Caliph, Caliphs, Muslim Early History ChartMuslim Frühgeschichte Chart

General InformationAllgemeine Informationen

.
(Shi'ites, Shi'a) (Schiiten, Schiiten) (Kharijites, Kharijiyyah)(Kharijites, Kharijiyyah) (Sunni, Sunnites) (Sunniten, Sunnites)
Ali Ben Abu Talib (656-661) (1st Imam)Ali Ben Abu Talib (656-661) (1. Imam)
>al-Hasan (661-669) (2nd Imam)Al-Hasan (661-669) (2. Imam)
al-Husayn (669-680) (3rd Imam)Al-Husain (669-680) (3. Imam)
Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (680-713) (4th Imam)Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (680-713) (4. Imam)
Muhammad al-Baqir (713-733) (5th Imam)Muhammad Baqir al-(713-733) (5. Imam)
Ja'far al-Sadiq (733-765)Ja'far al-Sadiq (733-765)
(or Jafar ibn Muhammad) (6th Imam)(Oder Jafar ibn Muhammad) (6. Imam)

>(Ismailis, Isma'iliyyah)(Ismaeliten, Isma'iliyyah)
>(Sevener Shi'ites) (Sevener Schiiten)

>Ismail (died before, 760,)Ismail (starb vor 760,)
(7th imam, last for Ismailis)(7. Imam, zuletzt für die Ismaeliten)
or Muhammad , his sonOder Muhammad, sein Sohn
>(either is considered to still be alive, hiding)(Entweder als immer noch lebendig, verstecken)


(Fatimids) (through Ismail)(Fatimiden) (durch Ismail)

>Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (909- )Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (909 -)

>al-Qa'im Al-Qa'im

>al-Mansur -972)Al-Mansur -972)

>Moizz (972- ) Moizz (972 -)

>Al-Hakim (3rd Fatimid Caliph)Al-Hakim (3. Kalif Fatimiden)

>Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021)Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021)
(6th Fatimid Caliph) (6. Fatimiden Kalifen)

>al-Mustansir ( -1094)Al-Mustansir (-1094)

>al-Mustali (1094- ) began Musta'liyyahAl-Mustali (1094 -) begann Musta'liyyah

he killed brother, Nizar , began Nizariyyah, Nizaris, KhojasEr Bruder getötet, Nizar, begann Nizariyyah, Nizaris, Khojas

( -1171)(-1171)

>(overthrown by Saladin 1171)(1171)

(but endures as the Druzes)(Aber erträgt als Druzes)

>Twelver Shi'ites, ImamiyyahTwelver Schiiten, Imamiyyah
>(Ithna Ashariyya) (Ithna Ashariyya)

>Musa al-Kazim (765-799) (7th imam)Musa al-Kazim (765-799) (7. Imam)
'Ali al-Rida (799-818) (8th Imam)'Ali al-Rida (799-818) (8. Imam)
Muhammad al-Jawad (818-835) (9th Imam)Muhammad al-Jawad (818-835) (9. Imam)
'ali al-Hadi (835-868) (10th Imam)'Oder al-Hadi (835-868) (10. Imam)
al-Hasan al-'Askari (868-874) (11th Imam)Al-Hasan al-'Askari (868-874) (11. Imam)
had student ibn Nusayr (d.868), began Nusayris, NusayriyyahStudent hatte ibn Nusayr (d.868), begann Nusayris, Nusayriyyah
>Muhammad al-Mahdi (12th Imam, last)Muhammad al-Mahdi (12. Imam, letzte)
(considered to still be alive, hiding)(Als immer noch lebendig, verstecken)


>(Buwayhids) (Buwayhids)

(945- )(945 -)

Adid ( -1171)Adid (-1171)

>(conquered by Saladin 1171)(1171)


>Ayyubids Ayyubids

>Saladin (1171-1193) Saladin (1171-1193)

>al-Adil (1193-1218) Al-Adil (1193-1218)

>al-Kamil (1218-1238) Al-Kamil (1218-1238)

( -1249)(-1249)

>(conquered by Mamelukes 1249)(1249)


