Councils of ConstantinopleRäte von Konstantinopel

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The councils of Constantinople were four ecumenical Councils of the Christian church, held between the 4th and the 9th centuries. Die Räte von Konstantinopel waren vier ökumenischen Rates der christlichen Kirche, die zwischen dem 4. und dem 9. Jahrhundert. Constantinople I was called in 381 by Theodosius I, then Roman emperor of the East, primarily to confront ARIANISM, the heresy that had been subdued only temporarily by the First Council of Nicaea (325). Konstantinopel wurde ich aufgerufen und 381 von Theodosius I., römischer Kaiser des Ostens, vor allem zu konfrontieren ARIANISM, der Häresie, dass war nur vorübergehend gedämpft durch den ersten Konzil von Nicäa (325). More than 150 bishops, all from the Eastern empire, met to reaffirm the doctrines of the Nicene Creed and to depose Maximus, the Arian patriarch of Constantinople. Mehr als 150 Bischöfe, die alle aus dem östlichen Imperiums, traf zu bekräftigen, dass die Lehren des Nicene Creed und zu entthronen Maximus, der Arian Patriarchen von Konstantinopel. They also condemned Apollinarianism, a position that denied the full humanity of Christ. Sie verurteilte auch Apollinarianism, eine Position, verweigert die volle Menschlichkeit Christi. The council defined the position of the Holy Spirit within the Trinity; it described the Holy Spirit as proceeding from God the Father, coequal and consubstantial with him. Der Rat definiert die Stellung des Heiligen Geistes in der Dreifaltigkeit, sie beschrieben, wie der Heilige Geist, die von Gott, dem Vater, und consubstantial ebenbürtig mit ihm. It also confirmed the position of the patriarch of Constantinople as second in dignity only to the bishop of Rome. Darüber hinaus bestätigt die Position des Patriarchen von Konstantinopel als zweites in Würde nur der Bischof von Rom.

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Constantinople II was convoked by Justinian I in 553, to condemn the Nestorian writings called the "Three Chapters." Konstantinopel II einberufen wurde von Justinian I und 553, zu verurteilen, die nestorianischen Schriften als die "Drei Kapitel." Under the virtual tutelage of the emperor, the council proscribed Nestorianism and reconfirmed the doctrine that Christ's two natures, one human and one divine, are perfectly united in one person. Unter den virtuellen Vormundschaft des Kaisers, der Rat und die verbotenen Nestorianismus bekräftigte die Lehre, dass Christus zwei Naturen, eine menschliche und eine göttliche, sind perfekt vereint in einer Person. Pope Vigilius at first defended the Three Chapters, but later accepted the council's ruling. Papst Vigilius in der ersten verteidigte die drei Kapitel, aber später akzeptierte der Rat die Entscheidung.

Constantinople III was summoned by Constantine IV in 680-81 with the consent of Pope Agatho. Konstantinopel III beschworen wurde von Konstantin IV und 680-81 mit Zustimmung des Agatho. It condemned Monothelitism and affirmed that Christ has two wills, one human and one divine, but that these are without division or confusion. Es verurteilt Monothelitism und bekräftigt, dass Christus hat zwei Testamente, eine göttliche und eine menschliche, sondern dass es sich ohne Unterteilung oder Verwirrung. In addition, it condemned an earlier pope, Honorius I, for supporting that heresy. Darüber hinaus verurteilt einen früheren Papst Honorius I, für die Unterstützung, die Häresie.

Constantinople IV, meeting in 869-70, made no new dogmatic decisions; instead, it greatly contributed to the growing split between the Eastern and Western churches. Konstantinopel IV-Treffen in 869-70, die keine neuen Beschlüsse dogmatisch, sondern es zum großen Teil auf die zunehmende Spaltung zwischen den östlichen und den westlichen Kirchen. The principal action was to depose Photius, the patriarch of Constantinople, for usurping his ecclesiastical position. Die Hauptsache war, entthronen Photius, der Patriarch von Konstantinopel, für die Aneignung seiner kirchlichen Position. Later, Photius was restored to his see, and he held another council in 879-80. Später, Photius restauriert wurde zu seinem sehen, und er hielt in einer anderen Gemeinde 879-80. This latter council, not that of 869, is considered ecumenical by the Orthodox church. Letzteres Rat, nicht die 869, gilt als ökumenische durch die orthodoxe Kirche.

T. Tackett T. Tackett


Council of Constantinople Konzil von Konstantinopel

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(381)

The gathering in Constantinople of 150 Eastern bishops at the request of the Emperor Theodosius I was later regarded by the Council of Chalcedon (451) as the second great ecumenical council of the church. Die Zusammenkunft in Konstantinopel von 150 Ost-Bischöfe auf Wunsch des Kaisers Theodosius I wurde später von der Konzil von Chalcedon (451), wie die zweite große ökumenische Rat der Kirche. Most importantly it marked the end of over fifty years of Arian political and theological dominance in the East and the restoration and pneumatological extension of Nicene orthodoxy. Am wichtigsten ist es markiert das Ende der mehr als fünfzig Jahren von Arian politischen und theologischen Dominanz in den Osten und in der Restaurierung und Erweiterung der pneumatological Nicene Orthodoxie.

The path of history from Nicaea to Constantinople is twisted with various political and theological figures and several theological and synodal skirmishes between Arianism and orthodoxy. Der Pfad der Geschichte von Nicäa nach Konstantinopel Twisted ist mit verschiedenen politischen und theologischen Zahlen und mehrere theologische und synodale Scharmützel zwischen Arianismus und Orthodoxie. The varied array of heresies that emerged during this period is given in the council's first canon, where they are also anathematized. Das vielfältige Spektrum der Häresien, die sich in diesem Zeitraum ist in der Gemeinde der erste Kanon, wo sie auch fluchte. A brief examination of these will set the theological context. Eine kurze Prüfung dieser wird den theologischen Kontext.

Semi-Arians Semi-Arianer

This name was applied to those who tried to steer a middle course between Nicene orthodoxy and Arianism. Dieser Name wurde auf diejenigen, die versucht, einen Mittelweg zu steuern natürlich Nicene zwischen Orthodoxie und Arianismus. Too sensitive to Sabellian implications and the biblical absence of the term homoousion to fully embrace Nicaea and recoiling from blatant Arian characterizations of the Son as a creature, they took refuge in the term homoiousion. Zu empfindlich auf Sabellian Auswirkungen und die Abwesenheit des biblischen Begriff homoousion voll zu umarmen Nicäa und zurückspringend von eklatanten Arian Charakterisierungen des Sohnes als eine Kreatur, die sie Zuflucht in den Begriff homoiousion. By this they taught that the Son was like (homoios) the Father but not necessarily the same in essence. Mit dieser lehrte sie, dass der Sohn war wie (homoios) der Vater, aber nicht notwendigerweise in der gleichen Essenz. This ambiguous position was held by many who were very close to orthodoxy, eg, Cyril of Jerusalem, as well as those who were more of an Arian disposition, eg, Basil of Ancyra. Diese unklare Position wurde von vielen, die sehr nahe an der Orthodoxie, zB Kyrill von Jerusalem, als auch jene, die eher ein Arian Disposition, zB Basil von Ancyra. Due to the efforts of Athanasius and Hilary of Poitiers many of this party were reconciled to orthodoxy, especially as more radical Arian positions developed. Aufgrund der Bemühungen des Athanasius und Hilarius von Poitiers viele dieser Partei wurden in Einklang zu Orthodoxie, zumal mehr Arian radikale Positionen entwickelt.

Pneumatomachians

In the post-Nicene period attention was turned to the Holy Spirit and his relation to the discussions on the Father and the Son. In der post-Nicene Zeitraum Aufmerksamkeit wurde dem Heiligen Geist und seine Beziehung zu den Diskussionen über den Vater und den Sohn. About 360, Athanasius wrote to correct an Egyptian heresy advocated by the Tropici in which the Spirit was taught to have been created out of nothing. Über 360, Athanasius zu korrigieren, schrieb eine ägyptische Häresie, die die Tropici, in dem der Geist war beigebracht wurden aus dem Nichts. Athanasius maintained instead the deity of the Spirit and his homoousia with the Father and the Son. Athanasius beibehalten, anstatt die Gottheit des Geistes und seiner homoousia mit dem Vater und dem Sohn. After this the pneumatomachians (literally "Spirit-fighters") appeared within the homoiousion party. Danach werden die pneumatomachians (wörtlich "Spirit-Kämpfer") erschien homoiousion innerhalb der Partei. Led by Eustathius of Sebaste (after 373), they tried to assert a nondivine, noncreaturely, intermediate status for the Spirit, even after affirming the homoousia of the Son. Angeführt von Eustathios von Sebaste (nach 373), sie versucht zu behaupten, ein nondivine, noncreaturely, Zwischen-Status für den Geist, der auch nach der Bekräftigung der homoousia des Sohnes. They were opposed by the Cappadocians, who taught the full deity and homoousia of the Son. Dagegen waren die Cappadocians, gelehrt, die die volle und homoousia Gottheit des Sohnes. They were opposed by the Cappadocians, who taught the full deity and homoousia of the Spirit both implicity (as in Basil, On the Holy Spirit) and explicitly (as in Gregory of Nazianzus, Oration 31). Dagegen waren die Cappadocians, gelehrt, die die volle Gottheit und homoousia des Geistes beide implicity (wie Basilikum, Auf den Heiligen Geist) und explizit (wie bei Gregor von Nazianz, Rede 31). It is this Cappadocian (and Athanasian) theology which prevailed at the Council of Constantinople. Es ist diese Cappadocian (und Athanasian) Theologie, die sich durchgesetzt am Konzil von Konstantinopel.

Eunomians or Anomoians Eunomians oder Anomoians

Founded by Aetius of Antioch and led by Eunomius of Cyzicus at the time of the council, these held the radical Arian position which refused any compromise with orthodoxy. Gegründet von Aetius von Antiochien und unter der Leitung von Eunomius von Kyzikos zum Zeitpunkt des Landkreises, diese hielt die radikale Position, die sich geweigert Arian jeder Kompromiss mit der Orthodoxie. They taught a Neoplatonic hierarchy of three beings which were in essence utterly unlike (anomoios) each other, though possessing relative divinity (thus confirming the charge of polytheism). Sie lehrt ein Neoplatonic Hierarchie von drei Wesen, die im Grunde völlig im Gegensatz zu (anomoios) jedes andere, auch wenn der Besitz relative Gottheit (und damit bestätigt, die Kosten des Polytheismus).

Eudoxians

These held a classical Arian position particularly advocated at the time of the council by the followers of Eudoxius, former bishop of Antioch (358) and Constantinople (360). Diese hatte eine klassische Arian Lage besonders für die zum Zeitpunkt des Landkreises durch die Anhänger des Eudoxius, ehemaliger Bischof von Antiochia (358) und Konstantinopel (360). He was known for the jest: "The Father is impious (since he worships no one), but the Son is pious (since he worships the Father)." Er war bekannt für die jest: "Der Vater ist pietätlos (seit er verehrt niemand), aber der Sohn ist frommer (verehrt, da er der Vater)."

Sabellians, Marcellians, and Photinians Sabellians, Marcellians und Photinians

Since the Arians vigorously insisted that the homoousion logically reduced to Sabellianism, it was necessary for the council to repudiate this heresy. Da die Arianer energisch darauf, dass die homoousion logisch reduzierten zu Sabellianism, war es notwendig, für den Rat zu lehnen diese Häresie. One who actually came close to espousing it was Marcellus of Ancyra, who resisted the Cappadocian Trinitarian development in which three hypostases were distinguished while maintaining one ousia. Einer, der eigentlich nahe kamen zu charakterisieren war es Marcellus von Ancyra, die gegen die trinitarische Cappadocian Entwicklung, bei dem drei hypostases unterschieden wurden unter Beibehaltung ousia ein. Marcellus preferred to speak of the expansion of an indivisible Monad (God) which resulted in the externalization of the (until then) immanently existing Logos (the Son) at the time of incarnation, with an expected future contraction of the Logos back into the Monad. Marcellus vorgezogen zu schweigen von den Ausbau einer unteilbaren Monade (Gott), führte in der Externalisierung der (bis dahin) immanent bestehenden Logos (der Sohn) zum Zeitpunkt der Inkarnation, mit einem erwarteten zukünftigen Kontraktion des Logos zurück in die Monade . Although he was exonerated of the Sabellian label at Rome (341) and Sardica (343), Constantinople condemned his deviant views. Obwohl er war befreit von den Sabellian Label in Rom (341) und Sardica (343), Konstantinopel verurteilt, seine abweichende Ansichten. Photinus of Sirmium, a pupil of Marcellus, developed his teacher's views into an adoptionist Christology and was condemned for the heresy of Paul of Samosata at various councils. Photinus von Sirmium, ein Schüler von Marcellus, entwickelt, die Ansichten seines Lehrers in eine adoptionist Christologie und wurde verurteilt für die Häresie des Paulus von Samosata an verschiedenen Räte.

Apollinarians

Constantinople brought a final condemnation on this Christological heresy which originated within the Nicene camp. Konstantinopel brachte eine endgültige Verurteilung auf dieser christologische Häresie, die ihren Ursprung in der Nicene Camp. A former friend of Athanasius, Apollinarius of Laodicea zealously advocated the deity of the Logos and upheld the homoousion. Ein früherer Freund von Athanasius, Apollinarius von Laodicea eifrig befürwortet die Gottheit des Logos und bestätigte die homoousion. However, in his concern to avoid the dualistic personality of an adoptionistic Christology, he capitulated to the Arian error in which the Logos completely replaced the human soul and mind in the incarnate Christ. Allerdings, in seiner Sorge um die Persönlichkeit eines dualistischen adoptionistic Christology, kapituliert er zum Arian Fehler, in denen die Logos komplett ersetzt, die menschliche Seele und Geist in den fleischgewordenen Christus. For this deficient humanity he was opposed reluctantly by Athanasius and vigorously by the Cappadocians. Aus diesem mangelhaft gegen die Menschlichkeit war er nur widerwillig von Athanasius und energisch von den Cappadocians.

The theology of the Council of Constantinople is set forth first by the condemnation of these heresies. Die Theologie des Konzil von Konstantinopel ist festgelegt durch die erste Verurteilung dieser Häresien. More positively, it was expressed in a published statement of doctrine, a tomos, and the creed of the council. Mehr positiv, war es in einer veröffentlichten Erklärung der Doktrin, tomos, und das Glaubensbekenntnis des Landkreises. Unfortunately, the tomos is no longer extant except for what is reflected of it in the letter of the synod of 382. Leider ist die tomos ist nicht mehr erhaltene außer für das, was sich von ihm in dem Schreiben der Synode von 382. The creed is to be found not in the records of Constantinople, but in those of the Council of Chalcedon (451), where a creed attributed to Constantinople (C) was read along with the Nicene Creed (N). C happens to be the creed that is read in churches today under the title the Nicene Creed, but it is more appropriately known as the Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed. Without recounting the scholarly debates on C, it seems most likely that it was a local form of N, adopted by Constantinople and amended to reflect the council's pneumatology. Das Credo befindet sich nicht in den Aufzeichnungen von Konstantinopel, sondern in denen der Rat von Chalcedon (451), wo ein Glaubensbekenntnis zugeschrieben Konstantinopel (C) gelesen wurde, zusammen mit dem Nicene Creed (N). C passiert zu sein Glaubensbekenntnis, das lesen Sie in den Kirchen heute unter dem Titel der Nicene Creed, aber es ist besser bekannt als die Niceno-Konstantinopolitanisches Glaubensbekenntnis. Erzählend Ohne die wissenschaftlichen Debatten über C, scheint es sehr wahrscheinlich, dass es sich um eine lokale Form von N, die von Konstantinopel und geändert, um den Rat der pneumatology. Thus the Council of Constantinople did not see itself as producing a new creed but rather reaffirming and upholding the faith of Nicaea. So das Konzil von Konstantinopel nicht sehen sich selbst als die Produktion ein neues Credo, sondern die Bekräftigung und Verteidigung der Glauben von Nicäa. At Chalcedon, however, concern for the pure form of N led them to distinguish between N and C. Bei Chalcedon, aber die Sorge um die reine Form des N führte sie zu unterscheiden zwischen N und C.

