Council of EphesusKonzil von Ephesos

General Information Allgemeine Informationen

The Council of Ephesus (431), the third ecumenical council of the Christian church was significant for its dogmatic decrees on the position of the Virgin Mary in the celestial hierarchy and on the nature of the incarnation of Jesus Christ. Der Rat von Ephesus (431), den dritten ökumenischen Rat der christlichen Kirche wurde für seine bedeutenden dogmatischen Dekrete über die Position der Jungfrau Maria in der himmlischen Hierarchie und über die Art der Inkarnation von Jesus Christus. It was convened by the Eastern Roman Emperor Theodosius II with the approval of Pope Celestine I in order to respond to the teachings of Nestorius that Mary be considered only the "mother of Christ" and not the "mother of God" (see Nestorianism). Es wurde einberufen, um die ost-römischen Kaiser Theodosius II. mit Zustimmung von Papst Coelestin I und um eine Antwort auf die Lehren des Nestorius, dass Maria als nur die "Mutter Christi" und nicht die "Mutter Gottes" (siehe Nestorianismus). After lengthy debates continuing even after the end of the council, the pope's representative, Cyril of Alexandria, reached an accord in which the appellation "mother of God," formally decreed by the council, was accepted by all. Nach langwierigen Debatten anhaltend auch nach dem Ende des Landkreises, der Vertreter der Papstes, Kyrill von Alexandria, ein Einvernehmen erzielt, in denen die Bezeichnung "Mutter Gottes", offiziell verordnet von der Ratsversammlung, wurde von allen akzeptiert. The council also refined the dogma on the human and divine aspects of Jesus, now declared to be of two separate natures though perfectly united in Christ. Der Rat auch verfeinert das Dogma über das menschliche und göttliche Aspekte von Jesus, nun erklärt werden, der zwei getrennte Naturen aber perfekt vereint in Christus.

BELIEVE Religious Information Source web-siteGLAUBEN
Religiöse
Informationen
Quelle
Web-Seite
BELIEVE Religious Information SourceGLAUBEN Religiös Information Quelle
Our List of 2,300 Religious Subjects

Unsere Liste der 2300 Religiöse Themen
E-mailE-mail
In 449 another council, known in history as the latrocinium, or Robber Synod, met in Ephesus. In 449 anderen Rat, als bekannt in der Geschichte der latrocinium oder Robber Synode, trafen sich in Ephesus. It approved the doctrines of Eutyches, which were subsequently condemned (451) at the Council of Chalcedon. Er billigte den Lehren der Eutyches, die verurteilt wurden in der Folgezeit (451) am Konzil von Chalcedon.

T. Tackett T. Tackett


Ephesus

Advanced Information Erweitert Informationen

Ephesus was the capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia Minor. Ephesus war die Hauptstadt der proconsular Asien, die den westlichen Teil von Kleinasien. It was colonized principally from Athens. Es wurde kolonisiert hauptsächlich aus Athen. In the time of the Romans it bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of Asia." In der Zeit der Römer trug er den Titel "die erste und größte Metropole Asiens." It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (qv), who there had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators. Er zeichnete für den Tempel der Diana (qv), die es ihr Chef Schrein hatte, und für das Theater, das zu den größten in der Welt, der fähig ist mit 50000 Zuschauern. It was, like all ancient theatres, open to the sky. Es war, wie alle alten Theatern, unter freiem Himmel. Here were exhibited the fights of wild beasts and of men with beasts. Hier waren die gezeigten Kämpfe der wild lebenden Tiere und der Männer mit Monstern. (Comp. 1 Cor. 4:9; 9:24, 25; 15:32.) Many Jews took up their residence in this city, and here the seeds of the gospel were sown immediately after Pentecost (Acts 2:9; 6:9). (Komp. 1 Kor. 4:9, 9:24, 25, 15:32.) Viele Juden nahmen ihren Wohnsitz in der Stadt, und hier den Samen des Evangeliums gesät wurden unmittelbar nach Pfingsten (Apg 2:9; 6 : 9).

At the close of his second missionary journey (about AD 51), when Paul was returning from Greece to Syria (18:18-21), he first visited this city. Am Ende seiner zweiten Missionsreise (ca. 51 n. Chr.), Paul war bei der Rückkehr aus Griechenland nach Syrien (18:18-21), besuchte er erste dieser Stadt. He remained, however, for only a short time, as he was hastening to keep the feast, probably of Pentecost, at Jerusalem; but he left Aquila and Priscilla behind him to carry on the work of spreading the gospel. Er blieb jedoch nur für eine kurze Zeit, denn er war zueilend halten das Fest, wahrscheinlich von Pfingsten, in Jerusalem, aber er Aquila und Priszilla hinter ihm zu führen über die Arbeit der Verbreitung des Evangeliums. During his third missionary journey Paul reached Ephesus from the "upper coasts" (Acts 19:1), ie, from the inland parts of Asia Minor, and tarried here for about three years; and so successful and abundant were his labours that "all they which dwelt in Asia heard the word of the Lord Jesus, both Jews and Greeks" (19:10). Während seiner dritten Reise Missionar Paul erreicht Ephesus aus der "oberen Küsten" (Apg 19:1), dh, aus dem Landesinneren Teile von Kleinasien, und verweilten hier für die etwa drei Jahre, und so erfolgreich ist und seine Arbeit waren reichlich vorhanden, dass "alle Sie wohnten, die in Asien gehört das Wort des Herrn Jesus, die beide Juden und Griechen "(19.10 Uhr). Probably during this period the seven churches of the Apocalypse were founded, not by Paul's personal labours, but by missionaries whom he may have sent out from Ephesus, and by the influence of converts returning to their homes. Vermutlich während dieser Zeit die sieben Kirchen der Apokalypse gegründet wurden, nicht von Paul's persönliche Arbeit, sondern von Missionaren, die er möglicherweise verschickt aus Ephesus, und durch den Einfluss der Konvertiten Rückkehr in ihre Heimat.

On his return from his journey, Paul touched at Miletus, some 30 miles south of Ephesus (Acts 20:15), and sending for the presbyters of Ephesus to meet him there, he delivered to them that touching farewell charge which is recorded in Acts 20:18-35. Nach seiner Rückkehr von der Reise, Paul berührte in Milet, etwa 30 km südlich von Ephesus (Apg 20.15), der für das Senden und Presbytern von Ephesus ihm zu begegnen, die er an sie zu berühren, dass der Abschied Gebühr, die wird in Apg 20:18-35. Ephesus is not again mentioned till near the close of Paul's life, when he writes to Timothy exhorting him to "abide still at Ephesus" (1 Tim. 1:3). Ephesus ist nicht wieder erwähnt, bis zum Ablauf des in der Nähe von Paul's Leben, wenn er schreibt an Timotheus ermahnend ihn zu "halten sich noch in Ephesus" (1 Tim. 1:3). Two of Paul's companions, Trophimus and Tychicus, were probably natives of Ephesus (Acts 20:4; 21:29; 2 Tim. 4:12). Zwei Begleiter des Apostels Paulus, Trophimus und Tychicus, wurden vermutlich von Einheimischen Ephesus (Apg 20:4, 21:29, 2 Tim. 4,12). In his second epistle to Timothy, Paul speaks of Onesiphorus as having served him in many things at Ephesus (2 Tim. 1:18). In seinem zweiten Brief an Timotheus, Paul spricht von Onesiphorus als serviert ihn in viele Dinge, die zu Ephesus (2 Tim. 1:18). He also "sent Tychicus to Ephesus" (4:12), probably to attend to the interests of the church there. Er hat auch "gesendet Tychicus zu Ephesus" (4.12), was wahrscheinlich an den Interessen der Kirche. Ephesus is twice mentioned in the Apocalypse (1:11; 2:1). Ephesus ist zweimal in der Apokalypse (1:11, 2:1). The apostle John, according to tradition, spent many years in Ephesus, where he died and was buried. Der Apostel Johannes, nach der Tradition, verbrachte viele Jahre in Ephesus, wo er starb und begraben wurde. A part of the site of this once famous city is now occupied by a small Turkish village, Ayasaluk, which is regarded as a corruption of the two Greek words, hagios theologos; ie, "the holy divine." Ein Teil des Geländes der einst berühmte Stadt ist heute von einem kleinen türkischen Dorf, Ayasaluk, die Korruption als eine der beiden griechischen Worte, hagios theologos, dh, "die heilige göttliche."

(Easton Illustrated Dictionary) (Easton Illustrated Dictionary)


The Council of Ephesus - 431 AD Das Konzil von Ephesos - 431 n. Chr.

Advanced Information Erweitert Informationen

Contents Inhalt

  1. Introduction Einführung
  2. Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved Zweiter Brief von Cyril zu Nestorius - genehmigt
  3. Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril - condemned Zweiter Brief des Nestorius zu Cyril - verurteilt
  4. Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius - approved Dritter Brief von Cyril zu Nestorius - genehmigt
  5. The judgment against Nestorius Das Urteil gegen Nestorius
  6. Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.) Synodisches Brief über die Vertreibung der östlichen Bischöfe (et al.)
  7. Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431] Definition des Glaubens in Nicäa [6. Tagung der 22. Juli 431]
  8. Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites Definition gegen die pietätlos Messalians oder Euchites
  9. Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations Auflösung: daß die Bischöfe von Zypern kann sich Verhalten Weihen
  10. Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch Formel der Verbindung zwischen Cyrill und Johannes von Antiochia
  11. Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace Letter of Cyril Johannes von Antiochien über den Frieden
  12. Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon accepting the Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace. Auszug aus dem Konzil von Chalcedon die Annahme des "Letter of Cyril Johannes von Antiochien über den Frieden.

Introduction Einführung

Nestorius , who had been condemned in a council at Rome on 11 August 430, asked the emperor Theodosius II to summon this council. Nestorius, die verurteilt hatte in einer Gemeinde in Rom am 11. August 430, fragte der Kaiser Theodosius II. lädt zu diesem Gemeindebezirk. The emperor therefore decided to summon it together with his co-emperor Valentinian III and with the agreement of Pope Celestine I . Theodosius's letter of 19 November 430 requested all those who had been summoned to be present at Ephesus on 7 June 431, the feast of Pentecost. Der Kaiser hat daher beschlossen, lädt er zusammen mit seinem Co-Kaiser Valentinian III und mit der Zustimmung von Papst Coelestin I. Theodosius das Schreiben vom 19. November 430 beantragt all jene, die gerufen wurden, zu Ephesus am 7. Juni 431, das Fest der Pfingsten.

On 22 June, however, Am 22. Juni jedoch,

  • before the arrival either of the Roman legates or the eastern bishops led by John of Antioch , Entweder vor der Ankunft des römischen Legaten oder der östlichen Bischöfe der Leitung von John von Antiochien,
  • Cyril of Alexandria began the council. Kyrill von Alexandria begann der Ratsversammlung.
  • Nestorius was summoned three times but did not come. Nestorius war drei Mal beschworen, aber nicht kommen.
  • His teaching was examined and judgment passed upon it, which 197 bishops subscribed at once and others later accepted. Seine Lehre wurde geprüft, und Urteil an ihm, die 197 Bischöfe auf einmal abonniert und andere später akzeptiert.

    Shortly afterwards John of Antioch and the easterners arrived: they refused communion with Cyril and set up another council. The Roman legates (the bishops Arcadius and Projectus and the priest Philip), on arriving, joined Cyril and confirmed the sentence against Nestorius. Wenig später Johannes von Antiochien und dem easterners angekommen: Sie verweigerte Kommunion mit Cyril und Einrichten einer anderen Gemeinde. Die römische Legaten (Arcadius und die Bischöfe und die Priester Projectus Philip), Ankunft, kam Cyril und bestätigte das Urteil gegen Nestorius. Then the council in its fifth session on 17 July excommunicated John and his party. Dann wird der Rat in seiner fünften Sitzung am 17. Juli excommunicated John und seine Partei.

    The documents of the Cyrilline council , the only one which is ecumenical , are included below and are as follows. Die Dokumente der Cyrilline Rat, die einzige, die die ökumenische, stehen auch weiter unten und sind wie folgt.

    1. The central dogmatic act of the council is its judgment about whether the second letter of Cyril to Nestorius, or Nestorius's second letter to Cyril, was in conformity with the Nicene creed which was recited at the opening of the council's proceedings. Die zentrale dogmatische Akt des Landkreises ist sein Urteil darüber, ob der zweite Brief von Cyril zu Nestorius, oder Nestorius's zweite Brief an Cyril, wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Nicene creed wurde vorgetragen, die bei der Eröffnung der Rat bei seinen Arbeiten. Both are here printed. Beide sind hier gedruckt. Mention is made of Cyril's letter in the definition of Chalcedon. Erwähnung ist aus Cyril's Schreiben in der Definition von Chalcedon.
    2. The 12 anathemas and the preceding explanatory letter, which had been produced by Cyril and the synod of Alexandria in 430 and sent to Nestorius, were read at Ephesus and included in the proceedings . Die 12 anathemas und die erläuternden Schreiben vor, das war von Cyril und der Synode von Alexandria und 430 und an Nestorius, wurden in Ephesus lesen und in das Verfahren.
    3. The decision about Nestorius. Die Entscheidung über Nestorius.
    4. The letter of the council advising all the bishops, clergy and people about the condemnation of John of Antioch; and some paragraphs dealing with the discipline of the Nestorian party. Das Schreiben des Landkreises beraten alle Bischöfe, Klerus und die Bevölkerung über die Verurteilung des Johannes von Antiochia, und einige Absätze sich mit der Disziplin des nestorianischen Partei.
    5. A decree on the faith, approved in the sixth session on 22 July, which confirmed the Nicene creed, ordered adherence to that alone and forbade the production of new creeds. Ein Dekret über den Glauben, die in der sechsten Sitzung am 22. Juli, in denen die Nicene creed, ordnete an, dass allein die Einhaltung und verbot die Produktion von neuen Glaubensbekenntnisse.
    6. A definition against the Messalians. Eine Definition gegen die Messalians.
    7. A decree about the autonomy of the church of Cyprus. Ein Dekret über die Autonomie der Kirche von Zypern.

