多久後,我們的主的阿森松島,並提出了對希臘的著作,是早期基督教的,還是新約聖經文學。 Yet, in another and deeper respect, the Biblical literature is pre-eminently one.然而,在另一種更深的尊重,聖經文學最重要的作用是其中一個。 Its two sets of writings are most closely connected with regard to doctrines revealed, facts recorded, customs described, and even expressions used.其兩套著作有最密切聯繫方面,以理論發現,事實記錄,海關形容,甚至用語。 Above all, both collection have one and the same religious purpose, one and the same inspired character.上述一切,都收集有同一個宗教目的,是同一個問題的啟發性。 They form the two parts of a great organic whole the centre of which is the person and mission of Christ.他們形成了兩部分,一個偉大的有機整體的中心,這是人與使命的喊聲。 The same Spirit exercised His mysterious hidden influence on the writings of both Testaments, and made of the works of those who lived before Our Lord an active and steady preparation for the New Testament dispensation which he was to introduce, and of the works of those who wrote after Him a real continuation and striking fulfilment of the old Covenant.本著同樣的精神行使其神秘隱藏的影響,對著作都證明了,並作出了有關工程的那些住前我們的主,積極穩妥,準備進行新約全書省卻他介紹,該作品的那些寫信後,他的一個真正的延續和後發製人履行舊盟約。

The Bible, as the inspired recorded of revelation, contains the word of God; that is, it contains those revealed truths which the Holy Ghost wishes to be transmitted in writing.聖經中,作為靈感記錄的啟示,載有上帝的話,那就是,它包含了那些揭示的真理,即聖靈的意願,將轉交書面答复。 However, all revealed truths are not contained in the Bible (see TRADITION); neither is every truth in the Bible revealed, if by revelation is meant the manifestation of hidden truths which could not other be known.然而,所有發現的真理是不包含在聖經中(見傳統) ,也不是每一個真理,在聖經中顯示,如果由啟示,就是體現了隱藏的真理,這不能被其他已知的。 Much of the Scripture came to its writers through the channels of ordinary knowledge, but its sacred character and Divine authority are not limited to those parts which contain revelation strictly so termed.大部分的經文來,其作者通過渠道的一般知識,但它的神聖性質和神聖的權力,是不是只限於那些零件,其中包含的啟示嚴格,所以被稱為。 The Bible not only contains the word of God; it is the word of God.聖經中不僅包含了上帝的話,它是上帝的話。 The primary author is the Holy Ghost, or, as it is commonly expressed, the human authors wrote under the influence of Divine inspiration.主要作者是聖靈,或者,因為這是普遍表示,人權作家寫的影響下,神的啟示。 It was declared by the Vatican Council (Sess. III, c. ii) that the sacred and canonical character of Scripture would not be sufficiently explained by saying that the books were composed by human diligence and then approved by the Church, or that they contained revelation without error.據宣布,由梵蒂岡理事會( sess.三長二)表示,神聖和典型性格的經文,將不可能得到充分的解釋,說這本書組成,由人的勤勞和隨後批准了由教會,或者說它們載啟示無誤差。 They are sacred and canonical "because, having been written by inspiration of the Holy Ghost, that have God for their author, and as such have been handed down to the Church".他們是神聖的,典型" ,是因為被寫的啟示聖靈,有上帝為他們的作者,因此這種制度已被移交到全教會" 。 The inerrancy of the Bible follows as a consequence of this Divine authorship.該inerrancy的聖經如下由於這一神聖的著作權。 Wherever the sacred writer makes a statement as his own, that statement is the word of God and infallibly true, whatever be the subject-matter of the statement.而神聖的作者聲明,由於其本國在內,這項聲明,是上帝的話和infallibly屬實,無論是標的事項的聲明。