The pneumatological emendation of the Nicene faith followed the example of Basil by limiting itself to biblical words and phrases. Die pneumatological Verbesserung der Nicene Glauben folgten dem Beispiel von Basil beschränken sich nicht auf biblische Worte und Phrasen. The Spirit is confessed to be the "Lord" and "Life-giver," the one "who with the Father and the Son is together worshiped and together glorified." Der Geist ist gestanden zu sein "Herr" und "Life-Geber", die ein ", die mit dem Vater und dem Sohn ist zusammen verehrt und zusammen verherrlicht." The homoousia of the Spirit is not explicitly affirmed here, probably because of a last-minute attempt to reconcile the pneumatomachians. Die homoousia des Geistes ist nicht explizit bekräftigt hier, wahrscheinlich aufgrund eines in letzter Minute versucht, die pneumatomachians. However, the homoousion apparently was affirmed in the tomos, since the letter of the synod of 382 summarizes the council's doctrine as faith in the uncreated, consubstantial, and coeternal trinity. Allerdings ist die homoousion offenbar wurde bekräftigt, in der tomos, da das Schreiben der Synode von 382 fasst der Rat der Lehre, wie das Vertrauen in die uncreated, consubstantial und coeternal Dreifaltigkeit.

Besides the reaffirmation of Nicene orthodoxy, this developed pneumatology, which made possible a full Trinitarian doctrine for the East, was the most important contribution of the Council of Constantinople. Neben der Bekräftigung der Nicene Orthodoxie, diese pneumatology entwickelt, die ermöglicht eine vollständige trinitarische Doktrin für den Osten, war der wichtigste Beitrag des Konzil von Konstantinopel.

CA Blaising CA Blaising
(Elwell Evangelical Dictionary) (Elwell Evangelical Dictionary)

Bibliography Bibliographie
"Canons of the One Hundred and Fifty Fathers," The Seven Ecumenical Councils, NPNF; HM Gwatkin, Studies of Arianism; JND Kelly, Early Christian Creeds and Early Christian Doctrines; CE Raven, Apollinarianism; R. Seeberg, The Textbook of the History of Doctrines; J. Taylor, "The First Council of Constantinople (381)," Pru 13:47-54, 91-97; WP DuBose, The Ecumenical Councils. "Canons der One Hundred Fifty und Väter," Die sieben Ökumenischen Rates, NPNF; HM Gwatkin, Studium der Arianismus; JND Kelly, Early Christian Glaubenssätze und Frühgeschichte Christian Doctrines; CE Raven, Apollinarianism; R. Seeberg, Das Buch der Geschichte Der Doctrines; J. Taylor, "Das Erste Konzil von Konstantinopel (381)," Pru 13:47-54, 91-97; WP DuBose, der Ökumenische Räte.


First Council of Constantinople - 381 AD Erstes Konzil von Konstantinopel - 381 n. Chr.

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CONTENTS INHALT

INTRODUCTION EINFÜHRUNG

In the year 380 the emperors Gratian and Theodosius I decided to convoke this council to counter the Arians, and also to judge the case of Maximus the Cynic, bishop of Constantinople. Im Jahr 380 Kaiser Theodosius Gratian und ich beschlossen, dieses Gemeindebezirkes convocar gegen die Arianer, und auch zu beurteilen, wie der Fall der Kyniker Maximus, Bischof von Konstantinopel. The council met in May of the following year. Der Rat traf im Mai des folgenden Jahres. One hundred and fifty bishops took part, all of them eastern Orthodox, since the Pneumatomachi party had left at the start. Hundert und fünfzig Bischöfe teilnahmen, die alle in Ost-Orthodoxe, die seit Pneumatomachi Partei verlassen hatte zu Beginn.

After Maximus had been condemned, Meletius, bishop of Antioch, appointed Gregory of Nazianzus as the lawful bishop of Constantinople and at first presided over the council. Nach Maximus verurteilt hatte, Meletius, Bischof von Antiochien ernannte Gregor von Nazianz als rechtmäßiger Bischof von Konstantinopel und auf den ersten Vorsitz des Rates. Then on Meletius's sudden death, Gregory took charge of the council up to the arrival of Acholius, who was to table Pope Damasus's demands: namely, that Maximus should be expelled as an interloper, and that the translation of bishops should be avoided. Dann über den plötzlichen Tod Meletius, Gregory übernahm der Rat bis zum Eintreffen der Acholius, war die Tabelle Papst Damasus Forderungen: nämlich, dass Maximus sollten ausgewiesen werden, wie ein Eindringling, und dass die Übersetzung der Bischöfe sollte vermieden werden. But when Timothy, bishop of Alexandria, arrived he declared Gregory's appointment invalid. Aber als Timothy, Bischof von Alexandria, kam er erklärt Gregory's Ernennung ungültig. Gregory resigned the episcopacy and Nectarius, after baptism and consecration, was installed as bishop and presided over the council until its closure. Gregory zurückgetreten den Episkopat und Nectarius, nach der Taufe und Weihe, installiert wurde als Bischof und den Vorsitz über den Rat bis zu ihrer Schließung.

No copy of the council's doctrinal decisions, entitled tomos kai anathematismos engraphos (record of the tome and anathemas), has survived. Keine Kopie des Landkreises die doktrinäre Entscheidungen, berechtigt tomos kai anathematismos engraphos (Aufnahme des tome und anathemas), hat überlebt. So what is presented here is the synodical letter of the synod of Constantinople held in 382, which expounded these doctrinal decisions, as the fathers witness, in summary form: namely, along the lines defined by the council of Nicaea, the consubstantiality and coeternity of the three divine persons against the Sabellians, Anomoeans, Arians and Pneumatomachi, who thought that the divinity was divided into several natures; and the enanthropesis (taking of humanity) of the Word, against those who supposed that the Word had in no way taken a human soul. Also, was ist hier die synodisches Schreiben der Synode von Konstantinopel in 382, die, die diese doktrinäre Entscheidungen, wie die Väter bezeugen, in gedrängter Form, nämlich entlang der Linien definiert durch den Rat von Nicäa, die Wesensgleichheit und der coeternity Die drei göttlichen Personen, gegen die Sabellians, Anomoeans, Arianer und Pneumatomachi, die dachten, dass die Göttlichkeit wurde in mehrere Naturen, und die enanthropesis (wobei der Menschlichkeit) des Wortes, gegen jene, die angeblich, dass das Wort hatte in keiner Weise eine Menschlichen Seele. All these matters were in close agreement with the tome that Pope Damasus and a Roman council, held probably in 378, had sent to the East. All diese Fragen wurden in enger Absprache mit dem dicken Wälzer, dass Papst Damasus und einer römischen Gemeinde, hielt vermutlich in 378, hatte an den Osten.

Scholars find difficulties with the creed attributed to the council of Constantinople. Wissenschaftler finden Sie Schwierigkeiten mit dem Glauben zurückzuführen auf den Rat von Konstantinopel. Some say that the council composed a new creed. Einige sagen, dass der Rat unter einem neuen Credo. But no mention is made of this creed by ancient witnesses until the council of Chalcedon; and the council of Constantinople was said simply to have endorsed the faith of Nicaea, with a few additions on the holy Spirit to refute the Pneumatomachian heresy. Aber mit keinem Wort erwähnt wird dieses Credo von Zeugen der Antike, bis der Rat von Chalcedon, und der Rat von Konstantinopel wurde gesagt, einfach zu haben hat den Glauben von Nicäa, mit ein paar Ergänzungen zu den heiligen Geist zu widerlegen Pneumatomachian Häresie. Moreover, if the latter tradition is accepted, an explanation must be given of why the first two articles of the so-called Constantinopolitan creed differ considerably from the Nicene creed. Außerdem, wenn diese Tradition akzeptiert wird, muss eine Erklärung geben, warum die ersten beiden Artikel der sogenannten Konstantinopolitanisches Glaubensbekenntnis unterscheiden sich wesentlich von den Nicene creed.

It was J. Lebon, followed by JND Kelly and AM Ritter, who worked at the solution of this problem. Es war J. Lebon, gefolgt von JND Kelly und AM Ritter, die an der Lösung dieses Problems. Lebon said that the Nicene creed, especially since it was adapted to use at baptism, had taken on a number of forms. Lebon, sagte, dass die Nicene creed, zumal es wurde an den Einsatz bei der Taufe, hatte auf eine Reihe von Formen annehmen. It was one of these which was endorsed at the council of Constantinople and developed by additions concerning the holy Spirit. Es war eine von diesen, wurde auf den Rat von Konstantinopel und entwickelt von Ergänzungen zu den heiligen Geist. All the forms, altered to some extent or other, were described by a common title as "the Nicene faith". Alle Formen, bis zu einem gewissen Grad verändert oder andere, wurden von einem gemeinsamen Titel "Nicene Glaubens". Then the council of Chalcedon mentioned the council of Constantinople as the immediate source of one of them, marked it out by a special name "the faith of the 150 fathers", which from that time onwards became its widely known title, and quoted it alongside the original simple form of the Nicene creed. Dann wird der Rat von Chalcedon erwähnt der Rat von Konstantinopel als Quelle für die sofortige einer von ihnen, sie markiert, die von einem speziellen Namen "der Glaube der 150 Väter", der ab diesem Zeitpunkt an wurde eine allgemein bekannte Titel, und zitiert ihn neben Die ursprüngliche einfache Form der Nicene creed. The Greek text of the Constantinopolitan creed, which is printed below, is taken from the acts of the council of Chalcedon. Der griechische Wortlaut des Konstantinopolitanisches Glaubensbekenntnis, das gedruckte unten, wird von den Handlungen des Rates von Chalcedon.

The council of Constantinople enacted four disciplinary canons: against the Arian heresy and its sects (can. 1), on limiting the power of bishops within fixed boundaries (can. 2), on ranking the see of Constantinople second to Rome in honour and dignity (can. 3), on the condemnation of Maximus and his followers (can. 4). Der Rat von Konstantinopel verabschiedet vier disziplinären Kanon: Arian gegen die Häresie und seine Sekten (can. 1), über die Begrenzung der Macht der Bischöfe innerhalb festgelegter Grenzen (can. 2), die Sie über die Rangfolge von Konstantinopel nach Rom in der zweiten Ehre und Würde (Can. 3), auf die Verurteilung von Maximus und seine Anhänger (can. 4). Canons 2-4 were intended to put a stop to aggrandisement on the part of the see of Alexandria. Canons 2-4 waren zu stoppen aggrandisement auf den Teil des siehe von Alexandria. The two following canons, 5 and 6, were framed at the synod which met in Constantinople in 382. Die folgenden zwei Kanonen, 5 und 6, wurden gerahmt an der Synode in Konstantinopel, traf in 382. The 7th canon is an extract from a letter which the church of Constantinople sent to Martyrius of Antioch. 7. Der Kanon ist ein Auszug aus einem Brief, den die Kirche von Konstantinopel an Martyrius von Antiochia.

The council ended on 9 July 381, and on 30 July of the same year, at the request of the council fathers, the emperor Theodosius ratified its decrees by edict . Der Rat endete am 9. Juli 381, und am 30. Juli des gleichen Jahres, auf Antrag des Landkreises Vater, der Kaiser Theodosius ratifiziert seine Dekrete durch Edikt.

Already from 382 onwards, in the synodical letter of the synod which met at Constantinople, the council of Constantinople was given the title of "ecumenical". Bereits ab 382 ab, in der synodisches Schreiben der Synode in Konstantinopel, traf der Rat von Konstantinopel erhielt den Titel "ökumenischer". The word denotes a general and plenary council. Das Wort bezeichnet einen allgemeinen Rat und im Plenum. But the council of Constantinople was criticised and censured by Gregory of Nazianzus. Doch der Rat von Konstantinopel wurde kritisiert und zensiert von Gregor von Nazianz. In subsequent years it was hardly ever mentioned. In den folgenden Jahren war es kaum jemals erwähnt. In the end it achieved its special status when the council of Chalcedon, at its second session and in its definition of the faith, linked the form of the creed read out at Constantinople with the Nicene form, as being a completely reliable witness of the authentic faith. Am Ende erreichten sie ihren besonderen Status, wenn der Rat von Chalcedon, auf ihrer zweiten Sitzung und in seiner Definition des Glaubens, die mit der Form des Glaubens lesen Sie in Konstantinopel mit dem Nicene Form, als eine vollkommen zuverlässige Zeuge der authentischen Glauben. The fathers of Chalcedon acknowledged the authority of the canons -- at least as far as the eastern church was concerned -- at their sixteenth session. Die Väter von Chalcedon anerkannt, die Autorität des Kanons - zumindest so weit wie der östlichen Kirche war - bei ihrem sechzehnten Tagung. The council's dogmatic authority in the western church was made clear by words of Pope Gregory I: "I confess that I accept and venerate the four councils (Nicaea, Constantinople, Ephesus and Chalcedon) in the same way as I do the four books of the holy Gospel...." Der Rat der dogmatischen Behörde in der westlichen Kirche wurde deutlich gemacht, durch die Worte des Papstes Gregor I: "Ich gestehe, dass ich akzeptieren und verehren die vier Räte (Nicäa, Konstantinopel, Ephesus und Chalcedon) in der gleichen Art und Weise wie ich die vier Bücher der Heiligen Evangelium ...."

The bishop of Rome's approval was not extended to the canons, because they were never brought "to the knowledge of the apostolic see''. Dionysius Exiguus knew only of the first four -- the ones to be found in the western collections. Pope Nicholas I wrote of the sixth canon to Emperor Michael III: "It is not found among us, but is said to be in force among you''. Der Bischof von Rom die Genehmigung nicht verlängert wurde, um die Kanonen, weil sie nie gebracht ", um das Wissen der apostolischen sehen''. Dionysius Exiguus wusste nur für die ersten vier - diejenigen, die in der westlichen Sammlungen. Papst Nicholas Ich schrieb der sechsten Kanon Kaiser Michael III: "Es ist bei uns nicht gefunden, wird aber gesagt, dass sie in Kraft unter euch''.

The English translation is from the Greek text, which is the more authoritative version. Die englische Übersetzung ist aus dem griechischen Text, der mehr ist die maßgebliche Version.

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The exposition of the 150 fathers Die Ausstellung der 150 Väter

We believe in one God the Father all-powerful, maker of heaven and of earth, and of all things both seen and unseen. Wir glauben an den einen Gott, den Vater, allmächtiger, Hersteller des Himmels und der Erde, und alle Dinge sowohl sichtbare und die unsichtbare Welt. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, begotten from the Father before all the ages, light from light, true God from true God, begotten not made, consubstantial with the Father, through whom all things came to be; for us humans and for our salvation he came down from the heavens and became incarnate from the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, became human and was crucified on our behalf under Pontius Pilate; he suffered and was buried and rose up on the third day in accordance with the scriptures; and he went up into the heavens and is seated at the Father's right hand; he is coming again with glory to judge the living and the dead; his kingdom will have no end. Und an den einen Herrn Jesus Christus, den eingeborenen Sohn Gottes, gezeugt aus dem Vater vor allen Altersgruppen, Licht vom Licht, wahrer Gott vom wahren Gott, gezeugt nicht geschaffen, consubstantial mit dem Vater, durch den alle Dinge kamen zu , Für uns Menschen und zu unserem Heil kam er aus dem Himmel und wurde von der fleischgewordene Geist und die heilige Jungfrau Maria, wurde Human-und gekreuzigt wurde auf unseren Namen unter Pontius Pilatus, hat gelitten und ist begraben worden, und stieg bis auf den dritten Tag In Übereinstimmung mit der Schrift, und er stieg in den Himmel und sitzt in der rechten Hand des Vaters, er kommt wieder mit Herrlichkeit, zu richten die Lebenden und die Toten; seiner Herrschaft wird kein Ende sein. And in the Spirit, the holy, the lordly and life-giving one, proceeding forth from the Father, co-worshipped and co-glorified with Father and Son, the one who spoke through the prophets; in one, holy, catholic and apostolic church. Und in der Geist, die heilige, die großzügig und Leben spendenden, Verfahren aus dem Vater, Ko-Ko-verehrt und verherrlicht mit Vater und Sohn, wird derjenige, der sprach durch die Propheten, und eine, heilige, katholische und apostolische Kirche. We confess one baptism for the forgiving of sins. Wir bekennen die eine Taufe zur Vergebung der Sünden. We look forward to a resurrection of the dead and life in the age to come. Wir freuen uns auf eine Auferstehung der Toten und das Leben im Alter zu kommen. Amen.

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A letter of the bishops gathered in Constantinople [1] Ein Brief der Bischöfe versammelt in Konstantinopel [1]

To the most honoured lords and most reverend brethren and fellow-ministers, Damasus, Ambrose, Britton, Valerian, Acholius, Anemius, Basil, and the rest of the holy bishops who met in the great city of Rome: the sacred synod of orthodox bishops who met in the great city of Constantinople sends greetings in the Lord. Um die Ehre und die meisten Fürsten reverend Brüder und Kollegen Minister, Damasus, Ambrosius, Britton, Valerian, Acholius, Anemius, Basilikum, und der Rest der heiligen Bischöfe, die sich in der großen Stadt Rom: die heilige Synode der orthodoxen Bischöfe Erfüllt, die in der großen Stadt Konstantinopel sendet Grüße an den Herrn.