    Both councils sent legates to the emperor Theodosius, who approved neither and sent the bishops away. Beide Räte gesendet Legaten an Kaiser Theodosius, die weder genehmigt und an die Bischöfe entfernt. Nestorius had already been given permission to revisit his monastery at Antioch, and on 25 October 431 Maximianus was ordained patriarch at Constantinople. The decrees of the council were approved by Pope Sixtus III shortly after his own ordination on 31 July 432. Nestorius hatte bereits die Erlaubnis erteilt, auf seinem Kloster in Antiochien, und am 25. Oktober 431 zum Priester geweiht wurde Maximianus Patriarchen in Konstantinopel. Die Dekrete des Landkreises wurden von Papst Sixtus III kurz nach seiner eigenen Weihe am 31. Juli 432.

    The reconciliation between the Cyrilline party and the eastern bishops was not easy. Die Aussöhnung zwischen den Cyrilline Partei und der östlichen Bischöfe war nicht einfach. In the end, on 23 April 433, Cyril and John of Antioch made peace. Am Ende, am 23. April 433, Cyril und Johannes von Antiochia Frieden gemacht. John's profession of faith was accepted by Cyril and became the doctrinal formula of union. It is included here, together with Cyril's letter in which he at some length praises John's profession and accepts it, adding to it some explanation about his own expressions; this letter is mentioned in the definition of Chalcedon . John's Beruf des Glaubens wurde von Cyril und wurde die doktrinäre Formel Union. Es ist auch hier, zusammen mit Cyril das Schreiben, in dem er bei einigen Länge lobt John's Beruf und akzeptiert ihn, was er eine Erklärung über seine eigenen Ausdrucksformen; dieses Schreibens Ist bereits in der Definition von Chalcedon. Shortly afterwards, probably in 436, Nestorius was definitely sent into exile by the emperor . Kurz danach, voraussichtlich im Jahr 436, Nestorius war definitiv ins Exil schickte der Kaiser.

    The English translation is from the Greek text, which is the more authoritative version. Die englische Übersetzung ist aus dem griechischen Text, der mehr ist die maßgebliche Version.


    Second letter of Cyril to Nestorius Zweiter Brief von Cyril zu Nestorius

    [Declared by the council of Ephesus to be in agreement with Nicaea] [Erklärt von der Ratsversammlung von Ephesos werden im Einvernehmen mit Nicäa]

    Cyril sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Nestorius Cyril sendet Gruß an den Herrn zu den religiösen und ehrwürdig Stipendiaten-Minister Nestorius

    I understand that there are some who are talking rashly of the reputation in which I hold your reverence, and that this is frequently the case when meetings of people in authority give them an opportunity. Ich verstehe, dass es einige, die sich leichtfertig von den Ruf, in der ich Ihren Ehrfurcht, und dies ist häufig der Fall, wenn Menschen in Sitzungen der Behörde geben ihnen eine Chance. I think they hope in this way to delight your ears and so they spread abroad uncontrolled expressions. Ich denke, sie hoffen, auf diese Weise zu begeistern und Ihre Ohren, damit sie im Ausland unkontrollierte Ausbreitung Ausdruecke. They are people who have suffered no wrong, but have been exposed by me for their own profit, one because he oppressed the blind and the poor, a second because he drew a sword on his mother, a third because he stole someone else's money in collusion with a maidservant and since then has lived with such a reputation as one would hardly wish for one's worst enemy. Sie sind Menschen, die gelitten haben, nicht falsch, aber ausgesetzt wurden von mir für den eigenen Gewinn, ein, weil er unterdrückt die Blinden und die Armen, eine zweite, weil er ein Schwert auf seine Mutter, eine dritte, weil er gestohlen hat jemand anderes das Geld in Absprachen mit einem Dienstmädchen und seitdem lebte mit einem solchen Ruf wie kaum ein Wunsch für den schlimmsten Feind. For the rest I do not intend to spend more words on this subject in order not to vaunt my own mediocrity above my teacher and master or above the fathers. Für den Rest Ich habe nicht die Absicht, mehr Worte zu diesem Thema, um nicht zu rühmen meiner eigenen Mittelmäßigkeit über meine Lehrer und Meister oder über die Väter. For however one may try to live, it is impossible to escape the malice of evil people, whose mouths are full of cursing and bitterness and who will have to defend themselves before the judge of all. Für jedoch kann man versuchen zu leben, ist es unmöglich, auf der Flucht vor den Menschen Bosheit des Bösen, dessen Mund voller Fluchen und Bitterkeit, und die haben sich selbst zu verteidigen, bevor die Richter von allen.

    But I turn to a subject more fitting to myself and remind you as a brother in Christ always to be very careful about what you say to the people in matters of teaching and of your thought on the faith. Aber ich wiederum zu einem Thema mehr passend zu mir und möchte Sie daran erinnern, als ein Bruder in Christus immer sehr vorsichtig sein, was Sie sagen, die Menschen in Fragen der Lehre und des Denkens über den Glauben. You should bear in mind that to scandalise even one of these little ones that believe in Christ lays you open to unendurable wrath. Sie sollten bedenken, dass zu scandalise sogar einen dieser Kleinen, die an Christus glauben, Sie sind offen für unerträglich Zorn. If the number of those who are distressed is very large, then surely we should use every skill and care to remove scandals and to expound the healthy word of faith to those who seek the truth. Wenn die Zahl derjenigen, die sich in Not ist sehr groß, dann sollten wir mit allen Geschick und Sorgfalt zu entfernen Skandale und erklären die gesunde Wort des Glaubens zu denen, die die Wahrheit suchen. The most effective way to achieve this end will be zealously to occupy ourselves with the words of the holy fathers , to esteem their words, to examine our words to see if we are holding to their faith as it is written, to conform our thoughts to their correct and irreproachable teaching. Der effektivste Weg, dieses Ziel zu erreichen wird eifrig zu besetzen, uns mit den Worten der heiligen Väter, die ihre Wertschätzung Worten, unsere Worte zu prüfen, um zu sehen, ob wir zu ihrem Glauben, wie es geschrieben ist, zu entsprechen, unsere Gedanken zu Ihre einwandfreie und korrekte Lehre.

    The holy and great synod, therefore, stated that Die großen und heiligen Synode, daher erklärt, dass

  • 1. 1. the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, Die eingeborenen Sohn, gezeugt von Gott, dem Vater nach dem Vorbild der Natur, wahrer Gott vom wahren Gott, Licht vom Licht, das durch den der Vater aller Dinge machte, fiel, wurde verkörpern, ist Mensch geworden,
  • 2. suffered, rose on the third day and ascended to heaven . Litt, stieg am dritten Tag und stieg in den Himmel.

  • 1. We too ought to follow these words and these teachings and consider what is meant by saying that the Word from God took flesh and became man. Auch wir sollten diesen Worten zu folgen und diese Lehren und prüfen, was mit den Worten, dass das Wort Gottes hat Fleisch und ist Mensch geworden. For we do not say that the nature of the Word was changed and became flesh, nor that he was turned into a whole man made of body and soul. Denn wir sagen nicht, dass die Natur des Wortes wurde verändert und wurde Fleisch, noch, dass er sich zu einem ganzen Menschen aus Körper, Geist und Seele. Rather do we claim that the Word in an unspeakable, inconceivable manner united to himself hypostatically flesh enlivened by a rational soul, and so became man and was called son of man, not by God's will alone or good pleasure, nor by the assumption of a person alone. Vielmehr können wir behaupten, dass das Wort in einer unsäglichen, unvorstellbar Weise vereint zu sich selbst hypostatically Fleisch belebt durch eine rationale Seele, und so ist Mensch geworden und wurde als Sohn des Menschen, die nicht durch den Willen Gottes allein oder Wohlgefallen, noch von der Annahme eines Person allein. Rather did two different natures come together to form a unity , and from both arose one Christ, one Son. Vielmehr habe zwei verschiedene Naturen kommen zusammen und bilden eine Einheit, und aus beiden entstand ein Christ, ein Sohn. It was not as though the distinctness of the natures was destroyed by the union , but divinity and humanity together made perfect for us one Lord and one Christ, together marvellously and mysteriously combining to form a unity. Es war nicht so, als wäre die Unterscheidbarkeit der Natur zerstört wurde von der Gewerkschaft, sondern die Menschheit und Gottheit zusammen, perfekt für uns ein Fürst und ein Christ, zusammen wunderbar und geheimnisvoll Kombination bilden eine Einheit. So he who existed and was begotten of the Father before all ages is also said to have been begotten according to the flesh of a woman, without the divine nature either beginning to exist in the holy virgin, or needing of itself a second begetting after that from his Father. So existierten, die er gezeugt wurde, und der Vater, bevor alle Altersgruppen ist auch gesagt worden gezeugt nach dem Fleisch von einer Frau, ohne die göttliche Natur entweder zu Beginn gibt es in der heiligen Jungfrau, oder müssen von selbst ein, dass nach der zweiten zeugend Von seinem Vater. (For it is absurd and stupid to speak of the one who existed before every age and is coeternal with the Father, needing a second beginning so as to exist.) The Word is said to have been begotten according to the flesh, because for us and for our salvation he united what was human to himself hypostatically and came forth from a woman. (Denn es ist absurd und dumm zu schweigen von dem, der vor jedem Alter und coeternal ist mit dem Vater, und brauchte einen zweiten Anfang an so zu existieren.) Das Wort ist gesagt worden gezeugt nach dem Fleisch, denn für uns Und zu unserem Heil ist er vereint, was sich von Mensch zu hypostatically und kam weiter von einer Frau. For he was not first begotten of the holy virgin, a man like us, and then the Word descended upon him; but from the very womb of his mother he was so united and then underwent begetting according to the flesh, making his own the begetting of his own flesh. Denn er war nicht der erste gezeugt die heilige Jungfrau, ein Mensch wie wir, und dann das Wort Abstieg auf ihm, aber von der sehr Bauch seiner Mutter war er so einig zeugend unterzogen und dann nach dem Fleisch, das mit seiner eigenen zeugend Von seinem eigenen Fleisch.

  • 2. In a similar way we say that he suffered and rose again, not that the Word of God suffered blows or piercing with nails or any other wounds in his own nature (for the divine, being without a body, is incapable of suffering), but because the body which became his own suffered these things, he is said to have suffered them for us. In einer ähnlichen Art, wie wir sagen, dass er gelitten und stieg wieder nicht, dass das Wort Gottes erlitten bläst oder Piercing mit Nägeln oder jede andere Wunden in seiner eigenen Art (für die göttliche, die ohne einen Körper zu haben, ist nicht in der Lage, Leiden), aber Weil der Körper die ihm eigene erlitten diese Dinge, er sprach zu ihnen erlitten haben, für uns. For he was without suffering, while his body suffered. Denn er war ohne Leiden, während sein Körper erlitten. Something similar is true of his dying. Etwas Ähnliches gilt auch für sein Sterben. For by nature the Word of God is of itself immortal and incorruptible and life and life-giving, but since on the other hand his own body by God's grace, as the apostle says, tasted death for all, the Word is said to have suffered death for us, not as if he himself had experienced death as far as his own nature was concerned (it would be sheer lunacy to say or to think that), but because, as I have just said, his flesh tasted death. Für die von Natur aus das Wort Gottes selbst ist unsterblich und unbestechlich und Leben-und das Leben zu geben, aber da auf der anderen Seite seinen eigenen Körper durch Gottes Gnade, wie der Apostel sagt, schmeckte den Tod für alle, das Wort wird gesagt zu haben gelitten Tod für uns nicht so, als ob er selbst erlebt hatte den Tod so weit wie seine eigene Natur war (es wäre pure Wahnsinn zu sagen oder zu glauben, daß), sondern weil, wie ich gerade gesagt habe, sein Fleisch schmeckte Tod. So too, when his flesh was raised to life, we refer to this again as his resurrection, not as though he had fallen into corruption--God forbid--but because his body had been raised again. So auch, wenn sein Fleisch wurde auf Leben, verweisen wir auf dieses wieder als seine Auferstehung, und nicht, als ob er sich in Korruption - Gott bewahre -, sondern weil sein Körper wieder angehoben worden.

    So we shall confess one Christ and one Lord. Also werden wir gestehen, ein Christ und ein Herr. We do not adore the man along with the Word, so as to avoid any appearance of division by using the word "with". Wir sind nicht anbeten der Mann zusammen mit dem Wort, so dass kein Auftritt des Bereichs, indem Sie das Wort "mit". But we adore him as one and the same, because the body is not other than the Word, and takes its seat with him beside the Father, again not as though there were two sons seated together but only one, united with his own flesh. If, however, we reject the hypostatic union as being either impossible or too unlovely for the Word, we fall into the fallacy of speaking of two sons . Aber wir lieben ihn als ein und dasselbe, weil der Körper ist nichts anderes als das Wort, und nimmt seinen Sitz neben ihm mit dem Vater wieder nicht so als ob es zwei Söhne sitzen zusammen, aber nur einen, vereint mit seinem eigenen Fleisch. Wenn wir jedoch ablehnen, die hypostatic Gewerkschaft als entweder unmöglich oder zu reizlos für das Wort, wir fallen in den Irrtum des Sprechens von zwei Söhnen. We shall have to distinguish and speak both of the man as honoured with the title of son, and of the Word of God as by nature possessing the name and reality of sonship, each in his own way. Wir müssen unterscheiden und sprechen sowohl der Mann als Auszeichnung mit dem Titel des Sohnes, und des Wortes Gottes als von Natur aus besitzt, der Name und die Realität der sonship, jeder auf seine Weise. We ought not, therefore, to split into two sons the one Lord Jesus Christ. Wir sollten also nicht über die Aufteilung in zwei Söhne, die einen Herrn Jesus Christus. Such a way of presenting a correct account of the faith will be quite unhelpful, even though some do speak of a union of persons. Eine solche Art und Weise der Präsentation eine korrekte Rechnung des Glaubens wird sehr hilfreich, auch wenn manche sprechen von einer Vereinigung von Personen. For scripture does not say that the Word united the person of a man to himself, but that he became flesh. Für Schrift nicht sagen, dass das Wort vereint die Person eines Menschen zu sich selbst, sondern dass er Fleisch. The Word's becoming flesh means nothing else than that he partook of flesh and blood like us; he made our body his own, and came forth a man from woman without casting aside his deity, or his generation from God the Father, but rather in his assumption of flesh remaining what he was. The Word's immer Fleisch bedeutet nichts anderes, als dass er teil an Fleisch und Blut wie wir, er hat unser Körper seine eigenen, und kam zuletzt eine Frau ohne Mann aus Gießen neben seiner Gottheit, oder seiner Generation von Gott, dem Vater, sondern in seinem Annahme des Fleisches noch, was er war.

