New TestamentNeue Testament

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-Historical Books: - Historische Bücher:

The name of "New Testament" was given by the Christian Church, at the close of the second century, to the gospels and to other apostolic writings, inasmuch as they were composed with the purpose of showing that by the advent of Jesus of Nazareth the Messianic prophecies had been fulfilled and a new covenant (LXX., διαϑέκη; Vulgate, "testamentum") or dispensation had taken the place of the old Mosaic one (Gal. iii. 15-22; Luke xxii. 20; Heb. ix. 15-22; comp. Ex. xxiv. 7; II Kings xxiii. 2, 23; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxiv. 23). Der Name des "Neuen Testaments" wurde von der christlichen Kirche, am Ende des zweiten Jahrhunderts, die Evangelien und andere apostolische Schriften, da sie komponiert wurden mit dem Ziel zu zeigen, dass durch die Einführung des Jesus von Nazareth der Messianischen Prophezeiungen erfüllt waren und eine neue Bund (LXX., διαϑέκη; Vulgata, "testamentum") oder Ausnahmegenehmigung an die Stelle des alten ein Mosaik (Gal. iii. 15-22; Luke xxii. 20; Heb. Ix. 15-22; comp. Ex. Xxiv. 7; II Kings xxiii. 2, 23; Ecclus. [Sirach] xxiv. 23). The idea of the new covenant is based chiefly upon Jer. Die Idee des neuen Bundes basiert hauptsächlich auf Jer. xxxi. XXXI. 31-34 (comp. Heb. viii. 6-13, x. 16). 31-34 (vgl. Hebr. Viii. 6-13, x. 16). That the prophet's words do not imply an abrogation of the Law is evidenced by his emphatic declaration of the immutability of the covenant with Israel (Jer. xxxi. 35-36; comp. xxxiii. 25); he obviously looked for a renewal of the Law through a regeneration of the hearts of the people. Dass die Worte des Propheten nicht bedeuten, dass eine Aufhebung des Gesetzes zeigt sich in seiner Erklärung betonte der Unveränderbarkeit der Bund mit Israel (Jer. xxxi. 35-36; comp. Xxxiii. 25); er offensichtlich nach einer Erneuerung der Gesetz über eine Wiederbelebung der die Herzen der Menschen. To Paul and his followers, however (see Rom. x. 4; II Cor. iii. 14), the Mosaic dispensation ended with Jesus, and consequently the Hebrew Scripture became the "Old Covenant," or "Testament," while Jesus was regarded as the mediator of the "New." Paul und seine Anhänger jedoch (vgl. Röm. X. 4; II Cor. Iii. 14), die Mosaic Ausnahmegenehmigung endete mit Jesus, und damit auch die hebräische Schrift wurde zum "Alten Bundes" oder "Testament", während Jesus war Als Vermittler der "Neuen". But the names "Old" and "New Testament," when used by Jewish writers, serve only as terms of identification, and do not imply acceptance of the principle implied. Aber die Namen "Alte" und "Neue Testament", bei der Verwendung von jüdischen Schriftstellern, dienen nur als Bezug auf die Identifizierung und bedeuten nicht, die Akzeptanz des Prinzips impliziert.

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Contents of the New Testament. Inhalt des Neuen Testaments.

The early Church had no other sacred books than those in use in the Synagogue, and on these were based the claims of the Messiahship of Jesus as "the fulfilment of Scripture." Die frühe Kirche hatte keine anderen als die heiligen Bücher in den Einsatz in der Synagoge, und auf diesen basierend wurden die Ansprüche der Messiahship Jesu als "die Erfüllung der Heiligen Schrift." In the course of time, however, the custom adopted from the Synagogue of reading at the service epistles of apocalyptic or Messianic character (see Tan., Wa'era, ed. Buber, p. 4; Baruch i. 3; Apoc. Baruch lxxviii.) not merely established the regular reading of the apostolic epistles in the Church, but made the reading of the story of the advent and doings of Jesus as the good tidings or gospel ("good spell" =εὐαγγέλιον; Mark i. 1, 15; Luke iv. 18; comp. Isa. lii. 7, lxi. 1) an essential part of the service; readings from the Old Testament were selectedas containing the prophecy or preparation, and those from the New as showing the fulfilment ("Apostolic Constitutions," ii. 55; Justin, "Apologia," i. 67; comp. 28; idem, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," §§ 18, 48, 49). Im Laufe der Zeit jedoch, die benutzerdefinierte angenommen von der Synagoge des Lesens in den Dienst der apokalyptischen Sendschreiben oder messianischen Charakter (siehe Tan., Wa'era, hrsg. Buber, S. 4; Baruch i. 3; Apoc. Baruch Lxxviii.), Die nicht nur das regelmäßige Lesen der apostolischen Sendschreiben in der Kirche, sondern aus der Lektüre der Geschichte des Advent-und Taten von Jesus als die frohe Botschaft oder Evangelium ( "good spell" = εὐαγγέλιον; i. Mark 1, 15; Luke iv. 18; comp. Isa. Lii. 7, lxi. 1) ein wesentlicher Teil der Dienstleistung; Lesungen aus dem Alten Testament wurden selectedas mit der Prophezeiung oder der Zubereitung, und diejenigen aus dem Neuen zeigt, wie die Erfüllung ( " Apostolische Konstitutionen, "ii. 55, Justin," Apologia ", i. 67; comp. 28; idem" Dialogus cum Tryphone ", § § 18, 48, 49).

Concerning the mode of composition and the dates of the various New Testament writings a wide divergence of opinion prevails among the several schools of Christian theologians and critics. Was die Art der Zusammensetzung und die Daten der verschiedenen Schriften Neuen Testament eine große Divergenz der Meinung herrscht unter den verschiedenen Schulen der christlichen Theologen und Kritiker. It is solely from the Jewish point of view that they are considered here, the attempt being made to indicate to what extent their contents may be called Jewish in origin and character, and to what extent they contain anti-Jewish elements. Es ist einzig und allein von den jüdischen Standpunkt, dass sie sich hier, der Versuch gemacht wird, um anzugeben, in welchem Umfang ihre Inhalte können aufgerufen werden in jüdischen Herkunft und Charakter, und in welchem Umfang sie die anti-jüdische Elemente.

The New Testament consists of the following books: I. The historical books: the Four Gospels-(1) according to Matthew; (2) according to Mark; (3) according to Luke; (4) according to John-and the Acts of the Apostles. Das Neue Testament besteht aus den folgenden Büchern: I. Die historischen Bücher: Die vier Evangelien-(1) nach Matthäus, (2) nach Mark, (3) nach Lukas, (4) nach Johannes-und die Apostelgeschichte Der Apostel. II. The Pauline epistles: (1) to the Romans; (2 and 3) to the Corinthians; (4) to the Galatians; (5) to the Ephesians; (6) to the Philippians; (7) to the Colossians; (8 and 9) to the Thessalonians; (10 and 11) to Timothy; (12) to Titus; (13) to Philemon; (14) to the Hebrews. Die paulinischen Briefe: (1) an die Römer, (2 und 3) an die Korinther, (4) an die Galater, (5) an die Epheser, (6) an die Philipper, (7) an die Kolosser; (8 Und 9) an die Thessalonicher, (10 und 11) an Timotheus, (12) an Titus, (13) an Philemon, (14) an die Hebräer. III. The so-called Catholic epistles: (1) the Epistle of James; (2 and 3) of Peter; (4, 5, and 6) of John; (7) of Jude; and (8) the Apocalypse of John, called also the Revelation of St. John the Divine. Die so genannten katholischen Briefe: (1) der Brief des Jakobus, (2 und 3) von Peter, (4, 5 und 6) des Johannes, (7) der Jude, und (8) die Apokalypse des Johannes, genannt Auch die Offenbarung des Heiligen Johannes des Göttlichen. Of these works it is necessary here to deal with only the first section. Von diesen Arbeiten ist es notwendig, hier zu tun, die nur den ersten Abschnitt.

The Four Gospels: Die vier Evangelien:

The gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, were in the main composed between 80 and 150 CE; each relates, with a characteristic tendency of its own, the story of Jesus from the time of the appearance of John the Baptist until the "resurrection," with the purpose of showing that he was the looked-for Messiah of the Jewish prophecies. Die Evangelien nach Matthäus, Markus, Lukas und Johannes, waren in der Hauptsache besteht zwischen 80 und 150 CE; jeden betrifft, mit einem charakteristischen Tendenz der eigenen, die Geschichte von Jesus aus der Zeit der Erscheinung des Johannes des Täufers, bis Die "Auferstehung", mit dem Ziel, zu zeigen, dass er sich für den Messias des jüdischen Prophezeiungen. But while the first three gospels, called the "synoptic gospels," bear the same character and agree as to the plan of the work and the conception of Jesus as the Messiah, the son of David, the fourth gospel attempts to put a metaphysical and mystical construction upon the doings and sayings of Jesus narrated in the other three, with the view of presenting him as the son of God in the cosmic sense of the word. Aber während der ersten drei Evangelien, die so genannte "synoptischen Evangelien", tragen die gleichen Zeichen und stimmen zu, wie der Plan der Arbeit und der Vorstellung von Jesus als Messias, der Sohn von David, das vierte Evangelium versucht, eine metaphysische und Bau auf den mystischen Taten und Worte Jesu erzählt in den drei anderen, mit Blick auf die Vorlage ihn als den Sohn Gottes in der kosmischen Sinn des Wortes.