It may well be unnecessary to instruct your reverence by describing the many sufferings that have been brought upon us under Arian domination, as if you did not know already. Es kann gut sein, dass unnötige anweisen, Ihre Verehrung durch die Beschreibung der vielen Leiden, wurden bei uns unter Arian Herrschaft, als ob Sie nicht schon wissen. Nor do we imagine that your piety considers our affairs so trivial that you need to learn what you must be suffering along with us. Wir sind auch nicht vorstellen, dass Ihre Frömmigkeit unserer Auffassung so triviale Dinge, die Sie benötigen, um zu lernen was müssen Sie sich gemeinsam mit uns Leid. Nor were the storms which beset us such as to escape your notice on grounds of insignificance. Auch waren die Stürme, die uns bedrängen, wie zu entkommen Ihr Hinweis auf Grund der Bedeutungslosigkeit. The period of persecution is still recent and ensures that the memory remains fresh not only among those who have suffered but also among those who have through love made the lot of those who suffered their own. Die Zeit der Verfolgung ist noch jung und sorgt dafür, dass die Erinnerung noch frisch, nicht nur unter denen, die gelitten haben, sondern auch unter denen, die durch die Liebe, die viel erlitten diejenigen, die ihre eigenen. It was barely yesterday or the day before that some were freed from the bonds of exile and returned to their own churches through a thousand tribulations. Es war kaum gestern oder am Tag vor, dass einige wurden von den Banden von Exil und kehrte zu ihren eigenen Kirchen durch tausend Mühen. The remains of others who died in exile were brought back. Die Reste, die andere starb im Exil zurück gebracht wurden. Even after their return from exile some experienced a ferment of hatred from the heretics and underwent a more cruel fate in their own land than they did abroad, by being stoned to death by them in the manner of the blessed Stephen. Auch nach ihrer Rückkehr aus dem Exil einige erfahrene ein Ferment der Hass aus der Ketzer und unterzog sich einem grausamen Schicksal in ihrem eigenen Land, als sie im Ausland hat, indem er zu Tode, indem sie in der Art und Weise der Stephen gesegnet. Others were torn to shreds by various tortures and still carry around on their bodies the marks of Christ's wounds and bruises. Andere wurden zu Fetzen zerrissen durch verschiedene Folterungen und noch mitnehmen auf ihren Körpern die Marken von Christi Wunden und Prellungen. Who could number the financial penalties, the fines imposed on cities, the confiscations of individual property, the plots, the outrages, the imprisonments? Wer könnte die Zahl finanzielle Sanktionen, die Geldbußen, die auf die Städte, die Konfiskationen der einzelnen Objekte, die Grundstücke, die Gräueltaten, die Gefangenen? Indeed all our afflictions increased beyond number: perhaps because we were paying the just penalty for our sins; perhaps also because a loving God was disciplining us by means of the great number of our sufferings. Denn alle unsere Leiden erhöht jenseits des Verfassers: vielleicht, weil wir nur die Zahlung der Strafe für unsere Sünden, vielleicht auch deshalb, weil ein liebender Gott war Disziplinierung uns durch die große Anzahl von unseren Leiden.

So thanks be to God for this. Vielen Dank sei Gott für diese. He has instructed his own servants through the weight of their afflictions, and in accordance with his numerous mercies he has brought us back again to a place of refreshment The restoration of the churches demanded prolonged attention, much time and hard work from us if the body of the church which had been weak for so long was to be cured completely by gradual treatment and brought back to its original soundness in religion. Er hat seine eigenen Bediensteten durch das Gewicht von ihren Leiden, und in Übereinstimmung mit seinen zahlreichen Gnade er hat uns wieder zu einem Ort der Erfrischung Die Restaurierung der Kirchen forderten längere Aufmerksamkeit, viel Zeit und harte Arbeit von uns, wenn der Körper Der Kirche, die waren schwach so lange war es völlig geheilt werden, indem die Behandlung und schrittweise wieder zu seinem ursprünglichen Solidität in der Religion. We may seem on the whole to be free from violent persecutions and to be at the moment recovering the churches which have long been in the grip of the heretics. Wir scheinen auf der ganzen, die als frei von gewaltsamen Verfolgungen und werden im Moment wieder die Kirchen, die schon lange in der Umklammerung der Ketzer. But in fact we are oppressed by wolves who even after expulsion from the fold go on ravaging the flocks up and down dale, making so bold as to hold rival assemblies, activating popular uprisings and stopping at nothing which might harm the churches. Aber in Wirklichkeit sind wir Unterdrückten von Wölfen, die auch nach der Vertreibung von der Falte stehen weiter wütet die Herden nach oben und unten sei, die so kühn, zu halten Rivalen Baugruppen, die Aktivierung Volksaufständen und stoppt an nichts schaden könnte, die die Kirchen. As we have said, this made us take a longer time over our affairs. Da haben wir gesagt, das uns zu dem gemacht, die eine längere Zeit über unsere Angelegenheiten.

But now you have shown your brotherly love for us by convoking a synod in Rome, in accordance with God's will, and inviting us to it, by means of a letter from your most God-beloved emperor, as if we were limbs of your very own, so that whereas in the past we were condemned to suffer alone, you should not now reign in isolation from us, given the complete agreement of the emperors in matters of religion. Aber jetzt haben Sie Ihre brüderliche Liebe, die uns von der convoking eine Synode in Rom, in Übereinstimmung mit dem Willen Gottes, und laden Sie es uns, durch einen Brief von Ihrer geliebten Gott-Kaisers, als ob wir Ihre Gliedmaßen waren sehr Werden, so dass während wir in der Vergangenheit verurteilt wurden allein zu leiden, sollten Sie jetzt nicht in Isolation Regierungszeit von uns, da die gesamte Vereinbarung der Kaiser in Fragen der Religion. Rather, according to the word of the apostle, we should reign along with you'. Vielmehr ist nach dem Wort des Apostels, wir sollten Regierungszeit zusammen mit Ihnen. " So it was our intention that if it were possible we should all leave our churches together and indulge our desires rather than attend to their needs. So war es unsere Absicht, dass, wenn es möglich wäre, sollten wir uns alle verlassen, unsere Kirchen zusammen und verwöhnen unsere Wünsche, anstatt ihre Bedürfnisse zu besuchen. But who will give us wings as of a dove, so we shall fly and come to rest with you? Aber wer wird uns Flügel wie eine Taube, die wir fliegen und zur Ruhe kommen mit Ihnen? This course would leave the churches entirely exposed, just as they are beginning their renewal; and it is completely out of the question for the majority. Dieser Kurs würde die Kirchen voll ausgesetzt, so wie sie sind Anfang ihrer Erneuerung, und es ist völlig außer Frage, die für die Mehrheit. As a consequence of last year's letter sent by your reverence after the synod of Aquileia to our most God-beloved emperor Theodosius, we came together in Constantinople. Als Folge der im vergangenen Jahr das Schreiben per Ihre Ehrfurcht nach der Synode von Aquileia zu unseren geliebten Gott-Kaisers Theodosius, kamen wir zusammen in Konstantinopel. We were equipped only for this stay in Constantinople and the bishops who remained in the provinces gave their agreement to this synod alone. Wir waren ausschließlich für diesen Aufenthalt in Konstantinopel und die Bischöfe, die nach wie vor in den Provinzen gaben ihr Einverständnis zu dieser Synode allein. We foresaw no need for a longer absence, nor did we hear of it in advance at all, before we gathered in Constantinople. Wir sahen keine Notwendigkeit für eine längere Abwesenheit, noch haben wir es hören, der im Voraus bei allen, bevor wir trafen sich in Konstantinopel. On top of this the tightness of the schedule proposed allowed no opportunity to prepare for a longer absence, nor to brief all the bishops in the provinces who are in communion with us and to get their agreement. On top of this die Dichtheit der vorgeschlagene Zeitplan erlaubt keine Gelegenheit zur Vorbereitung auf eine längere Abwesenheit, noch an alle die Bischöfe in den Provinzen, die sich in Gemeinschaft mit uns und um ihr Einverständnis. Since these considerations, and many more besides, prevented most of us from coming, we have done the next best thing both to set matters straight and to make your love for us appreciated: we have managed to convince our most venerable and reverend brethren and fellow-ministers, Bishops Cyriacus, Eusebius and Priscian to be willing to undertake the wearisome journey to you. Da diese Erwägungen, und viele mehr, verhindert die meisten von uns aus kommen, die wir geleistet haben, die nächste Beste, was sowohl um Fragen zu stellen und direkt Ihre Liebe für uns schätzen: Wir haben es geschafft, die meisten davon überzeugen, unseren ehrwürdigen Brüder und ehrwürdig und Stipendiaten - Minister, Bischöfe Cyriacus, Eusebius und Priscian bereit zu sein, um die mühsame Reise zu Ihnen. Through them we wish to show that our intentions are peaceful and have unity as their goal. Mit ihnen wollen wir zeigen, dass unsere Absichten sind ruhig und haben ihre Einheit als Ziel. We also want to make clear that what we are zealously seeking is sound faith. Wir wollen auch deutlich machen, dass das, was wir sind eifrig sucht Sound ist Glauben.

What we have undergone -- persecutions, afflictions, imperial threats, cruelty from officials, and whatever other trial at the hands of heretics -- we have put up with for the sake of the gospel faith established by the 318 fathers at Nicaea in Bithynia. Was wir haben - Verfolgungen, Leiden, imperialen Bedrohungen, Grausamkeit von Beamten, und was andere Prüfung in den Händen der Ketzer - wir haben mit für das Evangelium Glauben, die von der 318 Väter bei Nicäa in Bithynien. You, we and all who are not bent on subverting the word of the true faith should give this creed our approval. Sie, wir und alle, die sich nicht verbogen auf subvertiert das Wort des wahren Glaubens sollte dieses Credo unsere Zustimmung. It is the most ancient and is consistent with our baptism. Es ist die älteste und steht im Einklang mit unserer Taufe. It tells us how to believe in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the holy Spirit: believing also, of course, that the Father, the Son and the holy Spirit have a single Godhead and power and substance, a dignity deserving the same honour and a co-eternal sovereignty, in three most perfect hypostases, or three perfect persons. Er erzählt uns, wie zu glauben, in den Namen des Vaters und des Sohnes und des Heiligen Geistes: Glauben natürlich auch, dass der Vater, der Sohn und der Heilige Geist haben einen einzigen Gottheit und Energie-und Stoff, eine Würde verdient Die gleiche Ehre und eine Co-ewige Souveränität, die in drei vollkommensten hypostases oder drei vollkommenen Personen. So there is no place for Sabellius's diseased theory in which the hypostases are confused and thus their proper characteristics destroyed. Also gibt es keinen Platz für Sabellius's kranke Theorie, in der die hypostases sind verwirrt und damit ihre ordnungsgemäße Merkmale zerstört. Nor may the blasphemy of Eunomians and Arians and Pneumatomachi prevail, with its division of substance or of nature or of Godhead, and its introduction of some nature which was produced subsequently, or was created, or was of a different substance, into the uncreated and consubstantial and co-eternal Trinity. Ebenso wenig kann der Blasphemie und der Eunomians Arianer und Pneumatomachi vorherrschen, mit seiner Aufteilung der Stoff oder der Natur oder der Gottheit, und die Einführung einer Art, die später produziert wurde, oder erstellt wurde, oder wurde von einem anderen Stoff, in der uncreated und Consubstantial und Co-ewige Dreifaltigkeit. And we preserve undistorted the accounts of the Lord's taking of humanity, accepting as we do that the economy of his flesh was not soulless nor mindless nor imperfect. Und wir bewahren unverfälschten die Konten der Lord's, die der Menschheit, wie wir akzeptieren, dass die Wirtschaft in sein Fleisch war nicht seelenlos noch sinnloser noch unvollkommen. To sum up, we know that he was before the ages fully God the Word, and that in the last days he became fully man for the sake of our salvation. Zusammenfassend ist festzuhalten, dass wir wissen, dass er vor dem Alter voll Gott das Wort, und dass in den letzten Tagen wurde er voll und ganz für die Menschen unseres Heiles willen.

So much, in summary, for the faith which is openly preached by us. So viel, in der Zusammenfassung, für den Glauben, die von uns offen gepredigt. You can take even more heart concerning these matters if you think fit to consult the tome that was issued in Antioch by the synod which met there as well as the one issued last year in Constantinople by the ecumenical synod. Sie können noch mehr Herzen über diese Fragen, wenn Sie denken, fit zu konsultieren, die tome, wurde in der Synode von Antiochia, traf es wie auch die letzten Jahre ein, die in Konstantinopel durch die ökumenische Synode. In these documents we confessed the faith in broader terms and we have issued a written condemnation of the heresies which have recently erupted. In dieser Dokumente, die wir den Glauben gestanden, im weiteren Sinne, und wir haben eine schriftliche Verurteilung der Häresien, die vor kurzem ausgebrochen.

With regard to particular forms of administration in the churches, ancient custom, as you know, has been in force, along with the regulation of the saintly fathers at Nicaea, that in each province those of the province, and with them-should the former so desire -- their neighbours, should conduct ordinations as need might arise. Mit Hinblick auf die besonderen Formen der Verwaltung in den Kirchen, alten Brauch, wie Sie wissen, wurde in Kraft getreten ist, zusammen mit der Regelung der heiligen Väter in Nicäa, dass in jeder Provinz die von der Provinz, und mit ihnen-sollten die ehemaligen Dies wünschen - ihre Nachbarn, sollte Weihen als Notwendigkeit entstehen könnten. Accordingly, as you are aware, the rest of the churches are administered, and the priests [= bishops] of the most prominent churches have been appointed, by us. Dementsprechend, wie Sie wissen, den Rest der Kirchen verwaltet werden, und die Priester [= Bischöfe] der bekanntesten Kirchen benannt wurden, von uns. Hence at the ecumenical council by common agreement and in the presence of the most God-beloved emperor Theodosius and all the clergy, and with the approval of the whole city, we have ordained the most venerable and God-beloved Nectarius as bishop of the church newly set up, as one might say, in Constantinople -- a church which by God's mercy we just recently snatched from the blasphemy of the heretics as from the lion's jaws. Deshalb in der ökumenischen Gemeinde im gegenseitigen Einvernehmen und in Anwesenheit der meisten geliebten Gott-Kaisers Theodosius und alle Klerus, und mit der Zustimmung der gesamten Stadt, wir haben die meisten ehrwürdigen ordiniert und Gott geliebten Nectarius als Bischof der Kirche Neu eingerichtet, so könnte man sagen, in Konstantinopel - eine Kirche, die durch die Barmherzigkeit Gottes entrissen wir erst kürzlich von der Blasphemie der als Ketzer von den größten Kiefer. Over the most ancient and truly apostolic church at Antioch in Syria, where first the precious name of "Christians" came into use, the provincial bishops and those of the diocese of the East came together and canonically ordained the most venerable and God-beloved Flavian as bishop with the consent of the whole church, as though it would give the man due honour with a single voice. In den meisten alten und wahrhaft apostolischen Kirche in Antiochia in Syrien, wo die ersten wertvollen Namen "Christen", kam zum Einsatz, die Provinzregierung und die Bischöfe der Diözese des Ostens kamen zusammen und kanonisch ordiniert die ehrwürdige und Gott geliebten Flavio - Als Bischof mit Zustimmung der ganzen Kirche, als ob sie würde den Mann wegen Ehre, mit einer einzigen Stimme. The synod as a whole also accepted that this ordination was legal. Die Synode als Ganzes auch akzeptiert, dass diese Abstimmung war legal. We wish to inform you that the most venerable and God-beloved Cyril is bishop of the church in Jerusalem, the mother of all the churches. Wir möchten Sie darüber informieren, dass die meisten ehrwürdigen und Gott geliebte-Cyril ist Bischof der Kirche in Jerusalem, die Mutter aller Kirchen. He was canonically ordained some time ago by those of the province and at various times he has valiantly combated the Arians. Er wurde ordiniert kanonisch vor einiger Zeit durch die von der Provinz und zu verschiedenen Zeiten hat er tapfer bekämpft die Arianer.