    This is the account of the true faith everywhere professed . Dies ist das Konto des wahren Glaubens überall Profess. So shall we find that the holy fathers believed. Also werden wir feststellen, dass die heiligen Väter geglaubt. So have they dared to call the holy virgin, mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word or his godhead received the origin of their being from the holy virgin, but because there was born from her his holy body rationally ensouled, with which the Word was hypostatically united and is said to have been begotten in the flesh. So haben sie es gewagt, um die heilige Jungfrau, die Mutter Gottes, und nicht, als ob die Natur des Wortes oder seiner Gottheit erhielt die Herkunft ihrer dass aus der heiligen Jungfrau, sondern weil es geboren wurde von ihr seinen heiligen Körper ensouled rational, , Die das Wort war hypostatically geeinten und gesagt wird gezeugt wurden im Fleische. These things I write out of love in Christ exhorting you as a brother and calling upon you before Christ and the elect angels, to hold and teach these things with us, in order to preserve the peace of the churches and that the priests of God may remain in an unbroken bond of concord and love. Diese Dinge, die ich schreibe, in der Liebe Christi ermahnend Sie als Bruder und mit der Aufforderung an Sie, bevor Christus und wählt die Engel, zu halten und zu lehren, diese Dinge bei uns, im Interesse der Erhaltung des Friedens und der Kirchen, dass die Priester Gottes Nach wie vor in einer ungebrochenen Bindung an concord und Liebe.


    Second letter of Nestorius to Cyril Zweiter Brief des Nestorius zu Cyril

    [condemned by the council of Ephesus] [Verurteilte der Rat von Ephesus]

    Nestorius sends greeting in the Lord to the most religious and reverend fellow-minister Cyril. Nestorius sendet Gruß an den Herrn zu den religiösen und ehrwürdig Stipendiaten-Minister Cyril. I pass over the insults against us contained in your extraordinary letter. I-Pass über die Beleidigungen gegen uns in Ihre außergewöhnliche Brief. They will, I think, be cured by my patience and by the answer which events will offer in the course of time. Sie werden, denke ich, geheilt werden, indem meine Geduld und durch die Antwort, welche Ereignisse wird im Laufe der Zeit. On one matter, however, I cannot be silent, as silence would in that case be very dangerous. Auf eine Sache, aber ich kann nicht schweigen, denn Schweigen wäre in diesem Fall als sehr gefährlich. On that point, therefore avoiding longwindedness as far as I can, I shall attempt a brief discussion and try to be as free as possible from repelling obscurity and undigestible prolixity. In diesem Punkt, also die Vermeidung longwindedness so weit wie ich kann, ich werde versuchen, eine kurze Diskussion und versuchen, sich so frei wie möglich aus Dunkelheit und abstoßende undigestible Weitschweifigkeit. I shall begin from the wise utterances of your reverence, setting them down word for word. Ich beginne den klugen Äußerungen aus Ihrer Ehrfurcht, Einstellung sie Wort für Wort. What then are the words in which your remarkable teaching finds expression ? Was also sind die Worte, in der Ihre bemerkenswerte Unterricht findet Ausdruck?

    "The holy and great synod states that the only begotten Son, begotten of God the Father according to nature, true God from true God, the light from the light, the one through whom the Father made all things, came down, became incarnate, became man, suffered, rose." "Die großen und heiligen Synode heißt es, dass die eingeborenen Sohn, gezeugt von Gott, dem Vater nach dem Vorbild der Natur, wahrer Gott vom wahren Gott, Licht vom Licht, das durch den der Vater aller Dinge machte, fiel, wurde in Menschengestalt, Mensch geworden ist, gelitten, erhob sich. "

    These are the words of your reverence and you may recognise them. Das sind die Worte Ihres Ehrfurcht und Sie können erkennen. Now listen to what we say, which takes the form of a brotherly exhortation to piety of the type of which the great apostle Paul gave an example in addressing his beloved Timothy: "Attend to the public reading of scripture, to preaching, to teaching. For by so doing you will save both yourself and your hearers". Nun hören Sie, was wir sagen, die in Form einer brüderlichen Ermahnung zur Frömmigkeit von der Art, von denen die große Apostel Paulus gab ein Beispiel bei der Auseinandersetzung mit seiner geliebten Timothy: "Teilnahme an der öffentlichen Lesung der Schrift, zu predigen, zu lehren. Für von Dabei sparen Sie beide sich selbst und Ihre Zuhörer ". Tell me, what does "attend" mean? Sag mir, was bedeutet "besuchen"? By reading in a superficial way the tradition of those holy men (you were guilty of a pardonable ignorance), you concluded that they said that the Word who is coeternal with the Father was passible. Durch die Lesung in einer oberflächlichen Art und Weise die Tradition der heiligen Männer (Sie wurden für schuldig befunden, ein entschuldbar Unwissenheit), der Schluss gezogen, dass sie sagten, dass das Wort, die coeternal ist mit dem Vater war passible. Please look more closely at their language and you will find out that that divine choir of fathers never said that the consubstantial godhead was capable of suffering, or that the whole being that was coeternal with the Father was recently born, or that it rose again, seeing that it had itself been the cause of resurrection of the destroyed temple. Bitte schauen stärker auf ihre Sprache, und Sie werden herausfinden, dass diese göttliche Chor der Väter nie gesagt, dass die Gottheit consubstantial geeignet war, Leiden, oder, dass das ganze Wesen, das coeternal mit dem Vater geboren vor kurzem wurde, oder dass es wieder gestiegen, Sehen, dass er sich schon die Ursache der Auferstehung der Tempel zerstört. If you apply my words as fraternal medicine, I shall set the words of the holy fathers before you and shall free them from the slander against them and through them against the holy scriptures. Wenn Sie meine Worte als brüderlichen Medizin, ich werde den Worten der heiligen Väter, bevor Sie kostenlos und wird sie von der Verleumdung gegen sie und durch sie gegen die heiligen Schriften.

    "I believe", they say, "also in our Lord Jesus Christ, his only begotten Son". "Ich glaube", sagen sie, "auch in unserem Herrn Jesus Christus, seinen eingeborenen Sohn". See how they first lay as foundations "Lord" and "Jesus" and "Christ" and "only begotten" and "Son", the names which belong jointly to the divinity and humanity. Sehen Sie, wie sie zum ersten Mal sehen, wie Stiftungen "Lord" und "Jesus" und "Christus" und "nur gezeugt" und "Son", die Namen gehören, die gemeinsam an die Gottheit und Menschheit. Then they build on that foundation the tradition of the incarnation and resurrection and passion. Dann bauen sie auf dieser Grundlage die Tradition der Inkarnation und Auferstehung und Leidenschaft. In this way, by prefixing the names which are common to each nature, they intend to avoid separating expressions applicable to sonship and lordship and at the same time escape the danger of destroying the distinctive character of the natures by absorbing them into the one title of "Son". Auf diese Weise, durch voranstellend die Namen, die in jeder Art, sie zu vermeiden, zu trennen Ausdrücke für sonship und Herrschaft und gleichzeitig die Gefahr einer Flucht Zerstörung der Kennzeichnungskraft der Natur, indem es sie in der einen Titel "Son". In this Paul was their teacher who, when he remembers the divine becoming man and then wishes to introduce the suffering, first mentions "Christ", which, as I have just said, is the common name of both natures and then adds an expression which is appropriate to both of the natures. In diesem Paul war ihre Lehrerin, die, wenn er erinnert sich an die göttliche zu Mensch und dann einführen möchte das Leid, erste Erwähnungen "Christus", die, wie ich gerade gesagt habe, ist der gemeinsame Name der beiden Naturen, und fügt dann ein Ausdruck, Ist angebracht, sowohl der Natur. For what does he say ? Denn was hat er gesagt? "Have this mind among yourselves, which is yours in Christ Jesus who though he was in the form of God, did not count equality with God a thing to be grasped", and so on until, "he became obedient unto death, even death on a cross". "Haben Sie diesen Geist unter euch, die Ihr in Christus Jesus, aber er war in der Form von Gott, nicht count Gleichstellung mit Gott ein Ding zu fassen", und so weiter, bis "er gehorsam wurde bis in den Tod, sogar zum Tod führen Am Kreuz ". For when he was about to mention the death, to prevent anyone supposing that God the Word suffered, he says "Christ", which is a title that expresses in one person both the impassible and the passible natures, in order that Christ might be called without impropriety both impassible and passible impassible in godhead, passible in the nature of his body. Denn wenn er über den Tod zu erwähnen, um zu verhindern, dass jemand unter der Voraussetzung, dass das Wort Gottes erlitten, sagt er "Christus", das ist ein Titel, den Ausdruck in einer Person sowohl die unempfindlich und die passible Naturen, damit Christus genannt werden könnten Ohne Ungehörigkeit beide unempfindlich und passible unempfindlich und Gottheit, passible in der Natur seines Körpers.

    I could say much on this subject and first of all that those holy fathers, when they discuss the economy, speak not of the generation but of the Son becoming man. Ich kann sagen, sehr viel über dieses Thema und vor allem, dass die heiligen Väter, wenn sie die Wirtschaft diskutieren, sprechen nicht von der Generation, sondern der Sohn Mensch geworden. But I recall the promise of brevity that I made at the beginning and that both restrains my discourse and moves me on to the second subject of your reverence. Aber ich erinnere mich an das Versprechen der Kürze, dass ich am Anfang und dass beide hemmt meine Diskurs und bewegt mich zum zweiten Thema Ihrer Ehrfurcht. In that I applaud your division of natures into manhood and godhead and their conjunction in one person. Ich begrüße, dass in Ihrer Abteilung Natur in der Männlichkeit und Gottheit und ihre Verbindung in einer Person. I also applaud your statement that God the Word needed no second generation from a woman, and your confession that the godhead is incapable of suffering. Ich begrüße auch Ihre Aussage, dass Gott die Word benötigt keine zweite Generation von einer Frau, und Ihr Bekenntnis, dass die Gottheit ist nicht in der Lage, Leiden. Such statements are truly orthodox and equally opposed to the evil opinions of all heretics about the Lord's natures. Solche Aussagen sind wirklich orthodoxen und gleichermaßen gegen das Böse Stellungnahmen aller Ketzer über die Lord's Naturen. If the remainder was an attempt to introduce some hidden and incomprehensible wisdom to the ears of the readers, it is for your sharpness to decide. Wenn der Rest war ein Versuch, einige verborgene Weisheit und unverständlich für die Ohren der Leser, es ist für Ihre Schärfe zu entscheiden. In my view these subsequent views seemed to subvert what came first. Aus meiner Sicht diese nachfolgenden Ansichten schien zu durchbrechen, was war zuerst da. They suggested that he who had at the beginning been proclaimed as impassible and incapable of a second generation had somehow become capable of suffering and freshly created, as though what belonged to God the Word by nature had been destroyed by his conjunction with his temple or as though people considered it not enough that the sinless temple, which is inseparable from the divine nature, should have endured birth and death for sinners, or finally as though the Lord's voice was not deserving of credence when it cried out to the Jews: "Destroy this temple and in three days I will raise it up.'' He did not say, "Destroy my godhead and in three days it will be raised up." Sie schlugen vor, die er hatte, die zu Beginn als unempfindlich proklamiert worden und nicht in der Lage, eine zweite Generation hatte irgendwie zu der Lage des Leidens und frisch erstellt, als ob, was gehörte zu Gott, der von Natur aus Word zerstört wurde durch seine Verbindung mit seinem Tempel oder als Wenn die Menschen es nicht genug, dass die sündenfrei Tempel, die untrennbar mit der göttlichen Natur, hätte ertragen Geburt und Tod für die Sünder, und schließlich, als ob der Lord's Stimme war nicht verdient, wenn er glaubhaft rief die Juden: "Destroy Diesen Tempel und in drei Tagen werde ich erhöhen.''Er hat nicht gesagt, "Destroy meine Gottheit und in drei Tagen wird auferweckt werden."

    Again I should like to expand on this but am restrained by the memory of my promise. Auch ich möchte mich auf diesem aber zurückhaltend durch die Erinnerung an mein Versprechen. I must speak therefore but with brevity. Ich muss daher sprechen, aber mit Kürze. Holy scripture, wherever it recalls the Lord's economy, speaks of the birth and suffering not of the godhead but of the humanity of Christ, so that the holy virgin is more accurately termed mother of Christ than mother of God . Heilige Schrift, wo es erinnert an die Lord's Wirtschaft, spricht von der Geburt und Leiden nicht der Gottheit, sondern der Menschheit Christi, so dass die heilige Jungfrau ist präziser als Mutter von Christus als Mutter Gottes. Hear these words that the gospels proclaim: "The book of the generation of Jesus Christ, son of David, son of Abraham." Hören Sie diese Worte, dass die Evangelien verkünden: "Das Buch der Generation von Jesus Christus, der Sohn von David, der Sohn von Abraham." It is clear that God the Word was not the son of David. Es ist klar, dass Gott das Wort war nicht der Sohn von David. Listen to another witness if you will: "Jacob begat Joseph, the husband of Mary, of whom was born Jesus, who is called the Christ. " Consider a further piece of evidence: "Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, she was found to be with child of the holy Spirit." Hören Sie zu, wenn Sie eine andere Zeugen werden: "Jakob zeugte Joseph, der Ehemann von Maria, von denen Jesus geboren wurde, heißt Christus." Stellen Sie sich ein Stück weiter von Beweisen: "Nun ist die Geburt von Jesus Christus fand auf diese Weise . Als seine Mutter Mary hatte Joseph verlobt war sie gefunden werden, um mit Kind des heiligen Geistes. " But who would ever consider that the godhead of the only begotten was a creature of the Spirit? Aber wer würde immer der Ansicht, dass die Gottheit der gezeugt wurde nur eine Kreatur des Geistes? Why do we need to mention: "the mother of Jesus was there"? Warum brauchen wir überhaupt zu erwähnen: "Die Mutter von Jesus war es"? And again what of: "with Mary the mother of Jesus"; or "that which is conceived in her is of the holy Spirit"; and "Take the child and his mother and flee to Egypt"; and "concerning his Son, who was born of the seed of David according to the flesh"? Und wieder was von: "mit Maria, die Mutter Jesu", oder ", was in ihr ist der heilige Geist" und "Nimm das Kind und seine Mutter und Flucht nach Ägypten" und "über seinen Sohn, Geboren von der Saatgut von David nach dem Fleisch "? Again, scripture says when speaking of his passion: "God sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh"; and again "Christ died for our sins" and "Christ having suffered in the flesh"; and "This is", not "my godhead", but "my body, broken for you". Auch die Heilige Schrift sagt und spricht dabei von seiner Leidenschaft: "Gott sendet seine eigenen Sohn in der Ähnlichkeit des sündigen Fleisches und für die Sünde, er verurteilte die Sünde im Fleische" und wieder "Christus gestorben ist für unsere Sünden" und "Christus gelitten haben in der Fleisch "und" Dies ist ", nicht" meine Gottheit ", sondern" mein Körper, broken for you ".