The gospels do not claim to have been written by any of the apostles, but only to have been transmitted orally as tradition emanating from them. Die Evangelien erheben keinen Anspruch zu haben, die von einer der Apostel, sondern nur auf mündlich weitergegeben wurden, wie Tradition, die von ihnen. Thus Luke i. So Lukas I. 1-3 refers to the existence of many gospels resting upon the report of "eye-witnesses and disciples," and Papias, an early second-century authority, relates that Mark wrote down what he, in a rather disconnected way, heard from Peter, and that Matthew had made a collection of the sayings of Jesus in the Hebrew (Aramean) without the historical framework, which was given differently by each commentator (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." iii. 39, § 16). 1-3 bezieht sich auf die Existenz von vielen Evangelien Ruhestätte auf dem Bericht der "Augenzeugen und Schüler", und Papias, einem frühen zweiten Jahrhundert Behörde, dass Mark bezieht, was er schrieb, in einer Art und Weise und nicht getrennt, hörte von Peter , Und dass Matthäus hatte eine Sammlung der Worte Jesu in der Hebräischen (Aramean), ohne den historischen Rahmen, der anders war von jedem Kommentator (Eusebius, "Hist. Eccl." Iii. 39, § 16).

These two facts-a collection by Matthew of the sayings of Jesus in the Aramean language, and a gospel by Mark, as the oldest connected narrative of Jesus' sayings and doings-have served modern critics as the basis of their investigations. Diese beiden Tatsachen-eine Sammlung von Matthew der Worte Jesu in der Aramean Sprache, und ein Evangelium von Mark, als das älteste verbunden Erzählung von Jesu Worte und Taten-gedient haben moderne Kritiker als Grundlage ihrer Untersuchungen. Finding a striking similarity in the arrangement, and at times even an identity in the diction, of the larger part of the three gospels, they have arrived at the conclusion that the second gospel, which presents the whole record of Jesus in the simplest form and the best chronological order, was the original composition and was used by the other two; whereas the stories and sayings offered either by the other two gospels in common or by each separately rest on collections and traditions clustering around those of Matthew and others. Finden eine auffallende Ähnlichkeit in der Anordnung, und manchmal sogar eine Identität in der Diktion, der größere Teil der drei Evangelien, sie kam zu dem Schluss, dass das zweite Evangelium, das zeigt die ganze Platte von Jesus in der einfachsten Form-und Die besten chronologischer Reihenfolge, war die ursprüngliche Zusammensetzung und wurde von den beiden anderen, während die Geschichten und Sprüchen angeboten, entweder zusammen mit den beiden anderen Evangelien gemeinsam oder getrennt von jedem Rest über Sammlungen und Traditionen rund um die Bündelung von Matthew und andere.

Still, there are other criteria by which the Jewish investigator is able to ascertain the origin and authenticity of the gospel stories and trace the various stages of their growth. Dennoch gibt es auch andere Kriterien, nach denen die jüdische Ermittler ist in der Lage, festzustellen, die Herkunft und Authentizität des Evangeliums Geschichten und Spuren der verschiedenen Phasen ihres Wachstums. A careful analysis corroborates the conclusion, assumed to be axiomatic by Jewish scholars, that the older and more genuine the records, written or unwritten, of the doings and teachings of Jesus, the more they betray close kinship with and friendly relations to Jews and Judaism; but that the more remote they are from the time and scene of the activity of Jesus, the more they show of hostility to the Jewish people and of antagonism to the Mosaic Law. Eine sorgfältige Analyse bestätigt den Abschluss, davon auszugehen, dass das axiomatisch von jüdischen Gelehrten, dass die älteren und die echte Datensätze, schriftliche oder ungeschriebene, der Taten und Lehren von Jesus, desto mehr verraten sie enge Verwandtschaft mit und freundschaftliche Beziehungen zu Juden und Judentum ; Aber, dass die weiter entfernte sie sich von der Zeit und Szene der Aktivität von Jesus, die mehr zeigen, die sie der Feindseligkeit gegenüber dem jüdischen Volk und der Antagonismus der Mosaic Law. The changing attitude and temper of the new sect influenced the records at every stage, and this accounts for the conflicting statements found beside each other in the various gospels and gospel stories. Die sich ändernde Einstellung und Temperament der neuen Sekte beeinflusst die Datensätze in jeder Phase, und diese Konten für die widersprüchlichen Aussagen gefunden neben einander in den verschiedenen Evangelien Evangelium und Geschichten.

The Different Versions. Die verschiedenen Versionen.

To begin with the crucifixion story, the older version knows only that the chief priests and scribes constituting the Sanhedrin condemned Jesus to death and handed him over to the Romans, who mocked, scourged, and killed him (Mark x. 33; Matt. xx. 17-19; comp. Mark xiv. 14; also Matt. xxvi. 45, where the term "sinners" is used for "heathen"). Dies beginnt mit der Geschichte der Kreuzigung, die ältere Version weiß nur, dass die Hohenpriester und Schriftgelehrten, die der Sanhedrin Jesus zum Tode verurteilt und reichte ihn an die Römer, die spottete, peitschte, und tötete ihn (Mark x. 33; Matt. Xx . 17-19; comp. Mark xiv. 14; auch Matt. Xxvi. 45, wo der Begriff "Sünder" wird für die "Heiden"). Later on (see Mark viii. 31; Matt. xvi. 21; Luke ix. 22), the reference to the Romans as the crucifiers has been altogether omitted, while in Mark ix. Später (siehe Mark viii. 31; Matt. Xvi. 21; Luke ix. 22), der Verweis auf die Römer als crucifiers wurde ganz weggelassen, während in Mark ix. 31, Matt. 31, Matt. xvii. XVII. 22, Luke ix. 22, Luke IX. 44 the general term "men" is used instead. 44 der allgemeine Begriff "Männer" verwendet. With the older version tallies the story according to which the cause of his condemnation by the Sanhedrin was Jesus' hostility toward the Temple (Mark xiv. 58; Matt. xxvi. 61; comp. Mark xi. 15-18, xiii. 2, xv. 29, and parallels; comp. also John ii. 19; see Wellhausen, Commentary to Mark, 1903, pp. 131-133), a crime termed "pashaṭ yado ba-zebul" (he stretched out his hand against the Temple; Acts vi. 13; Tos. Sanh. xiii.; RH 17a; comp. Yer. Sanh. vi. 23c-"pashaṭ yado be-iḳḳar"). Mit der älteren Version geht auf die Geschichte, nach der die Ursache für seine Verurteilung durch das Sanhedrin war Jesus' Feindseligkeit gegenüber dem Tempel (Mark xiv. 58; Matt. Xxvi. 61; comp. Mark xi. 15-18, xiii. 2, Xv. 29, und Parallelen; comp. Auch John ii. 19; siehe Wellhausen, Kommentar zu Mark, 1903, pp. 131-133), ein Verbrechen als "pashaṭ yado ba-zebul" (er streckte seine Hand gegen den Tempel ; Acts vi. 13; Tos. Sanh. Xiii.; RH 17a; comp. Yer. Sanh. Vi. 23c-"pashaṭ yado-iḳḳar"). It was at a later time and in contradiction to facts showing their friendly attitude (Luke xiii. 31) that the Pharisees were represented as having conspired against the life of Jesus, either with the Herodians or high priests (Mark iii. 6, xii. 13; Matt. xvi. 6, 11; xxii. 15-16; but comp. Luke xx. 19, where the Pharisees are not mentioned, and Matt. xxvii. 62; John vii, 32, 45; xi. 47; xviii. 3) or without them (Matt. xii. 14 [comp. vi. 7], xvi. 11; Luke xi. 53, xii. 1). Es wurde zu einem späteren Zeitpunkt und im Widerspruch zu Tatsachen, die ihre freundliche Haltung (Luke xiii. 31), dass die Pharisäer waren vertreten als faktisch gegen das Leben von Jesus, entweder mit der Herodians oder Hohenpriestern (Mark iii. 6, xii. 13; Matt. Xvi. 6, 11; xxii. 15-16; aber comp. Luke xx. 19, wo die Pharisäer sind nicht erwähnt, und Matt. Xxvii. 62; John vii, 32, 45; xi. 47; xviii . 3) oder ohne sie (Matth. xii. 14 [comp. Vi. 7], xvi. 11; Luke xi. 53, xii. 1). Accordingly, the charges singled out to account for his persecution by the Pharisees were violation of the Sabbath (Mark ii. 23-iii. 6, et al.) and the claim of being the son of God (Mark xiv. 61-64, et al.). Dementsprechend, die Gebühren gesondert zu Konto für seine Verfolgung durch die Pharisäer waren Verletzung des Sabbat (Mark ii. 23-iii. 6, et al.), Und die Forderung, dass der Sohn Gottes (Mark xiv. 61-64, Et al.).

Again, in the original version the Jewish multitudes side with Jesus to the very last (Luke xx. 19, xxiii. 27; Mark xii. 12); later on, both Herod, thepersecutor whom Jesus called "that fox" (Luke xiii. 32), and Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect (Luke xiii. 1, xix. 1), are transformed into friends and protectors of Jesus (Luke xxiii. 8, 15; Mark xv. 14; Luke xxiii. 4; Matt. xxvii. 17-25; John xviii. 38; xix. 4, 6, 12, 16), and the Jews described as his real crucifiers (Mark xv. 13-14; Matt. xxvii. 22-23; John xix. 12; Acts iv. 10); nay, more, the Jews become synonyms for fiends and bloodthirsty tyrants (John vii. 1, 13; viii. 44; x. 31; et al.). Auch in der ursprünglichen Version der jüdischen Multituden Seite mit Jesus bis zum letzten (Lukas xx. 19, xxiii. 27; Mark xii. 12); später auch Herodes, thepersecutor denen Jesus als "Fuchs," (Luke xiii. 32), und Pontius Pilatus, der römische Präfekt (Luke xiii. 1, xix. 1), sind in Freunde und Beschützer von Jesus (Luke xxiii. 8, 15; Mark xv. 14; Luke xxiii. 4; Matt. Xxvii . 17-25; John xviii. 38; xix. 4, 6, 12, 16), und die Juden als seine wahre crucifiers (Mark xv. 13-14; Matt. Xxvii. 22-23; John xix. 12; Apg iv. 10), nein, mehr, die Juden zu Synonymen für Unmenschen und blutrünstigen Tyrannen (John vii. 1, 13; viii. 44; x. 31; et al.).