We exhort your reverence to join us in rejoicing at what we have legally and canonically enacted. Wir ermahnen Ihre Ehrfurcht zu uns und freuen sich an, was wir haben, rechtlich und kanonisch erlassen. Let spiritual love link us together, and let the fear of the Lord suppress all human prejudice and put the building up of the churches before individual attachment or favour. Lassen Sie spirituelle Liebe Link zu uns zusammen, und lassen Sie die Furcht des Herrn unterdrücken alle menschlichen Vorurteilen und stellt den Aufbau der Kirchen, bevor einzelne Anlage oder begünstigen. In this way, with the account of the faith agreed between us and with christian love established among us, we shall cease to declare what was condemned by the apostles, "I belong to Paul, I to Apollo, I to Cephas"; but we shall all be seen to belong to Christ, who has not been divided up among us; and with God's good favour, we shall keep the body of the church undivided, and shall come before the judgment-seat of the Lord with confidence. Auf diese Weise, mit dem Konto des Glaubens, die zwischen uns und mit etablierten christlichen Liebe unter uns, wir sind nicht mehr zu erklären, was wurde von den Aposteln ", der ich angehöre, Paul, I Apollo, I Cephas", aber wir So gesehen zu werden, alle gehören zu Christus, die wurde nicht aufgeteilt unter uns und mit Gott ist gut dafür, wir halten den Körper der Kirche ungeteilt, und komme vor dem Urteils-Sitz des Herrn mit Zuversicht entgegen.

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CANONS CANONS

1 1

The profession of faith of the holy fathers who gathered in Nicaea in Bithynia is not to be abrogated, but it is to remain in force. Der Beruf des Glaubens der heiligen Väter, die sich in Nicäa in Bithynien ist nicht aufgehoben, aber es ist nach wie vor in Kraft. Every heresy is to be anathematised and in particular that of the Eunomians or Anomoeans, that of the Arians or Eudoxians, that of the Semi-Arians or Pneumatomachi, that of the Sabellians that of the Marcellians, that of the Photinians and that of the Apollinarians. Jede Häresie wird anathematised und insbesondere, dass der Eunomians oder Anomoeans, dass der Arianer oder Eudoxians, dass der Semi-Arianer oder Pneumatomachi, dass der Sabellians dass der Marcellians, dass der Photinians und dass der Apollinarians .

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2 2

Diocesan bishops are not to intrude in churches beyond their own boundaries nor are they to confuse the churches: but in accordance with the canons, the bishop of Alexandria is to administer affairs in Egypt only; the bishops of the East are to manage the East alone (whilst safeguarding the privileges granted to the church of the Antiochenes in the Nicene canons); and the bishops of the Asian diocese are to manage only Asian affairs; and those in Pontus only the affairs of Pontus; and those in Thrace only Thracian affairs. Diözesanbischöfen sind nicht eindringen und Kirchen außerhalb ihrer eigenen Grenzen noch sind sie zu verwirren die Kirchen, sondern im Einklang mit dem Kanon, der Bischof von Alexandria ist die Verwaltung in Ägypten nur Angelegenheiten, die Bischöfe des Ostens sind für die Verwaltung der Osten allein (Während die Sicherung der Privilegien, die der Kirche der Antiochenes in der Nicene Kanonen), und die Bischöfe der asiatischen Diözese zu verwalten sind nur asiatischen Angelegenheiten, die in Pontus und nur die Angelegenheiten von Pontus, und die nur in Thrakien thrakischen Angelegenheiten. Unless invited bishops are not to go outside their diocese to perform an ordination or any other ecclesiastical business. Sofern nicht eingeladen Bischöfe sind nicht zu gehen außerhalb ihrer Diözese, um eine Abstimmung oder einer anderen kirchlichen Geschäft. If the letter of the canon about dioceses is kept, it is clear that the provincial synod will manage affairs in each province, as was decreed at Nicaea. Wenn das Schreiben des Kanons über Diözesen gehalten wird, ist es klar, dass die Provinz-Synode wird verwalten Angelegenheiten in den einzelnen Provinzen, wie verordnet wurde in Nicäa. But the churches of God among barbarian peoples must be administered in accordance with the custom in force at the time of the fathers. Aber die Kirchen Gottes unter den barbarischen Völker müssen verwaltet werden im Einklang mit den Brauch in der zum Zeitpunkt der Väter.

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3 3

Because it is new Rome, the bishop of Constantinople is to enjoy the privileges of honour after the bishop of Rome. Da es sich um neue Rom, der Bischof von Konstantinopel ist in den Genuss der Privilegien der Ehre nach dem Bischof von Rom.

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Regarding Maximus the Cynic and the disorder which surrounded him in Constantinople: he never became, nor is he, a bishop; nor are those ordained by him clerics of any rank whatsoever. Was Maximus der Kyniker und der Erkrankung, die ihn umgeben, in Konstantinopel: er wurde nie, noch ist er ein Bischof, noch sind die von ihm ordinierten Geistlichen des Ranges whatsoever. Everything that was done both to him and by him is to be held invalid. Alles, was geschehen war, dass beide zu ihm und von ihm wird ungültig.

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Regarding the Tome [2] of the Westerns: we have also recognised those in Antioch who confess a single Godhead of Father and Son and holy Spirit. Was die Tome [2] des Westerns: wir haben auch erkannt, die in Antiochien, die zugeben, einen einzigen Gottheit von Vater und Sohn und heiliger Geist.

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There are many who are bent on confusing and overturning the good order of the church and so fabricate, out of hatred and a wish to slander, certain accusations against orthodox bishops in charge of churches. Es gibt viele, die gebogen sind verwirrend und auf die Umwälzung der guten Auftragslage der Kirche und so fabrizieren, der Hass und der Wunsch zu diffamieren, bestimmte Vorwürfe gegen die orthodoxen Bischöfe in den Kirchen. Their intention is none other than to blacken priests' reputations and to stir up trouble among peace- loving laity. Ihre Absicht ist nichts anderes als Priester zu schwärzen "Ruf und zu schüren Ärger zwischen friedliebenden Laien. For this reason the sacred synod of bishops assembled at Constantinople has decided not to admit accusers without prior examination, and not to allow everyone to bring accusations against church administrators -- but with- out excluding everyone. Aus diesem Grund hat die heilige Synode der Bischöfe anläßlich Konstantinopel hat sich entschieden, nicht zugeben Ankläger ohne vorherige Prüfung, und nicht zuzulassen, dass alle Anschuldigungen gegen die Kirche Administratoren - aber-ohne jeden. So if someone brings a private (that is a personal) complaint against the bishop on the grounds that he has been defrauded or in some other way unjustly dealt with by him, in the case of this kind of accusation neither the character nor the religion of the accuser will be subject to examination. Also wenn jemand bringt eine private (das ist eine persönliche) Beschwerde gegen den Bischof mit der Begründung, dass er betrogen wurde oder auf andere Art und Weise ungerecht behandelt, indem er, im Falle einer solchen Vorwurf weder den Charakter noch die Religion Die Ankläger werden vorbehaltlich der Prüfung. It is wholly essential both that the bishop should have a clear conscience and that the one who alleges that he has been wronged, whatever his religion may be, should get justice. Es ist ganz wesentlich, dass sowohl der Bischof sollte ein gutes Gewissen haben, und dass derjenige, der behauptet, dass er Unrecht hat, unabhängig von seiner Religion auch sein mag, sollte man Gerechtigkeit.

But if the charge brought against the bishop is of an ecclesiastical kind, then the characters of those making it should be examined, in the first place to stop heretics bringing charges against orthodox bishops in matters of an ecclesiastical kind. Aber wenn die Anklage gegen den Bischof ist ein kirchlicher Art, der dann die Zeichen dieser es sollte untersucht werden, in erster Linie um die Anklage gegen Häretiker orthodoxen Bischöfe in Fragen der kirchlichen Art ein. (We define "heretics" as those who have been previously banned from the church and also those later anathematised by ourselves: and in addition those who claim to confess a faith that is sound, but who have seceded and hold assemblies in rivalry with the bishops who are in communion with us.) In the second place, persons previously condemned and expelled from the church for whatever reason, or those excommunicated either from the clerical or lay rank, are not to be permitted to accuse a bishop until they have first purged their own crime. (Wir definieren "Ketzer", wie diejenigen, die zuvor aus der Kirche verbannt und später anathematised auch diejenigen von uns, und darüber hinaus diejenigen, die Anspruch auf einen Glauben bekennen, ist solide, aber getrennt haben und halten Versammlungen in Rivalität mit den Bischöfen , Die in Gemeinschaft mit uns.) In der zweiten Stelle, Personen, die zuvor verurteilt und aus der Kirche aus welchem Grund auch immer, oder die excommunicated entweder aus dem Schreib-oder Rang lag, sind nicht erlaubt sein zu werfen, bis sie einen Bischof haben erste gelöscht Ihre eigenen Verbrechen. Similarly, those who are already accused are not permitted to accuse a bishop or other clerics until they have proved their own innocence of the crimes with which they are charged. Auch diejenigen, die bereits beschuldigt, ist es nicht gestattet, werfen ein Bischof oder andere Kleriker, bis sie haben sich ihre eigene Unschuld der Verbrechen, mit denen sie belastet werden. But if persons who are neither heretics nor excommunicates, nor such as have been previously condemned or accused of some transgression or other, claim that they have some ecclesiastical charge to make against the bishop, the sacred synod commands that such persons should first lay the accusations before all the bishops of the province and prove before them the crimes committed by the bishop in the case. Aber wenn Personen, die weder Ketzer noch ächtet, noch wie zuvor verurteilt oder wegen Übertretung oder einige andere, die behaupten, dass sie einige kirchliche Gebühr zu machen gegen den Bischof, der heilige Synode Befehle, die solche Personen sollten zunächst lag die Anschuldigungen Vor allem die Bischöfe der Provinz, und beweisen, bevor sie das Verbrechen, die von dem Bischof in der Fall ist. If it emerges that the bishops of the province are not able to correct the crimes laid at the bishop's door, then a higher synod of the bishops of that diocese, convoked to hear this case, must be approached, and the accusers are not to lay their accusations before it until they have given a written promise to submit to equal penalties should they be found guilty of making false accusations against the accused bishop, when the matter is investigated. Wenn sich herausstellt, dass die Bischöfe der Provinz sind nicht in der Lage zu korrigieren, die die Verbrechen an den Bischof der Tür, dann ein höheres Synode der Bischöfe der Diözese, einberufen zu hören diesem Fall muss angegangen werden, und die Ankläger nicht zu legen Ihre Vorwürfe, bevor sie, bis sie haben eine schriftliche Zusage zum Einreichen gleichen Strafen sollten sie für schuldig befunden werden, der die falschen Anschuldigungen gegen den Angeklagten Bischof, wenn die Angelegenheit untersucht.

If anyone shows contempt of the prescriptions regarding the above matters and presumes to bother either the ears of the emperor or the courts of the secular authorities, or to dishonour all the diocesan bishops and trouble an ecumenical synod, there is to be no question whatever of allowing such a person to bring accusations forward, because he has made a mockery of the canons and violated the good order of the church. If anyone shows contempt of the prescriptions regarding the above matters and presumes to bother either the ears of the emperor or the courts of the secular authorities, or to dishonour all the diocesan bishops and trouble an ecumenical synod, there is to be no question whatever of allowing such a person to bring accusations forward, because he has made a mockery of the canons and violated the good order of the church.

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Those who embrace orthodoxy and join the number of those who are being saved from the heretics, we receive in the following regular and customary manner: Arians, Macedonians, Sabbatians, Novatians, those who call themselves Cathars and Aristae, Quartodeciman or Tetradites, Apollinarians-these we receive when they hand in statements and anathematise every heresy which is not of the same mind as the holy, catholic and apostolic church of God. Those who embrace orthodoxy and join the number of those who are being saved from the heretics, we receive in the following regular and customary manner: Arians, Macedonians, Sabbatians, Novatians, those who call themselves Cathars and Aristae, Quartodeciman or Tetradites, Apollinarians- these we receive when they hand in statements and anathematise every heresy which is not of the same mind as the holy, catholic and apostolic church of God. They are first sealed or anointed with holy chrism on the forehead, eyes, nostrils, mouth and ears. As we seal them we say: "Seal of the gift of the holy Spirit". But Eunomians, who are baptised in a single immersion, Montanists (called Phrygians here), Sabellians, who teach the identity of Father and Son and make certain other difficulties, and all other sects -- since there are many here, not least those who originate in the country of the Galatians -- we receive all who wish to leave them and embrace orthodoxy as we do Greeks. But Eunomians, who are baptised in a single immersion, Montanists (called Phrygians here), Sabellians, who teach the identity of Father and Son and make certain other difficulties, and all other sects -- since there are many here, not least those who originate in the country of the Galatians -- we receive all who wish to leave them and embrace orthodoxy as we do Greeks. On the first day we make Christians of them, on the second catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by breathing three times into their faces and their ears, and thus we catechise them and make them spend time in the church and listen to the scriptures; and then we baptise them. On the first day we make Christians of them, on the second catechumens, on the third we exorcise them by breathing three times into their faces and their ears, and thus we catechise them and make them spend time in the church and listen to the scriptures ; and then we baptise them.

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FOOTNOTES
  1. Namely the synod of Constantinople in 382
  2. This tome has not survived; it probably defended Paul of Antioch

Translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner

Second Council of Constantinople - 553 AD

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Introduction

The emperor Justinian and Pope Vigilius decided to summon this council after the latter withdrew his "Judgment" condemning the "Three Chapters" of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret and Ibas. This "Judgment" had been issued on 11 April 548 but the bishops of the west and especially of Africa unanimously opposed it. The council was summoned by Justinian to Constantinople, although Vigilius would have preferred to convene it in Sicily or Italy so that western bishops might be present. It assembled on 5 May 553 in the great hall attached to Hagia Sophia cathedral.

Since the Roman pontiff refused to take part in the council, because Justinian had summoned bishops in equal numbers from each of the five patriarchal sees, so that there would be many more eastern than western bishops present, Eutychius, patriarch of Constantinople, presided. The decrees of the council were signed by 160 bishops, of whom 8 were Africans.

On 14 May 553 Pope Vigilius issued his "Constitution", which was signed by 16 bishops (9 from Italy, 2 from Africa, 2 from Illyricum and 3 from Asia Minor). This rejected sixty propositions of Theodore of Mopsuestia, but spared his personal memory and refused to condemn either Theodoret or Ibas since, on the testimony of the council of Chalcedon, all suspicion of heresy against them had been removed. Nevertheless, the council council in its 8th session on 2 June 553 again condemned the "Three Chapters" , for the same reasons as Justinian had done so, in a judgment which concludes with 14 anathemas .

After carefully considering the matter for six months, Vigilius ,weighing up the persecutions of Justinian against his clergy and having sent a letter to Eutychius of Constantinople, approved the council , thus changing his mind "after the example of Augustine". Furthermore he anathematized Theodore and condemned his writings and those of Theodoret and Ibas . On 23 February 554, in a second "Constitution", he tried to reconcile the recent condemnation with what had been decreed at the council of Chalcedon.

The council did not debate ecclesiastical discipline nor did it issue disciplinary canons. Our edition does not include the text of the anathemas against Origen since recent studies have shown that these anathemas cannot be attributed to this council.

For the 14 anathemas (pp. 114-122) the translation is from the Greek text, since this is the more authoritative version.


Sentence against the "Three Chapters"

Our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, as we are told in the parable in the gospel, gives talents to each one according to his ability, and at the proper time asks for an account of what has been done by each one. If the person to whom only one talent has been given is condemned because he has not worked and increased it, but has only preserved it without diminishment, how much more serious and more frightening must be the condemnation to which the person is subjected who not only fails to look after himself but scandalizes others and is a cause of offence to them ? If the person to whom only one talent has been given is condemned because he has not worked and increased it, but has only preserved it without diminishment, how much more serious and more frightening must be the condemnation to which the person is subjected who not only fails to look after himself but scandalizes others and is a cause of offence to them ? It is clear to all believers that when a problem about the faith comes up it is not only the heretical person who is condemned but also the person who is in a position to correct the heresy of others and fails to do so. To those of us to whom the task has been given of governing the church of the Lord, there comes a fear of the condemnation which threatens those who neglect to do the Lord's work. We hurry to take care of the good seed of faith protecting it from the weeds of heresy which have been planted by the enemy. We observed that the pupils of Nestorius were trying to bring their heresy into the church of God by means of the heretical Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia and his books as also by the writings of the heretical Theodoret and the disgraceful letter which is alleged to have been sent by Ibas to Mari the Persian. We observed that the pupils of Nestorius were trying to bring their heresy into the church of God by means of the heretical Theodore, bishop of Mopsuestia and his books as also by the writings of the heretical Theodoret and the disgraceful letter which is alleged to have been sent by Ibas to Mari the Persian. Our observations prompted us to correct what was happening. We assembled in this imperial city, summoned here by the will of God and the command of the most religious emperor.