    Ten thousand other expressions witness to the human race that they should not think that it was the godhead of the Son that was recently killed but the flesh which was joined to the nature of the godhead. Zehn tausend andere Ausdrücke Zeuge für die Menschheit, dass sie nicht denken, es sei die Gottheit des Sohnes, wurde vor kurzem getötet, aber das Fleisch, das sich auf die Art der Gottheit. (Hence also Christ calls himself the lord and son of David: " 'What do you think of the Christ ? Whose son is he ?' They said to him, 'The son of David.' Jesus answered and said to them, 'How is it then that David inspired by the Spirit, calls him Lord, saying, "The Lord said to my Lord, sit at my right hand"?'". He said this as being indeed son of David according to the flesh, but his Lord according to his godhead.) The body therefore is the temple of the deity of the Son, a temple which is united to it in a high and divine conjunction, so that the divine nature accepts what belongs to the body as its own. (Daher auch Christus nennt sich der Fürst und Sohn David: "Was halten Sie von der Christus? Wessen Sohn ist er?" Sie sagte zu ihm: "Der Sohn von David." Jesus antwortete und sprach zu ihnen: "Wie Ist es dann, dass David inspiriert durch den Geist, fordert ihn Lord, und sagte: "Der Herr sprach zu meinem Herrn, sitze in meiner rechten Hand "?'". Er sagte, diese Tat als Sohn Davids nach dem Fleisch, aber seine Lord nach seiner Gottheit.) Der Körper ist der Tempel daher der Gottheit des Sohnes, ein Tempel, der sich vereint, um es in einem hohen und göttliche Verbindung, so dass die göttliche Natur akzeptiert, was gehört zu den Körper als seine eigenen. Such a confession is noble and worthy of the gospel traditions. Ein solches Bekenntnis ist edel und würdig des Evangeliums Traditionen. But to use the expression "accept as its own" as a way of diminishing the properties of the conjoined flesh, birth, suffering and entombment, is a mark of those whose minds are led astray, my brother, by Greek thinking or are sick with the lunacy of Apollinarius and Arius or the other heresies or rather something more serious than these. Aber die Verwendung des Ausdrucks "akzeptieren, als seine eigene" als eine Möglichkeit, abnehmende die Eigenschaften des Fleisches verbunden, der Geburt, Leid und Grablegung, ist ein Zeichen für diejenigen, deren Geist die Irre geführt, mein Bruder, der griechischen Denken oder krank sind mit Der Wahnsinn der Apollinarius und Arius oder die andere Ketzereien oder eher etwas ernster als diese.

    For it is necessary for such as are attracted by the name "propriety" to make God the Word share, because of this same propriety, in being fed on milk, in gradual growth, in terror at the time of his passion and in need of angelical assistance. Denn es ist notwendig, für die, wie sich von dem Namen "Eigentum" zu Gott, dem Word-Aktien, weil dieser Anstand, in der Milch gefüttert, in der schrittweisen Wachstums, Terror in der Zeit seiner Leidenschaft und müssen in der Engelhaft Hilfe. I make no mention of circumcision and sacrifice and sweat and hunger, which all belong to the flesh and are adorable as having taken place for our sake. Ich mache keine Erwähnung der Beschneidung und opfern und Schweiß und Hunger, der alle gehören zu den Fleisch und liebenswert wie stattgefunden haben für unsere willen. But it would be false to apply such ideas to the deity and would involve us in just accusation because of our calumny. Aber es wäre falsch, solche Ideen in die Gottheit und würde uns in nur Anklage wegen Verleumdung unserer.

    These are the traditions of the holy fathers . Dies sind die Traditionen der heiligen Väter. These are the precepts of the holy scriptures . Dies sind die Gebote der heiligen Schriften. In this way does someone write in a godly way about the divine mercy and power, "Practise these duties, devote yourself to them, so that all may see your progress''. This is what Paul says to all. The care you take in labouring for those who have been scandalised is well taken and we are grateful to you both for the thought you devote to things divine and for the concern you have even for those who live here. But you should realise that you have been misled either by some here who have been deposed by the holy synod for Manichaeism or by clergy of your own persuasion. In fact the church daily progresses here and through the grace of Christ there is such an increase among the people that those who behold it cry out with the words of the prophet, "The earth will be filled with the knowledge of the Lord as the water covers the sea". As for our sovereigns, they are in great joy as the light of doctrine is spread abroad and, to be brief, because of the state of all the heresies that fight against God and of the orthodoxy of the church, one might find that verse fulfilled "The house of Saul grew weaker and weaker and the house of David grew stronger and stronger". Auf diese Weise hat jemand schreiben, in einer Art und Weise über die göttliche Gnade und die göttliche Macht, "Practise dieser Aufgaben widmen Sie ihnen, so dass alle sehen Sie den Fortschritt''. Das ist es, was Paulus sagt zu allen. Die Pflege nehmen Sie in Laborieren für diejenigen, die empört ist gut getroffen, und wir sind dankbar, dass Sie sowohl für die gedacht, Sie widmen zu göttlichen Dingen und für die Anliegen Sie haben sogar für diejenigen, die hier leben. Aber Sie sollten wissen, dass sie getäuscht wurden entweder von einigen Hier wurden abgesetzt, der von der heiligen Synode für Manichäismus oder Klerus von der eigenen Überzeugung. In der Tat schreitet die Kirche täglich hier und durch die Gnade Christi gibt es eine solche Erhöhung unter den Menschen, dass diejenigen, die da schreien, es mit den Worten Der Prophet, "Die Erde wird mit dem Wissen des Herrn, wie das Wasser zum Meer erstreckt." Wie für unsere Herrscher, sie sind in großer Freude, wie das Licht der Doktrin ist, die im Ausland und,, sich kurz zu fassen, denn der Den Status aller Häresien, dass der Kampf gegen Gott und der Orthodoxie der Kirche, könnte man feststellen, dass Vers erfüllt "Das Haus von Saul wuchs schwächer und schwächer und das Haus von David wuchs stärker und stärker."

    This is our advice from a brother to a brother. Dies ist unsere Beratung aus einem Bruder an einen Bruder. "If anyone is disposed to be contentious", Paul will cry out through us to such a one, "we recognize no other practice, neither do the churches of God". "Wenn jemand zu entsorgen ist umstritten", Paul weinen wird durch uns auf eine solche ein, "wir erkennen keine andere Praxis, weder die Kirchen von Gott". I and those with me greet all the brotherhood with you in Christ. Ich und die mit mir grüßen alle die Bruderschaft mit Ihnen in Christus. May you remain strong and continue praying for us, most honoured and reverent lord. Mögen Sie auch weiterhin auf hohem Niveau bleiben, und beten für uns, die meisten geehrt und ehrfürchtigen Fürsten.


    Third letter of Cyril to Nestorius Dritter Brief von Cyril zu Nestorius

    [Read at the council of Ephesus and included in the proceedings . [Lesen Sie in der Gemeinde von Ephesus und in den Verfahren. We omit the preface of the letter] Wir weglassen dem Vorwort des Schreibens]

    We believe in one God . Wir glauben an den einen Gott. . .[Nicene Creed] . [Nicene Creed]

    Following in all points the confessions of the holy fathers, which they made with the holy Spirit speaking in them , and following the direction of their opinions and going as it were in the royal way, we say that the only-begotten Word of God, who was begotten from the very essence of the Father, true God from true God, the light from the light and the one through whom all things in heaven and earth were made, for our salvation came down and emptying himself he became incarnate and was made man. This means that Nach der in allen Punkten die Bekenntnisse der heiligen Väter, die sie mit dem heiligen Geist in ihnen sprechen, und nach der Richtung, ihre Meinungen und gehen, wie es sich in den königlichen Weg, wir sagen, dass die einzige-gezeugt Wort Gottes, Gezeugt wurde, die aus dem Wesen des Vaters, wahrer Gott vom wahren Gott, Licht vom Licht und der durch den alle Dinge im Himmel und auf Erden gemacht wurden, für unsere Erlösung kam und Entleerung selbst verkörpern, und er wurde Menschen. Dies bedeutet, dass

  • he took flesh from the holy virgin and made it his own, undergoing a birth like ours from her womb and coming forth a man from a woman. Er Fleisch aus der heiligen Jungfrau und machte es zu seinem eigenen, in einem Geburt wie der unsrigen aus ihrem Bauch und Herkunft her ein Mann von einer Frau.
  • He did not cast aside what he was, but although he assumed flesh and blood, he remained what he was, God in nature and truth. Er hat nicht Haufen werfen, was er war, aber, obwohl er davon ausgegangen, Fleisch und Blut, er blieb, was er war, in der Natur Gottes und der Wahrheit.
  • We do not say that his flesh was turned into the nature of the godhead or that the unspeakable Word of God was changed into the nature of the flesh. Wir sagen nicht, dass sein Fleisch wurde in der Natur der Gottheit oder die unsägliche Wort Gottes wurde in der Art des Fleisches. For he (the Word) is unalterable and absolutely unchangeable and remains always the same as the scriptures say. Denn er (Word) ist unveränderlich und absolut unveränderlich und bleibt immer die gleiche, wie die Schriften sagen. For although visible as a child and in swaddling cloths, even while he was in the bosom of the virgin that bore him, as God he filled the whole of creation and was fellow ruler with him who begot him. Denn obwohl sichtbar, wie ein Kind in Windeln und Tüchern, auch wenn er in den Schoß der Jungfrau, die ihm, wie er Gott erfüllte die ganze Schöpfung und war Stipendiat Herrscher mit ihm, die ihm erzeugte. For the divine is without quantity and dimension and cannot be subject to circumscription. Für die göttliche ist ohne Menge und Dimension und können nicht zur Umschreibung.

    We confess the Word to have been made one with the flesh hypostatically , and we adore one Son and Lord, Jesus Christ. Wir gestehen, das Wort wurde Fleisch mit der hypostatically, und wir lieben Sohn und ein Herr, Jesus Christus. We do not divide him into parts and separate man and God in him, as though the two natures were mutually united only through a unity of dignity and authority ; that would be an empty expression and nothing more. Wir haben ihn nicht teilen und in Teilen trennen Mensch und Gott in ihm, als ob die beiden Naturen waren beide vereint nur durch eine Einheit der Würde und Autorität, das wäre eine leere Meinungs-und nichts mehr. Nor do we give the name Christ in one sense to the Word of God and in another to him who was born of woman, but we know only one Christ, the Word from God the Father with his own flesh. As man he was anointed with us, even though he himself gives the Spirit to those who are worthy to receive it and not in measure, as the blessed evangelist John says. Auch geben wir den Namen Christi in einem Sinn, das Wort Gottes und in einem anderen, die mit ihm war geboren von einer Frau, aber wir wissen, nur ein Christus, das Wort von Gott dem Vater mit seinem eigenen Fleisch. Als Mensch war er gesalbt mit Uns, auch wenn er selbst gibt den Geist auf jene, die es würdig zu empfangen und nicht in Maßnahme, wie der Evangelist Johannes sagt gesegnet.

    But we do not say that the Word of God dwelt as in an ordinary man born of the holy virgin, in order that Christ may not be thought of as a God-bearing man. Aber wir sagen nicht, dass das Wort Gottes näher als in einem gewöhnlichen Mann geboren der heiligen Jungfrau, damit Christus kann nicht gedacht werden als Gott-Mensch mit. For even though "the Word dwelt among us", and it is also said that in Christ dwelt "all the fullness of the godhead bodily", we understand that, having become flesh, the manner of his indwelling is not defined in the same way as he is said to dwell among the saints , he was united by nature and not turned into flesh and he made his indwelling in such a way as we may say that the soul of man does in his own body. Denn auch wenn "das Wort wohnte unter uns", und es wird auch gesagt, dass in Christus wohnte "all die Fülle der Gottheit körperlich", wir verstehen, dass Fleisch geworden, die Art und Weise seiner Innewohnung nicht definiert ist in der gleichen Weise Wie er ist, sagte zum Verweilen unter den Heiligen, wurde er von der Natur vereint und nicht in Fleisch und er machte seine Innewohnung in einer solchen Art und Weise, wie wir können sagen, dass die Seele des Menschen nicht in seinem eigenen Körper.

    There is therefore one Christ and Son and Lord, but not with the sort of conjunction that a man might have with God as unity of dignity or authority . Es ist daher ein Christus und Sohn und Herr, aber nicht mit der Art zusammen, dass ein Mann vielleicht mit Gott als Einheit der Würde oder Behörde. Equality of honour by itself is unable to unite natures. Die Gleichstellung der Ehre von selbst nicht in der Lage ist zu vereinen Naturen. For Peter and John were equal in honour to each other, being both of them apostles and holy disciples, but they were two, not one. Für Peter und Johannes waren gleich in der Ehre zu einander, die beide von ihnen heiligen Apostel und Jünger, aber sie waren zwei, nicht eins. Neither do we understand the manner of conjunction to be one of juxtaposition for this is not enough for natural union. Weder können wir verstehen, die Art und Weise der Verbindung zu einem Nebeneinander dafür ist nicht genug für natürliche Gewerkschaft. Nor yet is it a question of relative participation , as we ourselves, being united to the Lord, are as it is written in the words of scripture "one spirit with him". Ebenso wenig ist es aber eine Frage der relativen Beteiligung, wie wir uns selbst, geeint zu den Herrn, so wie es geschrieben ist in den Worten der Schrift "ein Geist mit ihm." Rather do we deprecate the term "conjunction" as being inadequate to express the idea of union. Vielmehr können wir durchaus der Begriff "Verbindung" als unzureichend zum Ausdruck bringen, die Idee der Union.