For and Against the Law. Für und gegen das Gesetz.

The same irreconcilable differences are found in the sayings attributed to Jesus concerning the Jews and the Law. Das gleiche unvereinbar sind die Unterschiede in den Sprüchen zurückzuführen auf Jesus über die Juden und das Gesetz. According to the older version (Matt. v. 17-19; Luke xvi. 17), he declared that he had not come to destroy but to fulfil-that is, to practise-the Law. Nach der älteren Version (Matth. v. 17-19; Luke xvi. 17), erklärte er, dass er nicht zu zerstören, sondern zu erfüllen-das heißt, zu praktizieren-das Gesetz. In fact, he urged the sacrifice of the sin-offering for the leper (Mark i. 43, and parallels). In der Tat, appellierte er an die Opfer der Sünde-Angebot für die Aussätzigen (i. Mark 43, und Parallelen). It was the abuses of the Law and the hypocrisy of the Pharisees that he rebuked in scathing language (Matt. xxiii.; Mark vii. 11; Luke xi. 42-43; comp. similar denunciations of Pharisaic hypocrisy in Soṭah 22b, Yer. Ber. ix. 14b, Ab. RN xxxvii.), while demanding a higher standard of righteousness of his disciples (Matt. v. 20, 37, 48). Es war der Missbrauch des Gesetzes und die Heuchelei der Pharisäer, dass er zurechtgewiesen und bissig Sprache (Matth. xxiii.; Mark vii. 11; Luke xi. 42-43; comp. Ähnlich Kündigung pharisäische Heuchelei in Soṭah 22b, Yer. Ber. Ix. 14b, Ab.. RN xxxvii.), Und fordert gleichzeitig einen höheren Standard der Rechtschaffenheit seiner Jünger (Matth. v. 20, 37, 48). He expressly stated that he had been "sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel" and found it "not meet to take the children's bread and cast it to the dogs" (that is, to the heathen), enjoining even his disciples to go not to the Gentiles, but to the lost sheep of Israel (Matt. x. 5-6, xv. 24-27). Er erklärt ausdrücklich, dass er "gesendet, sondern zu den verlorenen Schafen des Hauses Israel" und fand es "nicht erfüllen, die Kinder Brot und werfen sie auf die Hunde" (das heißt, um die Heiden), auch seine vorschreibend Schüler gehen nicht zu den Heiden, sondern um die verlorenen Schafe von Israel (Matth. 5-6 x., xv. 24-27). He shows special love for a daughter of Abraham and a son of Abraham (Luke xix. 9). Er zeigt besondere Liebe zu einer Tochter von Abraham und ein Sohn von Abraham (Luke xix. 9). His name, Jesus (Joshua), is interpreted "he who shall save his people [from their sins]" (Matt. i. 21, ii. 6), and those whom he has healed "glorify the God of Israel" (Matt. xv. 31). Sein Name Jesus (Joshua), interpretiert ", die er wird sein Volk retten [von ihren Sünden]" (Matth. 21 i., ii. 6), und jene, die er geheilt "verherrlichen der Gott Israels" (Mt . Xv. 31).

On the other hand, he is declared to be the hope of "the Gentiles" (Matt. xii. 21; comp. "Savior of the world" of John iv. 42), and he becomes the exponent of the Pauline ideas that the old must give way to the new (Mark ii. 21-22; Luke v. 36-38; comp. 39); that the gospel should "be preached unto all nations" (Mark xiii. 10; Matt. xxiv. 14); nay, more-that the Kingdom of God be taken away from the Jews and given to another nation (Matt. viii. 11-12; xxi. 43). Auf der anderen Seite ist er erklärte zu der Hoffnung, "die Heiden" (Mt xii. 21; komp. "Retter der Welt" von John iv. 42), und er wird zu den Exponenten der Pauline Ideen, die Alte muss den Weg auf die neue (Mark ii. 21-22; Lukas v. 36-38; comp. 39), dass das Evangelium sollten "gepredigt werden euch alle Nationen" (Mark xiii. 10; Matt. Xxiv. 14) , Nein, mehr-, dass das Reich Gottes weggenommen werden die Juden und an einer anderen Nation (Matth. viii. 11-12; xxi. 43).

Unhistorical Character of the Gospels. Unhistorische Charakter der Evangelien.

As a matter of fact, the discrepancies in the records extend over all parts of the Four Gospels and invalidate the claim of historicity advanced for Mark or for any other of the gospels. In der Tat, die Unterschiede in den Aufzeichnungen erstrecken sich über alle Teile der vier Evangelien und zum Erlöschen des Anspruchs der Geschichtlichkeit Mark für Fortgeschrittene oder für jede andere von den Evangelien. For instance, it is very singular that the only possible date for the crucifixion is found in the late fourth gospel (John xviii. 28), according to which it took place on Friday, the eve of Passover, and not on Passover, as Mark xiv. Beispielsweise ist es sehr singuläre, dass die einzig mögliche Termin für die Kreuzigung befindet sich in den späten vierten Evangelium (John xviii. 28), wonach es fand am Freitag, dem Vorabend des Passah, und nicht auf Passah, wie Mark Xiv. 12, Matt. 12, Matt. xxvi. XXVI. 17, and Luke xxii. 17, und Luke xxii. 7 have it. 7 haben. True, a trace of the correct date has been discovered in Mark xiv. Wahr ist, dass eine Spur der richtige Zeitpunkt entdeckt wurde, in Mark xiv. 1 (see Wellhausen on the passage); but then the Last Supper can no longer be the paschal feast, as John xiii. 1 (siehe Wellhausen über die Passage), aber dann das Letzte Abendmahl kann nicht mehr der österlichen Fest, wie John xiii. 2 has no reference at all to it. 2 hat keinen Bezug auf alle zu. So Jesus is reported to have defended his claim to the Messiahship by proving (from Ps. cx. 1) that the Messiah need not be a son of David (Mark xii. 35-37), while the all-knowing demons of the possessed call him "Jesus, son of David" (Mark x. 47). So ist Jesus berichtet haben, verteidigt seinen Anspruch auf den Nachweis von Messiahship (Ps aus. Cx. 1), daß der Messias muss nicht ein Sohn von David (Mark xii. 35-37), während die all-wissen der Dämonen besessen Nenne ihn "Jesus, der Sohn von David" (Mark x. 47). Here, too, John's gospel is more consistent. Auch hier John's Gospel ist mehr konsistent. It knows nothing of the Davidic descent of Jesus; on the contrary, his legitimacy of birth is disputed (John viii. 48), while stress is laid upon the view that Jesus is the son of God. Er weiß nichts von der davidischen Abstammung von Jesus, im Gegenteil, seine Legitimität der Geburt ist umstritten (John viii. 48), während der Stress gelegt wird auf der Ansicht, dass Jesus der Sohn Gottes ist. The genealogies in Matthew (i. 1-17) and Luke (iii. 23-28), while conflicting with each other, are late attempts at establishing his Davidic descent, actually disproving the claim of his supernatural origin (Matt. i. 18; Luke ii. 5). Die Genealogien und Matthew (i. 1-17) und Luke (iii. 23-28), während in Konflikt miteinander, sind am Ende der Versuche zur Gründung seiner davidischen Abstammung, tatsächlich zu zeigen, die behaupten, der seine übernatürlichen Ursprungs (Matth. 18 i. ; Luke ii. 5). The claim that Jesus was "Christ the son of God" all the gospels endeavor to establish. Die Behauptung, dass Jesus Christus der Sohn Gottes "alle Evangelien zu bemühen.

Most incompatible with the Jewish mode of thinking and speaking is the story, in Matt. Die meisten unvereinbar mit der jüdischen Modus von Denken und Sprechen ist die Geschichte, in Matt. i. I. 18-23 (with which Luke i. 27, 34, ii. 5, and iii. 23 were afterward harmonized), of his conception by the virgin from the Holy Ghost ("Ruaḥ" = "Spirit," being feminine both in Hebrew and Aramaic). 18-23 (mit der Luke i. 27, 34, ii. 5, und iii. 23 wurden danach harmonisiert), der seine Vorstellung von der Jungfrau aus dem Heiligen Geist ( "Ruaḥ" = "Spirit", die sowohl auf Hebräisch weiblich Und Aramäisch). The older view was that Jesus became the son of God through the descent of the Holy Ghost at the moment of his rebirth by baptism, when the heavenly "bat ḳol" spoke to him, "Thou art my son, this day have I begotten thee" (Acts xiii. 33; comp. Mark i. 11; Luke iii. 22; see Justin, "Dialogus cum Tryphone," §§ 88, 103), and the Holy Ghost lifted him to the "ḥayyot" of the heavenly throne, even above the angels (comp. Mark i. 13; Matt. iv. 11). Die ältere Ansicht war, dass Jesus als Sohn Gottes durch den Abstieg des Heiligen Geistes im Moment seiner Wiedergeburt durch die Taufe, wenn die himmlischen "Fledermaus ḳol" sprach zu ihm: "Du bist mein Sohn, heute habe ich dich gezeugt "(Apg xiii. 33; comp. Mark i. 11; Luke iii. 22; siehe Justin," Dialogus cum Tryphone ", § § 88, 103), und der Heilige Geist hob ihn in die" ḥayyot "des himmlischen Thron , Sogar über die Engel (comp. Mark i. 13; Matt. Iv. 11).

