Council of ChalcedonKonzil von Chalcedon

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The Council of Chalcedon was the fourth ecumenical council of the Christian church. Das Konzil von Chalcedon war der vierte ökumenischen Rat der christlichen Kirche. Convoked in 451 by Marcian, Roman emperor in the East, it was primarily concerned with settling theological disputes about the person of Jesus Christ. Einberufen und 451 von Marcian, römischer Kaiser im Osten, es war in erster Linie mit der Beilegung von theologischen Streitigkeiten über die Person von Jesus Christus. In 449 a council meeting in Ephesus without papal approval had upheld the position of Eutyches, archimandrite in Constantinople, that Christ had a single, divine nature (see Monophysitism). In 449 ein Treffen der Ratsversammlung in Ephesus ohne päpstliche Zustimmung hatte bestätigte die Position der Eutyches, Archimandrit in Konstantinopel, dass Christus hatte einen einzigen, göttlichen Natur (siehe Monophysitismus). Pope Leo I immediately rebuked the Ephesus assembly as a "Robber Synod" (Latrocinium) and convinced Marcian to convoke a new council at Chalcedon. Papst Leo ich sofort zurechtgewiesen Ephesus die Montage als "Robber Synode" (Latrocinium) und in der Überzeugung, Marcian zu convocar einen neuen Rat auf Chalcedon. The council formally condemned the Robber Synod and promulgated a dogmatic statement called the "Faith of Chalcedon," which described Christ as having two natures, divine and human, "without confusion, without change, without division," perfectly united in a single person. Der Rat verurteilte die formell Robber Synode und verkündet eine dogmatische Erklärung namens "Faith von Chalcedon", die beschrieben, wie Christus zwei Naturen, göttliche und menschliche, "ohne Verwirrung, ohne Umsteigen, ohne Geschäftsbereich," perfekt vereint in einer einzigen Person. The council also attempted to raise the status of the patriarch of Constantinople and make his see second only to Rome; this position was steadfastly rejected by the papacy. Der Rat versuchte auch, um die Stellung des Patriarchen von Konstantinopel und seine zweite sehen nur nach Rom; diese Position konsequent abgelehnt wurde durch das Papsttum.

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Council of Chalcedon Konzil von Chalcedon

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(451)

The Council of Chalcedon, the fourth ecumenical council of the church, was summoned by the Eastern Emperor Marcion. Das Konzil von Chalcedon, der vierte ökumenische Rat der Kirche, wurde von der Ladung Eastern Kaiser Marcion. It was convoked specifically to establish ecclesiastical unity in the East, and its definitive formulation, the Chalcedonian Creed or Definition, became and remains the measure of orthodoxy for Christological statements concerning the two natures of Christ. Es wurde speziell einberufen, um kirchliche Einheit in den Osten, und die endgültige Formulierung, die Chalcedonian Creed oder Definition, war und bleibt das Maß der Orthodoxie für die christologische Aussagen über die zwei Naturen Christi.

The work of Chalcedon can be understood only in the light of a series of Christological declarations beginning with the Council of Nicaea (325). Die Arbeit von Chalcedon nur verstanden werden kann im Hinblick auf eine Reihe von Erklärungen christologische beginnend mit dem Konzil von Nicäa (325). The Nicene Creed declared that Christ is of the same divine substance with the Father, against Arius, who taught that Christ had a beginning and was only of similar substance. Die Nicene Creed erklärte, dass Christus ist von der gleichen göttlichen Substanz mit dem Vater, gegen Arius, der lehrte, dass Christus hatte einen Anfang und war nur für ähnliche Substanz. The Council of Constantinople (381) both ratified and refined the Nicene Creed, in opposition to continuing Arianism, and declared against Apollinarianism, which stated that Christ's human soul had been replaced by the divine Logos. Das Konzil von Konstantinopel (381) beide ratifiziert und verfeinert die Nicene Creed, in der Opposition auf fortgeführte Arianismus, und erklärt, gegen Apollinarianism, in der es heißt, dass Christus der menschlichen Seele wurde durch den göttlichen Logos. Moreover, Constantinople declared that the Holy Spirit proceeds from the Father and the Son. Darüber hinaus Konstantinopel erklärt, dass der Heilige Geist die Erlöse aus dem Vater und dem Sohn.

In the post-Constantinople period the heresies were Nestorianism and Eutychianism. In der post-Konstantinopel Zeitraum wurden die Häresien Nestorianismus und Eutychianism. The former posited a dual personality in Christ, whereas the latter, reacting to Nestorianism, declared that the incarnate Christ had only one nature. Die ehemalige postuliert eine doppelte Persönlichkeit in Christus, während die letzteren reagieren zu Nestorianismus, erklärte, dass die fleischgewordenen Christus hatte nur eine Natur. Nestorianism was defeated at the Council of Ephesus in 431, but Eutychianism was upheld by the so-called Robber Council held in Alexandria in 449. Nestorianismus wurde beim Rat von Ephesus in 431, sondern Eutychianism wurde bestätigt durch die so genannte Robber Rat auf seiner Tagung in Alexandria in 449. This set the stage for the Council of Chalcedon two years later. Damit wurden die Voraussetzungen für das Konzil von Chalcedon zwei Jahre später.

Marcion ascended the imperial throne in 450 and immediately sought to bring about church unity, which was imperiled by dissension concerning the two natures of Christ. Marcion den kaiserlichen Thron bestieg und 450 und sofort gesucht, um die Einheit der Kirche, die gefährdet durch Uneinigkeit über die beiden Naturen Christi. Pope Leo I wished a general council to be held in Italy, but settled for Chalcedon in Asia Minor as nearer the capital. Papst Leo Ich wollte eine allgemeine Rat stattfinden soll in Italien, sondern sich für Chalcedon in Kleinasien, wie nahe der Hauptstadt.

The Council of Chalcedon met in October, 451, with more than five hundred bishops and several papal legates in attendance. Das Konzil von Chalcedon traf im Oktober 451, mit mehr als fünfhundert mehrere Bischöfe und päpstliche Legaten anwesend. There existed a general consensus among the bishops simply to ratify the Nicene tradition interpreted by Constantinople along with the letters of Cyril of Alexandria to Nestorius and John of Antioch and Pope Leo's letter to Flavian (the so-called Tome, or Epistola Dogmatica). Es besteht ein allgemeiner Konsens zwischen den Bischöfen einfach zu ratifizieren, die Nicene Tradition interpretiert von Konstantinopel zusammen mit den Briefen von Kyrill von Alexandria zu Nestorius und Johannes von Antiochien und Papst Leo's Brief an Flavio (die so genannte Tome, oder Epistola Dogmatica). Had majority opinion prevailed there would have existed no need for further defining the faith. Hätte Mehrheit Meinung durchgesetzt hätte es bestand keine Notwendigkeit für die weitere Definition des Glaubens. Nevertheless, the imperial commissioners deemed it necessary, in the interest of unity, to define the faith as it related to the person of Christ. Dennoch ist die kaiserlichen Kommissare hielt es für notwendig, im Interesse der Einheit, zu definieren, wie sie den Glauben in Bezug auf die Person von Jesus Christus.

The council proceeded in three steps to its work of unification. Der Rat verlief in drei Schritten zu seiner Arbeit der Vereinigung. First, it reaffirmed the Nicene tradition; second, it accepted as orthodox the letters of Cyril and Leo; and third, it provided a definition of the faith. Erstens, er bestätigte die Nicene Tradition, zweitens hat sie akzeptiert, wie die Buchstaben des orthodoxen Cyril und Leo, und drittens, sofern es eine Definition des Glaubens.

There existed two overarching concerns, maintenance of the unity of Christ's person and establishment of the two natures of Christ. Es gab noch zwei übergreifende Anliegen, die Wartung der Einheit der Person Christi und die Errichtung der beiden Naturen Christi. Use was made of letters of both Cyril and Leo along with a letter of Flavian. Verwenden Sie wurde von Briefen der beiden Cyril und Leo zusammen mit einem Brief von Flavio. The first draft of the definition, which is not extant, was deemed deficient in not clearly allowing for two natures. Der erste Entwurf für die Definition, was nicht existiert, wurde als mangelhaft und nicht eindeutig für die zwei Naturen. With much effort the council passed a definition which both negated the one-nature incarnational theory of Eutyches and affirmed the two-nature declaration as orthodox. Mit viel Mühe der Rat eine Definition, die beide negiert die ein Natur-incarnational Theorie des Eutyches und bekräftigten die beiden Natur-Erklärung als orthodox. Mary was declared to be the "God-bearer" (Theotokos) of God the Son, who at the incarnation became "truly man." Mary erklärt wurde, der "Gott-Inhaber" (Gottesgebärerin), den Sohn Gottes, die in der Inkarnation als "echte Menschen". Thus Christ was declared as to his deity "consubstantial with the Father," and as to his humanity "consubstantial with us in manhood." So wurde erklärt, wie Christus zu seiner Gottheit "consubstantial mit dem Vater", und an seiner Menschlichkeit "consubstantial mit uns in der Männlichkeit."

The council then dealt with the unity of the two natures and concluded that the deity and humanity of Christ exist "without confusion, without change, without division, without separation." Der Rat befasste sich anschließend mit der Einheit der beiden Naturen und kam zu dem Schluss, dass die Menschheit und Gottheit Christi gibt ", ohne Verwirrung, ohne Veränderung, ohne Teilung, ohne Trennung." Thus the two natures coalesced in one person (prosopon) and one substance (hypostasis). So verschmolzen die beiden Naturen in einer Person (prosopon) und eine Substanz (hypostasis).

Thus the Chalcedonian Creed safeguarded both the divine and human natures of Christ existing in one person in unchangeable union. Damit die Chalcedonian Creed gewährleistet sowohl die göttliche und menschliche Natur Christi in einer Person vorhandenen und unveränderlich Gewerkschaft. Since salvation was uppermost in the minds of the framers of this definitive creed, they knew that only a Christ who was truly God and man could save men. Seit Erlösung war oberste in den Köpfen der Verfasser dieser endgültigen Glauben, sie wusste, dass nur ein Christ, der wirklich Gott und Mensch Männer retten könnte.

Although the Chalcedonian Creed became, and continues to be, the standard for Christological orthodoxy, it did not prevent continuing opposition from those seeking to coalesce the two natures into one, such as the monophysite and monothelite heresies in the succeeding two centuries. Obwohl die Chalcedonian Creed wurde, und ist der Standard für die christologische Orthodoxie, es nicht verhindern, dass anhaltenden Widerstand von denjenigen zu vereinigen die zwei Naturen in einer, wie die monophysite und monothelite Häresien in den folgenden zwei Jahrhunderten.