>(Babis) (Babis)

>(1830- )(1830 -)

Ali Muhammad Shirazi ( -1850), started BabismAli Muhammad Shirazi (-1850), startete Babism

Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (c.1863), started Ba'haiMirza Husain Ali Nuri (c.1863), startete Ba'hai

. (c. 650 - c.720) Often called the Puritans of Islam, as they demanded purity of conscience as well as body.(C. 650 - c.720) Oft genannt Puritanern des Islam, wie sie verlangt Reinheit des Gewissens als auch Körper.They tended to brand everyone who did not agree with them as unbelievers.Sie neigten zu Marke alle, die nicht einverstanden sind mit ihnen als Ungläubigen.A sub-sect, the Azraqites, believed in such rigid following of the Koran as to massacre large groups of Muslims who had allegedly committed grave sins.A sub-Sekte, die Azraqites, glaubte an diese starre folgenden des Koran zu Massaker von großen Gruppen von Muslimen hatte angeblich schwere Sünden.Interestingly, Kharijites were very tolerant of non-Muslims.Interessanterweise Kharijites waren sehr tolerant gegenüber Nicht-Muslimen. Umayyad Caliphs (661-750)Umayyaden-Kalifen (661-750)

  • >Muawiyah I ibn Abu Sufyan (661-680)Ich Muawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan (661-680)
    related to UthmanIm Zusammenhang mit Uthman
  • Yazid I ibn Muawiyah (680-683)Ich Muawiyah ibn Yazid (680-683)
  • >Muawiya II ibn Yazid (683-684)Muawiya II. ibn Yazid (683-684)
  • Marwan I (684-685)Marwan I (684-685)
  • Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705)Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705)
  • >al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik (705-715)Ich al-Walid ibn Abd al-Malik (705-715)
  • >Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik (715-717)Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik (715-717)
  • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-720)Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-720)
  • Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik (720-724)Yazid II. ibn Abd al-Malik (720-724)
  • Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743)Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743)
  • >al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744)Al-Walid II. ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744)
  • Yazid III ibn Abd al-Malik (744)Yazid III ibn Abd al-Malik (744)
  • >Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik (744)Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik (744)
  • Marwan II (744-750)Marwan II. (744-750)
    (end of Umayyad)(Ende der Umayyaden)
    >(conquered by Abbasids 750)(Erobert durch die Abbasiden 750)


Umayyad Caliphs of CordobaUmayyaden-Kalifen von Cordoba
(Spanish Umayyads) (929-1031)(Spanisch Omajjaden) (929-1031)

  • >Abd-ar-rahman I, escaped to Spain, 756-788Abd-ar-rahman I, flüchtete nach Spanien, 756-788

  • >Abd-ar-rahman III , as caliph, 929-961Abd-ar-rahman III, als Kalif, 929-961
  • >Al-Hakam II , 961-976Al-Hakam II, 961-976
  • Hisham II , 976-1008Hisham II, 976-1008
  • civil war (1008-1028)Bürgerkrieg (1008-1028)
  • >Mohammed II , 1008-1009Mohammed II, 1008-1009
  • >Suleiman , 1009-1010Suleiman, 1009-1010
  • Hisham II , restored, 1010-1012Hisham II, restauriert, 1010-1012
  • >Suleiman , restored, 1012-1017Suleiman, restauriert, 1012-1017
  • >Abd-ar-rahman IV , 1021-1022Abd-ar-rahman IV, 1021-1022
  • >Abd-ar-rahman V , 1022-1023Abd-ar-rahman V, 1022-1023
  • >Muhammad III , 1023-1024Muhammad III, 1023-1024
  • Hisham III , 1027-1031Hischam III, 1027-1031

Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad (750-1258)Abbasidischen Kalifen von Bagdad (750-1258)
descendants of Prophet's uncle AbbasNachkommen des Propheten Onkel Abbas
Sunnites Sunnites