Mythical as is this story at the beginning of Mark, it is but the reflex of the older tale of his transfiguration, representing him as having been lifted to a high mountain, where he was enveloped in a cloud, together with Moses and Elijah (comp. Targ. Yer. to Ex. xii. 42), while the heavenly voice said, "This is my beloved son" (Mark ix. 2-9, and parallels). Mythischen wie ist diese Geschichte, die zu Beginn von Mark, er ist aber der Reflex der älteren Geschichte seiner Verklärung, die ihm als aufgehoben worden, die zu einem hohen Berg, wo er eingewickelt in eine Wolke zusammen mit Moses und Elias (comp . Targ. Yer. Ex zu. Xii. 42), während die himmlische Stimme sagte: "Dies ist mein geliebter Sohn" (Mark ix. 2-9, und Parallelen). Probably this was originally applied to the "resurrection" (comp. Acts i. 9-10; Wellhausen on Mark ix. 2-9). Wahrscheinlich war dies ursprünglich für die "Auferstehung" (vgl. Apg i. 9-10; Wellhausen auf Mark ix. 2-9). Not the living but the departed Jesus became the son of God. Nicht die Lebenden, sondern die departed wurde Jesus der Sohn Gottes ist. As such, he was first seen by Peter and the other apostles in Galilee, six days after his death (Mark xvi. 7; comp. ib. ix. 2 and John xxi. 1-29, which is the continuation of Mark xvi. 8). Als solcher wurde er als erster von Peter und den anderen Aposteln in Galiläa, sechs Tage nach seinem Tod (Mark xvi. 7; comp. Ib. Ix. 2 und John xxi. 1-29, das ist die Fortsetzung von Mark xvi. 8). The story of Peter having recognized him as "Christ, the Son of the living God" (Matt. xvi. 16; Mark viii. 29; Luke ix. 20), is accordingly as mythical as is the beginning of the story, according to which he had foretold to his disciples his crucifixion and his resurrection on the third day in fulfilment of the Scripture (comp. Hosea vi. 1-2)-a story discredited by the very attitude of these disciples (Mark xvi. 8; Luke xxiv. 21; John xx. 9). Die Geschichte von Peter, die ihn als "Christus, der Sohn des lebendigen Gottes" (Mt xvi. 16; Mark viii. 29; Luke ix. 20), ist entsprechend als mythische wie ist der Anfang der Geschichte, nach Vorausgesagt hatte, die er zu seinen Jüngern seine Kreuzigung und seine Auferstehung am dritten Tag in Erfüllung der Schrift (comp. Hosea vi. 1-2)-eine Geschichte, diskreditiert durch die sehr diese Haltung der Jünger (Mark xvi. 8; Luke xxiv . 21; John xx. 9).

It is superfluous to say that the story of the feeding of the five thousand (Mark vi. 30-46; recorded also in John vi. 1-15) is legendary, as well as its counterpart, the story of the feeding of the four thousand recorded in Mark viii. Es ist überflüssig zu sagen, dass die Geschichte von der Speisung der fünftausend (Mark vi. 30-46; verzeichnete auch in John vi. 1-15) ist legendär, ebenso wie sein Pendant, die Geschichte von der Speisung der vier In Tausend Mark viii. 1-9. So is the story of Jesus' apparition on the water (Mark vi. 47-56; Matt. xiv. 24-36; John vi. 16-21)-probably originally a Galilean fishermen's tale referring to the time after the death of Jesus-given a different version in Mark iv. So ist die Geschichte von Jesus' Erscheinung auf dem Wasser (Mark vi. 47-56; Matt. Xiv. 24-36; John vi. 16-21)-wahrscheinlich ursprünglich ein Galiläer Fischer's Märchen auf die Zeit nach dem Tod von Jesus - Eine andere Version in Mark iv. 35-41, and parallels. 35-41, und Parallelen. The stories of the centurion's servant (Luke vii. 1-10), of the nobleman's son (John iv. 46-50), and of the raising of Jairus' daughter (Mark v. 21-43) have many features showing their common origin in tradition (see Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Mattheus," 1904, p. 36); but while the last-mentionedhas preserved its Judæo-Christian character, the other two are anti-Jewish in conception. Die Geschichten der Zenturio der Diener (Luke vii. 1-10), der Sohn Edelmann (John iv. 46-50), und die Ansammlung von Jaïrus' Tochter (Mark v. 21-43) haben viele gemeinsame Merkmale, die ihre Herkunft und Tradition (siehe Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Matthäus", 1904, S. 36), aber während der letzten mentionedhas erhalten ihre Judæo-christlichen Charakter, die anderen beiden sind anti-jüdische und Konzeption. The story of the anointment of Jesus in the house of Simon the leper (Mark xiv. 3-9; Matt. xxvi. 6-13; recorded also in John xii. 3) is identical with the one told of the sinner (Magdalene?) in the house of Simon the Pharisee (Luke vii. 36-50), the name = "Simon the Essene" having been misread = "the leper" (as Chajes, "Markus-Studien," p. 74, suggests). Die Geschichte des salbten von Jesus im Haus von Simon dem Aussätzigen (Mark xiv. 3-9; Matt. Xxvi. 6-13; verzeichnete auch in John xii. 3) ist identisch mit dem ein erzählte der Sünder (Magdalene? ) Und das Haus von der Pharisäer Simon (Luke vii. 36-50), der name = "Simon the Essene" wurde falsch = "Aussätzigen" (wie Chajes, "Markus-Studien", S. 74, schlägt).

Altogether, the story of Jesus was built up upon Bible passages, which Mark, who writes for non-Jewish readers, omits in most cases, just as he omits the debate with Satan. Insgesamt hat die Geschichte von Jesus wurde bis auf Bibel-Passagen, die Mark, schreibt für die nicht-jüdische Leser, fehlen in den meisten Fällen, so wie er lässt die Debatte mit dem Satan. Only in i. Nur in I. 2, xiv. 2, XIV. 27, 49, xv. 27, 49, xv. 28 does he refer to the Scripture, while in i. 28 hat er auf die Schrift, während in i. 11 and ix. 11 und IX. 7 reference to Ps. 7 Verweis auf Ps. ii. Ii. 7, and in viii. 7, und in viii. 31 reference to Hosea vi. 31 Verweis auf Hosea vi. 1-2, are indirectly made. 1-2, indirekt. In Matthew the statement "This is come to pass, that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the Lord" is repeated in various forms (i. 22; ii. 5, 15, 17, 23; iii. 3; iv. 14; viii. 17; xii. 17; xiii. 14, 35; xxi. 4; xxii. 31; xxvi. 54, 56; xxvii. 9, 35); also in the latter but much older part of John (xii. 38; xiii. 18; xv. 25; xvii. 12; xviii. 9, 32; xix. 24, 36), as well as in Luke (i. 20; iv. 21; xx. 37; xxi. 22). In Matthew die Aussage "Dies ist in Erfüllung gehen, dass sie erfüllt werden können, wurde gesprochen von dem Herrn" ist wiederholt in verschiedenen Formen (i. 22; ii. 5, 15, 17, 23, iii. 3; iv. 14 ; Viii. 17; xii. 17; xiii. 14, 35; xxi. 4; xxii. 31; xxvi. 54, 56; xxvii. 9, 35); auch in der zweiten, aber viel älteren Teil von John (xii. 38 ; Xiii. 18, xv. 25; xvii. 12; xviii. 9, 32; xix. 24, 36), wie auch in Lukas (i. 20, iv. 21, xx. 37; xxi. 22). In most cases the Messianic, or alleged Messianic, passages suggested the story, rather than the story suggesting the passages. In den meisten Fällen sind die messianischen, oder angebliche messianischen, Passagen vorgeschlagen, die Geschichte, sondern als die Geschichte suggeriert die Passagen.

The Sayings of Jesus. Die Sprüche von Jesus.

The sayings of Jesus were collected and grouped together by several writers before they were embodied in the first and third gospels; and they were circulated in many forms afterward as "Logia" ("Oracular Sayings of Christ"). Die Worte Jesu wurden gesammelt und zusammengefasst von mehreren Autoren wurden, bevor sie verkörperte in der ersten und dritten Evangelien, und sie wurden in vielen Formen verbreitet danach als "Logia" ( "Oracular Sayings of Christ"). This accounts for the repetition and dislocation of many of them. Diese Konten für die Wiederholung der Dislokation und viele von ihnen. As they were handed down originally in the Aramaic language, traces of which are still preserved in Mark (iii. 17; v. 41; vii. 34; xv. 34), they were often misread; as, for instance, in Luke iv. Da sie wurden nach ursprünglich in der aramäischen Sprache, Spuren davon sind noch heute in Mark (iii. 17, v. 41, vii. 34, xv. 34), wurden sie oft falsch, wie zum Beispiel in Luke iv . 26: "armalita" (widow) for "aramaita" (heathen; see Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Lucæ," 1904, p. 10); or Matt. 26: "armalita" (Witwe) für "aramaita" (Heiden; siehe Wellhausen, "Das Evangelium Lucæ", 1904, S. 10); oder Matt. vii. Vii. 6: "ḳudsha" (holy thing) for "ḳodosha" (ring, parallel to pearls); or Matt. 6: "ḳudsha" (heilige Sache) für "ḳodosha" (Ring, parallel zu Perlen), oder Matt. viii. Viii. 22, where the original reading was "Sheboḳ li-bene mata de-yikberun yat metehon" (= "Let the men of the town bury their dead"; see Credner, "Einleitung ins Neue Testament," 1836, i. 75). 22, wo die Original-Lektüre war "Sheboḳ li-bene mata de-yikberun yat metehon" (= "Lasst die Männer der Stadt ihre Toten begraben", siehe Credner, "Einleitung ins Neue Testament", 1836, i. 75).

Misunderstood Passages. Misunderstood Passagen.