The most religious Vigilius happened to be present in this imperial city and took part in all the criticisms against the three chapters. He had frequently condemned them by word of mouth and in his writings. Later he gave a written agreement to take part in our council and to study with us the three chapters so that we could all issue an appropriate definition of the true faith. The most pious emperor, prompted by what was acceptable to us, encouraged a meeting between Vigilius and ourselves because it is proper that the priesthood should impose a common conclusion to matters of common concern. Consequently we asked his reverence to carry out his written undertakings. It did not seem right that the scandal over these three chapters should continue and that the church of God should be further disturbed. In order to persuade him, we reminded him of the great example left us by the apostles and of the traditions of the fathers. Even though the grace of the holy Spirit was abundant in each of the apostles, so that none of them required the advice of another in order to do his work, nevertheless they were loathe to come to a decision on the issue of the circumcision of gentiles until they had met together to test their various opinions against the witness of the holy scriptures. Even though the grace of the holy Spirit was abundant in each of the apostles, so that none of them required the advice of another in order to do his work, nevertheless they were loathe to come to a decision on the issue of the circumcision of gentiles until they had met together to test their various opinions against the witness of the holy scriptures.

In this way they unanimously reached the conclusion which they wrote to the gentiles: It has seemed good to the holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from unchastity. In this way they unanimously reached the conclusion which they wrote to the gentiles: It has seemed good to the holy Spirit and to us to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; that you abstain from what has been sacrificed to idols and from blood and from what is strangled and from unchastity.

The holy fathers, who have gathered at intervals in the four holy councils, have followed the examples of antiquity. They dealt with heresies and current problems by debate in common, since it was established as certain that when the disputed question is set out by each side in communal discussions, the light of truth drives out the shadows of lying.

The truth cannot be made clear in any other way when there are debates about questions of faith, since everyone requires the assistance of his neighbour. As Solomon says in his proverbs: A brother who helps a brother shall be exalted like a strong city; he shall be as strong as a well-established kingdom. Again in Ecclesiastes he says: Two are better than one, for they have a good reward for their toil. And the Lord himself says: Amen I say to you, if two of you agree on earth about anything they ask, it will be done for them by my Father in heaven. For where two or three are gathered in my name, there am I in the midst of them. Vigilius was frequently invited by us all, and most distinguished judges were sent to him by the most pious emperor. Eventually he promised to give judgment personally on the three chapters. When we heard this promise, we remembered the warning of the Apostle that each of us shall give an account of himself to God. We were afraid of the condemnation which threatens those who scandalize one of the least important, and of the much more serious one which threatens those who scandalize so very christian an emperor, the people and all the churches. We also remembered what was said by God to Paul: Do not be afraid, but speak, and do not be silent; for I am with you, and nobody shall be able to harm you. When we met together, therefore, we first of all briefly made a confession of the faith which our lord Jesus Christ true God, handed down to his holy apostles and by means of them to the holy churches, the same faith which those who afterwards were holy fathers and doctors handed down to the people entrusted to them. When we met together, therefore, we first of all briefly made a confession of the faith which our lord Jesus Christ true God, handed down to his holy apostles and by means of them to the holy churches, the same faith which those who afterwards were holy fathers and doctors handed down to the people entrusted to them. We confessed that we believe, protect and preach to the holy churches that confession of faith which was set out at greater length by the 318 holy fathers who met in council at Nicaea and handed down the holy doctrine or creed. The 150 who met in council at Constantinople also set out the same faith and made a confession of it and explained it. The 200 holy fathers who met in the first council of Ephesus agreed to the same faith. We follow also the definitions of the 630 who met in council at Chalcedon, regarding the same faith which they both followed and preached. We confessed that we held to be condemned and anathematized all those who had been previously condemned and anathematized by the catholic church and by the aforesaid four councils. When we had made this confession in this way, we made a start on the examination of the three chapters. First, we considered Theodore of Mopsuestia. When all the blasphemies in his works were exposed, we were astonished at God's patience, that the tongue and mind which had formed such blasphemies were not straightaway burned up by divine fire. We would not even have allowed the official reader of these blasphemies to continue, such was our fear of the anger of God at even a rehearsal of them (since each blasphemy was worse than the one before in the extent of its heresy and shook to their foundation the minds of their listeners), if it had not been the case that those who revelled in these blasphemies seemed to us to require the humiliation which their exposure would bring upon them. We would not even have allowed the official reader of these blasphemies to continue, such was our fear of the anger of God at even a rehearsal of them (since each blasphemy was worse than the one before in the extent of its heresy and shook to their foundation the minds of their listeners), if it had not been the case that those who revelled in these blasphemies seemed to us to require the humiliation which their exposure would bring upon them. All of us, angered by the blasphemies against God, burst into attacks and anathemas against Theodore, during and after the reading, as if he had been living and present there. We said: Lord, be favourable to us; not even the demons themselves have dared to speak such things against you.

O his intolerable tongue! O the wickedness of the man ! O the proud hand he raised against his creator! This disgraceful man, who had made a promise to understand the scriptures, did not remember the words of the prophet Hosea: Woe to them, for they have strayed from me! They have become notorious because of their impiety towards me. They spoke evil things about me, and after they had considered them, they spoke even worse things against me. They will fall into a trap because of the depravity of their tongues. Their contempt will be turned inwards on themselves, because they have broken my covenant and acted impiously against my law. The impious Theodore deserves to come under these curses. He dismissed the prophecies about Christ and he vilified, as far as he could, the great mystery of the arrangements that have been made for our salvation. In many ways he tried to demonstrate that the divine word was nothing but fables composed for the amusement of the gentiles. He ridiculed the other condemnations of the impious made by the prophets, especially the one in which holy Habakkuk says of those who teach false doctrines: Woe to him who makes his neighbours drink of the cup of his wrath, and makes them drunk, to gaze on their caverns. He ridiculed the other condemnations of the impious made by the prophets, especially the one in which holy Habakkuk says of those who teach false doctrines: Woe to him who makes his neighbours drink of the cup of his wrath, and makes them drunk, to gaze on their caverns. This refers to their teachings which are full of darkness and quite separate from the light.

Why ought we to add anything more? Anyone who wishes can consult the volumes of the heretical Theodore or the heretical chapters from his heretical books which have been included in our acts. Anyone can see his unbelievable folly and the disgraceful utterances made by him. We fear to continue and to rehearse again those shameful things. The writings of the holy fathers against him were also read out to us. We heard what had been written against his folly which was more than all the other heretics, and the historical records and imperial laws which set out his heresy from its beginning. Despite all this, those who defended his heresy, delighting in the insults offered by him to his creator, declared that it was improper to anathematize him after his death. Although we were aware of the ecclesiastical tradition concerning heretics, that they are anathematized even after death, we deemed it necessary to go into this matter as well and it can be found in the acts how several heretics were anathematized after they were dead. In many ways it has become clear to us that those who put forward this argument have no concern for God's judgments, nor for the pronouncements of the apostles, nor for the traditions of the fathers. We would willingly question them concerning what they would say about the Lord, who said of himself: He who believes in him is not condemned, he who does not believe in him is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only-begotten Son of God. We would willingly question them concerning what they would say about the Lord, who said of himself: He who believes in him is not condemned, he who does not believe in him is condemned already, because he has not believed in the name of the only -begotten Son of God. And about that claim of the Apostle: Even if we, or an angel from heaven, should preach to you a gospel contrary to what you have received, let him be accursed. As we said earlier, I repeat once more: If anyone preaches to you a gospel contrary to what you have received, let him be accursed.

Since the Lord declares that the person is judged already, and the Apostle curses even the angels if they instruct in anything different from what we have preached, how is it possible even for the most presumptuous to assert that these condemnations apply only to those who are still alive? Since the Lord declares that the person is judged already, and the Apostle curses even the angels if they instruct in anything different from what we have preached, how is it possible even for the most presumptuous to assert that these condemnations apply only to those who are still alive? Are they unaware, or rather pretending to be unaware, that to be judged anathematized is just the same as to be separated from God? The heretic, even though he has not been condemned formally by any individual, in reality brings anathema on himself, having cut himself off from the way of truth by his heresy. What reply can such people make to the Apostle when he writes: As for someone who is factious, after admonishing him once or twice, have nothing more to do with him, knowing that such a person is perverted and sinful; he is self-condemned. What reply can such people make to the Apostle when he writes: As for someone who is factious, after admonishing him once or twice, have nothing more to do with him, knowing that such a person is perverted and sinful; he is self-condemned .

It was in the spirit of this text that Cyril of holy memory, in the books which he wrote against Theodore, declared as follows: "Whether or not they are alive, we ought to keep clear of those who are in the grip of such dreadful errors. It is necessary always to avoid what is harmful, and not to be worried about public opinion but rather to consider what is pleasing to God". It was in the spirit of this text that Cyril of holy memory, in the books which he wrote against Theodore, declared as follows: "Whether or not they are alive, we ought to keep clear of those who are in the grip of such dreadful errors. It is necessary always to avoid what is harmful, and not to be worried about public opinion but rather to consider what is pleasing to God". The same Cyril of holy memory, writing to bishop John of Antioch and to the synod which met there about Theodore who was condemned with Nestorius, says, "It was necessary that a brilliant festival should be kept since all those who had expressed opinions in accordance with Nestorius had been rejected, whoever they were. Action was taken against all those who believed, or had at any time believed, in these mistaken views. This is exactly what we and your holiness pronounced: 'We anathematize those who assert that there exist two sons and two Christs. He who is preached by you and us is, as was said, the single Christ, both Son and Lord, the only-begotten as man, as learned Paul says'". The same Cyril of holy memory, writing to bishop John of Antioch and to the synod which met there about Theodore who was condemned with Nestorius, says, "It was necessary that a brilliant festival should be kept since all those who had expressed opinions in accordance with Nestorius had been rejected, whoever they were. Action was taken against all those who believed, or had at any time believed, in these mistaken views. This is exactly what we and your holiness pronounced: 'We anathematize those who assert that there exist two sons and two Christs. He who is preached by you and us is, as was said, the single Christ, both Son and Lord, the only-begotten as man, as learned Paul says'". Moreover in his letter to the priests and fathers of monks, Alexander, Martinian, John, Paregorious and Maximus, and to those who were living as solitaries along with them, he says: "The holy synod of Ephesus, meeting in accordance with the will of God, has pronounced sentence against the heresy of Nestorius and has condemned according to justice and with accuracy both Nestorius himself and all those who might later, in inane fashion, adopt the same opinions as he held, and those who had previously adhered to the same opinions and who were bold enough to put them in writing, placing upon them all an equal condemnation. It was quite logical that when a condemnation was issued against one person for such stupidity in what he said, then that condemnation should apply not only to that person alone but also, so to speak, against all those who spread the heresies and untruths. They express these falsehoods against the true dogmas of the church, offering worship to two sons, trying to divide what cannot be divided, and introducing to both heaven and earth the offence of the worship of man. But the sacred band of heavenly spirits worship along with us only one lord Jesus Christ". Moreover in his letter to the priests and fathers of monks, Alexander, Martinian, John, Paregorious and Maximus, and to those who were living as solitaries along with them, he says: "The holy synod of Ephesus, meeting in accordance with the will of God, has pronounced sentence against the heresy of Nestorius and has condemned according to justice and with accuracy both Nestorius himself and all those who might later, in inane fashion, adopt the same opinions as he held, and those who had previously adhered to the same opinions and who were bold enough to put them in writing, placing upon them all an equal condemnation. It was quite logical that when a condemnation was issued against one person for such stupidity in what he said, then that condemnation should apply not only to that person alone but also, so to speak, against all those who spread the heresies and untruths. They express these falsehoods against the true dogmas of the church, offering worship to two sons, trying to divide what cannot be divided, and introducing to both heaven and earth the offence of the worship of man. But the sacred band of heavenly spirits worship along with us only one lord Jesus Christ". Moreover, several letters of Augustine of sacred memory, who was particularly outstanding among the African bishops, were read in which he indicates that it is correct to condemn heretics even after their death. Other most reverend bishops of Africa have also observed this church custom; moreover the holy church of Rome has issued anathemas against certain bishops even after they were dead, although they had not been accused on matters of faith while they were alive; the acts of our deliberations bear witness to both these cases. Other most reverend bishops of Africa have also observed this church custom; moreover the holy church of Rome has issued anathemas against certain bishops even after they were dead, although they had not been accused on matters of faith while they were alive; the acts of our deliberations bear witness to both these cases. Since the followers of Theodore and his heresy, who are plainly opposed to the truth, have tried to adduce some sections of the writings of Cyril and Proclus of holy memory, as though these were in favour of Theodore, it is appropriate to apply to these attempts the observation of the prophet when he writes: The ways of the Lord are right, and the upright walk in them, but transgressors stumble in them. Since the followers of Theodore and his heresy, who are plainly opposed to the truth, have tried to adduce some sections of the writings of Cyril and Proclus of holy memory, as though these were in favour of Theodore, it is appropriate to apply to these attempts the observation of the prophet when he writes: The ways of the Lord are right, and the upright walk in them, but transgressors stumble in them. These followers have willfully misunderstood what the holy fathers wrote, even though it was true and appropriate; they have quoted these writings, dissembling excuses for their own iniquities. It seems that the fathers did not lift the anathema against Theodore but rather used the language of concession in order to lead away from their mistake those who offered some defence of Nestorius and his heresy; their aim was to lead them to perfection and to instruct them that not only was Nestorius, the disciple of heresy, condemned but also his teacher Theodore. It seems that the fathers did not lift the anathema against Theodore but rather used the language of concession in order to lead away from their mistake those who offered some defence of Nestorius and his heresy; their aim was to lead them to perfection and to instruct them that not only was Nestorius, the disciple of heresy, condemned but also his teacher Theodore. The fathers indicate their intention in this matter despite the conciliatory forms used: Theodore was to be anathematized. This has been very clearly shown to be the case by us in our acts from the works of Cyril and Proclus of blessed memory in respect of the condemnation of Theodore and his heresy. This conciliatory attitude is also to be found in the holy scriptures. The apostle Paul employed this tactic at the start of his ministry when he was dealing with those who had been Jews; he circumcised Timothy so that by this conciliation and concession he might lead them to perfection. Afterwards, however, he ruled against circumcision, writing on the subject to the Galatians: Now I Paul say to you that if you receive circumcision, Christ will be of no advantage to you. We found that the defenders of Theodore have done exactly what the heretics were accustomed to do. They have tried to lift the anathema on the said heretical Theodore by omitting some of the things which the holy fathers had written, by including certain confusing falsehoods of their own, and by quoting a letter of Cyril of blessed memory, as if all this were the evidence of the fathers. They have tried to lift the anathema on the said heretical Theodore by omitting some of the things which the holy fathers had written, by including certain confusing falsehoods of their own, and by quoting a letter of Cyril of blessed memory, as if all this were the evidence of the fathers. The passages which they quoted made the truth absolutely clear once the omitted sections were put back in their proper place. The falsehoods were quite apparent when the true writings were collated. In this matter those who issued these empty statements are those who, in the words of scripture, rely on lies, they make empty pleas; they conceive mischief and bring forth iniquity, they weave the spider's web.

After we had investigated in this way Theodore and his heresy, we took the trouble to quote and include in our acts a few of Theodoret's heretical writings against true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus. We also included some of Theodoret's writings on the side of the heretical Theodore and Nestorius so that it would be made clear, to the satisfaction of anyone reading our acts, that these opinions had been properly rejected and anathematized.