  • Abu'l Abbas Al-Saffah 750-754Abu'l Abbas Al-Saffah 750-754
  • >Al-Mansur 754-775 Al-Mansur 754-775
  • >Al-Mahdi 775-785 Al-Mahdi 775-785
  • >Al-Hadi 785-786 Al-Hadi 785-786
  • Harun al-Rashid 786-809Harun al-Rashid 786-809
  • >Al-Amin 809-813 Al-Amin 809-813
  • >Al-Ma'mun 813-833 Al-Ma'mun 813-833
  • >Al-Mu'tasim 833-842Al-Mu'tasim 833-842
  • >Al-Wathiq 842-847 Al-Wathiq 842-847
  • >Al-Mutawakkil 847-861Al-Mutawakkil 847-861
  • >Al-Muntasir 861-862Al-Muntasir 861-862
  • >Al-Musta'in 862-866Al-Musta'in 862-866
  • >Al-Mu'tazz 866-869Al-Mu'tazz 866-869
  • >Al-Muhtadi 869-870Al-Muhtadi 869-870
  • >Al-Mu'tamid 870-892Al-Mutamid 870-892
  • >Al-Mu'tadid 892-902Al-Mu'tadid 892-902
  • >Al-Muktafi 902-908Al-Muktafi 902-908
  • >???? (908, one day)(908, ein Tag)
  • >Al-Muqtadir 908-932Al-Muqtadir 908-932
  • >Al-Qahir 932-934 Al-Qahir 932-934
  • >Al-Radi 934-940 Al-Radi 934-940
  • >Al-Muttaqi 940-944Al-Muttaqi 940-944
  • >Al-Mustakfi 944-946Al-Mustakfi 944-946
  • (by about 950, very little power)(Um ca. 950, sehr wenig Energie)
  • >Al-Muti 946-974 Al-Muti 946-974
  • >Al-Ta'i 974-991 Al-Ta'i 974-991
  • >Al-Qadir 991-1031 Al-Qadir 991-1031
  • >Al-Qa'im 1031-1075Al-Qa'im 1031-1075
  • >Al-Muqtadi 1075-1094Al-Muqtadi 1075-1094
  • >Al-Mustazhir 1094-1118Al-Mustazhir 1094-1118
  • >Al-Mustarshid 1118-1135Al-Mustarshid 1118-1135
  • >Al-Rashid 1135-1136Al-Rashid 1135-1136
  • >Al-Muqtafi 1136-1160Al-Muqtafi 1136-1160
  • >Al-Mustanjid 1160-1170Al-Mustanjid 1160-1170
  • >Al-Mustadi 1170-1180Al-Mustadi 1170-1180
  • >An-Nasir 1180-1225An-Nasir 1180-1225
  • >Az-Zahir 1225-1226Az-Zahir 1225-1226
  • >Al-Mustansir 1226-1242Al-Mustansir 1226-1242
  • >Al-Musta'sim 1242-1258Al-Mustasim 1242-1258
  • >(conquered by Mongols in 1258)(1258)

(Mamelukes) (Mamelukes)

(first Dynasty, Bahri) (1250-1382)(Erste Dynastie, Bahri) (1250-1382)

(second Dynasty, Burji) (1382-1517)(Zweite Dynastie, Burji) (1382-1517)

[two Caliphs, but just symbolic][Zwei Kalifen, aber nur symbolische]

(defeated by Selim, 1517)(1517)

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-siteGLAUBEN
Religiöse
Informationen
Quelle
Web-Seite
BELIEVE Religious Information SourceGLAUBEN Religiös Information Quelle
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