JH Hall JH Hall

(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)

Bibliography Bibliographie
NPNF, series II, vol. NPNF, Serie II, vol. XIV; PTR Gray, The Defense of Chalcedon in the East; JS Macarthur, Chalcedon; RV Sellers, The Council of Chalcedon. XIV; PTR Gray, The Defense of Chalcedon im Osten; JS Macarthur, Chalcedon; RV Sellers, Der Rat von Chalcedon.


Council of Chalcedon - 451 AD Konzil von Chalcedon - 451 n. Chr.

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Contents Inhalt

  1. The letter of Pope Leo, to Flavian, bishop of Constantinople, about Eutyches Das Schreiben von Papst Leo, Flavio, Bischof von Konstantinopel, über Eutyches
  2. Definition of the faith Definition des Glaubens
  3. CANONS CANONS

Introduction Einführung

It was the emperor Marcian who, after the "robber" council of Ephesus (449), commanded this council to meet. Pope Leo I was opposed to it. Es war der Kaiser Markian, die nach dem "Räuber" Rat von Ephesus (449), befahl diesem Gemeindebezirk zu begegnen. Papst Leo war ich dagegen. His view was that all the bishops should repent of their ways and individually sign his earlier dogmatic letter to Flavian , patriarch of Constantinople, and so avoid a new round of argument and debate. Seine Ansicht war, dass alle Bischöfe sollten bereuen ihre Möglichkeiten und individuell Zeichen seiner früheren dogmatischen Brief an Flavio, Patriarch von Konstantinopel, und so verhindern, dass eine neue Runde der Auseinandersetzung und Diskussion. Moreover, the provinces of the West were being laid waste by Attila's invasions. Außerdem ist die Provinzen des Westens wurden, die Abfälle von Attila Invasionen. But before the pope's view became known, the emperor Marcian had, by an edict of 17 May 451, convoked the council for 1 September 451. Doch bevor der Papst die Auffassung bekannt wurde, hatte der Kaiser Markian, durch einen Erlass vom 17. Mai 451, einberufen der Rat für 1 September 451. Although the pope was displeased, he sent legates: Paschasinus bishop of Lilybaeum, Bishop Lucentius, the priests Boniface and Basil, and Bishop Julian of Cos. No doubt Leo thought that the council would cause people to leave the church and go into schism. Obwohl der Papst wurde missfallen, sandte er Legaten: Paschasinus Bischof von Lilybaeum, Lucentius Bischof, den Priestern und Basilikum Bonifatius, Bischof und Julian von Cos. Kein Zweifel Leo dachte, der Rat würde dazu führen, dass Menschen verlassen die Kirche und gehen Sie in die Spaltung. So he wanted it to be postponed for a time, and he implored the emperor that the faith handed down from ancient times should not become the subject of debate. Und er will, dass dies für einige Zeit verschoben, und flehte er den Kaiser, dass der Glaube, die von alten Zeiten sollte nicht zum Gegenstand der Debatte. The only business should be the restoration of the exiled bishops to their former positions. Die Unternehmen sollten nur die Wiederherstellung der verbannten Bischöfe an ihre früheren Positionen.

The council was convoked at Nicaea but later transferred to Chalcedon, so as to be close to Constantinople and the emperor. Der Rat einberufen wurde aber später in Nicäa Chalcedon zu übertragen, damit sie in der Nähe von Konstantinopel und der Kaiser. It began on 8 October 451 . Es begann am 8. Oktober 451. The legates Paschasinus, Bishop Lucentius and the priest Boniface presided, while Julian of Cos sat among the bishops. Die Paschasinus Legaten, Bischof und Priester Lucentius Boniface Vorsitz, während Julian von Cos saß unter den Bischöfen. By their side were the imperial commissars and those serving on the Senate, whose responsibility was simply to keep order in the council's deliberations. Mit ihrer Seite waren die kaiserlichen Kommissare und die, die auf den Senat, dessen Verantwortung war einfach zu halten, um im Rat die Beratungen.

The lists we have of those present are unsatisfactory. Die Listen haben wir von den Anwesenden sind unbefriedigend. According to Leo there were 600 bishops at the council, whereas according to a letter to him there were 500. Laut Leo gab es 600 Bischöfe in der Gemeinde, während nach einem Brief an ihm gab es 500.

The " Definition of the faith " was passed at the council's fifth session, and was solemnly promulgated at the sixth session in the presence of the emperor and the imperial authorities. Die "Definition des Glaubens" wurde in der fünften Sitzung des Rates, und feierlich verkündet wurde auf der sechsten Sitzung in Anwesenheit des Kaisers und der kaiserlichen Behörden. The formula accepted in the decree is: Christ is one in two natures. Die Formel in der Verordnung lautet: Christus ist in zwei Naturen. This is in agreement with Leo's letter to Flavian of Constantinople, and Leo's letter is expressly mentioned in the Definition of the faith . Dies ist in Absprache mit Leo's Brief an Flavio von Konstantinopel, und Leo's Schreiben wird ausdrücklich in der Definition des Glaubens.

The council also issued 27 disciplinary canons (it is unclear at which session). Der Rat hat auch disziplinarische 27 Kanonen (es ist unklar, auf der Tagung).

What is usually called canon 28 (on the honour to be accorded the see of Constantinople) is in fact a resolution passed by the council at the 16th session. Was ist in der Regel genannt Kanon 28 (auf der Ehre zu sehen, mit dem von Konstantinopel) ist in der Tat einer Entschließung durch den Rat am 16. Sitzung. It was rejected by the Roman legates. Es wurde von der römischen Legaten.

In the ancient Greek collections, canons 29 and 30 are also attributed to the council: In der antiken griechischen Sammlungen, 29 Kanonen und 30 sind auch auf den Rat:

  • canon 29 is an extract from the minutes of the 19th session; and Kanon 29 ist ein Auszug aus dem Protokoll der 19. Sitzung;
  • canon 30 is an extract from the minutes of the 4th session. Kanon 30 ist ein Auszug aus dem Protokoll der 4. Sitzung.

    Because of canon 28, which the Roman legates had opposed, the emperor Marcian and Anatolius, patriarch of Constantinople, sought approval for the council from the pope. Weil der Kanon 28, die von der römischen Legaten hatte gegenüber, der Kaiser Markian und Anatolius, Patriarch von Konstantinopel, beantragt Genehmigung für die Gemeinde aus dem Papst. This is clear from a letter of Anatolius which tries to defend the canon, and especially from a letter of Marcian which explicitly requests confirmation. Dies ergibt sich aus einem Schreiben von Anatolius zu verteidigen versucht, den Kanon, und vor allem aus einem Brief von Marcian, die ausdrücklich verlangt wird. Because heretics were misinterpreting his withholding approval, the pope ratified the doctrinal decrees on 21 March 453 , but rejected canon 28 since it ran counter to the canons of Nicaea and to the privileges of particular churches. Ketzer waren falsch, weil seine Zurückhaltung Genehmigung, der Papst ratifiziert die doktrinäre Dekrete am 21. März 453, aber abgelehnt, da es Kanon 28 lief gegen die Kanoniker von Nicäa und zu den Rechten von besonderer Kirchen.

    The imperial promulgation was made by Emperor Marcian in 4 edicts of February 452. Die kaiserlichen Erlass wurde von Kaiser Markian und 4 Februar 452 Edikte.

    Apart from Pope Leo's letter to Flavian, which is in Latin, the English translation is from the Greek text, since this is the more authoritative version. Abgesehen von Papst Leo's Brief an Flavio, der in lateinischer Sprache, die deutsche Übersetzung stammt aus dem griechischen Text, denn dies ist der maßgebliche Version mehr.


    The letter of Pope Leo to Flavian, bishop of Constantinople, about Eutyches Das Schreiben von Papst Leo zu Flavio, Bischof von Konstantinopel, über Eutyches

    Surprised as we were at the late arrival of your charity's letter, we read it and examined the account of what the bishops had done. Überrascht waren wir, wie in den späten Ankunft Ihrer Nächstenliebe das Schreiben, lesen wir, und untersucht das Konto von dem, was die Bischöfe getan hatte. We now see what scandal against the integrity of the faith had reared its head among you. Wir sehen jetzt, was Skandal gegen die Integrität des Glaubens aufgezogen hatte seinen Kopf unter euch. What had previously been kept secret now became clearly revealed to us. Eutyches, who was considered a man of honour because he had the title of priest, is shown to be very rash and extremely ignorant. Was bisher geheim gehalten wurde jetzt klar gezeigt, an uns. Eutyches, galt als ein Mann von Ehre, denn er hatte den Titel des Priesters, erweist sich als ein sehr Hautausschlag und extrem ignorant. What the prophet said can be applied to him: He did not want to understand and do good: he plotted evil in his bed. Was der Prophet sagte angewendet werden kann, um ihn: Er wollte nicht verstehen, und die Gutes tun: wog er das Böse in seinem Bett. What can be worse than to have an irreligious mind and to pay no heed to those who are wiser and more learned? Was kann schlimmer sein als eine ungläubig Geist und zahlen keine Beachtung schenken zu denjenigen, die klüger sind und mehr gelernt? The people who fall into this folly are those in whom knowledge of the truth is blocked by a kind of dimness. Die Menschen, die sich in diesem Wahnsinn sind diejenigen, bei denen die Kenntnis der Wahrheit ist, blockiert durch eine Art Düsterkeit. They do not refer to Sie beziehen sich nicht auf

    but to themselves. Aber für sich. By not being pupils of the truth, they turn out to be masters of error. Durch die nicht Schüler der Wahrheit, die sie sich als Meister der Fehler. A man who has not the most elementary understanding even of the creed itself can have learnt nothing from the sacred texts of the New and Old Testaments. Ein Mann, der hat nicht die elementarsten sogar Verständnis des Glaubens selbst haben nichts gelernt aus den heiligen Schriften des Neuen und Alten Testaments. This old man has not yet taken to heart what is pronounced by every baptismal candidate the world over! Dieser alte Mann hat noch nicht zu Herzen genommen, was ausgesprochen wird durch die Taufe alle Kandidaten in der ganzen Welt!