    Nor do we call the Word from God the Father, the God or Lord of Christ. Wir sind auch nicht der Aufruf der Word von Gott, dem Vater, Gott oder Lord of Christ. To speak in that way would appear to split into two the one Christ and Son and Lord and we might in this way fall under the charge of blasphemy, making him the God and Lord of himself. Zu sprechen und auf diese Weise erscheint die Aufteilung in zwei der Christus und Sohn und Herrn, und wir können auf diese Weise unter die Anklage der Blasphemie, die ihm der Gott und Fürst von sich. For, as we have already said, the Word of God was united hypostatically with the flesh and is God of all and Lord of the universe, but is neither his own slave or master. Denn wie wir bereits gesagt haben, das Wort Gottes war hypostatically vereint mit dem Fleisch und Gott ist in allem und Herrn des Universums, ist aber weder seine eigene Slave oder Master. For it is foolish or rather impious to think or to speak in this way. Denn es ist ziemlich dumm oder pietätlos zu denken oder zu sprechen, auf diese Art und Weise. It is true that he called the Father "God" even though he was himself God by nature and of his being, we are not ignorant of the fact that at the same time as he was God he also became man, and so was subject to God according to the law that is suitable to the nature of manhood . Es ist wahr, dass er der Vater "Gott", obwohl er sich von Gott und der Natur zu sein, sind wir nicht unwissend der Tatsache, dass zur gleichen Zeit, als er wurde Gott Mensch geworden ist er auch, und so war Gegenstand Gott nach dem Gesetz, das geeignet ist, um die Art der Männlichkeit. But how should he become God or Lord of himself? Aber wie sollte er zu Gott oder Lord of selbst? Consequently as man and as far as it was fitting for him within the limits of his self-emptying it is said that he was subject to God like ourselves. Folglich als Mensch und so weit, wie es für ihn war, anliegender innerhalb der Grenzen seiner Selbst-Entleerung es wird gesagt, dass er nach Gottes wie wir. So he came to be under the law while at the same time himself speaking the law and being a lawgiver like God. So kam er nach unter das Gesetz, während zur gleichen Zeit selbst sprechen und das Gesetz als Gesetzgeber wie Gott.

    When speaking of Christ we avoid the expression: "I worship him who is carried because of the one who carries him; because of him who is unseen, I worship the one who is seen." Spricht man von Christus vermeiden wir den Ausdruck: "Ich verehre ihn, die erfolgt, weil derjenige, der ihn trägt, denn von ihm ist, die unsichtbaren, ich verehre derjenige, der gesehen wird." It is shocking to say in this connexion: "The assumed shares the name of God with him who assumes." Es ist schockierend, zu sagen, in diesem Zusammenhang: "Die Aktien davon ausgegangen, den Namen Gottes mit ihm, geht davon aus." To speak in this way once again divides into two Christs and puts the man separately by himself and God likewise by himself. Zu sprechen, auf diese Weise noch einmal unterteilt in zwei Christus und stellt den Mann getrennt von sich selbst und Gott ebenfalls von ihm. This saying denies openly the union, according to which one is not worshipped alongside the other, nor do both share in the title "God", but Jesus Christ is considered as one, the only begotten Son, honoured with one worship, together with his own flesh. Dies bestreitet offen sagen, die Union, nach denen man sich nicht verehrt neben den anderen, bis beide Aktien noch in den Titel "Gott", sondern Jesus Christus ist als eine, die eingeborenen Sohn, geehrt mit einem Gottesdienst, zusammen mit seiner Eigene Fleisch.

    We also confess that the only begotten Son born of God the Father, although according to his own nature he was not subject to suffering, suffered in the flesh for us according to the scriptures, and was in his crucified body, and without himself suffering made his own the sufferings of his own flesh , for "by the grace of God he tasted death for all". We also confess that the only begotten Son born of God the Father, although according to his own nature he was not subject to suffering, suffered in the flesh for us according to the scriptures, and was in his crucified body, and without himself suffering made his own the sufferings of his own flesh , for "by the grace of God he tasted death for all". For that purpose he gave his own body to death though he was by nature life and the resurrection, in order that, having trodden down death by his own unspeakable power, he might first in his own flesh become the firstborn from the dead and "the first fruits of them that sleep". For that purpose he gave his own body to death though he was by nature life and the resurrection, in order that, having trodden down death by his own unspeakable power, he might first in his own flesh become the firstborn from the dead and "the first fruits of them that sleep". And that he might make a way for human nature to return to incorruption by the grace of God, as we have just said, "he tasted death for all" and on the third day he returned to life, having robbed the underworld. Accordingly, even though it is said that "through man came the resurrection of the dead", yet we understand that man to have been the Word which came from God, through whom the power of death was overcome. At the right time he will come as one Son and Lord in the glory of the Father, to judge the world in justice, as it is written.

    We will necessarily add this also. Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of God, that is Jesus Christ, and professing his return to life from the dead and his ascension into heaven, we offer the unbloody worship [sacrificii servitutem] in the churches and so proceed to the mystical thanksgivings and are sanctified having partaken of the holy flesh [corpus] and precious blood of Christ, the saviour of us all. Proclaiming the death according to the flesh of the only begotten Son of God, that is Jesus Christ, and professing his return to life from the dead and his ascension into heaven, we offer the unbloody worship [sacrificii servitutem] in the churches and so proceed to the mystical thanksgivings and are sanctified having partaken of the holy flesh [corpus] and precious blood of Christ, the saviour of us all. This we receive not as ordinary flesh, heaven forbid, nor as that of a man who has been made holy and joined to the Word by union of honour, or who had a divine indwelling, but as truly the life-giving and real flesh of the Word [ut vere vivificatricem et ipsius Verbi propriam factam .]. This we receive not as ordinary flesh, heaven forbid, nor as that of a man who has been made holy and joined to the Word by union of honour, or who had a divine indwelling, but as truly the life-giving and real flesh of the Word [ut vere vivificatricem et ipsius Verbi propriam factam .]. For being life by nature as God, when he became one with his own flesh, he made it also to be life-giving, as also he said to us: "Amen I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood" . For being life by nature as God, when he became one with his own flesh, he made it also to be life-giving, as also he said to us: "Amen I say to you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man and drink his blood" . For we must not think that it is the flesh of a man like us (for how can the flesh of man be life-giving by its own nature?), but as being made the true flesh [vere proprium eius factam] of the one who for our sake became the son of man and was called so. For we must not think that it is the flesh of a man like us (for how can the flesh of man be life-giving by its own nature?), but as being made the true flesh [vere proprium eius factam] of the one who for our sake became the son of man and was called so.

    For we do not divide up the words of our Saviour in the gospels among two hypostases or persons . For the one and only Christ is not dual, even though he be considered to be from two distinct realities, brought together into an unbreakable union. In the same sort of way a human being, though he be composed of soul and body, is considered to be not dual, but rather one out of two. Therefore, in thinking rightly, we refer both the human and divine expressions to the same person. For when he speaks about himself in a divine manner as "he that sees me sees the Father", and "I and the Father are one", we think of his divine and unspeakable nature, according to which he is one with his own Father through identity of nature and is the "image and impress and brightness of his glory". For when he speaks about himself in a divine manner as "he that sees me sees the Father", and "I and the Father are one", we think of his divine and unspeakable nature, according to which he is one with his own Father through identity of nature and is the "image and impress and brightness of his glory". But when, not dishonouring the measure of his humanity, he says to the Jews: "But now you seek to kill me, a man who has spoken the truth to you", again no less than before, we recognise that he who, because of his equality and likeness to God the Father is God the Word, is also within the limits of his humanity. But when, not dishonouring the measure of his humanity, he says to the Jews: "But now you seek to kill me, a man who has spoken the truth to you", again no less than before, we recognise that he who, because of his equality and likeness to God the Father is God the Word, is also within the limits of his humanity. For if it is necessary to believe that being God by nature he became flesh, that is man ensouled with a rational soul, whatever reason should anyone have for being ashamed at the expressions uttered by him should they happen to be suitable to him as man ? For if he should reject words suitable to him as man, who was it that forced him to become a man like us? Why should he who submitted himself to voluntary self-emptying for our sake, reject expressions that are suitable for such self-emptying? All the expressions, therefore, that occur in the gospels are to be referred to one person, the one enfleshed hypostasis of the Word . For there is one Lord Jesus Christ, according to the scriptures.

    Even though he is called "the apostle and high priest of our confession", as offering to the God and Father the confession of faith we make to him and through him to the God and Father and also to the holy Spirit, again we say that he is the natural and only-begotten Son of God and we shall not assign to another man apart from him the name and reality of priesthood. Even though he is called "the apostle and high priest of our confession", as offering to the God and Father the confession of faith we make to him and through him to the God and Father and also to the holy Spirit, again we say that he is the natural and only-begotten Son of God and we shall not assign to another man apart from him the name and reality of priesthood. For he became the "mediator between God and humanity" and the establisher of peace between them, offering himself for an odour of sweetness to the God and Father . Therefore also he said: "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me; [in burnt offerings and sacrifice for sin you have no pleasure]. Then I said, 'Behold I come to do your will, O God', as it is written of me in the volume of the book". Therefore also he said: "Sacrifice and offering you would not, but a body you have prepared for me; [in burnt offerings and sacrifice for sin you have no pleasure]. Then I said, 'Behold I come to do your will, O God', as it is written of me in the volume of the book". For our sake and not for his own he brought forward his own body in the odour of sweetness. Indeed, of what offering or sacrifice for himself would he have been in need, being as God superior to all manner of sin? For though "all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God", and so we are prone to disorder and human nature has fallen into the weakness of sin, he is not so and consequently we are behind him in glory. How then can there be any further doubt that the true lamb was sacrificed for us and on our behalf? The suggestion that he offered himself for himself as well as for us is impossible to separate from the charge of impiety . For he never committed a fault at all, nor did he sin in any way. What sort of offering would he need then since there was no sin for which offering might rightly be made?

    When he says of the Spirit, "he will glorify me", the correct understanding of this is not to say that the one Christ and Son was in need of glory from another and that he took glory from the holy Spirit, for his Spirit is not better than he nor above him. When he says of the Spirit, "he will glorify me", the correct understanding of this is not to say that the one Christ and Son was in need of glory from another and that he took glory from the holy Spirit, for his Spirit is not better than he nor above him. But because he used his own Spirit to display his godhead through his mighty works, he says that he has been glorified by him, just as if any one of us should perhaps say for example of his inherent strength or his knowledge of anything that they glorify him. But because he used his own Spirit to display his godhead through his mighty works, he says that he has been glorified by him, just as if any one of us should perhaps say for example of his inherent strength or his knowledge of anything that they glorify him. For even though the Spirit exists in his own hypostasis and is thought of on his own, as being Spirit and not as Son, even so he is not alien to the Son. He has been called "the Spirit of truth", and Christ is the truth, and the Spirit was poured forth by the Son, as indeed the Son was poured forth from the God and Father. Accordingly the Spirit worked many strange things through the hand of the holy apostles and so glorified him after the ascension of our lord Jesus Christ into heaven. For it was believed that he is God by nature and works through his own Spirit. For this reason also he said: "He (the Spirit) will take what is mine and declare it to you". But we do not say that the Spirit is wise and powerful through some sharing with another, for he is all perfect and in need of no good thing. Since he is the Spirit of the power and wisdom of the Father, that is the Son, he is himself, evidently, wisdom and power.

    Therefore, because the holy virgin bore in the flesh God who was united hypostatically with the flesh, for that reason we call her mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh (for "the Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and the Word was with God", and he made the ages and is coeternal with the Father and craftsman of all things), but because, as we have said, he united to himself hypostatically the human and underwent a birth according to the flesh from her womb. Therefore, because the holy virgin bore in the flesh God who was united hypostatically with the flesh, for that reason we call her mother of God , not as though the nature of the Word had the beginning of its existence from the flesh (for "the Word was in the beginning and the Word was God and the Word was with God", and he made the ages and is coeternal with the Father and craftsman of all things), but because, as we have said, he united to himself hypostatically the human and underwent a birth according to the flesh from her womb. This was not as though he needed necessarily or for his own nature a birth in time and in the last times of this age, but in order that he might bless the beginning of our existence, in order that seeing that it was a woman that had given birth to him united to the flesh, the curse against the whole race should thereafter cease which was consigning all our earthy bodies to death, and in order that the removal through him of the curse, "In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", should demonstrate the truth of the words of the prophet: "Strong death swallowed them Up", and again, "God has wiped every tear away from all face". This was not as though he needed necessarily or for his own nature a birth in time and in the last times of this age, but in order that he might bless the beginning of our existence, in order that seeing that it was a woman that had given birth to him united to the flesh, the curse against the whole race should thereafter cease which was consigning all our earthy bodies to death, and in order that the removal through him of the curse, "In sorrow thou shalt bring forth children", should demonstrate the truth of the words of the prophet: "Strong death swallowed them Up", and again, "God has wiped every tear away from all face". It is for this cause that we say that in his economy he blessed marriage and, when invited, went down to Cana in Galilee with his holy apostles.

    We have been taught to hold these things by

  • the holy apostles and evangelists and by
  • all the divinely inspired scriptures and by the true confession of
  • the blessed fathers .

    To all these your reverence ought to agree and subscribe without any deceit. What is required for your reverence to anathematise we subjoin to this epistle.

    Twelve Anathemas Proposed by Cyril and accepted by the Council of Ephesus

    1. If anyone does not confess that Emmanuel is God in truth, and therefore that the holy virgin is the mother of God (for she bore in a fleshly way the Word of God become flesh, let him be anathema .

    2. If anyone does not confess that the Word from God the Father has been united by hypostasis with the flesh and is one Christ with his own flesh, and is therefore God and man together, let him be anathema .

    3. If anyone divides in the one Christ the hypostases after the union, joining them only by a conjunction of dignity or authority or power, and not rather by a coming together in a union by nature, let him be anathema .

    4. If anyone distributes between the two persons or hypostases the expressions used either in the gospels or in the apostolic writings, whether they are used by the holy writers of Christ or by him about himself, and ascribes some to him as to a man, thought of separately from the Word from God, and others, as befitting God, to him as to the Word from God the Father, let him be anathema . If anyone distributes between the two persons or hypostases the expressions used either in the gospels or in the apostolic writings, whether they are used by the holy writers of Christ or by him about himself, and ascribes some to him as to a man, thought of separately from the Word from God, and others, as befitting God, to him as to the Word from God the Father, let him be anathema .