Thirdly, the letter which is alleged to have been written by Ibas to Mari the Persian was brought under scrutiny and we discovered that it too ought to be officially read out. When the letter was read out, its heretical character was immediately apparent to everyone. Until this time there had been some dispute as to whether the aforesaid three chapters ought to be condemned and anathematized. Since the supporters of the heretics Theodore and Nestorius were conspiring to strengthen in another way the case of these men and their heresy, and were alleging that this heretical letter, which approves and defends Theodore and Nestorius, had been accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon, it was therefore necessary for us to demonstrate that that holy synod was unaffected by the heresy which is present in that letter, and that clearly those who make such allegations are doing so not with the assistance of the holy council but so as to give some support to their own heresy by associating it with the name of Chalcedon. Since the supporters of the heretics Theodore and Nestorius were conspiring to strengthen in another way the case of these men and their heresy, and were alleging that this heretical letter, which approves and defends Theodore and Nestorius, had been accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon , it was therefore necessary for us to demonstrate that that holy synod was unaffected by the heresy which is present in that letter, and that clearly those who make such allegations are doing so not with the assistance of the holy council but so as to give some support to their own heresy by associating it with the name of Chalcedon. It was demonstrated in our acts that Ibas was previously accused of the same heresy which is contained in this letter. This accusation was levelled first by Proclus of holy memory, bishop of Constantinople, and afterwards by Theodosius of blessed memory and Flavian, the bishop there after Proclus, both of whom gave the task of examining the whole matter to Photius, bishop of Tyre, and to Eustathius, bishop of the city of Beirut. This accusation was levelled first by Proclus of holy memory, bishop of Constantinople, and afterwards by Theodosius of blessed memory and Flavian, the bishop there after Proclus, both of whom gave the task of examining the whole matter to Photius, bishop of Tyre, and to Eustathius, bishop of the city of Beirut. When Ibas was later found to be blameworthy, he was deposed from the episcopate. This being the state of affairs, how could anyone be so bold as to allege that that heretical letter was accepted by the holy council of Chalcedon or that the holy council of Chalcedon agreed with it in its entirety? So as to prevent those who misrepresent the holy council of Chalcedon in this way from having any further opportunity to do so we instructed that there should be a formal reading of the official pronouncements of the holy synods, namely the first of Ephesus and that of Chalcedon, on the subject of the letters of Cyril of holy memory and of Leo of blessed memory, formerly pope of older Rome. So as to prevent those who misrepresent the holy council of Chalcedon in this way from having any further opportunity to do so we instructed that there should be a formal reading of the official pronouncements of the holy synods, namely the first of Ephesus and that of Chalcedon , on the subject of the letters of Cyril of holy memory and of Leo of blessed memory, formerly pope of older Rome. We gathered from these authorities that nothing which has been written by anyone ought to be accepted unless it has been shown conclusively that it is in accord with the true faith of the holy fathers. Therefore we broke off from our deliberations so as to reiterate in a formal declaration the definition of faith which was promulgated by the holy council of Chalcedon. We compared what was written in the letter with this official statement. When this comparison was made, it was quite apparent that the contents of the letter were quite contradictory to those of the definition of faith. The definition was in accord with the unique, permanent faith set out by the 318 holy fathers, and by the 150, and by those who gathered for the first council at Ephesus. The heretical letter, on the other hand, included the blasphemies of the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and even gave support to them and describes them as doctors, while it condemns the holy fathers as heretics. We make it quite clear to everyone that we do not intend to omit what the fathers had to say in the first and second investigations, which are adduced by the supporters of Theodore and Nestorius in support of their case. Rather these statements and all the others were formally read out and what they contained was submitted to official scrutiny, and we found that they had not allowed the said Ibas to be accepted until they had obliged him to anathematize Nestorius and his heretical doctrines which were affirmed in that letter. Rather these statements and all the others were formally read out and what they contained was submitted to official scrutiny, and we found that they had not allowed the said Ibas to be accepted until they had obliged him to anathematize Nestorius and his heretical doctrines which were affirmed in that letter. This was the view not only of the two bishops whose interventions some have tried to misapply but also of the other religious bishops of that holy council. They also acted thus in the case of Theodoret and insisted that he anathematize those opinions about which he was accused. If they would permit the acceptance of Ibas only if he condemned the heresy which was to be found in his letter, and on condition that he subscribed to a definition of faith set out by the council, how can an attempt be made to allege that this heretical letter was accepted by the same holy council? If they would permit the acceptance of Ibas only if he condemned the heresy which was to be found in his letter, and on condition that he subscribed to a definition of faith set out by the council, how can an attempt be made to allege that this heretical letter was accepted by the same holy council? We are rightly told: What partnership has righteousness with iniquity? Or what fellowship has light with darkness? What accord has Christ with Belial? Or what has a believer in common with an unbeliever? What participation has the temple of God with idols?

Now that we have given the details of what our council has achieved, we repeat our formal confession that we accept the four holy synods, that is, of Nicaea, of Constantinople, the first of Ephesus, and of Chalcedon. Our teaching is and has been all that they have defined concerning the one faith. We consider those who do not respect these things as foreign to the catholic church. Furthermore, we condemn and anathematize, along with all other heretics who have been condemned and anathematized by the same four holy councils and by the holy, catholic and apostolic church, Theodore, formerly bishop of Mopsuestia, and his heretical writings, and also what Theodoret heretically wrote against the true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus, and we condemn also what he wrote defending Theodore and Nestorius. Furthermore, we condemn and anathematize, along with all other heretics who have been condemned and anathematized by the same four holy councils and by the holy, catholic and apostolic church, Theodore, formerly bishop of Mopsuestia, and his heretical writings, and also what Theodoret heretically wrote against the true faith, against the twelve chapters of holy Cyril and against the first synod of Ephesus, and we condemn also what he wrote defending Theodore and Nestorius. Additionally, we anathematize the heretical letter which Ibas is alleged to have written to Mari the Persian. This letter denies that God the Word was made incarnate of the ever virgin Mary, the holy mother of God, and that he was made man. It also condemns as a heretic Cyril of holy memory, who taught the truth, and suggests that he held the same opinions as Apollinarius. The letter condemns the first synod of Ephesus for deposing Nestorius without proper process and investigation. It calls the twelve chapters of holy Cyril heretical and contrary to the orthodox faith, while it supports Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and writings. Consequently we anathematize the aforesaid three chapters, that is, the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia along with his detestable writings, and the heretical writings of Theodoret, and the heretical letter which Ibas is alleged to have written. We anathematize the supporters of these works and those who write or have written in defence of them, or who are bold enough to claim that they are orthodox, or who have defended or tried to defend their heresy in the names of holy fathers or of the holy council of Chalcedon. We anathematize the supporters of these works and those who write or have written in defence of them, or who are bold enough to claim that they are orthodox, or who have defended or tried to defend their heresy in the names of holy fathers or of the holy council of Chalcedon.

These matters having been treated with thorough-going exactness, we bear in mind what was promised about the holy church and him who said that the gates of hell will not prevail against it (by these we understand the death-dealing tongues of heretics); we also bear in mind what was prophesied about the church by Hosea when he said, I shall betroth you to me in faithfulness and you shall know the Lord; and we count along with the devil, the father of lies, the uncontrolled tongues of heretics and their heretical writings, together with the heretics themselves who have persisted in their heresy even to death. These matters having been treated with thorough-going exactness, we bear in mind what was promised about the holy church and him who said that the gates of hell will not prevail against it (by these we understand the death-dealing tongues of heretics); we also bear in mind what was prophesied about the church by Hosea when he said, I shall betroth you to me in faithfulness and you shall know the Lord; and we count along with the devil, the father of lies, the uncontrolled tongues of heretics and their heretical writings, together with the heretics themselves who have persisted in their heresy even to death. So we declare to them: Behold all you who kindle a fire, who set brands alight! Walk by the light of your fire, and by the brands which you have kindled! Since we are under command to encourage the people with orthodox teaching and to speak to the heart of Jerusalem, that is the church of God, we very properly hurry to sow in righteousness and to reap the fruit of life. In doing this we are lighting for ourselves the lamp of knowledge from the scriptures and the teachings of the fathers. It has therefore seemed necessary to us to sum up in certain statements both our declarations of the truth and our condemnations of heretics and their heretical teachings.

Anathemas against the "Three Chapters"

  1. If anyone will not confess that the Father, Son and holy Spirit have one nature or substance, that they have one power and authority, that there is a consubstantial Trinity, one Deity to be adored in three subsistences or persons: let him be anathema . There is only one God and Father, from whom all things come, and one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things are, and one holy Spirit, in whom all things are.

  2. If anyone will not confess that the Word of God has two nativities, that which is before all ages from the Father, outside time and without a body, and secondly that nativity of these latter days when the Word of God came down from the heavens and was made flesh of holy and glorious Mary, mother of God and ever-virgin, and was born from her: let him be anathema . If anyone will not confess that the Word of God has two nativities, that which is before all ages from the Father, outside time and without a body, and secondly that nativity of these latter days when the Word of God came down from the heavens and was made flesh of holy and glorious Mary, mother of God and ever-virgin, and was born from her: let him be anathema .

  3. If anyone declares that the [Word] of God who works miracles is not identical with the Christ who suffered, or alleges that God the Word was with the Christ who was born of woman, or was in him in the way that one might be in another, but that our lord Jesus Christ was not one and the same, the Word of God incarnate and made man, and that the miracles and the sufferings which he voluntarily underwent in the flesh were not of the same person: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that the [Word] of God who works miracles is not identical with the Christ who suffered, or alleges that God the Word was with the Christ who was born of woman, or was in him in the way that one might be in another, but that our lord Jesus Christ was not one and the same, the Word of God incarnate and made man, and that the miracles and the sufferings which he voluntarily underwent in the flesh were not of the same person: let him be anathema .

  4. If anyone declares that it was only in respect of grace, or of principle of action, or of dignity or in respect of equality of honour, or in respect of authority, or of some relation, or of some affection or power that there was a unity made between the Word of God and the man, or if anyone alleges that it is in respect of good will, as if God the Word was pleased with the man, because he was well and properly disposed to God, as Theodore claims in his madness; or if anyone says that this union is only a sort of synonymity, as the Nestorians allege, who call the Word of God Jesus and Christ, and even designate the human separately by the names "Christ" and "Son", discussing quite obviously two different persons, and only pretending to speak of one person and one Christ when the reference is to his title, honour, dignity or adoration; finally if anyone does not accept the teaching of the holy fathers that the union occurred of the Word of God with human flesh which is possessed by a rational and intellectual soul, and that this union is by synthesis or by person, and that therefore there is only one person, namely the lord Jesus Christ, one member of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that it was only in respect of grace, or of principle of action, or of dignity or in respect of equality of honour, or in respect of authority, or of some relation, or of some affection or power that there was a unity made between the Word of God and the man, or if anyone alleges that it is in respect of good will, as if God the Word was pleased with the man, because he was well and properly disposed to God, as Theodore claims in his madness; or if anyone says that this union is only a sort of synonymity, as the Nestorians allege, who call the Word of God Jesus and Christ, and even designate the human separately by the names "Christ" and "Son", discussing quite obviously two different persons, and only pretending to speak of one person and one Christ when the reference is to his title, honour, dignity or adoration; finally if anyone does not accept the teaching of the holy fathers that the union occurred of the Word of God with human flesh which is possessed by a rational and intellectual soul, and that this union is by synthesis or by person, and that therefore there is only one person, namely the lord Jesus Christ, one member of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema . The notion of "union" can be understood in many different ways. The supporters of the wickedness of Apollinarius and Eutyches have asserted that the union is produced by a confusing of the uniting elements, as they advocate the disappearance of the elements that unite. Those who follow Theodore and Nestorius, rejoicing in the division, have brought in a union which is only by affection. The holy church of God, rejecting the wickedness of both sorts of heresy, states her belief in a union between the Word of God and human flesh which is by synthesis, that is by a union of subsistence. In the mystery of Christ the union of synthesis not only conserves without confusing the elements that come together but also allows no division.

  5. If anyone understands by the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ that it covers the meaning of many subsistences, and by this argument tries to introduce into the mystery of Christ two subsistences or two persons, and having brought in two persons then talks of one person only in respect of dignity, honour or adoration, as both Theodore and Nestorius have written in their madness; if anyone falsely represents the holy synod of Chalcedon, making out that it accepted this heretical view by its terminology of "one subsistence", and if he does not acknowledge that the Word of God is united with human flesh by subsistence, and that on account of this there is only one subsistence or one person, and that the holy synod of Chalcedon thus made a formal statement of belief in the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ: let him be anathema . If anyone understands by the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ that it covers the meaning of many subsistences, and by this argument tries to introduce into the mystery of Christ two subsistences or two persons, and having brought in two persons then talks of one person only in respect of dignity, honour or adoration, as both Theodore and Nestorius have written in their madness; if anyone falsely represents the holy synod of Chalcedon, making out that it accepted this heretical view by its terminology of "one subsistence", and if he does not acknowledge that the Word of God is united with human flesh by subsistence, and that on account of this there is only one subsistence or one person, and that the holy synod of Chalcedon thus made a formal statement of belief in the single subsistence of our lord Jesus Christ: let him be anathema . There has been no addition of person or subsistence to the holy Trinity even after one of its members, God the Word, becoming human flesh.

  6. If anyone declares that it can be only inexactly and not truly said that the holy and glorious ever-virgin Mary is the mother of God, or says that she is so only in some relative way, considering that she bore a mere man and that God the Word was not made into human flesh in her, holding rather that the nativity of a man from her was referred, as they say, to God the Word as he was with the man who came into being; if anyone misrepresents the holy synod of Chalcedon, alleging that it claimed that the virgin was the mother of God only according to that heretical understanding which the blasphemous Theodore put forward; or if anyone says that she is the mother of a man or the Christ-bearer, that is the mother of Christ, suggesting that Christ is not God; and does not formally confess that she is properly and truly the mother of God, because he who before all ages was born of the Father, God the Word, has been made into human flesh in these latter days and has been born to her, and it was in this religious understanding that the holy synod of Chalcedon formally stated its belief that she was the mother of God: let him be anathema . If anyone declares that it can be only inexactly and not truly said that the holy and glorious ever-virgin Mary is the mother of God, or says that she is so only in some relative way, considering that she bore a mere man and that God the Word was not made into human flesh in her, holding rather that the nativity of a man from her was referred, as they say, to God the Word as he was with the man who came into being; if anyone misrepresents the holy synod of Chalcedon, alleging that it claimed that the virgin was the mother of God only according to that heretical understanding which the blasphemous Theodore put forward; or if anyone says that she is the mother of a man or the Christ-bearer, that is the mother of Christ, suggesting that Christ is not God; and does not formally confess that she is properly and truly the mother of God, because he who before all ages was born of the Father, God the Word, has been made into human flesh in these latter days and has been born to her, and it was in this religious understanding that the holy synod of Chalcedon formally stated its belief that she was the mother of God: let him be anathema .

  7. If anyone, when speaking about the two natures, does not confess a belief in our one lord Jesus Christ, understood in both his divinity and his humanity, so as by this to signify a difference of natures of which an ineffable union has been made without confusion, in which neither the nature of the Word was changed into the nature of human flesh, nor was the nature of human flesh changed into that of the Word (each remained what it was by nature, even after the union, as this had been made in respect of subsistence); and if anyone understands the two natures in the mystery of Christ in the sense of a division into parts, or if he expresses his belief in the plural natures in the same lord Jesus Christ, God the Word made flesh, but does not consider the difference of those natures, of which he is composed, to be only in the onlooker's mind, a difference which is not compromised by the union (for he is one from both and the two exist through the one) but uses the plurality to suggest that each nature is possessed separately and has a subsistence of its own: let him be anathema . If anyone, when speaking about the two natures, does not confess a belief in our one lord Jesus Christ, understood in both his divinity and his humanity, so as by this to signify a difference of natures of which an ineffable union has been made without confusion, in which neither the nature of the Word was changed into the nature of human flesh, nor was the nature of human flesh changed into that of the Word (each remained what it was by nature, even after the union, as this had been made in respect of subsistence); and if anyone understands the two natures in the mystery of Christ in the sense of a division into parts, or if he expresses his belief in the plural natures in the same lord Jesus Christ, God the Word made flesh , but does not consider the difference of those natures, of which he is composed, to be only in the onlooker's mind, a difference which is not compromised by the union (for he is one from both and the two exist through the one) but uses the plurality to suggest that each nature is possessed separately and has a subsistence of its own: let him be anathema .

  8. If anyone confesses a belief that a union has been made out of the two natures divinity and humanity, or speaks about the one nature of God the Word made flesh, but does not understand these things according to what the fathers have taught, namely that from the divine and human natures a union was made according to subsistence, and that one Christ was formed, and from these expressions tries to introduce one nature or substance made of the deity and human flesh of Christ: let him be anathema . If anyone confesses a belief that a union has been made out of the two natures divinity and humanity, or speaks about the one nature of God the Word made flesh, but does not understand these things according to what the fathers have taught, namely that from the divine and human natures a union was made according to subsistence, and that one Christ was formed, and from these expressions tries to introduce one nature or substance made of the deity and human flesh of Christ: let him be anathema . In saying that it was in respect of subsistence that the only-begotten God the Word was united, we are not alleging that there was a confusion made of each of the natures into one another, but rather that each of the two remained what it was, and in this way we understand that the Word was united to human flesh. In saying that it was in respect of subsistence that the only-begotten God the Word was united, we are not alleging that there was a confusion made of each of the natures into one another, but rather that each of the two remained what it was , and in this way we understand that the Word was united to human flesh. So there is only one Christ, God and man, the same being consubstantial with the Father in respect of his divinity, and also consubstantial with us in respect of our humanity. Both those who divide or split up the mystery of the divine dispensation of Christ and those who introduce into that mystery some confusion are equally rejected and anathematized by the church of God.