    He had no idea how he ought to think about the incarnation of the Word of God; and he had no desire to acquire the light of understanding by working through the length and breadth of the holy scriptures. Er hatte keine Ahnung, wie er sollte zum Nachdenken über die Inkarnation des Wortes Gottes, und er hatte keine Lust zu erwerben, das Licht des Verständnisses durch die Zusammenarbeit durch die Länge und die Breite des heiligen Schriften. So at least he should have listened carefully and accepted the common and undivided creed by which the whole body of the faithful confess that they believe in So zumindest sollte er haben aufmerksam zugehört und akzeptiert den gemeinsamen und ungeteilten Glauben, durch die den ganzen Körper der Gläubigen bekennen, daß sie glauben,

    1. God the Father almighty and in Gott, der allmächtige Vater und
    2. Jesus Christ his only Son, our Lord, Jesus Christus, seinen eingeborenen Sohn, unseren Herrn,
    3. who was born of the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary. Geboren wurde von dem heiligen Geist und der Jungfrau Maria.
    These three statements wreck the tricks of nearly every heretic. Diese drei Aussagen Wrack die Tricks von fast jedem Ketzer. When God is believed to be both almighty and Father, the Son is clearly proved to be co-eternal with him, in no way different from the Father, since he was born God from God, almighty from the Almighty, co-eternal from the Eternal, not later in time, not lower in power, not unlike in glory, not distinct in being. Wenn Gott ist, daß sie sich beide und allmächtige Vater, der Sohn ist eindeutig erwiesen sich als Co-ewig mit ihm, in keiner Weise anders als der Vater, da er geboren wurde Gott von Gott, der allmächtige aus dem Allmächtigen, die gemeinsam von der ewigen Ewige, nicht später in der Zeit, in der Macht nicht geringer, nicht anders als in Herrlichkeit, und nicht unterscheidbar sind. The same eternal, only-begotten of the eternal begetter was born of the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary. Die ewig gleiche, nur-gezeugt von den ewigen Vater geboren, der heilige Geist und der Jungfrau Maria. His birth in time in no way subtracts from or adds to that divine and eternal birth of his: but its whole purpose is to restore humanity, who had been deceived, so that it might defeat death and, by its power, destroy the devil who held the power of death . Seine Geburt in der Zeit in keiner Weise schmälert oder hinzufügt, dass göttliche und ewige Geburt seines aber seinen Sinn und Zweck ist die Wiederherstellung der Menschheit, die getäuscht worden sei, so dass es vielleicht Niederlage und Tod, von seiner Macht, den Teufel zu zerstören, Hielt die Macht des Todes. Overcoming the originator of sin and death would be beyond us, had not he whom sin could not defile, nor could death hold down, taken up our nature and made it his own. Die Überwindung der Urheber der Sünde und des Todes würde uns, hatte er nicht die Sünde nicht defilieren, könnte der Tod noch gedrückt halten, die unsere Natur und machte es zu seinem eigenen. He was conceived from the holy Spirit inside the womb of the virgin mother. Er wurde von dem heiligen Geist in den Schoß der Jungfrau Mutter. Her virginity was as untouched in giving him birth as it was in conceiving him. Ihre Jungfräulichkeit wurde als unberührte Geburt in ihm, wie es war ihm in der Konzeption.

    But if it was beyond Eutyches to derive sound understanding from this, the purest source of the christian faith , because the brightness of manifest truth had been darkened by his own peculiar blindness, then he should have subjected himself to the teaching of the gospels. Aber wenn er darüber hinaus zur Ableitung von Eutyches solides Verständnis davon, die reinste Quelle des christlichen Glaubens, weil die Helligkeit des offenkundigen Wahrheit war verdunkelt durch seine eigene Blindheit, dann sollte er sich unterzogen haben, um die Lehre der Evangelien. When Matthew says, The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, son of David, son of Abraham, Eutyches should have looked up the further development in the apostolic preaching. Wenn Matthew sagt, das Buch über die Erzeugung von Jesus Christus, dem Sohn Davids, Sohn Abrahams, Eutyches hätte blickte auf die weitere Entwicklung in der apostolischen Verkündigung. When he read in the letter to the Romans, Paul, the servant of Christ Jesus, called to be an apostle, set apart for God's gospel, which he had formerly promised through his prophets in the holy writings which refer to his Son, who was made for him of David's seed according to the flesh, he should have paid deep and devout attention to the prophetic texts. Als er in den Brief an die Römer, Paul, der Diener Jesu Christi, genannt zu werden, ein Apostel, die außer für das Evangelium Gottes, die er zuvor versprochen hatte durch seine Propheten in den heiligen Schriften, die sich auf seinen Sohn, der Machten für ihn, der Davids Samen nach dem Fleisch, er hätte gezahlt und tief frommen die Aufmerksamkeit auf die prophetische Texte. And when he discovered God making the promise to Abraham that in your seed shall all nations be blessed, he should have followed the apostle, in order to eliminate any doubt about the identity of this seed, when he says, The promises were spoken to Abraham and his seed . Und als er entdeckt, dass Gott das Versprechen an Abraham, dass in Ihrem Saatgut ist gesegnet werden alle Nationen, sollte er haben die Apostel, um jegliche Zweifel über die Identität dieses Saatguts, wenn er sagt, die Versprechungen wurden gesprochen Abraham Und seine Nachkommen. He does not say "to his seeds"--as if referring to a multiplicity--but to a single one, "and to thy seed " which is Christ. Er sagt nicht "zu seinem Samen" - so, als ob auf eine Vielzahl - aber zu einem einzigen, "und deinem Samen", das ist Christus. His inward ear should also have heard Isaiah preaching Behold, a virgin will receive in the womb and will bear a son , and they will call his name Emmanuel, which is translated "God is with us". Sein Ohr nach innen sollten auch gehört haben, Jesaja Predigt Siehe, eine Jungfrau wird empfangen in der Gebärmutter und wird einen Sohn, und sie ruft seinen Namen Emmanuel, was übersetzt "Gott ist mit uns". With faith he should have read the same prophet's words, A child is born to us, a son is given to us. Mit Glauben sollte er habe die gleichen Worte des Propheten, Ein Kind ist uns geboren, ein Sohn ist uns gegeben. His power is on his shoulders. Seine Macht ist auf seinen Schultern. They will call his name "Angel of great counsel, mighty God, prince of peace, father of the world to come". Sie rufen seinen Namen "Angel of great Beratung, mächtigen Gott, Fürst des Friedens, der Vater der kommenden Welt". Then he would not deceive people by saying that the Word was made flesh in the sense that he emerged from the virgin's womb having a human form but not having the reality of his mother's body. Dann würde er nicht täuschen Menschen sagen, dass das Wort ist Fleisch geworden in dem Sinne, dass er sich aus dem Schoß der Jungfrau, die eine menschliche Form, aber nicht mit der Realität der Körper seiner Mutter.

    Or was it perhaps that he thought that our lord Jesus Christ did not have our nature because the angel who was sent to the blessed Mary said, The holy Spirit will come upon you and the power of the most High will overshadow you, and so that which will be born holy out of you will be called Son of God, as if it was because the conception by the virgin was worked by God that the flesh of the one conceived did not share the nature of her who conceived it? Oder war es vielleicht, dass er dachte, dass unser Herr Jesus Christus nicht unsere Natur, weil die Engel, der an die selige Maria sagte: Der heilige Geist wird über euch kommen, und die Kraft der meisten High überschatten werden Sie, und damit , Die geboren werden, der heiligen werden Sie forderte Sohn Gottes, als ob es war, weil die Vorstellung von der Jungfrau war arbeitete von Gott, dass das Fleisch der einzigen konzipiert nicht die Art der Aktien, die sie konzipiert werden? But uniquely wondrous and wondrously unique as that act of generation was, it is not to be understood as though the proper character of its kind was taken away by the sheer novelty of its creation. Aber wunderbare und einzigartige wundersame einzigartig wie die Handlung von Generation wurde, ist es nicht zu verstehen, als ob die richtigen Zeichen seiner Art weggenommen wurde durch die bloße Neuheit seiner Schöpfung. It was the holy Spirit that made the virgin pregnant, but the reality of the body derived from body. Es war der heilige Geist, der die Jungfrau schwanger, aber die Realität des Körpers aus dem Körper. As Wisdom built a house for herself, the Word was made flesh and dwelt amongst us: that is, in that flesh which he derived from human kind and which he animated with the spirit of a rational life. Als Weisheit baute ein Haus für sich, das Wort wurde Fleisch und wohnte unter uns: das heißt, dass in Fleisch, die er aus der menschlichen Art, die er animiert und mit dem Geist einer rationalen Leben.

    So the proper character of both natures was maintained and came together in a single person . Also die richtige Charakter der beiden Naturen wurde beibehalten und trafen sich in einer einzigen Person. Lowliness was taken up by majesty, weakness by strength, mortality by eternity. To pay off the debt of our state , invulnerable nature was united to a nature that could suffer; so that in a way that corresponded to the remedies we needed, one and the same mediator between God and humanity the man Christ Jesus, could both on the one hand die and on the other be incapable of death. Niedrigkeit wurde von Majestät, Schwäche durch Stärke, die Sterblichkeit durch die Ewigkeit. Auszahlen Um die Verschuldung des Landes, unverwundbar Natur vereint zu einer Art leiden, könnten, so dass es in einer Art und Weise, entsprach die Rechtsmittel wir brauchten, und ein Die gleichen Vermittler zwischen Gott und der Menschheit den Mann Jesus Christus, konnte sowohl auf der einen Seite und die auf der anderen Seite werden nicht in der Lage, den Tod. Thus was true God born in the undiminished and perfect nature of a true man, complete in what is his and complete in what is ours. So war wahrer Gott geboren in der unverminderten und perfekte Art der ein wahrer Mensch, was ist komplett in seine vollständige und in dem, was ist unsere. By "ours" we mean what the Creator established in us from the beginning and what he took upon himself to restore. Mit "uns" meinen wir, was der Schöpfer, die in uns von Anfang an und das, was er auf sich nahm, um wieder. There was in the Saviour no trace of the things which the Deceiver brought upon us, and to which deceived humanity gave admittance. His subjection to human weaknesses in common with us did not mean that he shared our sins . Es gab in der Retter keine Spur von dem, was der Täuscher auf uns gebracht, und die Menschheit zu täuschen, die die Zulassung erteilt. Seine Unterwerfung, um menschliche Schwächen und gemeinsam mit uns nicht bedeuten, dass er unsere Sünden. He took on the form of a servant without the defilement of sin, thereby enhancing the human and not diminishing the divine. Er übernahm die Form von einem Diener ohne die Verunreinigung der Sünde, wodurch der Mensch und nicht der göttlichen rückläufig. For that self-emptying whereby the Invisible rendered himself visible, and the Creator and Lord of all things chose to join the ranks of mortals, spelled no failure of power: it was an act of merciful favour. Aus diesem Selbst-Entleerung, wobei sich das Unsichtbare sichtbar gemacht, und der Schöpfer und Herr aller Dinge hat sich in die Reihen der Sterblichen, schreibt kein Versagen der Macht: Es war ein Akt der barmherzigen dafür. So the one who retained the form of God when he made humanity, was made man in the form of a servant. Also derjenige, der die Form beibehalten, wenn er von Gott die Menschheit gemacht, wurde der Mensch in der Form von einem Diener. Each nature kept its proper character without loss; and just as the form of God does not take away the form of a servant, so the form of a servant does not detract from the form of God. Jeder Charakter hat seinen richtigen Charakter, ohne Verlust, und genauso wie die Form von Gott nicht nehmen die Form von einem Diener, die die Form von einem Diener keinen Abbruch tut Form von Gott.