Often the "Logia" were misunderstood by the translator, as in the case of the expressions "'ayin ṭob" and "'ayin ra'" (= "a good [friendly], unbegrudging eye" and "a malevolent, begrudging eye" (Matt. vi. 22-23; Luke xi. 34-36). Similarly, the fourfold meaning of "barnasha" ("son of man," "man," "I," and "the Messiah") was misunderstood by the first three evangelists (see Man, Son of). So with the words (Luke xvii. 20-21), "The kingdom of God cometh not by calculation" (comp. the rabbinical "cursed be the calculators of the end" ["meḥashbe ḳiẓẓim"], Sanh. 97b), "but suddenly, imperceptibly it is with you" (comp. "The Messiah comes when the thought of him is absent" ["be-ḥesseaḥ ha-da'at"], Sanh. 97a). The "heathen" of Matt. vi. 7 (comp. Ber. 24b, xviii. 17) seems to be a mistranslation of the term "'amme ha-araẓot" (the ignorant class of men). Oft ist die "Logia" missverstanden wurden von dem Übersetzer, wie im Fall der Ausdrücke " 'ayin ṭob" und "' ayin ra" (= "eine gute [freundliche], unbegrudging Auge" und "einer hinterlistigen, beneidend Auge" (Matth. vi. 22-23; Luke xi. 34-36). Auch die vierfache Bedeutung von "barnasha" ( "Sohn des Menschen", "Mensch", "I" und "Messias") wurde von missverstanden In den ersten drei Evangelisten (siehe Mann, Sohn). Also mit den Worten (Lk xvii. 20-21), "Das Reich Gottes kommt nicht durch Berechnung" (comp. der rabbinischen "verflucht werden die Rechner vom Ende" [ "Meḥashbe ḳiẓẓim"], Sanh. 97b), "aber plötzlich, unmerklich ist mit dir" (vgl. "Der Messias kommt, wenn ihm der Gedanke, der nicht vorhanden ist" [ "be-ḥesseaḥ ha-da'at"], Sanh . 97a). Die "Heiden" von Matt. Vi. 7 (comp. Ber. 24b, xviii. 17) scheint zu sein, eine falsche Übersetzung des Begriffs "amme ha-araẓot" (die Unwissenden Klasse der Männer).

Misunderstanding of the term "be-ḥad le-shabba tinyana" (on the first of the second week after Passover), preserved only in Luke vi. Missverständnis des Begriffs "werden ḥad-le-shabba tinyana" (auf der ersten der zweiten Woche nach Passah), erhalten nur in Luke vi. 1, caused the confusion of the law concerning the new produce of the year (Lev. xxiii. 11-14) with the Sabbath law (see Jew. Encyc. vii. 168, sv Jesus). 1, verursacht die Verwirrung des Gesetzes über die neue Produktion des Jahres (Lev. xxiii. 11-14) mit dem Sabbat Gesetz (siehe Jude. Encyc. Vii. 168, sv Jesus). In the one case Jesus, referring to David, defended his disciples, who in their hunger plucked the new corn in the field and ate it without waiting for the offering upon the altar; in the other case he himself disregarded the Sabbath law in view of the "pikkuaḥ nefesh" (peril of life), a case in which the Rabbis admitted the suspension of the law, upon the principle, "The Sabbath is given over to you ["the son of man"], and not you to the Sabbath" (see Mek., Wayaḳhel, 1; Chwolson, "Das Letzte Passahmahl," 1892, pp. 59-67, 91-92). In dem einen Fall Jesus unter Bezugnahme auf David, verteidigt seine Jünger, die in ihrem Hunger brach die neue Mais im Feld und aß es ohne Wartezeit für das Angebot auf dem Altar, in den anderen Fällen missachtet er selbst den Sabbat Gesetz im Hinblick auf die "Pikkuaḥ nefesh" (Gefahr des Lebens), ein Fall, in dem der Rabbiner zugelassen, die Aussetzung des Gesetzes, nach dem Grundsatz: "Der Sabbat ist für Sie über [" der Sohn des Menschen "], und nicht sie zu den Sabbat "(siehe Mek., Wayaḳhel, 1; Chwolson," Das Letzte Passahmahl ", 1892, pp. 59-67, 91-92).

Many of the sayings attributed to Jesus have been literally taken over from the Didache; others were Pharisaic teachings well known in the rabbinical schools, as has been shown by Lightfoot ("Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ," 1684), Shöttgen ("Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ," 1737), Nork ("Rabbinische Quellen und Parallelen zu Neutestamentlichen Schriften," 1839), Zipser ("The Sermon on the Mount," 1852), Wünsche ("Neue Beiträge zur Erläuterung der Evangelien," 1878), and others. Viele der Worte Jesus zugeschrieben wurden wörtlich übernommen aus der Didache, andere wurden pharisäische Lehren bekannt in der rabbinischen Schulen, wie bereits gezeigt, durch Lightfoot ( "Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ", 1684), Shöttgen ( "Horæ Hebraicæ et Talmudicæ ", 1737), Nork (" Rabbinische Quellen und Parallelen zu Neutestamentlichen Schriften ", 1839), Zipser (" The Sermon on the Mount ", 1852), Wünsche (" Neue Beiträge zur Erläuterung der Evangelien ", 1878), und andere . It has been pointed out by Schreiner ("Die Jüngsten Urtheile über das Judenthum," 1902, pp. 27-29) that while Jesus' sayings are simply assertions without support of Scripture, the Rabbis show that they were derived from Scripture and thereby establish their claim to priority. Es wurde darauf hingewiesen, von Schreiner ( "Die Jüngsten Urtheile über das Judenthum", 1902, pp. 27-29), während Jesus' Sprüche sind einfach Behauptungen ohne die Unterstützung der Heiligen Schrift, die Rabbiner zeigen, dass sie sich aus der Heiligen Schrift und damit schaffen Ihren Anspruch auf Priorität. Thus, the injunction to pray for the offender (Matt. v. 44) is derived (Tos. B. Ḳ. ix. 29) from the example of Abraham and Job (Gen. xx. 17; Job xlii. 8, 10); the idea of heavenly treasures (Matt. vi. 20) is derived from Deut. So, die einstweilige Verfügung zu beten für die Täter (Matth. 44 v.) abgeleitet ist (Tos. B. Ḳ. Ix. 29) aus dem Beispiel von Abraham und Job (Gen. xx. 17; Job xlii. 8, 10) ; Die Idee der himmlischen Schätze (Matth. vi. 20) ergibt sich aus Deut. xxxii. XXXII. 34, in connection with Isa. 34, in Verbindung mit Isa. iii. III. 10 and Ps. 10 und Ps. xxxi. XXXI. 20 (AV 19; Sifre, Deut. 324; comp. Tosef., Peah, iv. 8); the deprecation of lengthy prayers (Matt. vi. 7-8), from Ex. 20 (AV 19; Sifre, Deut. 324; comp. Tosef., Peah, iv. 8), die Missbilligung der lange Gebete (Matth. vi. 7-8), aus Ex. xv. XV. 21 and Num. 21 und Anz. xii. XII. 13 (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 3; Sifre, Num. 105; comp. Ber. 39a). 13 (Mek., Beshallaḥ, 3; Sifre, Num.. 105; comp. Ber. 39a). So also with the sentence, "Let your speech be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay" (Matt. v. 37, RV), which is derived from Lev. So auch mit dem Satz: "Lassen Sie Ihre Rede sein, ja, ja, nein, nein" (Matth. v. 37, RV), die sich aus Lev. xix. XIX. 36 (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, viii. 7; BM 49a; comp. Tos. Soṭah vii. 2; Giṭ. 35a; Num. R. xxii.); and the condemnation of the lustful look (Matt. v. 28), from Deut. 36 (Sifra, Ḳedoshim, viii. 7; BM 49a; comp. Tos. Soṭah vii. 2; Giṭ. 35a; Anz. R. xxii.), Und die Verurteilung der sinnlichen Look (Matth. v. 28), aus Deut. xxiii. XXIII. 9 ('Ab. Zarah 20a) and Job xxxi. 9 ( 'Ab.. Zarah 20a) und Job xxxi. (Midr., Yalḳuṭ, to the passage). (Midr., Yalḳuṭ, um die Passage).