  9. If anyone says that Christ is to be worshipped in his two natures, and by that wishes to introduce two adorations, a separate one for God the Word and another for the man; or if anyone, so as to remove the human flesh or to mix up the divinity and the humanity, monstrously invents one nature or substance brought together from the two, and so worships Christ, but not by a single adoration God the Word in human flesh along with his human flesh, as has been the tradition of the church from the beginning: let him be anathema . If anyone says that Christ is to be worshipped in his two natures, and by that wishes to introduce two adorations, a separate one for God the Word and another for the man; or if anyone, so as to remove the human flesh or to mix up the divinity and the humanity, monstrously invents one nature or substance brought together from the two, and so worships Christ, but not by a single adoration God the Word in human flesh along with his human flesh, as has been the tradition of the church from the beginning: let him be anathema .

  10. If anyone does not confess his belief that our lord Jesus Christ, who was crucified in his human flesh, is truly God and the Lord of glory and one of the members of the holy Trinity: let him be anathema .

  11. If anyone does not anathematize Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinarius Nestorius, Eutyches and Origen , as well as their heretical books, and also all other heretics who have already been condemned and anathematized by the holy, catholic and apostolic church and by the four holy synods which have already been mentioned, and also all those who have thought or now think in the same way as the aforesaid heretics and who persist in their error even to death: let him be anathema . If anyone does not anathematize Arius, Eunomius, Macedonius, Apollinarius Nestorius, Eutyches and Origen , as well as their heretical books, and also all other heretics who have already been condemned and anathematized by the holy, catholic and apostolic church and by the four holy synods which have already been mentioned, and also all those who have thought or now think in the same way as the aforesaid heretics and who persist in their error even to death: let him be anathema .

  12. If anyone defends the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia, who said that God the Word is one, while quite another is Christ, who was troubled by the passions of the soul and the desires of human flesh, was gradually separated from that which is inferior, and became better by his progress in good works, and could not be faulted in his way of life, and as a mere man was baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and the holy Spirit, and through this baptism received the grace of the holy Spirit and came to deserve sonship and to be adored, in the way that one adores a statue of the emperor, as if he were God the Word, and that he became after his resurrection immutable in his thoughts and entirely without sin. If anyone defends the heretical Theodore of Mopsuestia, who said that God the Word is one, while quite another is Christ, who was troubled by the passions of the soul and the desires of human flesh, was gradually separated from that which is inferior, and became better by his progress in good works, and could not be faulted in his way of life, and as a mere man was baptized in the name of the Father and the Son and the holy Spirit, and through this baptism received the grace of the holy Spirit and came to deserve sonship and to be adored, in the way that one adores a statue of the emperor, as if he were God the Word, and that he became after his resurrection immutable in his thoughts and entirely without sin. Furthermore this heretical Theodore claimed that the union of God the Word to Christ is rather like that which, according to the teaching of the Apostle, is between a man and his wife: The two shall become one. Among innumerable other blasphemies he dared to allege that, when after his resurrection the Lord breathed on his disciples and said, Receive the holy Spirit, he was not truly giving them the holy Spirit, but he breathed on them only as a sign. Similarly he claimed that Thomas's profession of faith made when, after his resurrection, he touched the hands and side of the Lord, namely My Lord and my God, was not said about Christ, but that Thomas was in this way extolling God for raising up Christ and expressing his astonishment at the miracle of the resurrection. Similarly he claimed that Thomas's profession of faith made when, after his resurrection, he touched the hands and side of the Lord, namely My Lord and my God, was not said about Christ, but that Thomas was in this way extolling God for raising up Christ and expressing his astonishment at the miracle of the resurrection. This Theodore makes a comparison which is even worse than this when, writing about the acts of the Apostles, he says that Christ was like Plato, Manichaeus, Epicurus and Marcion, alleging that just as each of these men arrived at his own teaching and then had his disciples called after him Platonists, Manichaeans, Epicureans and Marcionites, so Christ found his teaching and then had disciples who were called Christians. This Theodore makes a comparison which is even worse than this when, writing about the acts of the Apostles, he says that Christ was like Plato, Manichaeus, Epicurus and Marcion, alleging that just as each of these men arrived at his own teaching and then had his disciples called after him Platonists, Manichaeans, Epicureans and Marcionites, so Christ found his teaching and then had disciples who were called Christians. If anyone offers a defence for this more heretical Theodore, and his heretical books in which he throws up the aforesaid blasphemies and many other additional blasphemies against our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, and if anyone fails to anathematize him and his heretical books as well as all those who offer acceptance or defence to him, or who allege that his interpretation is correct, or who write on his behalf or on that of his heretical teachings, or who are or have been of the same way of thinking and persist until death in this error: let him be anathema . If anyone offers a defence for this more heretical Theodore, and his heretical books in which he throws up the aforesaid blasphemies and many other additional blasphemies against our great God and saviour Jesus Christ, and if anyone fails to anathematize him and his heretical books as well as all those who offer acceptance or defence to him, or who allege that his interpretation is correct, or who write on his behalf or on that of his heretical teachings, or who are or have been of the same way of thinking and persist until death in this error: let him be anathema .

  13. If anyone defends the heretical writings of Theodoret which were composed against the true faith, against the first holy synod of Ephesus and against holy Cyril and his Twelve Chapters, and also defends what Theodoret wrote to support the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and others who think in the same way as the aforesaid Theodore and Nestorius and accept them or their heresy and if anyone, because of them, shall accuse of being heretical the doctors of the church who have stated their belief in the union according to subsistence of God the Word; and if anyone does not anathematize these heretical books and those who have thought or now think in this way, and all those who have written against the true faith or against holy Cyril and his twelve chapters, and who persist in such heresy until they die: let him be anathema . If anyone defends the heretical writings of Theodoret which were composed against the true faith, against the first holy synod of Ephesus and against holy Cyril and his Twelve Chapters, and also defends what Theodoret wrote to support the heretical Theodore and Nestorius and others who think in the same way as the aforesaid Theodore and Nestorius and accept them or their heresy and if anyone, because of them, shall accuse of being heretical the doctors of the church who have stated their belief in the union according to subsistence of God the Word; and if anyone does not anathematize these heretical books and those who have thought or now think in this way, and all those who have written against the true faith or against holy Cyril and his twelve chapters, and who persist in such heresy until they die: let him be anathema .

  14. If anyone defends the letter which Ibas is said to have written to Mari the Persian, which denies that God the Word, who became incarnate of Mary the holy mother of God and ever virgin, became man, but alleges that he was only a man born to her, whom it describes as a temple, as if God the Word was one and the man someone quite different; which condemns holy Cyril as if he were a heretic, when he gives the true teaching of Christians, and accuses holy Cyril of writing opinions like those of the heretical Apollinarius ;which rebukes the first holy synod of Ephesus, alleging that it condemned Nestorius without going into the matter by a formal examination; which claims that the twelve chapters of holy Cyril are heretical and opposed to the true faith; and which defends Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and books. If anyone defends the letter which Ibas is said to have written to Mari the Persian, which denies that God the Word, who became incarnate of Mary the holy mother of God and ever virgin, became man, but alleges that he was only a man born to her, whom it describes as a temple, as if God the Word was one and the man someone quite different; which condemns holy Cyril as if he were a heretic, when he gives the true teaching of Christians, and accuses holy Cyril of writing opinions like those of the heretical Apollinarius ;which rebukes the first holy synod of Ephesus, alleging that it condemned Nestorius without going into the matter by a formal examination; which claims that the twelve chapters of holy Cyril are heretical and opposed to the true faith; and which defends Theodore and Nestorius and their heretical teachings and books. If anyone defends the said letter and does not anathematize it and all those who offer a defence for it and allege that it or a part of it is correct, or if anyone defends those who have written or shall write in support of it or the heresies contained in it, or supports those who are bold enough to defend it or its heresies in the name of the holy fathers of the holy synod of Chalcedon, and persists in these errors until his death: let him be anathema . If anyone defends the said letter and does not anathematize it and all those who offer a defence for it and allege that it or a part of it is correct, or if anyone defends those who have written or shall write in support of it or the heresies contained in it, or supports those who are bold enough to defend it or its heresies in the name of the holy fathers of the holy synod of Chalcedon, and persists in these errors until his death: let him be anathema .

Such then are the assertions we confess. We have received them from

  1. holy Scripture, from
  2. the teaching of the holy fathers, and from
  3. the definitions about the one and the same faith made by the aforesaid four holy synods.
Moreover, condemnation has been passed by us against the heretics and their impiety, and also against those who have justified or shall justify the so-called "Three Chapters", and against those who have persisted or will persist in their own error. If anyone should attempt to hand on, or to teach by word or writing, anything contrary to what we have regulated, then if he is a bishop or somebody appointed to the clergy, in so far as he is acting contrary to what befits priests and the ecclesiastical status, let him be stripped of the rank of priest or cleric, and if he is a monk or lay person, let him be anathema . If anyone should attempt to hand on, or to teach by word or writing, anything contrary to what we have regulated, then if he is a bishop or somebody appointed to the clergy, in so far as he is acting contrary to what befits priests and the ecclesiastical status, let him be stripped of the rank of priest or cleric, and if he is a monk or lay person, let him be anathema .


Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner

Third Council of Constantinople - 680 - 681 AD Drittes Konzil von Konstantinopel - 680 - 681 n. Chr.

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Contents Inhalt

Exposition of faith Ausstellung des Glaubens

INTRODUCTION EINFÜHRUNG

To make an end of the Monothelite controversy , Emperor Constantine IV asked Pope Donus in 678 to send twelve bishops and four western Greek monastic superiors to represent the pope at an assembly of eastern and western theologians. Pope Agatho , who meanwhile had succeeded Donus, ordered consultation in the west on this important matter. Um ein Ende der Kontroverse Monothelite, Kaiser Konstantin IV. fragte Donus und 678 zu senden zwölf Bischöfen und vier westlichen griechischen klösterlichen Vorgesetzten zur Vertretung des Papstes auf einer Versammlung der Ost-und West-Theologen. Agatho, die mittlerweile gelungen Donus, bestellt Beratung in den Westen zu diesem wichtigen Thema. Around Easter 680 a synod in Rome of 125 Italian bishops, with Pope Agatho presiding, assessed the replies of the regional synods of the west and composed a profession of faith in which Monothelitism was condemned . Rund um Ostern 680 eine Synode in Rom von 125 italienischen Bischöfe, mit Agatho Vorsitzende, bewertet die Antworten der regionalen Synoden des Westens und komponierte ein Beruf des Glaubens, in denen Monothelitism verurteilt wurde. Legates of the pope took this profession to Constantinople, arriving at the beginning of September 680. Legaten des Papstes hat diesen Beruf zu Konstantinopel, ab Anfang September 680.

On 10 September 680 the emperor issued an edict to Patriarch George of Constantinople, ordering a council of bishops to be convoked. Am 10. September 680, die der Kaiser ein Edikt zu George Patriarch von Konstantinopel, der Bestellung eines Rates der Bischöfe einberufen werden. The council assembled on 7 November in the hall of the imperial palace in Constantinople. Der Rat versammelt am 7. November in der Halle des kaiserlichen Palast in Konstantinopel. It immediately called itself an ecumenical council. Es nennt sich sofort eine ökumenische Gemeinde. There were 18 sessions, at the first eleven of which the emperor presided. Es gab 18 Sitzungen, in den ersten elf von denen der Kaiser den Vorsitz.

In the 8th session, on 7 March 681, the council adopted the teaching of Pope Agatho in condemnation of Monothelitism . In der 8. Sitzung am 7. März 681, der Rat nahm die Lehre von Agatho Verurteilung in der Monothelitism. Patriarch Macarius of Antioch was one of the few who refused his assent; he was deposed in the 12th session. Makarios Patriarch von Antiochien war einer der wenigen, die seine Zustimmung verweigerte, wurde er abgesetzt und der 12. Tagung.

The doctrinal conclusions of the council were defined in the 17th session and promulgated in the 18th and last session on 16 September 681. The acts of the council, signed both by 174 fathers and finally by the emperor himself, were sent to Pope Leo II , who had succeeded Agatho, and he, when he had approved them, ordered them to be translated into Latin and to be signed by all the bishops of the west. Die doktrinäre Schlussfolgerungen des Rates wurden in der 17. Sitzung verkündet und in der 18. und letzten Sitzung am 16. September 681. Die Handlungen des Rates, unterzeichneten beide von 174 Väter und schließlich durch den Kaiser selbst, wurden an Papst Leo II, Hatten, gelang es Agatho, und er, als er angenommen hatte, ordnete sie ins Lateinische übersetzt werden und zu sein, die von allen Bischöfen des Westens. Constantine IV, however, promulgated the decrees of the council in all parts of the empire by imperial edict. Constantine IV, jedoch verkündet die Dekrete des Rates in allen Teilen des Reiches durch kaiserlichen Erlass. The council did not debate church discipline and did not establish any disciplinary cannons. Der Rat hat keine Debatte Kirche Disziplin und nicht irgendeine Disziplinar-Kanonen.


Exposition of faith Ausstellung des Glaubens

The only Son and Word of God the Father, who became a man like us in all things but sin, Christ our true God, proclaimed clearly in the words of the gospel; I am the light of the world; anyone who follows me shall not walk in darkness but shall have the light of life, and again, My peace I leave to you, my peace I give you. Der einzige Sohn und Wort Gottes, des Vaters, wurde ein Mensch wie wir in allen Dingen aber die Sünde, Christus, unseren wahren Gott, proklamiert deutlich in den Worten des Evangeliums, ich bin das Licht der Welt, und wer mir nachfolgt, wird nicht Spaziergang in der Finsternis, sondern wird das Licht des Lebens haben, und wieder, meinen Frieden hinterlasse ich Ihnen, meinen Frieden gebe ich euch. Our most mild emperor, champion of right belief and adversary of wrong belief, guided in godly wisdom by this teaching of peace spoken by God, has brought together this holy and universal assembly of ours and set at one the whole judgment of the church. Unsere milde Kaiser, Meister der rechten Glauben und Gegner der falschen Glauben, geführte und göttliche Weisheit durch diese Lehre von Frieden gesprochen von Gott, hat gemeinsam dieses heilige und universelle Montage von uns und setzen Sie auf einen der gesamte Urteil der Kirche.

Wherefore this holy and universal synod of ours , driving afar the error of impiety which endured for some time even till the present, following without deviation in a straight path after the holy and accepted fathers, has piously accorded in all things with the five holy and universal synods : that is to say, with Darum dieses heilige und universelle Synode von uns, Driving Ferne den Fehler impiety ertragen, die für einige Zeit sogar bis in die Gegenwart, folgende ohne Abweichung in einer geraden Weg nach der heiligen Väter und akzeptiert, hat fromm ihr in allen Dingen mit den fünf heiligen und Universelle Synoden: das heißt, mit

  1. the synod of 318 holy fathers who gathered at Nicaea against the madman Arius, and Die Synode von 318 heiligen Väter, die sich in Nicäa gegen die Verrückten Arius,
  2. that which followed it at Constantinople of 150 God-led men against Macedonius, opponent of the Spirit, and the impious Apollinarius; similarly too, with Das, was sie in Konstantinopel, gefolgt von 150 Gott-geführten Männer gegen Macedonius, Gegner des Geistes, und die pietätlos Apollinarius; ähnlich auch mit
  3. the first at Ephesus of 200 godly men brought together against Nestorius, who thought as the Jews and Die erste in Ephesus von 200 gottesfürchtige Männer trafen sich gegen Nestorius, der Gedanke, als die Juden und
  4. that at Chalcedon of 630 God-inspired fathers against Eutyches and Dioscorus, hateful to God; also, in addition to these, with Chalcedon, dass bei der 630-Gott inspiriert Väter gegen Eutyches und Dioskorus, hasserfüllt zu Gott; auch, zusätzlich zu diesen,
  5. the fifth holy synod, the latest of them, which was gathered here against Theodore of Mopsuestia, Origen, Didymus and Evagrius , and the writings of Theodoret against the twelve chapters of the renowned Cyril, and the letter said to have been written by Ibas to Mari the Persian. Die fünfte heilige Synode, die jüngsten von ihnen, die sich hier versammelt gegen Theodor von Mopsuestia, Origenes, Didymus und Euagrios, und die Schriften von Theodoret gegen den zwölf Kapiteln des renommierten Cyril, und sagte zu dem Schreiben wurden von Ibas auf Mari dem Persischen.
Reaffirming the divine tenets of piety in all respects unaltered, and banishing the profane teachings of impiety, this holy and universal synod of ours has also, in its turn, under God's inspiration , set its seal on the creed which was made out by the 318 fathers and confirmed again with godly prudence by the 150 and which the other holy synods too accepted gladly and ratified for the elimination of all soul-corrupting heresy Bekräftigung der göttlichen Lehren der Frömmigkeit in jeder Hinsicht unverändert, und die Bannung der profanen Lehren impiety, dieses heilige und universelle Synode von uns hat auch in seiner wiederum unter Gottes Inspiration, die seinen Stempel auf das Glaubensbekenntnis, wurde von den 318 Väter und bestätigt wieder mit von der göttlichen Vorsicht, die 150 und die anderen heiligen Synoden zu akzeptieren gerne ratifiziert und für die Beseitigung aller Seele-korrumpieren Häresie