    It was the devil's boast that humanity had been deceived by his trickery and so had lost the gifts God had given it; and that it had been stripped of the endowment of immortality and so was subject to the harsh sentence of death. Es war der Teufel ist stolz, dass die Menschheit getäuscht worden sei, indem seine Tricks und so verloren hatte, die Gaben Gottes hatte es, und daß es war stripped der Ausstattung der Unsterblichkeit und so wurde unter der harten Strafe des Todes. He also boasted that, sunk as he was in evil, he himself derived some consolation from having a partner in crime; and that God had been forced by the principle of justice to alter his verdict on humanity, which he had created in such an honourable state. Er prahlte, wie er versunken war und Böse, von ihm selbst stammen einige Trost von einem Partner in der Kriminalität, und dass Gott war gezwungen, durch die das Prinzip der Gerechtigkeit zu verändern sein Urteil über die Menschheit, die er in einer solchen Damen und Herren Staat. All this called for the realisation of a secret plan whereby the unalterable God, whose will is indistinguishable from his goodness, might bring the original realisation of his kindness towards us to completion by means of a more hidden mystery, and whereby humanity, which had been led into a state of sin by the craftiness of the devil, might be prevented from perishing contrary to the purpose of God. Alle diese Namen für die Realisierung von einem geheimen Plan, wonach die unabänderliche Gott, dessen Wille ist nicht von seiner Güte, könnte die ursprüngliche Realisierung seiner Güte uns gegenüber bis zur Fertigstellung durch eine verborgene Geheimnis mehr, dass die Menschheit, die sich seit Führte in einen Zustand der Sünde durch die List des Teufels, vielleicht daran gehindert werden, umkommend im Gegensatz zu dem Zweck Gottes.

    So without leaving his Father's glory behind, the Son of God comes down from his heavenly throne and enters the depths of our world, born in an unprecedented order by an unprecedented kind of birth. Also, ohne seine Herrlichkeit des Vaters zurück, der Sohn Gottes kommt von seinem himmlischen Thron und in den Tiefen unserer Welt, geboren in eine nie da gewesene, um durch eine noch nie dagewesene Art der Geburt. In an unprecedented order, because one who is invisible at his own level was made visible at ours. In einer beispiellosen Ordnung, weil derjenige, der unsichtbar ist auf seine eigene Ebene sichtbar gemacht wurde bei uns. The ungraspable willed to be grasped. Die ungraspable Willen erfasst werden. Whilst remaining pre-existent, he begins to exist in time. Während die restlichen präexistent, beginnt er zu existieren in der Zeit. The Lord of the universe veiled his measureless majesty and took on a servant's form. Der Herr des Universums verhüllt seine Majestät unermesslich und übernahm ein Diener ist. The God who knew no suffering did not despise becoming a suffering man, and, deathless as he is, to be subject to the laws of death. Der Gott, der nicht wusste, dass Leiden nicht zu verachten einen leidenden Menschen, und, wie er unsterblich ist, unterliegt den Gesetzen der Tod. By an unprecedented kind of birth, because it was inviolable virginity which supplied the material flesh without experiencing sexual desire . Durch eine nie da gewesene Art der Geburt, denn es war unantastbar Jungfräulichkeit, die das Material geliefert, ohne Fleisch zu erleben sexuelle Begierde. What was taken from the mother of the Lord was the nature without the guilt. And the fact that the birth was miraculous does not imply that in the lord Jesus Christ, born from the virgin's womb, the nature is different from ours. Was wurde von der Mutter des Herrn war die Natur, ohne die Schuld. Und die Tatsache, dass die wundersame Geburt war nicht dazu führen, dass der Herr Jesus Christus, geboren von der Jungfrau die Gebärmutter, die Art unterscheidet sich von der unsrigen. The same one is true God and true man. Das Gleiche ist ein wahrer Gott und wahrer Mensch.

    There is nothing unreal about this oneness, since both the lowliness of the man and the grandeur of the divinity are in mutual relation. Es gibt nichts, was unwirklich zu dieser Einheit, da beide die Niedrigkeit des Menschen und die Erhabenheit der Gottheit sind in der gegenseitigen Beziehung. As God is not changed by showing mercy, neither is humanity devoured by the dignity received. Als Gott ist nicht durch Barmherzigkeit, Menschlichkeit fraß ist weder von der Würde erhalten. The activity of each form is what is proper to it in communion with the other: that is, the Word performs what belongs to the Word, and the flesh accomplishes what belongs to the flesh. Die Aktivität der einzelnen Form ist das, was es ist richtig, in Gemeinschaft mit den anderen: Das ist, das Wort führt, was gehört das Wort, und das Fleisch erfüllt, was gehört zu den Fleisch. One of these performs brilliant miracles the other sustains acts of violence. As the Word does not lose its glory which is equal to that of the Father, so neither does the flesh leave the nature of its kind behind. Einer von ihnen führt brillanten Wunder der anderen Sustains Gewalttaten. Da die Word nicht verlieren ihren Glanz, ist gleich, dass der Vater, so auch nicht das Fleisch aus der Natur von ihrer Art hinterher. We must say this again and again: one and the same is truly Son of God and truly son of man . Wir müssen sagen, diese wieder und wieder: ein und dasselbe ist wirklich Gottes Sohn und der Sohn des Menschen wirklich. God, by the fact that in the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God; man, by the fact that the Word was made flesh and dwelt among us. Gott, durch die Tatsache, dass am Anfang war das Wort, und das Wort war bei Gott, und das Wort war Gott, der Mensch, durch die Tatsache, dass das Wort wurde Fleisch und wohnte unter uns. God, by the fact that all things were made through him, and nothing was made without him, man, by the fact that he was made of a woman, made under the law . Gott, durch die Tatsache, dass alle Dinge wurden durch ihn, und nichts wurde, ohne ihn, die Menschen, das durch die Tatsache, dass er aus einer Frau, die unter das Gesetz. The birth of flesh reveals human nature; birth from a virgin is a proof of divine power. Die Geburt des Fleisches zeigt die menschliche Natur; Geburt von einer Jungfrau ist ein Beweis der göttlichen Macht. A lowly cradle manifests the infancy of the child; angels' voices announce the greatness of the most High. Eine Wiege zeigt die bescheidenen Anfängen des Kindes; Angels' Stimme verkünden, die Größe der meisten Hoch. Herod evilly strives to kill one who was like a human being at the earliest stage the Magi rejoice to adore on bended knee one who is the Lord of all. Herodes böse zu töten versucht jemand, der war wie ein Mensch im frühesten Stadium der Könige freuen anhimmeln auf gekrümmten Knie ist derjenige, der den Herrn aller. And when he came to be baptised by his precursor John, the Father's voice spoke thunder from heaven, to ensure that he did not go unnoticed because the divinity was concealed by the veil of flesh: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. Und als er kam zu getauft von seinem Vorgänger Johannes, der Vater sprach die Stimme vom Himmel donnern, um sicherzustellen, dass er nicht unbemerkt bleiben, weil die Göttlichkeit war verdeckt von den Schleier des Fleisches: Das ist mein geliebter Sohn, an dem ich mich gut Freuen. Accordingly, the same one whom the devil craftily tempts as a man, the angels dutifully wait on as God. Daher ist die gleiche, die der Teufel listige lockt wie ein Mann, die Engel als pflichtbewussten warten auf Gott. Hunger, thirst, weariness, sleep are patently human. Hunger, Durst, Müdigkeit, Schlafstörungen sind offensichtlich menschlich. But to satisfy five thousand people with five loaves; to dispense living water to the Samaritan woman, a drink of which will stop her being thirsty ever again; to walk on the surface of the sea with feet that do not sink; to rebuke the storm and level the mounting waves; there can be no doubt these are divine. Aber zu befriedigen fünftausend Menschen mit fünf Brote zu verzichten lebendiges Wasser auf der samaritanischen Frau, ein Getränk, von denen nicht mehr als ihren Durst immer und immer wieder, zu Fuß auf der Oberfläche des Meeres mit Füßen, die nicht sinken; zu tadeln dem Sturm Und die Höhe der Wellen Montage, es kann kein Zweifel sind göttlich.

    So, if I may pass over many instances, it does not belong to the same nature to weep out of deep-felt pity for a dead friend, and to call him back to life again at the word of command, once the mound had been removed from the four-dayold grave; or to hang on the cross and, with day changed into night, to make the elements tremble; or to be pierced by nails and to open the gates of paradise for the believing thief. Also, wenn ich über viele Instanzen passieren, es gehört nicht auf die gleiche Art zu weinen out of deep-Mitleid für einen toten Freund, und rufen Sie ihn wieder zum Leben wieder auf das Wort der Befehl, wenn die Hügel waren Aus den vier-dayold Grab; oder hängt am Kreuz und mit Tag änderte sich in Nacht, um die Elemente zittern, oder werden durchbohrt von Nägeln und öffnen die Tore des Paradieses für den gläubigen Dieb. Likewise, it does not belong to the same nature to say I and the Father are one, and to say The Father is greater than I. For although there is in the Lord Jesus Christ a single person who is of God and of man, the insults shared by both have their source in one thing, and the glory that is shared in another. Auch er gehört nicht zu der gleichen Art zu sagen, Ich und der Vater sind eins, und zu sagen, Der Vater ist größer als I. Für obwohl es an den Herrn Jesus Christus eine einzige Person, die sich von Gott und der Mensch, der Beleidigungen geteilt durch beide haben ihre Quelle in einer Sache, und die Herrlichkeit, die in einem anderen geteilt. For it is from us that he gets a humanity which is less than the Father; it is from the Father that he gets a divinity which is equal to the Father. Denn es ist von uns bekommt er ein, dass die Menschheit, die geringer ist als der Vater, er ist aus dem Vater, dass er bekommt eine Göttlichkeit, ist gleich der Vater.