    5. If anyone dares to say that Christ was a God-bearing man and not rather God in truth, being by nature one Son, even as "the Word became flesh", and is made partaker of blood and flesh precisely like us, let him be anathema .

    6. If anyone says that the Word from God the Father was the God or master of Christ, and does not rather confess the same both God and man, the Word having become flesh, according to the scriptures, let him be anathema .

    7. If anyone says that as man Jesus was activated by the Word of God and was clothed with the glory of the Only-begotten, as a being separate from him, let him be anathema .

    8. If anyone dares to say that the man who was assumed ought to be worshipped and glorified together with the divine Word and be called God along with him, while being separate from him, (for the addition of "with" must always compel us to think in this way), and will not rather worship Emmanuel with one veneration and send up to him one doxology, even as "the Word became flesh", let him be anathema . If anyone dares to say that the man who was assumed ought to be worshipped and glorified together with the divine Word and be called God along with him, while being separate from him, (for the addition of "with" must always compel us to think in this way), and will not rather worship Emmanuel with one veneration and send up to him one doxology, even as "the Word became flesh", let him be anathema .

    9. If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorified by the Spirit, as making use of an alien power that worked through him and as having received from him the power to master unclean spirits and to work divine wonders among people, and does not rather say that it was his own proper Spirit through whom he worked the divine wonders, let him be anathema . If anyone says that the one Lord Jesus Christ was glorified by the Spirit, as making use of an alien power that worked through him and as having received from him the power to master unclean spirits and to work divine wonders among people, and does not rather say that it was his own proper Spirit through whom he worked the divine wonders, let him be anathema .

    10. The divine scripture says Christ became "the high priest and apostle of our confession"; he offered himself to God the Father in an odour of sweetness for our sake. If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone (for he who knew no sin needed no offering), let him be anathema . If anyone, therefore, says that it was not the very Word from God who became our high priest and apostle, when he became flesh and a man like us, but as it were another who was separate from him, in particular a man from a woman, or if anyone says that he offered the sacrifice also for himself and not rather for us alone (for he who knew no sin needed no offering), let him be anathema .

    11. If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord is life-giving and belongs to the Word from God the Father, but maintains that it belongs to another besides him, united with him in dignity or as enjoying a mere divine indwelling, and is not rather life-giving, as we said, since it became the flesh belonging to the Word who has power to bring all things to life, let him be anathema . If anyone does not confess that the flesh of the Lord is life-giving and belongs to the Word from God the Father, but maintains that it belongs to another besides him, united with him in dignity or as enjoying a mere divine indwelling, and is not rather life-giving, as we said, since it became the flesh belonging to the Word who has power to bring all things to life, let him be anathema .

    12. If anyone does not confess that the Word of God suffered in the flesh and was crucified in the flesh and tasted death in the flesh and became the first born of the dead, although as God he is life and life-giving, let him be anathema .


    The judgment against Nestorius

    The holy synod said: As, in addition to all else, the excellent Nestorius has declined to obey our summons and has not received the holy and God-fearing bishops we sent to him, we have of necessity started upon an investigation of his impieties. We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by We have found him out thinking and speaking in an impious fashion, from his letters, from his writings that have been read out, and from the things that he has recently said in this metropolis which have been witnessed to by others; and as a result we have been compelled of necessity both by

  • the canons and by
  • the letter of our most holy father and fellow servant Celestine, bishop of the church of the Romans , to issue this sad condemnation against him, though we do so with many tears.

    Our lord Jesus Christ, who has been blasphemed by him, has determined through this most holy synod that the same Nestorius should be stripped of his episcopal dignity and removed from the college of priests.


    Synodical letter about the expulsion of the eastern bishops (et al.)

    The holy and ecumenical synod, gathered together in Ephesus at the behest of the most pious princes, [sends greeting] to the bishops, priests, deacons and the whole people in every province and city.

    When we had gathered together in accordance with the pious decree in the metropolis of Ephesus, some separated themselves from us, a little more than thirty in number. The leader of this apostasy was John, bishop of Antioch, and their names are as follows: First the same John, bishop of Antioch in Syria, [the names of 33 other eastern bishops follow]

    These men, despite the fact that they were members of the ecclesiastical community, had no licence either to do harm through their priestly dignity or to do good, because some among their number had already been deposed. Their support of the views of Nestorius and Celestius was clearly shown by their refusal to condemn Nestorius together with us. By a common decree the sacred synod has expelled them from ecclesiastical communion and deprived them of the exercise of their priestly office, through which they have been able to harm some and help others.

    Since it is necessary that those who were absent from the synod and remained in the country or the city, on account of their own church affairs or because of their health, should not be ignorant of the decisions formulated concerning these matters, we make it known to your holinesses that if any metropolitan of a province dissents from the holy and ecumenical synod and attaches himself to the assembly of the revolters, or should do so later, or should he have adopted the opinions of Celestius, or do so in the future, such a one is deprived of all power to take steps against the bishops of his province. Since it is necessary that those who were absent from the synod and remained in the country or the city, on account of their own church affairs or because of their health, should not be ignorant of the decisions formulated concerning these matters, we make it known to your holinesses that if any metropolitan of a province dissents from the holy and ecumenical synod and attaches himself to the assembly of the revolters, or should do so later, or should he have adopted the opinions of Celestius, or do so in the future, such a one is deprived of all power to take steps against the bishops of his province. He is thereby cast out by the synod from all ecclesiastical communion and is deprived of all ecclesiastical authority. Instead he is to be subjected to the bishops of his own province and the surrounding metropolitans, provided they be orthodox, even to the extent of being completely deposed from the rank of bishop.

    If any provincial bishops have absented themselves from the holy synod and have either attached themselves or attempted to attach themselves to the apostasy, or after subscribing the deposition of Nestorius have returned to the assembly of apostates, these, according to the decision of the holy synod, are to be deprived of the priesthood and deposed from their rank. If any provincial bishops have absented themselves from the holy synod and have either attached themselves or attempted to attach themselves to the apostasy, or after subscribing the deposition of Nestorius have returned to the assembly of apostates, these, according to the decision of the holy synod , are to be deprived of the priesthood and deposed from their rank.

    If any clerics either in city or country have been suspended by Nestorius and those with him from their priesthood because of their orthodoxy, we have thought it right that these should regain their proper rank ; and in general we decree that those clerics who are in agreement with the orthodox and ecumenical synod should in no way be subject to those bishops who have revolted or may revolt from it. If any clerics either in city or country have been suspended by Nestorius and those with him from their priesthood because of their orthodoxy, we have thought it right that these should regain their proper rank ; and in general we decree that those clerics who are in agreement with the orthodox and ecumenical synod should in no way be subject to those bishops who have revolted or may revolt from it. If any clerics should apostatise and in private or in public dare to hold the views of Nestorius or Celestius, it is thought right that such should stand deposed by the holy synod.

    Whoever have been condemned of improper practices by the holy synod or by their own bishops, and have been uncanonically restored to communion and rank by Nestorius or his sympathisers, with their habitual lack of discrimination, such persons we have decreed gain nothing by this and are to remain deposed as before. Whoever have been condemned of improper practices by the holy synod or by their own bishops, and have been uncanonically restored to communion and rank by Nestorius or his sympathisers, with their habitual lack of discrimination, such persons we have decreed gain nothing by this and are to remain deposed as before.

    Similarly if anyone should wish in any way to upset the decisions in each point taken in the holy synod of Ephesus, the holy synod decides that if they are bishops or clerics they should be completely deprived of their own rank and if they are laity they should be excommunicated. Similarly if anyone should wish in any way to upset the decisions in each point taken in the holy synod of Ephesus, the holy synod decides that if they are bishops or clerics they should be completely deprived of their own rank and if they are laity they should be excommunicated.


    Definition of the faith at Nicaea [6th session 22 July 431]

    The synod of Nicaea produced this creed: We believe ... [the Nicene Creed follows]

    It seems fitting that all should assent to this holy creed. It is pious and sufficiently helpful for the whole world. But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it. But since some pretend to confess and accept it, while at the same time distorting the force of its expressions to their own opinion and so evading the truth, being sons of error and children of destruction, it has proved necessary to add testimonies from the holy and orthodox fathers that can fill out the meaning they have given to the words and their courage in proclaiming it. All those who have a clear and blameless faith will understand, interpret and proclaim it in this way.

    When these documents had been read out, the holy synod decreed the following.

    1. It is not permitted to produce or write or compose any other creed except the one which was defined by the holy fathers who were gathered together in the holy Spirit at Nicaea.
    2. Any who dare to compose or bring forth or produce another creed for the benefit of those who wish to turn from Hellenism or Judaism or some other heresy to the knowledge of the truth, if they are bishops or clerics they should be deprived of their respective charges and if they are laymen they are to be anathematised. Any who dare to compose or bring forth or produce another creed for the benefit of those who wish to turn from Hellenism or Judaism or some other heresy to the knowledge of the truth, if they are bishops or clerics they should be deprived of their respective charges and if they are laymen they are to be anathematised.
    3. In the same way if any should be discovered, whether bishops, clergy or laity, thinking or teaching the views expressed in his statement by the priest Charisius about the incarnation of the only-begotten Son of God or the disgusting, perverted views of Nestorius, which underlie them, these should be subject to the condemnation of this holy and ecumenical synod. A bishop clearly is to be stripped of his bishopric and deposed, a cleric to be deposed from the clergy, and a lay person is to be anathematised, as was said before.


    Definition against the impious Messalians or Euchites

    The most pious and religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius came together to us and made a joint enquiry about the so called Messalians or Euchites or Enthusiasts, or whatever name this appalling heresy goes under, who dwell in the region of Pamphylia. We made investigation and the god-fearing and reverent Valerian produced a synodical document concerning these people, which had been drawn up in great Constantinople in the time of Sisinnius of blessed memory. When this had been read out in the presence of all, it was agreed that it had been well made and was correct. We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria . We all agreed, as did the most religious bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and all the pious bishops of the provinces of Pamphylia and Lycaonia, that what had been inscribed in the synodical document should be confirmed and in no way disobeyed, clearly without prejudice to the acts of Alexandria . Consequently those anywhere in that province who subscribed to the heresy of the Messalians or Enthusiasts, or who were suspected of the disease, whether clerical or lay, are to come together; if they sign the anathemas according to what was promulgated in the aforementioned synod, should they be clergy they should remain such and if laity they are to remain in communion. Consequently those anywhere in that province who subscribed to the heresy of the Messalians or Enthusiasts, or who were suspected of the disease, whether clerical or lay, are to come together; if they sign the anathemas according to what was promulgated in the aforementioned synod, should they be clergy they should remain such and if laity they are to remain in communion. But if they decline and do not anathematise, if they are presbyters or deacons or hold any other rank in the church, they are to forfeit their clerical status and grade and communion, and if they are laity let them be anathematised.

    In addition, those who have been condemned are not to be permitted to govern monasteries, lest tares be sown and increase. The vigorous and zealous execution of all these decrees is enjoined upon the reverent bishops Valerian and Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops throughout the whole province. Furthermore it seemed good that the filthy book of this heresy, which has been published and is called by them Asceticon, should be anathematised, as being composed by heretics, a copy of which the most pious and religious Valerian brought with him. Any other production savouring of the like impiety which is found anywhere is to be treated similarly.

    In addition, when they come together, they should commit clearly to writing whatever conduces to the creation of concord, communion and order. But if any discussion should arise in connexion with the present business among the most godly bishops Valerian, Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops in the province, and if something difficult or ambiguous crops up, then in such a case it seems good that the godly bishops of Lycia and Lycaonia should be brought in, and the metropolitan of whatever province these choose should not be left out. But if any discussion should arise in connexion with the present business among the most godly bishops Valerian, Amphilochius and the other reverent bishops in the province, and if something difficult or ambiguous crops up, then in such a case it seems good that the godly bishops of Lycia and Lycaonia should be brought in, and the metropolitan of whatever province these choose should not be left out. In this way the disputed questions should through their means be brought to an appropriate solution.


    Resolution : that the bishops of Cyprus may themselves conduct ordinations.

    The holy synod declared:

    The most reverent bishop Rheginus and with him Zenon and Evagrius, revered bishops of the province of Cyprus, have brought forward what is both an innovation against the ecclesiastical customs and the canons of the holy fathers and concerns the freedom of all. Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprus--as it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod -- the the prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom. Therefore, since common diseases need more healing as they bring greater harm with them, if it has not been a continuous ancient custom for the bishop of Antioch to hold ordinations in Cyprus--as it is asserted in memorials and orally by the religious men who have come before the synod -- the the prelates of the holy churches of Cyprus shall, free from molestation and violence, use their right to perform by themselves the ordination of reverent bishops for their island, according to the canons of the holy fathers and the ancient custom.

    The same principle will be observed for other dioceses and provinces everywhere . None of the reverent bishops is to take possession of another province which has not been under his authority from the first or under that of his predecessors. Any one who has thus seized upon and subjected a province is to restore it, lest the canons of the fathers be transgressed and the arrogance of secular power effect an entry through the cover of priestly office . We must avoid bit by bit destroying the freedom which our lord Jesus Christ the liberator of all people, gave us through his own blood. It is therefore the pleasure of the holy and ecumenical synod to secure intact and inviolate the rights belonging to each province from the first, according to the custom which has been in force from of old. Each metropolitan has the right to take a copy of the proceedings for his own security. If any one produces a version which is at variance with what is here decided, the holy and ecumenical synod unanimously decrees it to be of no avail.


    Formula of union between Cyrill and John of Antioch

    We will state briefly what we are convinced of and profess about

  • the God-bearing virgin and
  • the manner of the incarnation of the only begotten Son of God -- For, as we have just said, that creed is sufficient both for the knowledge of godliness and for the repudiation of all heretical false teaching. We shall speak not presuming to approach the unapproachable; but we confess our own weakness and so shut out those who would reproach us for investigating things beyond the human mind.

    We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity , for a union of two natures took place. We confess, then, our lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God perfect God and perfect man of a rational soul and a body, begotten before all ages from the Father in his godhead, the same in the last days, for us and for our salvation, born of Mary the virgin, according to his humanity, one and the same consubstantial with the Father in godhead and consubstantial with us in humanity , for a union of two natures took place. Therefore we confess one Christ, one Son, one Lord. According to this understanding of the unconfused union, we confess the holy virgin to be the mother of God because God the Word took flesh and became man and from his very conception united to himself the temple he took from her. As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connexion with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity. As to the evangelical and apostolic expressions about the Lord, we know that theologians treat some in common as of one person and distinguish others as of two natures, and interpret the god-befitting ones in connexion with the godhead of Christ and the lowly ones with his humanity.