Unsere Liste der 2300 Religiöse Themen
E-mailE-mail
From about the 13th century various monarchs throughout the Muslim world, particularly the Ottoman sultans, assumed the title caliph indiscriminately without regard to the prescribed requirements of the caliphate.Ab etwa dem 13. Jahrhundert verschiedene Monarchen in der gesamten muslimischen Welt, besonders die osmanischen Sultane, den Titel Kalif davon ausgegangen, wahllos ohne Rücksicht auf die vorgeschriebenen Anforderungen des Kalifats.The title held little significance for the Ottoman sultans until their empire began to decline.Der Titel hielt wenig Bedeutung für die osmanischen Sultane bis zu ihrem Reich begann zu sinken.In the 19th century, with the advent of Christian powers in the Near East, the sultan began to emphasize his role as caliph in an effort to gain the support of Muslims living outside his realm.Im 19. Jahrhundert, mit dem Aufkommen der christlichen Mächte im Nahen Osten, dem Sultan zu betonen, begann seine Rolle als Kalif in dem Bemühen um die Unterstützung der Muslime leben außerhalb seines Reiches.The Ottoman Empire collapsed during World War I (1914-1918).Die Osmanischen Reiches während des Ersten Weltkrieges zusammengebrochen I (1914-1918).After the war, Turkish nationalists deposed the sultan, and the caliphate was finally abolished (March 1924) by the Turkish Grand National Assembly.Nach dem Krieg, türkischen Nationalisten Absetzung des Sultans, und das Kalifat abgeschafft wurde schließlich (März 1924) von der Großen Türkischen Nationalversammlung.


Also, see:Auch hierzu finden Sie unter:
Islam, MuhammadIslam, Muhammad
Koran, Qur'anKoran, Sure
Pillars of FaithPillars of Faith
Abraham Abraham
Testament of AbrahamTestament Abrahams
Allah Allah
Hadiths Hadithe
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-BukhariOffenbarung - Hadithe von 1 Buch von al-Bukhari
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-BukhariGlaube - Hadithe aus Buchen 2 von al-Bukhari
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-BukhariWissen - Hadithe aus Buchen 3 von al-Bukhari
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-BukhariZeiten der Gebete - Hadithe aus Buchen 10 von al-Bukhari
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-BukhariDie Verkürzung der Gebete (At-Taqseer) - Hadithe aus Buchen 20 von al-Bukhari
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-BukhariPilgerfahrt (Hadsch) - Hadithe aus Buchen 26 von al-Bukhari
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-BukhariFighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadithe von 52 Buchen von al-Bukhari
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-BukhariONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadithe von 93 Buchen von al-Bukhari
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni)Hanafiyyah School Theologie (sunnitischen)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni)Malikiyyah School Theologie (sunnitischen)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni)Shafi'iyyah School Theologie (sunnitischen)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni)Hanbaliyyah School Theologie (sunnitischen)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni)Maturidiyyah Theologie (sunnitischen)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni)Ash'ariyyah Theologie (sunnitischen)
Mutazilah TheologyMutazilah Theologie
Ja'fari Theology (Shia)Ja'fari Theologie (Shia)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia)Nusayriyyah Theologie (Shia)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia)Zaydiyyah Theologie (Shia)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia)Imam (schiitisch)
Druze Drusen
Qarmatiyyah (Shia)Qarmatiyyah (Shia)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, IsmailIsmael, Ismail
Early Islamic History OutlineFrühe islamische Geschichte Outline
Hegira Hegira
Averroes Averroes
Avicenna Avicenna
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black StoneKaaba, Schwarz Stein
Ramadan Ramadan
Sunnites, SunniSunnites, Sunniten
Shiites, ShiaSchiiten, Schia
Mecca Mekka
Medina Medina
Sahih, al-BukhariSahih, al-Bukhari
Sufism Sufismus
Wahhabism Wahhabiten
Abu BakrAbu Bakr
Abbasids Abbasiden
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads Omajjaden
Fatima Fatima
Fatimids (Shia)Fatimiden (Shia)
Ismailis (Shia)Ismaeliten (Shia)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin Saladin
Seljuks Seldschuken
Aisha Aisha
Ali Ali
Lilith Lilith
Islamic CalendarIslamische Kalender
Interactive Muslim CalendarInteraktive muslimischen Kalender


This subject presentation in the original English languageDieses Thema Präsentation in der ursprünglichen englischen Sprache


Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mailSchicken Sie eine E-Mail Frage oder Kommentar an uns: E-Mail

The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at Die wichtigsten BELIEVE Web-Seite (und der Index die Fächer) ist am