    So it is on account of this oneness of the person, which must be understood in both natures, that we both read that the son of man came down from heaven, when the Son of God took flesh from the virgin from whom he was born, and again that the Son of God is said to have been crucified and buried, since he suffered these things not in the divinity itself whereby the Only-begotten is co-eternal and consubstantial with the Father, but in the weakness of the human nature. Deshalb ist es aufgrund dieser Einheit der Person, die verstanden werden muss, in beiden Naturen, die wir beide lesen, dass der Sohn des Menschen vom Himmel gekommen, als der Sohn Gottes hat Fleisch aus der Jungfrau aus dem er geboren wurde, Und noch einmal, dass der Sohn Gottes ist gesagt worden gekreuzigt und begraben, da er litt diese Dinge nicht in der Gottheit selbst, wobei die Erst-gezeugt ist Co-und ewige consubstantial mit dem Vater, sondern in der Schwäche der menschlichen Natur. That is why in the creed, too, we all confess that the only-begotten Son of God was crucified and was buried, following what the apostle said, If they had known, they would never have crucified the Lord of majesty. Das ist der Grund, warum in den Glauben, auch wir alle zugeben, dass die eingeborenen Sohn Gottes wurde gekreuzigt und begraben wurde, zu verfolgen, was die Apostel gesagt, Wenn sie gewusst hätte, sie würde nie gekreuzigt der Herr der Majestät. And when our Lord and Saviour himself was questioning his disciples and instructing their faith, he says, Who do people say 1, the son of man, am? Und wenn unser Herr und Heiland selbst war in Frage gestellt und seine Jünger instruiert ihren Glauben, sagt er, wer die Menschen sagen, 1, der Sohn des Menschen, bin? And when they had displayed a variety of other people's opinions, he says, Who do you say I am ? Und wenn sie angezeigt hatte eine Vielzahl von anderen Meinungen, sagt er, kann man sagen, wer ich bin? --in other words, I who am the son of man and whom you behold in the form of a servant and in real flesh: Who do you say I am? -- Mit anderen Worten, wer ich bin der Sohn des Menschen und denen Sie sehen in der Form von einem Diener und im wirklichen Fleische: An wen muss man sagen, ich bin? Whereupon the blessed Peter, inspired by God and making a confession that would benefit all future peoples, says, You are the Christ, the Son of the living God. Woraufhin der selige Peter, inspiriert von Gott und ein Bekenntnis, dass künftig alle profitieren würden Völker, sagt: Du bist der Christus, der Sohn des lebendigen Gottes. He thoroughly deserved to be declared "blessed" by the Lord. Er verdiente gründlich zu erklären "gesegnet" durch den Herrn. He derived the stability of both his goodness and his name from the original Rock, for when the Father revealed it to him, he confessed that the same one is both the Son of God and also the Christ. Accepting one of these truths without the other was no help to salvation; and to have believed that the Lord Jesus Christ was either only God and not man, or solely man and not God, was equally dangerous. Er leitet die Stabilität der beiden seine Güte und seinen Namen von der Original-Rock, wenn der Vater offenbarte es ihm, er gestand ein, dass das gleiche ist auch der Sohn Gottes ist und auch der Christus. Annehmen eines dieser Wahrheiten, ohne die anderen War kein Beitrag zur Rettung und haben geglaubt, daß der Herr Jesus Christus war entweder nur Gott und Mensch nicht, oder nur Menschen und nicht Gott, war ebenso gefährlich.

    After the Lord's resurrection--which was certainly the resurrection of a real body, since the one brought back to life is none other than the one who had been crucified and had died--the whole point of the forty-day delay was to make our faith completely sound and to cleanse it of all darkness. Nach der Auferstehung des Herrn -, war sicherlich die Auferstehung eines realen Körper, da einerseits wieder zum Leben ist nichts anderes als derjenige, der gekreuzigt worden und gestorben war - der ganze Sinn des forty-Tag Verspätung war es, Unseren Glauben Sound komplett zu reinigen und sie alle Dunkelheit. Hence he talked to his disciples and lived and ate with them, and let himself be touched attentively and carefully by those who were in the grip of doubt; he would go in among his disciples when the doors were locked, and impart the holy Spirit by breathing on them, and open up the secrets of the holy scriptures after enlightening their understanding; again, he would point out the wound in his side, the holes made by the nails, and all the signs of the suffering he had just recently undergone, saying, Look at my hands and feet--it is I. Feel and see, because a spirit does not have flesh and bones as you see that I have. Deshalb sprach er zu seinen Jüngern und lebte und aß mit ihnen, und lassen Sie sich selbst berührt werden aufmerksam und sorgfältig durch diejenigen, die sich in der Umklammerung der Zweifel, er würde gehen und unter seinen Jüngern, wenn die Türen waren verriegelt, und vermitteln durch den heiligen Geist Atmung auf, und öffnen Sie die Geheimnisse der heiligen Schriften nach ihrem Verständnis erhellend; wieder, er würde darauf hinweisen, die Wunde in seiner Seite, die Löcher durch die Nägel, und alle die Zeichen der Leiden hatte er erst vor kurzem unterzogen, Sagen: Sehen Sie sich meine Hände und Füße - es ist I. Feel und sehen, denn ein Geist ist nicht aus Fleisch und Knochen, wie Sie sehen, daß ich habe. All this was so that it would be recognised that the proper character of the divine and of the human nature went on existing inseparable in him; and so that we would realise that the Word is not the same thing as the flesh, but in such a way that we would confess belief in the one Son of God as being both Word and flesh. All dies war so, dass sie anerkannt werden, dass die richtigen Zeichen der göttlichen und der menschlichen Natur ging auf die bestehenden untrennbar in ihm, und damit würden wir erkennen, dass das Wort ist nicht dasselbe wie das Fleisch, sondern in einem solchen Art und Weise, wie wir gestehen, Glaube an den einen Sohn Gottes als auch Word und Fleisch.

    This Eutyches must be judged to be extremely destitute of this mystery of the faith. Diese Eutyches muss beurteilt werden extrem armer dieses Geheimnis des Glaubens. Neither the humility of the mortal life nor the glory of the resurrection has made him recognise our nature in the only-begotten of God. Weder die Bescheidenheit der sterblichen Leben, noch die Herrlichkeit der Auferstehung hat ihn erkennen, unsere Natur-und die einzige von Gott gezeugt. Nor has even the statement of the blessed apostle and evangelist John put fear into him: Every spirit which confesses that Jesus Christ came in the flesh is from God, and every spirit which puts Jesus asunder is not from God, and this is Antichrist. But what does putting Jesus as under consist in if not in separating his human nature from him, and in voiding, through the most barefaced fictions, the one mystery by which we have been saved? Ebensowenig hat auch die Erklärung des seligen Apostels und Evangelisten Johannes, Angst in ihm: Jeder Geist, der bekennt, dass Jesus Christus in das Fleisch gekommen ist, von Gott, und jeder Geist, auseinander setzt Jesus ist nicht von Gott, und das ist Antichrist. Aber Was Putting Jesus als unter bestehen, wenn nicht in der Trennung von seiner menschlichen Natur von ihm, und ungültig, durch die unverschämte Fiktionen, die ein Rätsel, die wir haben, wurden gerettet? Once in the dark about the nature of Christ's body, it follows that the same blindness leads him into raving folly about his suffering too. Nachdem in der Dunkelheit über das Wesen der Christus-Körper, folgt daraus, dass die gleichen Blindheit führt ihn in raving über seine Torheit zu leiden. If he does not think that the Lord's cross was unreal and if he has no doubt that the suffering undergone for the world's salvation was real, then let him acknowledge the flesh of the one whose death he believes in. And let him not deny that a man whom he knows to have been subject to suffering had our kind of body, for to deny the reality of the flesh is also to deny the bodily suffering. Wenn er nicht der Meinung, dass die Lord's Cross war unwirklich und wenn er keinen Zweifel daran, dass sich das Leiden für die Erlösung der Welt war real, dann ließ ihn erkennen das Fleisch der von einer Person, deren Tod er glaubt in. Und lassen Sie ihn sich nicht leugnen, dass ein Mann, den er weiß, wurden unter leiden hatten unsere Art von Körper, für die Verweigerung der Realität des Fleisches ist auch zu leugnen, die körperlichen Leiden. So if he accepts the christian faith and does not turn a deaf ear to the preaching of the gospel, let him consider what nature it was that hung, pierced with nails, on the wood of the cross. Also, wenn er akzeptiert den christlichen Glauben und nicht aus einem Ohr taub auf die Verkündigung des Evangeliums, lassen Sie ihn prüfen, was die Natur war, dass es hing, durchbohrt mit Nägeln, auf dem Holz des Kreuzes. With the side of the crucified one laid open by the soldier's spear, let him identify the source from which blood and water flowed, to bathe the church of God with both font and cup. Mit der Seite des gekreuzigten ein, die offen von den Soldaten der Speer, ließ ihn die Quelle, aus denen Blut und Wasser geflossen, zu baden, die Kirche Gottes mit beiden Schriftart und Tasse.

    Let him heed what the blessed apostle Peter preaches, that sanctification by the Spirit is effected by the sprinkling of Christ's blood; and let him not skip over the same apostle's words, knowing that you have been redeemed from the empty way of life you inherited from your fathers, not with corruptible gold and silver but by the precious blood of Jesus Christ, as of a lamb without stain or spot. Lassen Sie ihn beherzigen, was der Apostel Petrus predigt gesegnet, die Heiligung des Geistes erfolgt durch das Streuen von Blut Christi, und lassen Sie ihn nicht über die gleiche überspringen Apostel den Worten, dass Sie wissen, wurden erlöst aus der leeren Lebensweise Sie Erbe Ihre Väter, nicht bestechlich mit Gold und Silber, sondern durch das kostbare Blut von Jesus Christus, der wie ein Lamm, ohne Flecken oder vor Ort. Nor should he withstand the testimony of blessed John the apostle: and the blood of Jesus, the Son of God, purifies us from every sin; and again, This is the victory which conquers the world, our faith. Auch sollte er auch das Zeugnis des seligen Johannes der Apostel: und das Blut von Jesus, der Sohn Gottes, reinigt uns von aller Sünde; und wieder, Das ist der Sieg, erobert die Welt, unseren Glauben. Who is there who conquers the world save one who believes that Jesus is the Son of God ? Wer ist es, die erobert die Welt retten derjenige, der glaubt, dass Jesus der Sohn Gottes ist? It is he, Jesus Christ who has come through water and blood, not in water only, but in water and blood. Es ist er, Jesus Christus, der gekommen ist durch Wasser und Blut, nicht nur im Wasser, sondern im Wasser und Blut. And because the Spirit is truth, it is the Spirit who testifies. Und weil der Geist der Wahrheit ist, es ist der Geist, der bezeugt. For there are three who give testimony--Spirit and water and blood. Denn es gibt drei, die Zeugnis geben - Geist und Wasser und Blut. And the three are one. Und die drei sind eins. In other words, the Spirit of sanctification and the blood of redemption and the water of baptism. In anderen Worten, der Geist der Heiligung und das Blut der Erlösung und das Wasser der Taufe. These three are one and remain indivisible. Diese drei sind eins und unteilbar bleiben. None of them is separable from its link with the others. Keiner von ihnen ist trennbar von seiner Verbindung mit den anderen. The reason is that it is by this faith that the catholic church lives and grows , by believing that neither the humanity is without true divinity nor the divinity without true humanity. Der Grund dafür ist, dass es von diesem Glauben, dass die katholische Kirche lebt und wächst, zu glauben, dass weder die Menschheit ist, ohne wahre Gottheit noch die wahre Gottheit ohne Menschlichkeit.