When in his dispute with the Sadducees concerning resurrection Jesus cites the passage, "I am the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob," to prove that the Patriarchs shall come to life again, because "God is the God of the living, not of the dead," the argument fails to convince the believer in Scripture; but when Gamaliel refers the Sadducees to Deut. Wenn in seinem Streit mit den Sadduzäern über die Auferstehung Jesus beruft sich die Passage: "Ich bin der Gott Abrahams, Isaaks und Jakobs", zu beweisen, dass die Patriarchen komme wieder lebendig machen, denn "Gott ist der Gott der Lebenden und nicht Der Toten ", das Argument nicht zu überzeugen, die Gläubigen in der Heiligen Schrift, aber wenn Gamaliel bezieht sich die Sadduzäer zu Deut. xi. XI. 21, or Ex. 21, oder Ex. vi. VI. 4, ". . . the land which the Lord sware unto your fathers to give them," the argument is logical and convincing: "The dead can not receive, but they shall live again to receive the land" (Sanh. 90b). 4, "... Das Land, die der Herr euch eure Väter sware zu ihnen," das Argument ist logisch und überzeugend: "Die Toten können nicht erhalten, aber sie wird wieder leben zu erhalten, das Land" (Sanh. 90b). The originality, then, is with the Rabbis. Die Originalität, dann ist mit dem Rabbiner. In like manner the beautiful story of the widow's two mites (Mark xii. 42-44) betrays its midrashic origin in the words, "she has given all her living," which are an allusion to the Biblical phrase "we-nefesh ki taḳrib" (Lev. ii. 1), interpreted in Lev. In der Art und Weise, wie die schöne Geschichte von der Witwe die beiden Milben (Mark xii. 42-44) midrashic verrät seine Herkunft in den Worten, "sie hat alle ihre lebendigen", die eine Anspielung auf das biblische Wort "wir-nefesh die taḳrib "(Lev. ii. 1), interpretiert in Lev. R. iii. R. III. as signifying,"The gift of the poor who includes his or her very life in the gift counts for more before God than the hecatombs of Agrippa the king." Als Indiz, "Das Geschenk der Armen gehören, die seine oder ihre Leben in der sehr Geschenk zählt mehr als die vor Gott hecatombs von Agrippa der König." So the strange words of Jesus in regard to the adulteress: "He that is without sin among you, let him first cast a stone at her" (John viii. 7), are possibly merely an echo of the rabbinical saying, "Only when the husband is without sin will the ordeal of the wife suspected of adultery prove effective" (Sifre, Num. 21, based upon Num. v. 31). So seltsam die Worte Jesu in Bezug auf die Ehebrecherin: "Wer ohne Sünde ist unter euch, laßt ihn werfen einen ersten Stein auf sie" (John viii. 7), sind möglicherweise nur ein Echo des rabbinischen sagen: "Nur dann, wenn Der Mann ohne Sünde ist, wird das Martyrium der Frau im Verdacht stehen, sich als wirksam erweisen Ehebruch "(Sifre, Num.. 21, basierend auf Anz. V. 31). Expressions such as "If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out," and "if thy right hand offend thee, cut it off" (Matt. v. 29-30), are explained by similar rabbinical utterances (Niddah 13b). Ausdrücke wie "Wenn deine rechte Auge beleidigen dich, pflücken it out" und "wenn deine rechte Hand dich beleidigen, cut it off" (Matth. v. 29-30), erklärt sich durch ähnliche Äußerungen rabbinischen (Niddah 13b). For other instances of New Testament sayings derived from Scripture see Jew. Für andere Fälle von New Testament Sprüche aus der Schrift sehen Jude. Encyc. iv. Iv. 588-592, sv 588-592, SV

Didascalia.

The "sayings" attributed to Jesus may be divided, according to form and contents, into (1) Ethical Teachings, (2) Parables, (3) Apocalyptic (Messianic) Utterances, (4) Essene Polemics. Die "Worte" Jesus zugeschrieben werden, kann, je nach Form und Inhalt, in (1) Ethische Lehrfächer, Parables (2), (3) Apocalyptic Utterances (messianischen), (4) Essene Polemik.

The "Sayings." Die "Sprüche."

1. Ethical Teachings: These were grouped together in the Sermon on the Mount as if to form the program of the new dispensation (Matt. v. 1-vii. 27; in less elaborate form in Luke vi. 20-49), but are partly found, in varying order, elsewhere (Mark ix. 43-47, x. 11, xi. 25; Matt. xviii. 8-9; Luke xi. 2-4, 9-13, 34-36; xii. 22-31, 33-34). Ethische Lehre: Diese wurden zusammengefasst in der Bergpredigt zu bilden, als ob das Programm der neuen Ausnahmegenehmigung (Matth. v. 1-vii. 27, und weniger aufwendig in Form Luke vi. 20-49), sind aber teilweise Gefunden, in unterschiedlicher Reihenfolge, die sonst (Mark ix. 43-47, 11 x., xi. 25; Matt. Xviii. 8-9; Luke xi. 2-4, 9-13, 34-36; xii. 22 -- 31, 33-34). The main characteristic of these teachings is not, as Matthew puts it, antagonism to the Law, but what the Rabbis term "li-fenim mi-shurat ha-din"-"a withdrawing within the line of the Law" (B. Ḳ. 101a) as behooves the esoteric circle of the pious; in other words, their main ethical characteristic is Hasidean (comp. B. Ḳ. 30a; BM 83a, with reference to Prov. ii. 20; see Essenes). Das wichtigste Merkmal dieser Lehren ist nicht, wie Matthäus es ausdrückt, Antagonismus des Gesetzes, aber das, was die Rabbis Begriff "li-fenim mi-shurat ha-din" - "eine Aberkennung der in der Linie des Gesetzes" (B. Ḳ . 101a), obliegt den esoterischen Kreis der frommen, in anderen Worten, ihre wichtigsten ethischen Merkmal ist Hasidean (comp. B. Ḳ. 30a; BM 83a, mit Verweis auf Prov. Ii. 20; siehe Essenern). Hasidean views similar to those contained in Matt. Hasidean Auffassungen ähnlich denen in Matt. vi. VI. 25-34 are voiced also (Ḳid. iv. 14; Tos. Ḳid. v. 15; Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayissa'u, 2-4). 25-34 sind auch geäußert (Ḳid. iv. 14; Tos. Ḳid. V. 15; Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayissa'u, 2-4).

2. Parables: The parables follow the rabbinical "meshalim," illustrative of some ethical truth, either in the form of similitudes, like the rabbinical "Mashal le-mah ha-dabar domeh" ("A similitude: To what may this be likened? To a man," etc.; see Levy, "Neuhebr. Wörterb."; Parables), or in the form of a longer narrative. Parables: Die Gleichnisse folgen Sie den rabbinischen "meshalim," Veranschaulichung einiger ethischer Wahrheit, und zwar entweder in Form von Ähnlichkeiten, wie die rabbinischen "Mashal le-mah-ha dabar domeh" ( "Ein Gleichnis: Um welchen Umständen ist dieses Update verglich? To Ein Mann, "etc., vgl. Levy," Neuhebr. Wörterb. "Gleichnisse), oder in Form einer längeren Erzählung. The former kind is found in Mark iii. Die ehemalige Art findet sich in Mark iii. 23, iv. 23, iv. 1-9 (the parable of the sower), 26-32, and xii. 1-9 (das Gleichnis der Säerin), 26-32, und xii. 1-12; the latter is especially developed in Luke xv.-xvi. 1-12; Letzteres ist vor allem in Luke xv.-xvi. and xix. Und XIX. 11-28 (the parables of the lost sheep, the lost piece of silver, the prodigal son, the unrighteous steward, and the ten talents), and in Matt. 11-28 (die Gleichnisse von dem verlorenen Schaf, die verlorene Stück Silber, der verlorene Sohn, der steward verworfen, und die zehn Talente) und Matt. xxv. XXV. 1-30 (the parables of the wise and foolish virgins, and of the unprofitable servant). 1-30 (die Gleichnisse von den klugen und törichten Jungfrauen, unrentabel und der Diener). Some of these parables have their parallels among the sayings of first-century rabbis, and it may, therefore, justly be claimed that they originated among these. Einige dieser Gleichnisse haben ihre Parallelen zwischen den Sprüchen des ersten Jahrhunderts Rabbiner, und es kann daher mit Recht behauptet werden, dass sie unter diesen Ursprung. Compare, for instance, the parable of the wise and foolish guests of the king told by R. Johanan b. Vergleichen Sie zum Beispiel das Gleichnis von den klugen und törichten Gäste des Königs erzählte von R. Johanan b. Zakkai with reference to the Messianic banquet, in commenting upon Isa. Zakkai mit Verweis auf die messianischen Bankett, zu kommentieren und auf Isa. lxv. Lxv. 13 and Eccl. 13 und Eccl. ix. IX. 8 (Shab. 153a). 8 (Shab. 153a). The simple meaning of these parables, however, was lost later on, and they were taken to be allegories and mysteries, especially when they alluded to the Messianic expectations, about which it was not safe to speak in public, as they assumed the end of the kingdom of Satan (Rome; comp. Mark iv. 11, 34; Matt. xiii. 1-52, especially 35 and 39). Die einfache Bedeutung dieser Gleichnisse war jedoch später verloren, und sie wurden zu Allegorien und Mysterien, vor allem, wenn sie spielte er auf die messianischen Erwartungen, die sie nicht sicher war in der Öffentlichkeit zu sprechen, da sie davon ausgehen, die Ende der Das Reich des Satans (Rom; comp. Mark iv. 11, 34; Matt. Xiii. 1-52, besonders 35 und 39). Thus "the parable of the fig-tree" (Mark xiii. 28; see Wellhausen, who is at a loss to explain it) is actually a "symbol" of the Messianic advent, according to the Midrash (Cant. R. ii. 13), but was no longer understood by the evangelists, either as an allegory or as a sign of Messianic success or failure, in the story of the blasted fig-tree (Mark xi. 13-14, 20-23). So "das Gleichnis vom Feigenbaum" (Mark xiii. 28; siehe Wellhausen, der sich auf einen Verlust zu erklären) ist eigentlich ein "Symbol" des messianischen Aufkommen nach dem Midrasch (Cant. R. ii. 13), wurde aber nicht mehr verstanden, durch den Evangelisten, entweder als Allegorie oder als ein Zeichen der messianischen Erfolg oder Misserfolg in der Geschichte der sandgestrahlt Feigenbaum (Mark xi. 13-14, 20-23).

3. Apocalyptic (Messianic) Utterances: For the most part, these are taken over from Jewish apocalypses and embodied in the gospels as discourses of Jesus (Matt. xxiv.-xxv. 31-45; comp. Midr. Teh. Ps. cxviii. 17; Mark xiii. 7-23; Luke xiii. 24-30, xvii. 22-35, xxi. 7-36). Apocalyptic (messianischen) Utterances: Zum größten Teil sind diese Übernahme von jüdischen Apokalypsen und verkörperte in den Evangelien als Diskurse Jesu (Matth. xxiv.-xxv. 31-45; comp. Midr.. Ps. Cxviii. 17 ; Mark xiii. 7-23; Luke xiii. 24-30, xvii. 22-35, xxi. 7-36).