    Letter of Cyril to John of Antioch about peace

    Having read these holy phrases and finding ourselves in agreement (for "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism"), we have given glory to God who is the saviour of all and rejoice together that our churches and yours are at one in professing the same faith as the inspired scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers. Having read these holy phrases and finding ourselves in agreement (for "there is one Lord, one faith, one baptism"), we have given glory to God who is the saviour of all and rejoice together that our churches and yours are at one in professing the same faith as the inspired scriptures and the tradition of our holy fathers. But since I discovered that there are some always eager to find fault, who buzz around like angry wasps and spit forth evil words against me, to the effect that I say that the holy body of Christ came down from heaven and not from the holy virgin, I thought it necessary in answer to them to say a little about this matter to you. But since I discovered that there are some always eager to find fault, who buzz around like angry wasps and spit forth evil words against me, to the effect that I say that the holy body of Christ came down from heaven and not from the holy virgin , I thought it necessary in answer to them to say a little about this matter to you.

    O fools, whose only competence is in slander! How did you become so perverted in thought and fall into such a sickness of idiocy? For you must surely know that almost all our fight for the faith arose in connexion with our insistence that the holy virgin is the mother of God . But if we claim that the holy body of our common saviour Christ is born from heaven and was not of her, why should she still be considered God-bearer? For whom indeed did she bear, if it is untrue that she bore Emmanuel according to the flesh? It is rather they who speak such nonsense against me who deserve to be ridiculed. For the holy prophet Isaiah does not lie when he says, "Behold a virgin shall conceive and bear a son and they shall call his name Emmanuel, which is interpreted God with us". Again the holy Gabriel speaks total truth when he says to the blessed virgin: "Do not fear, Mary. You have found favour with God, and behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will call his name Jesus . For he will save his people from their sins". Again the holy Gabriel speaks total truth when he says to the blessed virgin: "Do not fear, Mary. You have found favour with God, and behold you will conceive in your womb and bear a son and you will call his name Jesus . For he will save his people from their sins".

    But when we say that our lord Jesus Christ came from heaven and above, we do not apply such expressions as "from above" and "from heaven" to his holy flesh. Rather do we follow the divine Paul who clearly proclaimed: "The first man was of the earth, earthly, the second man is the Lord from heaven".

    We also recall our Saviour who said: "No one has gone up into heaven except him who came down from heaven, the son of man". Yet he was born, as I have just said, from the holy virgin according to the flesh.

    But since God the Word, who came down from above and from heaven, "emptied himself, taking the form of a slave", and was called son of man though all the while he remained what he was, that is God (for he is unchangeable and immutable by nature), he is said to have come down from heaven, since he is now understood to be one with his own flesh, and he has therefore been designated the man from heaven, being both perfect in godhead and perfect in humanity and thought of as in one person. But since God the Word, who came down from above and from heaven, "emptied himself, taking the form of a slave", and was called son of man though all the while he remained what he was, that is God (for he is unchangeable and immutable by nature), he is said to have come down from heaven, since he is now understood to be one with his own flesh, and he has therefore been designated the man from heaven, being both perfect in godhead and perfect in humanity and thought of as in one person. For there is one lord Jesus Christ, even though we do not ignore the difference of natures, out of which we say that the ineffable union was effected. As for those who say that there was a mixture or confusion or blending of God the Word with the flesh, let your holiness see fit to stop their mouths. For it is quite likely that some should spread it abroad that I have thought or said such things. But I am so far from thinking anything of the kind that I think that those are quite mad who suppose that "a shadow of change" is conceivable in connexion with the divine nature of the Word. For he remains what he is always and never changes, nor could he ever change or be susceptible of it. Furthermore we all confess that the Word of God is impassible though in his all-wise economy of the mystery he is seen to attribute to himself the sufferings undergone by his own flesh. So the all-wise Peter speaks of "Christ suffering for us in the flesh" and not in the nature of his unspeakable godhead. For in order that he might be believed to be the saviour of all, in accordance with our economic appropriation, as I said, he refers to himself the sufferings of his own flesh, in much the same way as is suggested through the voice of the prophet coming as it were from him in advance: "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to blows; I hid not my face from shame and spitting" . For in order that he might be believed to be the saviour of all, in accordance with our economic appropriation, as I said, he refers to himself the sufferings of his own flesh, in much the same way as is suggested through the voice of the prophet coming as it were from him in advance: "I gave my back to the smiters and my cheeks to blows; I hid not my face from shame and spitting" .

    Let your holiness be persuaded and let no one else cherish any doubt, that we everywhere follow the opinions of the holy fathers especially those of our blessed and glorious father Athanasius, with whose opinions we differ not in the slightest. I would have added many of their testimonies, proving my opinions from theirs, had I not feared that the length of the letter would be made tedious thereby. We do not permit anyone in any way to upset the defined faith or the creed drawn up by the holy fathers who assembled at Nicaea as the times demanded. We give neither ourselves nor them the licence to alter any expression there or to change a single syllable, remembering the words: "Remove not the ancient landmarks which your fathers have set".

    For it was not they that spoke, but the Spirit of God the Father, who proceeds from him and who is not distinct from the Son in essence . We are further confirmed in our view by the words of our holy spiritual teachers. For in the Acts of the Apostles it is written: "When they came to Mysia, they tried to go to Bithynia and the Spirit of Jesus did not permit them". And the divine Paul writes as follows: "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh, you are in the spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwells in you. And anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him". And the divine Paul writes as follows: "Those who are in the flesh cannot please God. But you are not in the flesh, you are in the spirit, if the Spirit of God really dwells in you. And anyone who does not have the Spirit of Christ does not belong to him". When, therefore, any of those who love to upset sound doctrine pervert my words to their way of thinking, your holiness should not be surprised at this, but should remember that the followers of every heresy extract from inspired scripture the occasion of their error , and that all heretics corrupt the true expressions of the holy Spirit with their own evil minds and they draw down on their own heads an inextinguishable flame. When, therefore, any of those who love to upset sound doctrine pervert my words to their way of thinking, your holiness should not be surprised at this, but should remember that the followers of every heresy extract from inspired scripture the occasion of their error , and that all heretics corrupt the true expressions of the holy Spirit with their own evil minds and they draw down on their own heads an inextinguishable flame.

    Since therefore we have learnt that even the letter of our glorious father Athanasius to the blessed Epictetus , which is completely orthodox, has been corrupted and circulated by some, with the result that many have been injured therefore, thinking it both useful and necessary for the brethren, we have despatched to your holiness accurate copies of the original, unadulterated writings which we have. Since therefore we have learnt that even the letter of our glorious father Athanasius to the blessed Epictetus , which is completely orthodox, has been corrupted and circulated by some, with the result that many have been injured therefore, thinking it both useful and necessary for the brethren, we have despatched to your holiness accurate copies of the original, unadulterated writings which we have.


    Excerpt from the Council of Chalcedon

    The Council of Chalcedon "has accepted the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals , as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.". The Council of Chalcedon "has accepted the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals , as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius's mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.".


    Introduction and translation taken from Decrees of the Ecumenical Councils , ed. Norman P. Tanner

    Ephesus

    Catholic Information

    A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century BC by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists. Its coinage dates back to 700 BC, the period when the first money was struck. After belonging successively to the kings of Lydia, the Persians, and the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great, it passed, after the battle of Magnesia (199 BC), to the kings of Pergamum, the last of whom, Attalus III, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people (133 BC). After belonging successively to the kings of Lydia, the Persians, and the Syrian successors of Alexander the Great, it passed, after the battle of Magnesia (199 BC), to the kings of Pergamum, the last of whom, Attalus III, bequeathed his kingdom to the Roman people (133 BC). It was at Ephesus that Mithradates (88 BC) signed the decree ordering all the Romans in Asia to be put to death, in which massacre there perished 100,000 persons. It was at Ephesus that Mithradates (88 BC) signed the decree ordering all the Romans in Asia to be put to death, in which massacre there perished 100000 persons. Four years later Sulla, again master of the territory, slaughtered at Ephesus all the leaders of the rebellion. From 27 BC till a little after AD 297, Ephesus was the capital of the proconsular province of Asia, a direct dependency of the Roman Senate. Though unimportant politically, it was noted for its extensive commerce. Many illustrious persons were born at Ephesus, eg the philosophers Heraclitus and Hermodorus, the poet Hipponax, the painter Parrhasius (all in the sixth or fifth century BC), the geographer Artemidorus, another Artemidorus, astrologer and charlatan, both in the second century of the Christian Era, and the historian and essayist, Xenophon. Many illustrious persons were born at Ephesus, eg the philosophers Heraclitus and Hermodorus, the poet Hipponax, the painter Parrhasius (all in the sixth or fifth century BC), the geographer Artemidorus, another Artemidorus, astrologer and charlatan, both in the second century of the Christian Era, and the historian and essayist, Xenophon. Ephesus owed its chief renown to its temple of Artemis (Diana), which attracted multitudes of visitors. Its first architect was the Cretan Chersiphron (seventh to sixth century BC) but it was afterwards enlarged. It was situated on the bank of the River Selinus and its precincts had the right of asylum. This building, which was looked upon in antiquity as one of the marvels of the world, was burnt by Herostratus (356 BC) the night of the birth of Alexander the Great, and was afterwards rebuilt, almost in the same proportions, by the architect Dinocrates. This building, which was looked upon in antiquity as one of the marvels of the world, was burnt by Herostratus (356 BC) the night of the birth of Alexander the Great, and was afterwards rebuilt, almost in the same proportions, by the architect Dinocrates. Its construction is said to have lasted 120 years, according to some historians 220. It was over 400 feet in length and 200 in breadth, and rested upon 128 pillars of about sixty feet in height. It was stripped of its riches by Nero and was finally destroyed by the Goths (AD 262).

    It was through the Jews that Christianity was first introduced into Ephesus. Es wurde durch die Juden, dass das Christentum wurde erstmals in Ephesus. The original community was under the leadership of Apollo (1 Corinthians 1:12). Die Gemeinde war ursprünglich unter der Führung von Apollo (1 Korinther 1:12). They were disciples of St. John the Baptist, and were converted by Aquila and Priscilla. Sie waren Schüler von St. Johannes der Täufer, und wurden von Aquila und Priszilla. Then came St. Paul, who lived three years at Ephesus to establish and organize the new church; he was wont to teach in the schola or lecture-hall of the rhetorician Tyrannus (Acts 19:9) and performed there many miracles. Dann kam St. Paul, lebte drei Jahre in Ephesus zu etablieren und zu organisieren, die neue Kirche, er war gar nicht zu lehren in der Schule oder Hörsaal der Schönredner Tyrannus (Apg 19:9) und dort viele Wunder. Eventually he was obliged to depart, in consequence of a sedition stirred up by the goldsmith Demetrius and other makers of ex-votoes for the temple of Diana (Acts 18:24 sqq.; 19:1 sqq.). Schließlich war er gezwungen zu fahren, in Folge eines Aufruhrs gerührt von der Goldschmied Demetrius und andere Entscheidungsträger der Ex-votoes für den Tempel der Diana (Apg 18:24 sqq.; 19:1 sqq.). A little later, on his way to Jerusalem, he sent for the elders of the community of Ephesus to come to Miletus and bade them there a touching farewell (Acts 20:17-35). Ein wenig später, auf dem Weg nach Jerusalem, sandte er die Ältesten der Gemeinde von Ephesus zu kommen Milet und hieß dort eine bewegende Abschiedsrede (Apg 20:17-35). The Church of Ephesus was committed to his disciple, St. Timothy, a native of the city (1 Timothy 1, 3; 2 Timothy 1, 18; 4:12). Die Kirche von Ephesus war verpflichtet, seinem Schüler, St. Timothy, der in der Stadt (1 Timothy 1, 3, 2 Timothy 1, 18; 4,12). The Epistle of St. Paul to the Ephesians was not perhaps addressed directly to them; it may be only a circular letter sent by him to several churches. Der Brief des heiligen Paulus an die Epheser war vielleicht nicht direkt an sie, es kann nur ein Rundschreiben Schreiben von ihm zu mehreren Kirchen. The sojourn and death of the Apostle St. John at Ephesus are not mentioned in the New Testament, but both are attested as early as the latter part of the second century by St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer., III, iii, 4), Polycrates, Bishop of Ephesus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V, xxi), Clement of Alexandria, the "Acta Joannis", and a little earlier by St. Justin and the Montanists. Der Aufenthalt und Tod des Apostels St. John in Ephesus sind nicht in das Neue Testament, aber beide sind belegt, wie schon in der zweiten Hälfte des zweiten Jahrhunderts von St. Irenæus (Adv. Haer. III, iii, 4) , Polykrates, Bischof von Ephesus (Eusebius, Hist. Eccl., V, xxi), Clemens von Alexandria, der "Acta Joannis", und ein wenig früher von St. Justin und die Montanists. Byzantine tradition has always shown at Ephesus the tomb of the Apostle. Byzantinischen Tradition hat immer gezeigt, in Ephesus das Grab des Apostels. Another tradition, which may be trustworthy, though less ancient, makes Ephesus the scene of the death of St. Mary Magdalen. Eine weitere Tradition, die möglicherweise vertrauenswürdig, wenn auch weniger alte, Ephesus macht die Szene des Todes von St. Maria Magdalena. On the other hand the opinion that the Blessed Virgin died there rests on no ancient testimony; the often quoted but ambiguous text of the Council of Ephesus (431), means only that there was at that time at Ephesus a church of the Virgin. Auf der anderen Seite die Auffassung, dass die selige Jungfrau Maria starb dort auf keine antiken Zeugnisse, die oft zitierte, aber unklare Text des Rates von Ephesus (431), bedeutet nur, dass es zu dieser Zeit in Ephesus eine Kirche der Jungfrau Maria. (See Ramsay in "Expositor", June, 1905, also his "Seven Cities of Asia".) We learn, moreover, from Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv) that the three daughters of the Apostle St. Philip were buried at Ephesus. (Siehe Ramsay in "Expositor", Juni 1905, auch seine "Sieben Städte in Asien".) Wir lernen darüber hinaus, von Eusebius (Hist. Eccl., V, xxiv), dass die drei Töchter des Apostels St. Philip waren In Ephesus begraben.