    When you cross-examined Eutyches and he replied, "I confess that our Lord was of two natures before the union, but I confess one nature after the union", I am amazed that such an absurd and corrupt declaration of faith was not very severely censured by the judges; and that an extremely foolish statement was disregarded, as if nothing whatever offensive had been heard. Wenn Sie Cross-Eutyches geprüft, und er antwortete: "Ich gestehe, dass unser Herr, war von zwei Naturen vor der Union, aber ich gestehe ein, nachdem die Gewerkschaft der Natur", ich bin erstaunt, dass eine solche absurden und korrupten Erklärung des Glaubens war nicht sehr stark Zensur durch die Richter, und dass ein sehr töricht Erklärung wurde außer Acht gelassen, als ob nichts, was anstößig war zu hören. It is just as wicked to say that the only-begotten Son of God was of two natures before the incarnation as it is abominable to claim that there was a single nature in him after the Word was made flesh. Es ist genau so böse zu sagen, dass die eingeborenen Sohn Gottes wurde von zwei Naturen vor der Inkarnation, wie es ist abscheulich, zu behaupten, dass es eine einzige Natur in ihm nach dem Wort ist Fleisch geworden. Eutyches must not suppose that what he said was either correct or tolerable just because no clear statement of yours refuted it. Eutyches darf nicht annehmen, dass das, was er sagte, war entweder richtig oder nur erträglich, weil keine klare Aussage von Ihnen widerlegt. So we remind you, dearest brother, of your charity's responsibility to see to it that if through God's merciful inspiration the case is ever settled, the rash and ignorant fellow is also purged of what is blighting his mind. So erinnern wir Sie, liebster Bruder, der Nächstenliebe in der Verantwortung, dafür zu sorgen, dass, wenn durch barmherzigen Gottes Inspiration ist immer der Fall, bei den Ausschlag Kolleginnen und ignorant ist auch entfernt von dem, was ist vereitelnd seinen Verstand. As the minutes have made clear, he made a good start at abandoning his opinion when, under pressure from your statement, he professed to say what he had not previously said, and to find satisfaction in the faith to which he had previously been a stranger. Da das Protokoll haben deutlich gemacht, er hat einen guten Start bei seiner Meinung aufzugeben, wenn unter dem Druck aus Ihrer Aussage, er Profess zu sagen, was er vorher nicht gesagt hat, und Zufriedenheit zu finden, im Glauben, in dem er zuvor ein Fremder . But when he had refused to be party to the anathematising of his wicked doctrine, your fraternity would have realised that he was persisting in his false belief and that he deserved a verdict of condemnation. Doch als er sich geweigert hatte, an einer Beteiligung an den anathematising seiner bösen Lehre, Brüderlichkeit hätten erkannt, dass er in seiner anhaltenden falschen Glauben, und er verdient ein Urteil der Verurteilung. If he is honestly and suitably sorry about this, and acknowledges even at this late stage how rightly episcopal authority was set in motion, or if, to make full amends, he condemns every wrong thought he had by word of mouth and by his actual signature, then no amount of mercy towards one who has reformed is excessive. Wenn er ehrlich ist und entsprechend zu bedauern, und erkennt an, auch in diesem späten Stadium zu Recht, wie bischöflichen Behörde in Gang gesetzt wurde, oder wenn, voll in Anspruch zu nehmen ändert, verurteilt er alle falsch dachten, er hatte durch Mundpropaganda und von seinem tatsächlichen Unterschrift , Dann kein Betrag der Barmherzigkeit gegenüber derjenige, der sich reformiert, ist übertrieben. Our Lord, the true and good shepherd who laid down his life for his sheep, and who came not to destroy but to save the souls of men and women, wants us to be imitators of his goodness, so that whilst justice represses sinners, mercy does not reject the converted. Unser Herr, der wahre, der gute Hirte, und legte sein Leben für seine Schafe, und die kamen nicht zu zerstören, sondern um die Seelen von Männern und Frauen, will uns als Nachahmer seiner Güte, so dass während unterdrückt Sünder Gerechtigkeit, Barmherzigkeit Nicht ablehnen, die konvertiert werden. The defence of the true faith is never so productive as when false opinion is condemned even by its adherents. Die Verteidigung des wahren Glaubens ist noch nie so produktiv wie wenn falsche Meinung ist, verurteilt auch durch seine Anhänger.

    In place of ourself, we have arranged for our brothers, Bishop Julius and the priest Renatus of the church of St Clement, and also my son, the deacon Hilary, to ensure a good and faithful conclusion to the whole case. An die Stelle von uns, wir haben für unsere Brüder, Bischof Julius Renatus und der Priester der Kirche von St. Clement, und auch mein Sohn, der Diakon Hilary, um einen guten und treuen Abschluss der ganzen Fall. To their company we have added our notary Dulcitius, of proven loyalty to us. Um ihre Firma haben wir unsere Dulcitius Notar, der Loyalität zu uns bewiesen. We trust that with God's help he who has fallen into error might condemn the wickedness of his own mind and find salvation. Wir vertrauen darauf, dass mit Gottes Hilfe, die er hat gefallen könnte verurteilen Fehler in der Bosheit seines eigenen Geistes und Erlösung finden.

    God keep you safe, dearest brother. Gott halten Sie sicher, geliebter Bruder.


    Definition of the faith Definition des Glaubens

    The sacred and great and universal synod by God's grace and by decree of your most religious and Christ-loving emperors Valentinian Augustus and Marcian Augustus assembled in Chalcedon, metropolis of the province of Bithynia, in the shrine of the saintly and triumphant martyr Euphemia, issues the following decrees . Der heilige und große und universelle Synode durch Gottes Gnade und durch ein Dekret von Ihren religiösen und liebevollen Christus-Kaiser Valentinian Augustus Augustus und Marcian montiert und Chalcedon, Metropole der Provinz Bithynien, in den Schrein der heiligen Euphemia und triumphale Märtyrer, Fragen Die folgenden Dekrete.

    In establishing his disciples in the knowledge of the faith, our lord and saviour Christ said: "My peace I give you, my peace I leave to you"', so that no one should disagree with his neighbour regarding religious doctrines but that the proclamation of the truth would be uniformly presented. Bei der Festlegung seiner Jünger in dem Wissen des Glaubens, unseren Herrn und Retter Christus sagte: "Meinen Frieden gebe ich euch, meinen Frieden hinterlasse ich Ihnen" ', so dass niemand sollte nicht mit seinem Nachbarn in Bezug auf religiöse Doktrinen, sondern dass die Proklamation Der Wahrheit wäre einheitlich präsentiert. But the evil one never stops trying to smother the seeds of religion with his own tares and is for ever inventing some novelty or other against the truth; so the Master, exercising his usual care for the human race, roused this religious and most faithful emperor to zealous action, and summoned to himself the leaders of the priesthood from everywhere, so that through the working of the grace of Christ, the master of all of us, every injurious falsehood might be staved off from the sheep of Christ and they might be fattened on fresh growths of the truth. Aber das Übel man nie aufhört zu ersticken versuchen, die Samen der Religion mit seinem eigenen Unkraut und ist für immer erfinden einige andere Neuheit oder gegen die Wahrheit, so dass der Meister, der Ausübung seiner üblichen Sorgfalt für die menschliche Rasse, der Religion dieser geweckt, und die meisten Gläubigen Kaiser Eifrig an der Aktion und berief sich auf die Führer der Priester aus der ganzen Welt, so dass durch die Arbeit der Gnade Christi, der Meister von uns allen, jeder schädigende Lüge könnte staved off von den Schafen Christi, und sie könnte Gemästet auf frischen Wachstum der Wahrheit.

    This is in fact what we have done. Dies ist in der Tat, was wir getan haben. We have driven off erroneous doctrines by our collective resolution and we have renewed the unerring creed of the fathers. We have proclaimed to all the creed of the 318; and we have made our own those fathers who accepted this agreed statement of religion -- the 150 who later met in great Constantinople and themselves set their seal to the same creed.

    Therefore, whilst we also stand by

    we decree that This wise and saving creed, the gift of divine grace, was sufficient for a perfect understanding and establishment of religion . For its teaching about the Father and the Son and the holy Spirit is complete, and it sets out the Lord's becoming human to those who faithfully accept it.

    But there are those who are trying to ruin the proclamation of the truth, and through their private heresies they have spawned novel formulas:

    Therefore this sacred and great and universal synod , now in session, in its desire to exclude all their tricks against the truth, and teaching what has been unshakeable in the proclamation from the beginning,

    And because of those who are attempting to corrupt the mystery of the economy and are shamelessly and foolishly asserting that he who was born of the holy virgin Mary was a mere man, it has accepted

  • the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, [already accepted by the Council of Ephesus]
    pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals, as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.

    To these it has suitably added, against false believers and for the establishment of orthodox doctrines

  • the letter of the primate of greatest and older Rome,
    the most blessed and most saintly Archbishop Leo, written to the sainted Archbishop Flavian to put down Eutyches's evil-mindedness, because it is in agreement with great Peter's confession and represents a support we have in common.