4. Essene Polemics: These are directed chiefly against (a) Herodian high priests (Mark xi. 27-xii. 27, xiii. 1-2; Luke xi. 47-xii. 8) and are encountered also in rabbinical records (Tos. Men. xiii. 21-22), and against (b) Pharisaic hypocrisy (Matt. xxiii., et al.); the latter also have their parallels in rabbinical writings (Ab. RN xxxvii.; Soṭah 22; Pesiḳ. R. xxii.: "Thou shalt not utter the name of the Lord in vain; that is, Thou shalt not wear phylacteries and long fringes [ẓiẓit] while at the same time thou art bent upon sin"). Essene Polemik: Diese richten sich vor allem gegen die (a) Herodian Hohenpriestern (Mark xi. 27-xii. 27, xiii. 1-2; Luke xi. 47-xii. 8) und treten auch in der rabbinischen Aufzeichnungen (Tos. Männer . Xiii. 21-22), und (b) gegen die pharisäische Heuchelei (Mt xxiii., Et al.), Die letzteren haben auch ihre Parallelen in der rabbinischen Schriften (Ab. RN xxxvii.; Soṭah 22; Pesiḳ. R. xxii .: "Du sollst nicht gebetsmühlenartig den Namen des Herrn vergeblich, das heißt, Du sollst nicht phylacteries Verschleiß und lange Fransen [ẓiẓit], während in der gleichen Zeit, du bist auf verbogene Sünde"). See Pharisees. Siehe Pharisäer.

Matthew:

Characteristics of the Gospels. Merkmale der Evangelien.

The gospel of Matthew stands nearest to Jewish life and the Jewish mode of thinking. Das Evangelium des Matthäus steht in Ihrer Nähe das jüdische Leben und die jüdischen Modus des Denkens. It was written for Judæo-Christians and made ample use of an Aramaic original. Es wurde geschrieben für Judæo-Christen und die reichliche Verwendung eines aramäischen Original. This is evidenced by the terms: "kingdom of heaven," found exclusively in Matthew, a translation of the Hebrew "malkut shamayim" (= "kingdom of God"); "your heavenly Father," or, "your Father in the heavens" (v. 16, vi. 14, et al.); "son of David" for "the Messiah" (ix. 27, et al.; comp. the rabbinical "ben David"); "the holy city" (iv. 5, xxvii. 53) and "the city of the great King" (v. 35) for "Jeru salem"; "God of Israel" (xv. 31); the oft-repeated phrase "that it might be fulfilled, which was spoken of the Lord by the prophet"; the retention of Judæo-Christian conceptions (v. 17, x. 6, xv. 24); the genealogy of Jesus, based upon specific haggadic views concerning Tamar, Ruth, and Bath-sheba, so drawn as to make the assumption of his Messianic character plausible (i. 1-16); and the assignment of the twelve seats of judgment on the Judgment Day to the Twelve Apostles in representation of the twelve tribes of Israel (xix. 28; Luke xxii. 30). Dies zeigt sich durch die Begriffe: "Himmelreich", fand ausschließlich in Matthew, eine Übersetzung des hebräischen "malkut shamayim" (= "Reich Gottes"), "Ihr himmlischer Vater" oder "euer Vater im Himmel "(V. 16, vi. 14, et al.)," Sohn Davids "der" Messias "(ix. 27, et al.; Comp. Rabbinischen die" David ben ")," die heilige Stadt "( Iv. 5, xxvii. 53) und "die Stadt des großen Königs" (V. 35) für "Jeru salem", "God of Israel" (xv. 31), die oft wiederholte Satz, "dass es vielleicht erfüllt werden , Die gesprochen wurde der Fürst durch die Propheten ", die Beibehaltung der Judæo-christliche Vorstellungen (v. 17, x. 6, xv. 24), die Genealogie von Jesus, die auf spezifische haggadic Ansichten über Tamar, Ruth, und Bad - Sheba, so dass Rückschlüsse auf die Annahme seiner messianischen Charakter plausibel (i. 1-16), und die Zuordnung der zwölf Sitze des Urteils auf den Jüngsten Tag der Zwölf Apostel in der Darstellung der zwölf Stämme Israel (xix . 28; Luke xxii. 30). It has embodied Jewish apocalyptic material, in ch. Es hat verkörperte jüdischen apokalyptischen Material, ch. xxiv.-xxv., more extensively than have the other gospels; and in the Sermon on the Mount (v.-vii.) it shows a certain familiarity with rabbinical phraseology. Xxiv.-xxv., Ausführlicher als die anderen Evangelien und in der Bergpredigt (v.-vii.) Zeigt es eine gewisse Vertrautheit mit der rabbinischen Phraseologie.

On the other hand, it manifests a spirit of intense hostility to the Jews in the crucifixion story, to a greater degree than do the other gospels (xxvii. 25). Auf der anderen Seite zeigt sie einen Geist der intensive Feindseligkeit gegenüber den Juden in der Geschichte der Kreuzigung, die in größerem Maße als die anderen Evangelien (xxvii. 25). In fact, its late composition is shown by its artificial systematization of the whole story of Jesus: There are seven beatitudes in v. 3-10 (verse 5 is a quotation), and accordingly seven "woes" in xxiii. In der Tat, die Zusammensetzung spät ist, zeigt ihre künstliche Systematisierung der gesamten Geschichte von Jesus: Es gibt sieben Glück in v. 3-10 (Vers 5 ist ein Zitat), und dementsprechend sieben "Leiden" in xxiii. 13-32 (Luke vi. 21-26 has five beatitudes and four "woes"); seven parables in xiii. 13-32 (Luke vi. 21-26 Glück hat fünf und vier "Leid"), sieben Gleichnisse in xiii. 1-52 (comp. the four in Mark iv. 1-34), and the twice-seven generations for each of the three periods of the genealogy of Jesus (i. 1-17). 1-52 (comp. vier in der Mark iv. 1-34), und den zweimal sieben Generationen für jeden der drei Zeiträume, in denen die Genealogie von Jesus (i. 1-17). All the miraculous cures narratedin Mark are enlarged upon both as to the number of the persons cured and as to their incidents, so as to adjust them to the Messianic claim (xi. 5; comp. Luke vii. 22; Isa. xxxv. 5; Pesiḳ. R. 42). Alle Wunderheilungen narratedin Mark erweitert werden, um sowohl auf die Anzahl der Personen, geheilt und im Hinblick auf ihre Zwischenfälle, so passen sie an die messianischen Anspruch (xi. 5; comp. Luke vii. 22; Isa. Xxxv. 5 ; Pesiḳ. R. 42). Somewhat artificial, and in contrast to such genuine legends as those in Luke, are the birth-stories in ch. Etwas künstlich, und im Gegensatz zu echten solche Legenden wie die in der Luke, der Geburt sind die Geschichten in-ch. ii., woven together from Num. Ii., Miteinander aus Anz. xxiv. Xxiv. 17 (referred to the Messiah), Micah v. 1, Isa. 17 (bezogen auf den Messias), Micah v. 1, Isa. lx. LX. 6, and from Moses' childhood story, to which that of Jesus formed a parallel, just as the Law of Mount Sinai was paralleled in the Sermon on the Mount. 6, und von Moses' Geschichte der Kindheit, zu denen, die von Jesus eine Parallele, so wie das Gesetz vom Berg Sinai wurde parallel in der Bergpredigt.

Significant is the reference to the established (Judæo-Christian) Church under Peter (xvi. 18; comp. "Petra" ["the rock"] Abraham as foundation of the world [Yalḳ. i. 243; Levy, lc, sv ]), to the secession of which from the Jewish state the story of Peter and the fish seems to allude (xvii. 24-27). Bedeutende ist der Verweis auf die etablierten (Judæo-christlichen) Kirche unter Peter (xvi. 18; komp. "Petra" [ "the rock"] Abraham als Fundament der Welt [Yalḳ. I. 243; Levy, lc, sv] ), Auf die Abspaltung von denen aus den jüdischen Staat die Geschichte von Peter und der Fisch scheint anspielen (xvii. 24-27). On the other hand, the Trinitarian formula (xxviii. 19) and the way the Jews are spoken of (xxviii. 15; so throughout John) betray a very late final composition. Auf der anderen Seite, die trinitarische Formel (xxviii. 19), und die Art, wie die Juden gesprochen (xxviii. 15; ganz so John) verraten eine endgültige Zusammensetzung sehr spät. But there are other late additions (v. 10, 11, 14; x. 16-39). Aber es gibt auch andere spät Ergänzungen (V. 10, 11, 14; x. 16-39).

Mark:

The gospel of Mark is written in the Pauline spirit, for pagans. Das Evangelium nach Markus ist in der Pauline Geist, für die Heiden. Being, however, the oldest attempt at presenting the story of Jesus in full, it shows greater simplicity and better historical and geographical knowledge than the rest. Als jedoch der älteste Versuch der Darstellung der Geschichte von Jesus und voll, es zeigt, mehr Einfachheit und besseren historischen und geographischen Kenntnisse als die übrigen. It intentionally omits the term "the Law" ("Nomos"; comp. xii. 28 with Matt. xxii. 36), although it preserves the "Shema'" omitted in Matthew; it omits also Biblical quotations, only a few of which have been allowed to remain (i. 1, iv. 12, ix. 48), and expressions offensive to pagans. Es lässt absichtlich den Begriff "Gesetz" ( "Nomos"; comp. Xii. 28 mit Matt. Xxii. 36), obwohl es das "Schema" weggelassen und Matthew, es fehlen auch biblische Zitate, nur wenige davon Konnten zu bleiben (i. 1, iv. 12, ix. 48), und Ausdruecke anstößig zu Heiden. Characteristic is the addition of the words "a house of prayer for all the nations" (xi. 17; comp. Matt. xxi. 13 and Luke xix. 46). Bezeichnend ist die Einfügung der Worte "ein Haus des Gebetes für alle Völker" (xi. 17; comp. Matt. Xxi. 13 und Luke xix. 46). The Aramaic terms used by Jesus in his exorcisms (v. 41, vii. 34) seem to have been retained purposely. Die aramäische Begriffe, die von Jesus in seinem exorcisms (V. 41, vii. 34) zu haben scheinen absichtlich beibehalten worden.