We believe in one God ...[Creed of Nicaea and of Constantinople 1] Wir glauben an den einen Gott ... [Glaubensbekenntnis von Nicäa und Konstantinopel 1]

The holy and universal synod said: Der heilige und universelle Synode sprach:

This pious and orthodox creed of the divine favour was enough for a complete knowledge of the orthodox faith and a complete assurance therein. Dieser fromme orthodoxen Glaubens und der göttlichen dafür war genug für eine vollständige Kenntnis des orthodoxen Glaubens und eine vollständige Sicherung dort. But since from the first, the contriver of evil did not rest, finding an accomplice in the serpent and through him bringing upon human nature the poisoned dart of death, so too now he has found instruments suited to his own purpose--namely Theodore, who was bishop of Pharan, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul Paul and Peter, who were bishops of this imperial city, and further Honorius, who was pope of elder Rome, Cyrus, who held the see of Alexandria, and Macarius, who was recently bishop of Antioch, and his disciple Stephen -- and has not been idle in raising through them obstacles of error against the full body of the church sowing with novel speech among the orthodox people the heresy of a single will and a single principle of action in the two natures of the one member of the holy Trinity Christ our true God, a heresy in harmony with the evil belief, ruinous to the mind, of the impious Apollinarius, Severus and Themistius , and one intent on removing the perfection of the becoming man of the same one lord Jesus Christ our God, through a certain guileful device, leading from there to the blasphemous conclusion that his rationally animate flesh is without a will and a principle of action. Aber seit der ersten, die contriver des Bösen nicht ruhen, die Suche ein Komplize in der Schlange und durch ihn auf die menschliche Natur der vergifteten Pfeil des Todes, so dass er jetzt auch gefunden hat Instrumente geeignet, um seinen eigenen Zweck - nämlich Theodore, , War Bischof von Pharan, Sergius, Pyrrhus, Paul Peter und Paul, die Bischöfe waren der Reichsstadt, und weitere Honorius, der Papst des älteren Rom, Cyrus, der den von Alexandria sehen, und Makarios, die vor kurzem war Bischof Von Antiochien, und seinem Schüler Stephen - und wurde nicht untätig bei der Beschaffung von durch sie Hindernisse für Fehler gegen den vollen Körper der Kirche Aussaat mit neuartigen Rede zwischen den orthodoxen Menschen die Häresie einer einheitlichen Willen und einem einzigen Prinzip der Aktion in der Zwei-Naturen-der ein Mitglied der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit Christus, unseren wahren Gott, als Häresie, in Harmonie mit der bösen Glauben, ruinösen auf den Geist, der pietätlos Apollinarius, Severus und Themistius, und eine Absichtserklärung für die Beseitigung der Perfektion der immer Mann Der gleiche Herr Jesus Christus, unser Gott, durch eine bestimmte listig Gerät, der von dort zum Schluss, dass seine blasphemischen rational animieren Fleisch ist ohne Willen und das Prinzip der Aktion.

Therefore Christ our God has stirred up the faithful emperor, the new David, finding in him a man after his own heart, who, as the scripture says, did not allow his eyes sleep or his eyelids drowsing until through this holy assembly of ours, brought together by God, he found the perfect proclamation of right belief; for according to the God-spoken saying, Where there are two or three gathered in my name, there am I in their midst. Darum hat Christus, unser Gott bewegt die Gläubigen Kaiser, der neue David, finden in ihm einen Mann nach seinem eigenen Herzen, die, wie die Schrift sagt, war es nicht möglich seinen Augen schlafen oder seine Augenlider schlummernd, bis über diese heilige Montage der unsrigen, Von Gott brachte, fand er die perfekte Proklamation der rechten Glauben, für die nach dem Wort Gottes-und sagte: Wo gibt es zwei oder drei in meinem Namen versammelt, da bin ich in ihrer Mitte.

This same holy and universal synod, here present, faithfully accepts and welcomes with open hands the report of Agatho , most holy and most blessed pope of elder Rome, that came to our most reverend and most faithful emperor Constantine, which rejected by name those who proclaimed and taught, as has been already explained, one will and one principle of action in the incarnate dispensation of Christ our true God; and likewise it approves as well the other synodal report to his God-taught serenity, from the synod of 125 bishops dear to God meeting under the same most holy pope, as according with the holy synod at Chalcedon and with the Tome of the all-holy and most blessed Leo, pope of the same elder Rome, which was sent to Flavian, who is among the saints, and which that synod called a pillar of right belief, and furthermore with the synodal letters written by the blessed Cyril against the impious Nestorius and to the bishops of the east. Dieselbe heilige und universelle Synode, hier präsentieren, getreu akzeptiert und begrüßt mit offenen Händen der Bericht von Agatho, die meisten heiligen Papst gesegnet, und die meisten der älteren Rom, die kamen, um unser reverend und die meisten Gläubigen Kaiser Konstantin, der abgelehnt diejenigen, die nach Namen Verkündet und gelehrt hat, wie bereits dargelegt, ein Wille und ein Prinzip der Aktion in der Dispens des fleischgewordenen Christus, unseren wahren Gott, und es stimmt auch, wie gut die anderen synodale Bericht zu seinem Gott-gelehrt Gelassenheit, aus der Synode der Bischöfe 125 Liebe Gott unter den gleichen Sitzung am heiligen Papstes, als nach dem heiligen Synode zu Chalcedon und mit der Tome des all-heilig, und die meisten gesegnet Leo, Papst von der gleichen älteren Rom, die sich an Flavio, der sich zwischen den Heiligen, und dass die Synode forderte eine Säule der rechten Glauben, und darüber hinaus mit der synodale Briefe von der seligen Cyril gegen die pietätlos Nestorius und die Bischöfe der Osten.

Following the five holy and universal synods and the holy and accepted fathers, and defining in unison, it professes our lord Jesus Christ our true God, one of the holy Trinity, which is of one same being and is the source of life, to be perfect in divinity and perfect in humanity, the same truly God and truly man, of a rational soul and a body; consubstantial with the Father as regards his divinity, and the same consubstantial with us as regards his humanity, like us in all respects except for sin; begotten before the ages from the Father as regards his divinity, and in the last days the same for us and for our salvation from the holy Spirit and the virgin Mary, who is properly and truly called mother of God, as regards his humanity; one and the same Christ, Son, Lord, only-begotten, acknowledged in two natures which undergo no confusion, no change, no separation, no division; at no point was the difference between the natures taken away through the union, but rather the property of both natures is preserved and comes together into a single subsistent being [in unam personam et in unam subsistentiam concurrente]; he is not parted or divided into two persons, but is one and the same only-begotten Son, Word of God, lord Jesus Christ, just as the prophets taught from the beginning about him, and as Jesus the Christ himself instructed us, and as the creed of the holy fathers handed it down to us. Nach den fünf heiligen und universelle Synoden und der heiligen Väter und akzeptiert, und die Definition unisono, sie bekenne unser Fürst Jesus Christus, unseren wahren Gott, einer der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit, die von einem gleichen, und ist die Quelle des Lebens, zu Perfekt in der Göttlichkeit und perfekt in die Menschlichkeit, die gleichen Gott wirklich und wahrhaft Mensch, der eine vernünftige Seele und einen Körper; consubstantial mit dem Vater in Bezug auf seine Göttlichkeit, und die gleiche consubstantial mit uns im Zusammenhang mit seiner Menschlichkeit, wie wir in jeder Hinsicht mit Ausnahme Für die Sünde; gezeugt vor dem Alter von dem Vater in Bezug auf seine Göttlichkeit, und in den letzten Tagen das gleiche für uns und für unsere Erlösung von dem heiligen Geist und der Jungfrau Maria, die ist richtig und wirklich genannt Mutter Gottes, im Hinblick auf seine Menschlichkeit; ein und desselben Christus, Sohn, Herr, nur-gezeugt, räumte in zwei Naturen, die sich keine Verwirrung, keine Veränderung, keine Trennung, keine Spaltung, zu keinem Zeitpunkt war der Unterschied zwischen der Natur weggenommen durch die Vereinigung, sondern Eher das Eigentum der beiden Naturen erhalten und kommt zusammen in einer einzigen unterhaltend, [in unam personam et in unam subsistentiam concurrente], er ist nicht getrennt oder aufgeteilt in zwei Personen, sondern ist ein und dasselbe eingeborenen Sohn, der Word - Gott, Herr Jesus Christus, ebenso wie die Propheten gelehrt, von Anfang an über ihn, und als Jesus Christus selbst angewiesen, die uns, und so das Credo der heiligen Väter reichte es an uns.

And we proclaim equally two natural volitions or wills in him and two natural principles of action which undergo no division, no change, no partition, no confusion, in accordance with the teaching of the holy fathers. Und wir verkünden gleich zwei natürliche oder Willensäußerungen will in ihm und zwei natürlichen Prinzipien der Aktion, die sich keine Spaltung, keine Veränderung, keine Partition, keine Verwirrung, in Übereinstimmung mit der Lehre der heiligen Väter. And the two natural wills not in opposition, as the impious heretics said, far from it, but his human will following, and not resisting or struggling, rather in fact subject to his divine and all powerful will. Und die zwei natürliche will nicht in der Opposition, als pietätlos Ketzer sagte, weit davon entfernt, aber seine menschlichen werden folgende, nicht widerstehen, oder kämpfen, sondern in der Tat nach seiner göttlichen und alle leistungsstark werden. For the will of the flesh had to be moved, and yet to be subjected to the divine will, according to the most wise Athanasius. Für den Willen des Fleisches musste verschoben werden, und noch zu unterziehen, die göttlichen Willen, nach der die meisten klug Athanasius. For just as his flesh is said to be and is flesh of the Word of God, so too the natural will of his flesh is said to and does belong to the Word of God, just as he says himself: I have come down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of the Father who sent me, calling his own will that of his flesh, since his flesh too became his own. Denn genauso wie sein Fleisch sei und Fleisch des Wortes Gottes, die zu den natürlichen Willen sein Fleisch ist gesagt und gehört zu dem Wort Gottes, wie er selbst sagt: Ich bin vom Himmel , Nicht zu tun, meinen eigenen Willen, sondern den Willen des Vaters, der mich gesandt hat, gefordert wird, dass seine eigene seines Fleisches, da sein Fleisch wurde zu seinem eigenen. For in the same way that his all holy and blameless animate flesh was not destroyed in being made divine but remained in its own limit and category, so his human will as well was not destroyed by being made divine, but rather was preserved, according to the theologian Gregory, who says: "For his willing, when he is considered as saviour, is not in opposition to God, being made divine in its entirety." Denn in der gleichen Art und Weise, wie er alle heilig und schuldlos animieren Fleisch wurde nicht zerstört werden, sondern göttliche blieb in der eigenen Grenzen und die Kategorie, so dass seine menschlichen Willens und wurde nicht zerstört, indem sie die göttliche, sondern blieb erhalten, nach Gregor der Theologe, der sagt: "Für seine Bereitschaft, wenn er als Retter, ist nicht im Widerspruch zu Gott, dass die göttliche in ihrer Gesamtheit." And we hold there to be two natural principles of action in the same Jesus Christ our lord and true God, which undergo no division, no change, no partition, no confusion, that is, a divine principle of action and a human principle of action, according to the godly-speaking Leo, who says most clearly: "For each form does in a communion with the other that activity which it possesses as its own, the Word working that which is the Word's and the body accomplishing the things that are the body's". Und wir halten es werden zwei natürliche Prinzipien der Aktion in der gleichen Jesus Christus, unseren Herrn und wahren Gott, der sich keine Spaltung, keine Veränderung, keine Partition, keine Verwechslungsgefahr, das heißt, eine göttliche Prinzip der Aktion und ein menschliches Prinzip der Aktion , Nach dem göttlichen Raum Leo, der sagt, dass die meisten klar: "Für jede Form noch in einer Gemeinschaft mit den anderen, die Tätigkeit, die es besitzt, zu eigen, die Word arbeiten, dass das Word-und die Vollendung des Körpers Dinge, die Des Körpers ". For of course we will not grant the existence of only a single natural principle of action of both God and creature, lest we raise what is made to the level of divine being, or indeed reduce what is most specifically proper to the divine nature to a level befitting creatures for we acknowledge that the miracles and the sufferings are of one and the same according to one or the other of the two natures out of which he is and in which he has his being, as the admirable Cyril said. Für wir natürlich nicht gewähren, die Existenz von nur einer einzigen natürlichen Prinzip der Aktion beider Gott und Kreatur, damit wir erhöhen, was auf der Ebene der göttlichen Wesen, oder sogar verringern, was insbesondere die meisten richtig, die göttliche Natur zu einer Ebene gebührend Kreaturen denn wir erkennen an, dass die Wunder und die Leiden sind ein und dasselbe nach der einen oder der anderen der beiden Naturen, aus der er ist, und in denen er sein Wesen, wie die bewundernswerte Cyril sagte. Therefore, protecting on all sides the "no confusion" and "no division", we announce the whole in these brief words: Believing our lord Jesus Christ, even after his incarnation, to be one of the holy Trinity and our true God, we say that he has two natures [naturas] shining forth in his one subsistence [subsistentia] in which he demonstrated the miracles and the sufferings throughout his entire providential dwelling here, not in appearance but in truth, the difference of the natures being made known in the same one subsistence in that each nature wills and performs the things that are proper to it in a communion with the other; then in accord with this reasoning we hold that two natural wills and principles of action meet in correspondence for the salvation of the human race. Daher ist der Schutz auf allen Seiten, die "keine Verwechslungsgefahr" und "keine Spaltung", verkünden wir das Ganze in diesen kurzen Worten: Glauben unseren Herrn Jesus Christus, auch nach seiner Inkarnation, zu einem der heiligen Dreifaltigkeit und unsere wahren Gott, wir Sagen, dass er zwei Naturen [naturas] in seiner glänzenden ein Existenzminimum [subsistentia], in der er gezeigt, die Wunder und die Leiden während seiner gesamten begünstigten Wohnung hier nicht in Erscheinung, sondern in Wahrheit, der Unterschied der Naturen werden bekannt gemacht und Das gleiche Lebensunterhalts in der Natur will, dass jeder und führt die Dinge, die sind richtig, sie in einer Gemeinschaft mit den anderen, dann im Einklang mit dieser Argumentation halten wir, dass zwei Testamente und natürlichen Prinzipien der Aktion treffen sich in der Korrespondenz für die Erlösung des Menschen Rennen.

So now that these points have been formulated by us with all precision in every respect and with all care, we definitely state that it is not allowable for anyone to produce another faith , that is, to write or to compose or to consider or to teach others; those who dare to compose another faith, or to support or to teach or to hand on another creed to those who wish to turn to knowledge of the truth, whether from Hellenism or Judaism or indeed from any heresy whatsoever, or to introduce novelty of speech, that is, invention of terms, so as to overturn what has now been defined by us, such persons, if they are bishops or clerics, are deprived of their episcopacy or clerical rank, and if they are monks or layfolk they are excommunicated. Also jetzt, dass diese Punkte wurden von uns mit aller Präzision in jeder Hinsicht und mit aller Sorgfalt, wir definitiv feststellen, dass es nicht zulässig, für jeden zu einem anderen Glauben, das heißt, zu schreiben oder zu komponieren oder zu prüfen oder zu lehren Andere; diejenigen, die es wagen, um einen anderen Glauben, oder zu unterstützen oder zu lehren oder mit der Hand auf einem anderen Glauben zu denen, die wollen, um Wissen über die Wahrheit, egal ob von Hellenismus und Judentum oder gar von einer Häresie whatsoever, oder die Einführung Neuheit Die Rede, das heißt, Erfindung von Begriffen, um so zu stürzen, was ist nun von uns definiert, wie Personen, wenn sie Bischöfe oder Kleriker, beraubt werden, ihre Episkopat oder sachlichen Rang, und wenn sie sich Mönche oder sie sind layfolk Excommunicated.


Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Einführung und Übersetzung aus Dekrete des Ökumenischen Rates, hrsg. Norman P. Tanner Norman S. Tanner

Fourth Council of Constantinople - 869 - 870 AD Viertes Konzil von Konstantinopel - 869 - 870 n. Chr.

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