    It is opposed to those who attempt to tear apart the mystery of the economy into a duality of sons; and

    So, following the saintly fathers , we all with one voice teach the confession of one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ: the same perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, the same truly God and truly man, of a rational soul and a body; consubstantial with the Father as regards his divinity, and the same consubstantial with us as regards his humanity; like us in all respects except for sin; begotten before the ages from the Father as regards his divinity, and in the last days the same for us and for our salvation from Mary, the virgin God-bearer as regards his humanity; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, acknowledged in two natures which undergo no confusion, no change, no division, no separation; at no point was the difference between the natures taken away through the union, but rather the property of both natures is preserved and comes together into a single person and a single subsistent being; he is not parted or divided into two persons, but is one and the same only-begotten Son, God, Word, Lord Jesus Christ, just as the prophets taught from the beginning about him, and as the Lord Jesus Christ himself instructed us, and as the creed of the fathers handed it down to us. So, following the saintly fathers , we all with one voice teach the confession of one and the same Son, our Lord Jesus Christ: the same perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, the same truly God and truly man, of a rational soul and a body; consubstantial with the Father as regards his divinity, and the same consubstantial with us as regards his humanity; like us in all respects except for sin; begotten before the ages from the Father as regards his divinity, and in the last days the same for us and for our salvation from Mary, the virgin God-bearer as regards his humanity; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, acknowledged in two natures which undergo no confusion, no change, no division, no separation; at no point was the difference between the natures taken away through the union, but rather the property of both natures is preserved and comes together into a single person and a single subsistent being; he is not parted or divided into two persons, but is one and the same only-begotten Son, God, Word, Lord Jesus Christ, just as the prophets taught from the beginning about him, and as the Lord Jesus Christ himself instructed us, and as the creed of the fathers handed it down to us.

    Since we have formulated these things with all possible accuracy and attention, the sacred and universal synod decreed that no one is permitted to produce, or even to write down or compose, any other creed or to think or teach otherwise . As for those who dare either to compose another creed or even to promulgate or teach or hand down another creed for those who wish to convert to a recognition of the truth from Hellenism or from Judaism, or from any kind of heresy at all: if they be bishops or clerics, the bishops are to be deposed from the episcopacy and the clerics from the clergy; if they be monks or layfolk, they are to be anathematised. As for those who dare either to compose another creed or even to promulgate or teach or hand down another creed for those who wish to convert to a recognition of the truth from Hellenism or from Judaism, or from any kind of heresy at all: if they be bishops or clerics, the bishops are to be deposed from the episcopacy and the clerics from the clergy; if they be monks or layfolk, they are to be anathematised.

    CANONS

    1

    We have deemed it right that the canons hitherto issued by the saintly fathers at each and every synod should remain in force.

    2

    If any bishop performs an ordination for money and puts the unsaleable grace on sale, and ordains for money a bishop, a chorepiscopus, a presbyter or a deacon or some other of those numbered among the clergy; or appoints a manager, a legal officer or a warden for money, or any other ecclesiastic at all for personal sordid gain; led him who has attempted this and been convicted stand to lose his personal rank; and let the person ordained profit nothing from the ordination or appointment he has bought; but let him be removed from the dignity or responsibility which he got for money. If any bishop performs an ordination for money and puts the unsaleable grace on sale, and ordains for money a bishop, a chorepiscopus, a presbyter or a deacon or some other of those numbered among the clergy; or appoints a manager, a legal officer or a warden for money, or any other ecclesiastic at all for personal sordid gain; led him who has attempted this and been convicted stand to lose his personal rank; and let the person ordained profit nothing from the ordination or appointment he has bought; but let him be removed from the dignity or responsibility which he got for money. And if anyone appears to have acted even as a go-between in such disgraceful and unlawful dealings, let him too, if he is a cleric, be demoted from his personal rank, and if he is a lay person or a monk, let him be anathematised. And if anyone appears to have acted even as a go-between in such disgraceful and unlawful dealings, let him too, if he is a cleric, be demoted from his personal rank, and if he is a lay person or a monk, let him be anathematised.

    3

    It has come to the notice of the sacred synod that some of those enrolled in the clergy are, for sordid gain, acting as hired managers of other people's property, and are involving themselves in worldly business, neglecting the service of God, frequenting the houses of worldly persons and taking over the handling of property out of avarice. It has come to the notice of the sacred synod that some of those enrolled in the clergy are, for sordid gain, acting as hired managers of other people's property, and are involving themselves in worldly business, neglecting the service of God, frequenting the houses of worldly persons and taking over the handling of property out of avarice. So the sacred and great synod has decreed that in future no one, whether a bishop, a cleric or a monk, should either manage property or involve himself as an administrator of worldly business, unless he is legally and unavoidably summoned to take care of minors, or the local bishop appoints him to attend, out of fear of the Lord, to ecclesiastical business or to orphans and unprovided widows and persons in special need of ecclesiastical support. So the sacred and great synod has decreed that in future no one, whether a bishop, a cleric or a monk, should either manage property or involve himself as an administrator of worldly business, unless he is legally and unavoidably summoned to take care of minors , or the local bishop appoints him to attend, out of fear of the Lord, to ecclesiastical business or to orphans and unprovided widows and persons in special need of ecclesiastical support. If in future anyone attempts to transgress these decrees, he must be subject to ecclesiastical penalties.

    4

    Those who truly and sincerely live the monastic life should be accorded appropriate recognition. But since there are some who don the monastic habit and meddle with the churches and in civil matters, and circulate indiscriminately in the cities and even are involved in founding monasteries for themselves, it has been decided that no one is to build or found a monastery or oratory anywhere against the will of the local bishop; and that monks of each city and region are to be subject to the bishop, are to foster peace and quiet, and attend solely to fasting and prayer, staying set apart in their places. But since there are some who don the monastic habit and meddle with the churches and in civil matters, and circulate indiscriminately in the cities and even are involved in founding monasteries for themselves, it has been decided that no one is to build or found a monastery or oratory anywhere against the will of the local bishop; and that monks of each city and region are to be subject to the bishop, are to foster peace and quiet, and attend solely to fasting and prayer, staying set apart in their places. They are not to abandon their own monasteries and interfere, or take part, in ecclesiastical or secular business unless they are perhaps assigned to do so by the local bishop because of some urgent necessity. No slave is to be taken into the monasteries to become a monk against the will of his own master. We have decreed that anyone who transgresses this decision of ours is to be excommunicated, lest God's name be blasphemed. However, it is for the local bishop to exercise the care and attention that the monasteries need.

    5

    In the matter of bishops or clerics who move from city to city, it has been decided that the canons issued by the holy fathers concerning them should retain their proper force.

    6

    No one, whether presbyter or deacon or anyone at all who belongs to the ecclesiastical order, is to be ordained without title, unless the one ordained is specially assigned to a city or village church or to a martyr's shrine or a monastery. The sacred synod has decreed that the ordination of those ordained without title is null, and that they cannot operate anywhere, because of the presumption of the one who ordained them.

    7

    We decree that those who have once joined the ranks of the clergy or have become monks are not to depart on military service or for secular office. Those who dare do this, and do not repent and return to what, in God, they previously chose, are to be anathematised.

    8

    Clerics in charge of almshouses and monasteries and martyrs' shrines are, in accordance with the tradition of the holy fathers, to remain under the jurisdiction of the bishop in each city. They are not to be self-willed and rebellious towards their own bishop. Those who dare to break a rule of this kind in any way whatever, and are not obedient to their own bishop, are, if they are clerics, to be subject to the canonical penalties; and if they are monks or layfolk they are to be made excommunicate. Those who dare to break a rule of this kind in any way whatever, and are not obedient to their own bishop, are, if they are clerics, to be subject to the canonical penalties; and if they are monks or layfolk they are to be made excommunicate.

    9

    If any cleric has a case to bring against a cleric, let him not leave his own bishop and take himself off to the secular courts, but let him first air the problem before his own bishop, or at least, with the permission of the bishop himself, before those whom both parties are willing to see act as arbiters of their lawsuit. If any cleric has a case to bring against a cleric, let him not leave his own bishop and take himself off to the secular courts, but let him first air the problem before his own bishop, or at least, with the permission of the bishop himself, before those whom both parties are willing to see act as arbiters of their lawsuit. If anyone acts in a contrary fashion, let him be subject to canonical penalties. If a cleric has a case to bring either against his own or against another bishop, let him bring the case to the synod of the province. If a bishop or a cleric is in dispute with the metropolitan of the same province, let him engage either the exarch of the diocese or the see of imperial Constantinople, and let him bring his case before him.

    10

    A cleric is not allowed to be appointed to churches in two cities at the same time: to the one where he was originally ordained, and to another more important one to which he has betaken himself out of desire to increase a baseless reputation. Those who do this are to be sent back to their own church in which they were ordained at the beginning, and only there are they to serve. But if some have already been transferred from one church to another, they are not to take part in any of the affairs of their former church, or of the martyrs' shrines or almshouses or hospices that come under it. The sacred synod has decreed that those who, subsequent to this decree of this great and universal synod, dare to do anything that is now forbidden are to lose their personal rank.

    11

    We have decreed that, subject to examination, all paupers and needy persons are to travel with ecclesiastical letters or letters of peace only, and not of commendation, since it befits only reputable persons to be provided with letters of commendation.

    12

    It has come to our notice that, contrary to the ecclesiastical regulations, some have made approaches to the civil authorities and have divided one province into two by official mandate, with the result that there are two metropolitans in the same province. The sacred synod therefore decrees that in future no bishop should dare do such a thing, since he who attempts it stands to lose his proper station. Such places as have already been honoured by imperial writ with the title of metropolis must treat it simply as honorary, and that goes also for the bishop who is in charge of the church there, without prejudice of course to the proper rights of the real metropolis. Such places as have already been honoured by imperial writ with the title of metropolis must treat it simply as honorary, and that goes also for the bishop who is in charge of the church there, without prejudice of course to the proper rights of the real metropolis .

    13

    Foreign clerics and readers without letters of commendation from their own bishop are absolutely forbidden to serve in another city.

    14

    Since in certain provinces readers and cantors have been allowed to marry, the sacred synod decrees that none of them is permitted to marry a wife of heterodox views. If those thus married have already had children, and if they have already had the children baptised among heretics, they are to bring them into the communion of the catholic church. If they have not been baptised, they may no longer have them baptised among heretics; nor indeed marry them to a heretic or a Jew or a Greek, unless of course the person who is to be married to the orthodox party promises to convert to the orthodox faith. If they have not been baptised, they may no longer have them baptised among heretics; nor indeed marry them to a heretic or a Jew or a Greek, unless of course the person who is to be married to the orthodox party promises to convert to the orthodox faith. If anyone transgresses this decree of the sacred synod, let him be subject to canonical penalty.

    15

    No woman under forty years of age is to be ordained a deacon, and then only after close scrutiny. If after receiving ordination and spending some time in the ministry she despises God's grace and gets married, such a person is to be anathematised along with her spouse.