It will be seen, therefore, that though the inspiration of any writer and the sacred character of his work be antecedent to its recognition by the Church yet we are dependent upon the Church for our knowledge of the existence of this inspiration.這可以看出,因此,雖然故事的靈感任何作家和神聖的性質,他的工作予以先行,以它承認由教會,但我們所仰賴教會我們知道存在這一靈感。 She is the appointed witness and guardian of revelation.她是委任的見證和監護人的啟示。 From her alone we know what books belong to the Bible.從她僅我們知道什麼書屬於聖經。 At the Council of Trent she enumerated the books which must be considered "as sacred and canonical".在安理會的遄她列舉了圖書,其中必須考慮的"神聖與典型" 。 They are the seventy-two books found in Catholic editions, forty-five in the Old Testament and twenty-seven in the New.他們是72書籍發現,在天主教會的版本, 45 ,在舊約和2007年在新的。 Protestant copies usually lack the seven books (viz: Tobit, Judith, Wisdom, Sirach, Baruch, and First and Second Maccabees) and parts of books (viz: Esther 10:4-16:24, and Daniel 3:24-90; 13:1-14:42) which are not found in the Jewish editions of the Old Testament.新教複製品往往缺少七個書籍(即:以Tobit ,朱迪思,需要智慧,需要西拉奇, baruch ,第一次和第二次馬加比)及零部件的書籍(即:埃絲特10:4-16:24 ,丹尼爾3:24-90 ; 13:1-14:42 ) ,其中都沒有出現在猶太版本的舊約。 The Bible is plainly a literature, that is, an important collection of writings which were not composed at once and did not proceed from one hand, but rather were spread over a considerable period of time and are traceable to different authors of varying literary excellence.聖經是一宗不折不扣的文學,即是一個重要的收藏著作,其中並沒有組成畢其功於一役,沒有從一方面,而是分散在一段相當長的時間,並且有跡可循,以不同的作者有不同的文學表現卓越。 As a literature, too, the Bible bears throughout the distinct impress of the circumstances of place and time, methods of composition, etc., in which its various parts came into existence, and of these circumstances careful account must be taken, in the interests of accurate scriptural interpretation.作為一個文學,也聖經事關整個鮮明印象的情況,時間和地點,方法的組成等,在它的各個部件也開始存在,而這些情況慎重,必須考慮到,在利益準確的聖經詮釋。 As a literature, our sacred books have been transcribed during many centuries by all manner of copyists to the ignorance and carelessness of many of whom they still bear witness in the shape of numerous textual errors, which, however, but seldom interfere seriously with the primitive reading of any important dogmatic or moral passage of Holy Writ.作為一個文學,我們神聖的書籍已轉錄過程中,許多世紀以來,由各種形式的copyists向無知和疏忽大意的,其中許多還是見證,在形成眾多的文字錯誤,然而,但卻很少干涉認真與原始讀什麼重要的教條式的或道德上的通過神聖的令狀。 In respect of antiquity, the Biblical literature belongs to the same group of ancient literature as the literary collections of Greece, Rome, China, Persia, and India.在尊重,仿古,聖經文學是屬於同一集團的古代文學作為文學收藏希臘,羅馬,中國,波斯和印度。 Its second part, the New Testament, completed about AD 100, is indeed far more recent than the four last named literature, and is somewhat posterior to the Augustan age of the Latin language, but it is older by ten centuries than our earliest modern literature.它的第二部分中,新約聖經,完成約100個廣告,實在是遠遠超過最近4個最後命名為文學,是有點後向augustan年齡的拉美語言,但它是老年人,由10世紀以來,比我們最早的現代文學。 As regards the Old Testament, most of its contents were gradually written within the nine centuries which preceded the Christian era, so that its composition is generally regarded as contemporary with that of the great literary works of Greece, China, Persia, and India.至於舊約,它的大部分內容,並逐步書面內部9個世紀之前,基督教時代,所以它的組成是通常被視為當代與這位偉大的文學作品中的希臘,中國,波斯和印度。 The Bible resembles these various ancient literatures in another respect.聖經相似,這些不同的古代文獻中的另一個方面。 Like them it is fragmentary, ie made up of the remains of a larger literature.像他們一樣,它是零散的,即取得了對遺體的一個更大的文學作品。 Of this we have abundant proofs concerning the books of the Old Testament, since the Hebrew Scriptures themselves repeatedly refer us to more ancient and complete works as composed by Jewish annalists, prophets, wise men, poets, and so on (cf. Numbers 21:15; Joshua 10:13; 2 Samuel 1:18; 1 Chronicles 29:29; 1 Maccabees 16:24; etc.).如此,我們有豐富的證據,有關書籍的舊約,因為希伯來經文本身一再指我們以更加古老而完整的作品組成,由猶太annalists ,先知,智者,詩人,等等(參見號碼21 : 15 ;約書亞10:13 ; 2 ,塞繆爾1:18 1方志29:28 1馬加比16時24分;等) 。 Statements tending to prove the same fragmentary character of the early Christian literature which has come down to us are indeed much less numerous, but not altogether wanting (cf. Luke 1:1-3; Colossians 4:16; 1 Corinthians 5:9).聲明撫育,以證明同一零碎性質的早期基督教文獻,其中已回落,我們的確是少得多無數,但不是完全沒有希望(參見路加福音1:1-3 ;歌羅西書4時16分;哥林多前書5時09分) 。 But, however ancient and fragmentary, it is not to be supposed that the Biblical literature contains only few, and these rather imperfect, literary forms.但無論古代和零碎的,並非是要假定聖經文學只含有少數,而這些,而不是完美的,文學的形式。 In point of fact its contents exhibit nearly all the literary forms met with in our Western literatures together with other peculiarly Eastern, but none the less beautiful.這一點,其實它的內容展示,幾乎所有的文學形式會見了在我國西部的文獻資料,加上其他獨有的東方,但沒有一個較低的美麗。 It is also a well-known fact that the Bible is so replete with pieces of transcendent literary beauty that the greatest orators and writers of the last four centuries have most willingly turned to our sacred books as pre-eminently worthy of admiration, study, and imitation.這也是一個眾所周知的事實,即聖經是如此充滿件超然的文學之美最大的演講家和作家的過去四個世紀以來最心甘情願地轉化為一種神聖的書籍,預遙不可及,值得敬佩,學習和仿製。 Of course the widest and deepest influence that has ever been, and ever will be, exercised upon the minds and hearts of men remains due to the fact that, while all the other literatures are but man's productions, the Bible is indeed "inspired of God" and, as such, especially "profitable to teach, to reprove, to correct, to instruct in justice" (2 Timothy 3:16).當然最廣泛和最深切的影響力卻從未和任何時候都將會如何,一經行使心中的男人仍是由於這一事實,而所有其他的文獻資料,但男子的製作,聖經實在是"靈感的上帝" ,因為這樣的,尤其是"有利可圖的教導,要譴責,以正確的,要責成正義" (提摩太後3:16 ) 。

Publication information Written by Francis E. Gigot.出版信息寫弗朗西斯體育gigot 。 Transcribed by Ernie Stefanik.轉錄由恩尼stefanik 。 The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume II.天主教百科全書,第二卷。 Published 1907. 1907年出版。 New York: Robert Appleton Company.紐約:羅伯特Appleton還公司。 Nihil Obstat, 1907. nihil obstat , 1907 。 Remy Lafort, STD, Censor.人頭馬lafort ,性病,檢查員。 Imprimatur. imprimatur 。 +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York +約翰米farley ,大主教紐約


Also, see:此外,見:
Versions of the Bible, Septuagint 不同版本的聖經, septuagint

Jesus 耶穌
Christ 基督
God 上帝
Christianity 基督教


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