    About 110 St. Ignatius of Antioch, having been greeted at Smyrna by messengers of the Church of Ephesus, sent to it one of his seven famous epistles. Über 110 St. Ignatius von Antiochien, wurde begrüßt in Smyrna von Gesandten der Kirche von Ephesus, die ihm einer seiner berühmten sieben Sendschreiben. During the first three centuries, Ephesus was, next to Antioch, the chief centre of Christianity in Asia Minor. Während der ersten drei Jahrhunderte, Ephesus war, neben Antiochia, der Chef Zentrum des Christentums in Kleinasien. In the year 190 its bishop, St. Polycrates, held a council to consider the paschal controversy and declared himself in favour of the Quartodeciman practice; nevertheless the Ephesian Church soon conformed in this particular to the practice of all the other Churches. Im Jahr 190 seinen Bischof, St. Polykrates, hielt einen Rat zu prüfen, die österliche Kontroverse und erklärte sich selbst für die Quartodeciman Praxis, die jedoch bald Ephesian Kirche passte in diesem insbesondere für die Praxis von allen anderen Kirchen. It seems certain that the sixth canon of the Council of Nicaea (325), confirmed for Ephesus its ecclesiastical jurisdiction over the whole "diocese" or civil territory of Asia Minor, ie over the eleven ecclesiastical provinces; at all events, the second canon of the Council of Constantinople (381) formally recognized this authority. Es scheint sicher, dass der Kanon der sechsten Konzil von Nicäa (325), bestätigt Ephesus für ihren geistlichen Gerichtsbarkeit über die gesamte "Diözese" oder Zivil-Gebiet Kleinasiens, dh in den kirchlichen elf Provinzen; auf jeden Fall, der zweite Kanon der Das Konzil von Konstantinopel (381) diese Behörde formell anerkannt. But Constantinople was already claiming the first rank among the Churches of the East and was trying to annex the Churches of Thrace, Asia, and Pontus. Aber Konstantinopel wurde bereits behauptet, der erste Rang unter den Kirchen des Ostens und wurde versucht, die Anlage von Kirchen Thrakien, Asien und Pontus. To resist these encroachments, Ephesus made common cause with Alexandria. Um diese Eingriffe widerstehen, Ephesus, gemeinsame Sache mit Alexandria. We therefore find Bishop Memnon of Ephesus siding with St. Cyril at the Third Ecumenical Council, held at Ephesus in 431 in condemnation of Nestorianism, and another bishop, Stephen, supporting Dioscorus at the so-called Robber Council (Latrocinium Ephesinum) of 449, which approved the heresy of Eutyches. Wir finden daher Memnon Bischof von Ephesus Anschlussgleis mit St. Cyril in der Dritten Ökumenischen Rates, die sich in Ephesus 431 und Verurteilung des Nestorianismus, und ein anderer Bischof, Stephen, Dioskorus auf die Unterstützung der so genannten Robber Rat (Latrocinium Ephesinum) von 449, Genehmigt, die die Häresie des Eutyches. But the resistance of Ephesus was overcome at the Council of Chalcedon (451), whose famous twenty-eighth canon placed the twenty-eight ecclesiastical provinces of Pontus, Asia, and Thrace under the jurisdiction of the Patriarch of Constantinople. Aber der Widerstand von Ephesus zu überwinden, war der Rat von Chalcedon (451), und dessen berühmter achtundzwanzigste Kanon in der achtundzwanzig kirchlichen Provinzen Pontus, Asien und Thrakien unter die Jurisdiktion des Patriarchen von Konstantinopel. Henceforth Ephesus was but the second metropolis of the Patriarchate of Constantinople, nor did it ever recover its former standing, despite a council of 474 in which Paul, the Monophysite Patriarch of Alexandria restored its ancient rights. Fortan Ephesus war aber die zweite Metropole des Patriarchats von Konstantinopel, noch hat es jemals wieder seinen ehemaligen Stehen, trotz einer 474 Gemeindebezirk, in der Paul, der Patriarch von Alexandria Monophysite wieder seine alten Rechte. Egyptian influence was responsible for the hold which Monophysitism gained at Ephesus during the sixth century; the famous ecclesiastical historian, John of Asia, was then one of its bishops. Ägyptische Einfluss war verantwortlich für den halten die Monophysitismus gewann in Ephesus in der sechsten Jahrhundert, der berühmte kirchliche Historiker Johannes von Asien, wurde dann einer seiner Bischöfe. The metropolis of Ephesus in those days ruled over thirty-six suffragan sees. Die Metropole von Ephesos in jenen Tagen herrschten über sechsunddreißig Weihbischof sieht. Justinian, who imitated Constantine in stripping the city of many works of art to adorn Constantinople, built there a magnificent church consecrated to St. John; this was soon a famous place of pilgrimage. Justinian, die nachgeahmt Constantine Strippen in der Stadt viele Kunstwerke schmücken Konstantinopel, baute dort eine herrliche geweihte Kirche zu St. John; dieser wurde bald ein berühmter Pilgerort.

    Ephesus was taken in 655 and 717 by the Arabs. Ephesus war in 655 und 717 von den Arabern. Later it became the capital of the theme of the Thracesians. Später wurde sie die Hauptstadt der Thematik des Thracesians. During the Iconoclastic period two bishops of Ephesus suffered martyrdom, Hypatius in 735 and Theophilus in the ninth century. Während der Zeit Iconoclastic zwei Bischöfe von Ephesus Martyrium erlitten, Hypatius und 735 und Theophilus in der neunten Jahrhundert. In the same city the fierce general Lachanodracon put to death thirty-eight monks from the monastery of Pelecete in Bithynia and other partisans of the holy images. In der gleichen Stadt den heftigen allgemeinen Lachanodracon den Tod achtunddreißig Mönche aus dem Kloster von Pelecete in Bithynien und andere Partisanen der heiligen Bilder. In 899 Leo the Wise transferred the relics of St. Mary Magdalen to Constantinople. In den 899 Leo Wise übertragen die Reliquien der heiligen Maria Magdalena nach Konstantinopel. The city was captured in 1090 and destroyed by the Seljuk Turks, but the Byzantines succeeded in retaking it and rebuilt it on the neighbouring hills around the church of St. John. Die Stadt wurde 1090 erobert und zerstört und durch die Seldschuken, Byzantiner, aber die Wiederholung gelang es umgebaut und auf den benachbarten Hügeln rund um die Kirche von St. Johannes. Henceforth it was commonly called Hagios Theologos (the holy theologian, ie St. John the Divine), or in Turkish Aya Solouk (to the Greeks the Apostle St. John is "the Theologian"); the French called the site Altelot and the Italians Alto Luogo. Fortan war es gemeinhin als Hagios Theologos (die heilige Theologe, dh die St. John Divine), oder auf Türkisch Aya Solouk (für die Griechen der Apostel St. John ist "der Theologe"), die Französisch als Altelot Website und die Italiener Luogo Alto. At the beginning of the thirteenth century its metropolitan, Nicholas Mesarites, had an important role at the conferences between the Greeks and the Latins. Zu Beginn des dreizehnten Jahrhunderts seine Metropolregion, Nicholas Mesarites, hatte eine wichtige Rolle bei den Konferenzen zwischen den Griechen und der Römer. The city was again plundered by the Turks in the first years of the fourteenth century, then by the Catalonian mercenaries in the pay of the Byzantines, and once more by the Turks. Die Stadt wurde wieder von den Türken geplündert und in den ersten Jahren des vierzehnten Jahrhunderts, dann durch die katalanische Söldner in der Bezahlung der Byzantiner, und einmal mehr durch die Türken. The church of St. John was transformed into a mosque, and the city was ruled by a Turkish ameer, who carried on a little trade with the West, but it could no longer maintain its Greek bishop. Die Kirche von St. John wurde in eine Moschee umgewandelt, und die Stadt war von einer türkischen ameer, durchgeführt, die auf einem kleinen Handel mit dem Westen, aber sie konnten nicht mehr ihren griechischen Bischof. A series of Latin bishops governed the see from 1318 to 1411. Eine Reihe von Latin sehen die Bischöfe regiert von 1318 bis 1411. The ruin of Ephesus was completed by Timur-Leng in 1403 and by nearly a half-century of civil wars among its Turkish masters. Die Ruinen von Ephesos wurde von Timur-Leng in 1403 und um fast ein halbes Jahrhundert der Bürgerkriege unter den türkischen Meister. When at the council of Florence in 1439 Mark of Ephesus (Marcus Eugenicus) showed himself so haughty toward the Latins, he was the pastor of a miserable village, all that remained of the great city which Pliny once called alterum lumen Asiae, or the second eye of Asia (Hist. nat., V, xxix; also Apoc., ii, 5; cf. W. Brockhoff, "Ephesus vom vierten christlich. Jhdt. bis seinem Untergang:, Jena, 1906). Today Aya Solouk has 3000 inhabitants, all Greeks. It is situated in the caza of Koush Adassi, in the vilayet of Aiden or Smyrna, about fifty miles from Smyrna, on the Smyrna-Aidin railway. The ruins of Ephesus stand in the marshy and unhealthy plain below the village. There are the remains of the temple of Diana, the theatre, with a capacity of 25,000 spectators, the stadium, the great gymnasium, and the "Double Church", probably the ancient cathedral, one aisle of which was dedicated to the Blessed Virgin, the other to St. John, where the councils of 431 and 449 were held. The Greek metropolitan resides at Manissa, the ancient Magnesia. Wenn in der Gemeinde von Florenz, 1439 Mark von Ephesus (Marcus Eugenicus) zeigte sich so stolz auf die Lateiner, er war der Pfarrer von einem jämmerlichen Dorf, blieb allen, die der großen Stadt, die Plinius nannte alterum Lumen Asiae, oder die zweite Auge in Asien (Hist. nat., V, xxix; auch Apoc., Ii, 5; cf. W. Brockhoff, "Ephesus vom vierten christlich. Jhdt. Bis seinem Untergang:, Jena, 1906). Heute Aya Solouk hat 3000 Einwohner, die alle Griechen. Es befindet sich in der caza der Koush Adassi, in der Aiden oder vilayet von Smyrna, etwa fünfzig Meilen von Smyrna, über die Smyrna-Aidin Eisenbahn. Die Ruinen von Ephesus stand in den sumpfigen und ungesunden Ebene unterhalb des Dorfes . Es sind die Ruinen der Tempel der Diana, das Theater, mit einer Kapazität von 25000 Zuschauern, das Stadion, das große Turnhalle und das "Double-Kirche", die wahrscheinlich die alte Kathedrale, ein Gang, von denen gewidmet war, um die Heilige Jungfrau , Die anderen nach St. John, wo die Räte von 431 und 449 wurden abgehalten. Die griechischen Metropole wohnt in Manissa, die alte Magnesia.

    Publication information Written by S. Vailhé. Publication Informationen Geschrieben von S. Vailhé. The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume V. Published 1909. Die katholische Enzyklopädie, Band V. Veröffentlicht 1909. New York: Robert Appleton Company. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Nihil Obstat, May 1, 1909. Remy Lafort, Censor. Remy Lafort, Zensor. Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York + John M. Farley, Erzbischof von New York

    Bibliography Bibliographie

    Wood, On the Antiquities of Ephesus having relation to Christianity in Transactions of the Society of Biblical Archeology, VI, 328; Idem, Discoveries at Ephesus (London, 1877); Falkener, Ephesus and the Temple of Diana (London, 1862); Arundell, Discoveries in Asia Minor (London, 1834), II, 247-272; Barclay-Head, History of the Coinage of Ephesus (London, 1880); Guhl, Ephesiaca (Berlin, 1843); Curtius, Ephesos (Berlin, 1874); Benndorf, Forschungen in Ephesos (Vienna, 1905); Chapot, La province Romaine proconsulaire d'Asie (Paris, 1904); Gude, De ecclesiae ephesinae statu aevo apostolorum (Paris, 1732); Cruse-Blicher, De statu Ephesiorum ad quos scripsit Paulus (Hanover, 1733); Le Camus in Vig., Dict. Wood, Auf der Antikensammlung von Ephesos mit Bezug zum Christentum in die Geschäfte der Gesellschaft für Biblische Archäologie, VI, 328; Idem, Entdeckungen in Ephesus (London, 1877); Falkener, Ephesus und der Tempel der Diana (London, 1862); Arundell , Entdeckungen in Kleinasien (London, 1834), II, 247-272; Barclay-Leiter, die Geschichte der Münzen von Ephesos (London, 1880); Guhl, Ephesiaca (Berlin, 1843); Curtius, Ephesos (Berlin, 1874) ; Benndorf, Forschungen in Ephesos (Wien, 1905); Chapot, Provinz La Romaine proconsulaire d'Asie (Paris, 1904); Gude, De ecclesiae ephesinae statutarischen aevo apostolorum (Paris, 1732); Cruse-Blicher, De statutarischen Ephesiorum ad quos Scripsit Paulus (Hannover, 1733); Le Camus in Vig., Dict. de la Bible, sv Ephese; Zimmermann, Ephesos im ersten christl. De la Bible, sv Ephese; Zimmermann, Ephesos im ersten christl. Jhdt. (Berlin, 1894): Lequien, Oriens christianus (Paris, 1740), I, 671-694; Brockhoff, Studien zur Gesch. (Berlin, 1894): Lequien, Oriens christianus (Paris, 1740), I, 671-694; Brockhoff, Studien zur Gesch. der Stadt Ephesos (Jena, 1905); Weber, Le guide du voyageur a Ephese (Smyrna, 1891); Buerchner, Ephesos in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyc., sv; Ramsey, The Seven Cities of Asia (London, 1907). Der Stadt Ephesos (Jena, 1905); Weber, Le guide du voyageur ein Ephese (Smyrna, 1891); Buerchner, Ephesos in Pauly-Wissowa, Real-Encyc., Sv; Ramsey, The Seven Cities of Asia (London, 1907) .


    Also, see: Auch hierzu finden Sie unter:
    Ecumenical Councils Ökumenischen Rates


    This subject presentation in the original English language Dieses Thema Präsentation in der ursprünglichen englischen Sprache


    Send an e-mail question or comment to us: E-mailSchicken Sie eine E-Mail Frage oder Kommentar an uns: E-Mail

    The main BELIEVE web-page (and the index to subjects) is at Die wichtigsten BELIEVE Web-Seite (und der Index die Fächer) ist am