    16

    It is not permitted for a virgin who has dedicated herself to the Lord God, or similarly for a monk, to contract marriage. If it is discovered that they have done so, let them be made excommunicate. However, we have decreed that the local bishop should have discretion to deal humanely with them.

    17

    Rural or country parishes belonging to a church are to stay firmly tied to the bishops who have possession of them, and especially if they have continually and peacefully administered them over a thirty-year period. If, however, within the thirty years any dispute about them has arisen, or should arise, those who are claiming to be wronged are permitted to bring the case before the provincial synod. If there are any who are wronged by their own metropolitan, let their case be judged either by the exarch of the diocese or by the see of Constantinople, as has already been said. If any city has been newly erected, or is erected hereafter, by imperial decree, let the arrangement of ecclesiastical parishes conform to the civil and public regulations.

    18

    The crime of conspiracy or secret association is entirely prohibited even by the laws of the land; so all the more properly is this forbidden in the church of God. So if any clerics or monks are found to be either forming a conspiracy or a secret society or hatching plots against bishops or fellow clergy, let them lose their personal rank completely.

    19

    We have heard that in the provinces the synods of bishops prescribed by canon law are not taking place, and that as a result many ecclesiastical matters that need putting right are being neglected. So the sacred synod decrees that in accordance with the canons of the fathers, the bishops in each province are to foregather twice a year at a place approved by the bishop of the metropolis and put any matters arising to rights. Bishops failing to attend who enjoy good health and are free from all unavoidable and necessary engagements, but stay at home in their own cities, are to be fraternally rebuked.

    20

    As we have already decreed, clerics who are serving a church are not permitted to join a church in another city, but are to be content with the one in which they were originally authorised to minister, apart from those who have been displaced from their own country and been forced to move to another church. As we have already decreed, clerics who are serving a church are not permitted to join a church in another city, but are to be content with the one in which they were originally authorised to minister, apart from those who have been displaced from their own country and been forced to move to another church. If subsequent to this decision any bishop receives a cleric who belongs to another bishop, it is decreed that both the received and the receiver are to be excommunicate until such time as the cleric who has moved returns to his own church.

    21

    Clerics or layfolk who bring allegations against bishops or clerics are not to be admitted to make their charges without more ado and before any examination, but their reputation must first be investigated.

    22

    It is not permitted for clerics, following the death of their own bishop, to seize the things that belong to him, as has been forbidden even by earlier canons. Those who do this risk losing their personal rank.

    23

    It has come to the notice of the sacred synod that certain clerics and monks who have no employment from their own bishop and have sometimes even been excommunicated by him, are frequenting imperial Constantinople and spending long periods there causing disturbances, upsetting the ecclesiastical establishment and ruining people's homes. It has come to the notice of the sacred synod that certain clerics and monks who have no employment from their own bishop and have sometimes even been excommunicated by him, are frequenting imperial Constantinople and spending long periods there causing disturbances, upsetting the ecclesiastical establishment and ruining people's homes. So the sacred synod decrees that such people are first to be warned by the public attorney of the most holy Constantinopolitan church to get out of the imperial city; and if they shamelessly persist in the same kinds of behaviour, they are to be expelled by the same public attorney even against their will, and are to betake themselves to their own places. So the sacred synod decrees that such people are first to be warned by the public attorney of the most holy Constantinopolitan church to get out of the imperial city; and if they shamelessly persist in the same kinds of behaviour, they are to be expelled by the same public attorney even against their will, and are to betake themselves to their own places.

    24

    Monasteries once consecrated in accordance with the will of the bishop are to remain monasteries in perpetuity, and the effects which belong to them are reserved to the monastery, and they must not be turned into secular hostelries. Those who allow this to happen are to be subject to the canonical penalties.

    25

    According to our information, certain metropolitans are neglecting the flocks entrusted to them and are delaying the ordination of bishops, so the sacred synod has decided that the ordination of bishops should take place within three months, unless the period of delay has been caused to be extended by some unavoidable necessity. According to our information, certain metropolitans are neglecting the flocks entrusted to them and are delaying the ordination of bishops, so the sacred synod has decided that the ordination of bishops should take place within three months, unless the period of delay has been caused to be extended by some unavoidable necessity. If a metropolitan fails to do this, he is to be subject to ecclesiastical penalties. The income of the widowed church is to be kept safe by the administrator of the said church.

    26

    According to our information, in some churches the bishops handle church business without administrators; so it has been decided that every church which has a bishop is also to have an administrator, drawn from its own clergy, to administer ecclesiastical matters according to the mind of the bishop concerned so that the church's administration may not go unaudited, and that consequently the church's property is not dispersed and the episcopate not exposed to serious criticism. According to our information, in some churches the bishops handle church business without administrators; so it has been decided that every church which has a bishop is also to have an administrator, drawn from its own clergy, to administer ecclesiastical matters according to the mind of the bishop concerned so that the church's administration may not go unaudited, and that consequently the church's property is not dispersed and the episcopate not exposed to serious criticism. If he does not comply with this, he is to be subject to the divine canons.

    27

    The sacred synod decrees that those who carry off girls under pretext of cohabitation, or who are accomplices or co-operate with those who carry them off, are to lose their personal rank if they are clerics, and are to be anathematised if they are monks or layfolk. The sacred synod decrees that those who carry off girls under pretext of cohabitation, or who are accomplices or co-operate with those who carry them off, are to lose their personal rank if they are clerics, and are to be anathematised if they are monks or layfolk.

    28 [in fact a resolution passed by the council at the 16th session but rejected by the Pope]

    Following in every way the decrees of the holy fathers and recognising the canon which has recently been read out--the canon of the 150 most devout bishops who assembled in the time of the great Theodosius of pious memory, then emperor, in imperial Constantinople, new Rome -- we issue the same decree and resolution concerning the prerogatives of the most holy church of the same Constantinople, new Rome. Following in every way the decrees of the holy fathers and recognising the canon which has recently been read out--the canon of the 150 most devout bishops who assembled in the time of the great Theodosius of pious memory, then emperor, in imperial Constantinople, new Rome -- we issue the same decree and resolution concerning the prerogatives of the most holy church of the same Constantinople, new Rome. The fathers rightly accorded prerogatives to the see of older Rome, since that is an imperial city; and moved by the same purpose the 150 most devout bishops apportioned equal prerogatives to the most holy see of new Rome, reasonably judging that the city which is honoured by the imperial power and senate and enjoying privileges equalling older imperial Rome, should also be elevated to her level in ecclesiastical affairs and take second place after her. The fathers rightly accorded prerogatives to the see of older Rome, since that is an imperial city; and moved by the same purpose the 150 most devout bishops apportioned equal prerogatives to the most holy see of new Rome, reasonably judging that the city which is honoured by the imperial power and senate and enjoying privileges equalling older imperial Rome, should also be elevated to her level in ecclesiastical affairs and take second place after her. The metropolitans of the dioceses of Pontus, Asia and Thrace, but only these, as well as the bishops of these dioceses who work among non-Greeks, are to be ordained by the aforesaid most holy see of the most holy church in Constantinople. That is, each metropolitan of the aforesaid dioceses along with the bishops of the province ordain the bishops of the province, as has been declared in the divine canons; but the metropolitans of the aforesaid dioceses, as has been said, are to be ordained by the archbishop of Constantinople, once agreement has been reached by vote in the usual way and has been reported to him. That is, each metropolitan of the aforesaid dioceses along with the bishops of the province ordain the bishops of the province, as has been declared in the divine canons; but the metropolitans of the aforesaid dioceses, as has been said, are to be ordained by the archbishop of Constantinople, once agreement has been reached by vote in the usual way and has been reported to him.

    29 [an extract from the minutes of the 19th session]

    The most eminent and illustrious officials asked: What does the sacred synod advise in the case of the bishops ordained by the most reverend Bishop Photius and removed by the most reverend Bishop Eustathius and consigned to be priests after losing the episcopacy? The most reverend Bishops Paschasinus and Lucentius and the priest Bonifatius, representatives of the apostolic see of Rome, replied: It is sacrilege to reduce a bishop to the rank of priest. But if whatever cause there is for removing those persons from the exercise of episcopacy is just, they ought not to occupy the position even of a priest. And if they have been removed from office and are without fault, they shall be restored to the episcopal dignity. The most reverend archbishop of Constantinople, Anatolius, replied: If those who are said to have descended from the episcopal dignity to the rank of priest have been condemned on what are reasonable grounds, they are clearly not worthy to hold even the office of a priest. The most reverend archbishop of Constantinople, Anatolius, replied: If those who are said to have descended from the episcopal dignity to the rank of priest have been condemned on what are reasonable grounds, they are clearly not worthy to hold even the office of a priest . But if they have been demoted to the lower rank without reasonable cause, then as long as they are seen to be innocent, they have every right to resume the dignity and priesthood of the episcopacy .

    30 [an extract from the minutes of the 4th session]

    The most eminent and illustrious officials and the exalted assembly declared: Since the most reverend bishops of Egypt have up to now put off subscribing to the letter of the most holy Archbishop Leo, not because they are in opposition to the catholic faith, but because they claim that it is customary in the Egyptian diocese not to do such things in contravention of the will and ordinance of their archbishop, and because they consider they should be given until the ordination of the future bishop of the great city of Alexandria, we think it reasonable and humane that, retaining their present rank in the imperial city, they should be granted a moratorium until such time as an archbishop of the great city of Alexandria is ordained. The most eminent and illustrious officials and the exalted assembly declared: Since the most reverend bishops of Egypt have up to now put off subscribing to the letter of the most holy Archbishop Leo, not because they are in opposition to the catholic faith, but because they claim that it is customary in the Egyptian diocese not to do such things in contravention of the will and ordinance of their archbishop, and because they consider they should be given until the ordination of the future bishop of the great city of Alexandria, we think it reasonable and humane that, retaining their present rank in the imperial city, they should be granted a moratorium until such time as an archbishop of the great city of Alexandria is ordained. Most reverend Bishop Paschasinus, representative of the apostolic see, said: If your authority demands it, and you order that some measure of kindness be shown them, let them give guarantees that they will not leave this city before Alexandria receives its bishop. The most eminent and illustrious officials and the exalted assembly replied: Let the resolution of the most holy Bishop Paschasinus be upheld. So let the most reverend bishops of the Egyptians maintain their present rank and, either providing guarantees if they can, or pledging themselves on solemn oath, let them await the ordination of the future bishop of the great city of Alexandria.


    Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner

    Also, see:
    Ecumenical Councils


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