Luke:

Historical Character. Historische Charakter.

The gospel of Luke is confessedly (i. 1) a compilation from older sources. Das Evangelium des Lukas ist offenbar (i. 1) eine Zusammenstellung aus älteren Quellen. It contains genuine legends about the birth of John the Baptist and of Jesus as they were current in Essene circles. Es enthält echte Legenden über die Geburt von Johannes dem Täufer und Jesus, wie sie in aktuellen Essene Kreise. The whole picture of John the Baptist and of Jesus as bearers of good tidings to the poor (iv. 14; vi. 20, 24-26) has the stamp of greater historical truthfulness. Das ganze Bild von Johannes dem Täufer und Jesus als Bringer froher Botschaft für die Armen (iv. 14, vi. 20, 24-26) hat den Stempel der größeren historischen Wahrhaftigkeit. Here more than in the other gospels is Jesus represented as the friend of sinners (vii. 37-50; xv. 11-32; xviii. 10-14; xix. 1-10; xxiii. 39-43) and of the poor (xvi. 19-31). Hier mehr als in den anderen Evangelien ist Jesus repräsentiert als Freund der Sünder (vii. 37-50; xv. 11-32; xviii. 10-14; xix. 1-10; xxiii. 39-43) und der Armen (Xvi. 19-31). Especial interest is shown in the women in Jesus' company (viii. 2-3; xxiii. 55; xxiv. 10). Ein besonderes Interesse wird in der Frauen in Jesus' Unternehmen (viii. 2-3; xxiii. 55; xxiv. 10).

The story of the good Samaritan (x. 25-37), possibly, was told differently in the original version (see Brotherly Love; Jesus of Nazareth). The compiler of Luke has, however, infused his Pauline spirit into his record (iv. 25-30, vii. 1-10); hence, instead of the twelve, the seventy apostles, for the seventy nations (x. 1; comp. xxiv. 47), and Adam in place of Abraham (iii. 38); though traces of the original Judean spirit are found in passages such as xxii. The compiler of Luke has, however, infused his Pauline spirit into his record (iv. 25-30, vii. 1-10); hence, instead of the twelve, the seventy apostles, for the seventy nations (x. 1; comp . xxiv. 47), and Adam in place of Abraham (iii. 38); though traces of the original Judean spirit are found in passages such as xxii. 30, where only the twelve tribes of Israel are spoken of as being judged in the future kingdom of Jesus. Luke differs from the other synoptic gospels in that it ignores Galilee as the rallying-point of the disciples of Jesus (Mark xvi. 7; Matt. xxviii. 7) and makes Jerusalem the starting-point and center of the new sect (xxiv. 52). Luke differs from the other synoptic gospels in that it ignores Galilee as the rallying-point of the disciples of Jesus (Mark xvi. 7; Matt. xxviii. 7) and makes Jerusalem the starting-point and center of the new sect (xxiv. 52).

John:

The gospel of John is the work of a Christian of the second century, who endeavors to construe a history of Jesus upon the basis of a belief in his supernatural existence. To him Jesus is no longer the expected Messiah of the Jews, but a cosmic being (viii. 23, 58), one with God his Father (x. 30; xiv. 10), through whom alone life, salvation, and resurrection are obtained (xiv. 6), while on the other hand the Jews were from the beginning his implacable enemies, with whom he had nothing in common (vii. 1, 13; viii. 41-47, 59; x. 8, 10, 31; et al.). To him Jesus is no longer the expected Messiah of the Jews, but a cosmic being (viii. 23, 58), one with God his Father (x. 30; xiv. 10), through whom alone life, salvation, and resurrection are obtained (xiv. 6), while on the other hand the Jews were from the beginning his implacable enemies, with whom he had nothing in common (vii. 1, 13; viii. 41-47, 59; x. 8, 10, 31; et al.). All his discourses reiterate the same idea: God's fatherhood is understood only through the recognition of Jesus as His son (vi. 29, 46; xiv. 2; xv. 8-10, 26; et al.). The teaching of Jesus is summed up in the words, "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another" (xiii. 34); and yet this teaching of love is combined with the most intense hatred of the kinsmen of Jesus. The teaching of Jesus is summed up in the words, "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another" (xiii. 34); and yet this teaching of love is combined with the most intense hatred of the kinsmen of Jesus. All the miracles performed by Jesus assume in John a symbolical character (vi. 26, and frequently). The Temple (ii. 21), the manna (vi. 32-59), the water libation on Sukkot (vii. 37), the light of Ḥanukkah (viii. 12, x. 22), the vine (xv. 1-17), "the way" (xiv. 6)-all these are turned into symbols of the Christ. The Temple (ii. 21), the manna (vi. 32-59), the water libation on Sukkot (vii. 37), the light of Ḥanukkah (viii. 12, x. 22), the vine (xv. 1- 17), "the way" (xiv. 6)-all these are turned into symbols of the Christ. In the preface, in place of the genealogies in Luke and Matthew, a heavenly pedigree is given him (i. 1-18), written by one who desired to represent his advent as a new Creation.

The Older Traditions.

On closer observation, however, there is discernible in this gospel a substratum which points to an older tradition. Not only has it, alone of all the gospels, preserved the one possible date of the crucifixion of Jesus, the 13th of Nisan (xviii. 28); but the remark of Caiaphas the high priest, expressing fear of the Romans as the motive of his action against Jesus (xi. 48-50; xviii. 14) as well as Pilate's act (xix. 1), seems to be part of the older tradition. Not only has it, alone of all the gospels, preserved the one possible date of the crucifixion of Jesus, the 13th of Nisan (xviii. 28); but the remark of Caiaphas the high priest, expressing fear of the Romans as the motive of his action against Jesus (xi. 48-50; xviii. 14) as well as Pilate's act (xix. 1), seems to be part of the older tradition. In fact, the historic chapters in the latter part of the gospel, which represent Jesus with all the pathos of human suffering, differ altogether in character from those, in the earlier part, that represent the superhuman Jesus. The oft-repeated formula, "that the saying might be fulfilled," which occurs in the latter part only (xii. 38, xiii. 18, xv. 25, xvii. 12, xviii. 9, xix. 24, 36), as throughout the entire first gospel, also betrays an older source. The oft-repeated formula, "that the saying might be fulfilled," which occurs in the latter part only (xii. 38, xiii. 18, xv. 25, xvii. 12, xviii. 9, xix. 24, 36), as throughout the entire first gospel, also betrays an older source. A greater familiarity with Jewish rites (vii. 7), with Jewish personalities (see Nicodemus), and with the geography of Palestine (ii. 1, iii. 23, iv. 5, v. 2, xii. 21, xix. 13) is shown than in the other gospels-another indication of an older tradition (see Güdemann in "Monatsschrift," 1893, pp. 249-257, 297-303, 345-356). A greater familiarity with Jewish rites (vii. 7), with Jewish personalities (see Nicodemus), and with the geography of Palestine (ii. 1, iii. 23, iv. 5, v. 2, xii. 21, xix. 13 ) is shown than in the other gospels-another indication of an older tradition (see Güdemann in "Monatsschrift," 1893, pp. 249-257, 297-303, 345-356). There are, besides, genuine popular legends which can scarcely be the invention of an Alexandrian metaphysician (comp. ii. 1-11; v. 2-12). The last chapter certainly emanated from another source. Possibly the original gospel bore the name of John, to whom frequent allusion is made as "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (xiii. 23; xix. 26, 27; xx. 2; xxi. 7, 20), and a late compiler elaborated it into a gospel of Christian love and Jew hatred.Güdemann thinks that the whole book was written by a born Jew. Possibly the original gospel bore the name of John, to whom frequent allusion is made as "the disciple whom Jesus loved" (xiii. 23; xix. 26, 27; xx. 2; xxi. 7, 20), and a late compiler elaborated it into a gospel of Christian love and Jew hatred.Güdemann thinks that the whole book was written by a born Jew.

The Acts of the Apostles:

The Acts of the Apostles is a continuation of the gospel of Luke (comp. i. 1-3 with Luke i. 1-3), and relates the history of the spread of the gospel in apostolic times, taking Jerusalem as the starting-point while ignoring, like Luke xxiv. The Acts of the Apostles is a continuation of the gospel of Luke (comp. i. 1-3 with Luke i. 1-3), and relates the history of the spread of the gospel in apostolic times, taking Jerusalem as the starting- point while ignoring, like Luke xxiv. 52, the dispersion of the disciples after the crucifixion (alluded to in Mark xiv. 27 and Matt. xxvi. 31; see Weizsäker," Das Apostolische Zeitalter," 1892, p. 1) and their first rallying in Galilee (Mark xiv. 28, xvi. 7; Matt. xxvi. 32, xxviii. 7, 10). 52, the dispersion of the disciples after the crucifixion (alluded to in Mark xiv. 27 and Matt. xxvi. 31; see Weizsäker," Das Apostolische Zeitalter," 1892, p. 1) and their first rallying in Galilee (Mark xiv. 28, xvi. 7; Matt. xxvi. 32, xxviii. 7, 10). Forty days' intercourse with the resurrected Jesus (i. 3; comp. Mark i. 13, and parallels), which preceded the transfiguration (i. 9; comp. Mark ix. 2-13), prepared the Apostles, who hitherto had looked for the establishment of a Jewish kingdom by Jesus (i. 6), for their work. Forty days' intercourse with the resurrected Jesus (i. 3; comp. Mark i. 13, and parallels), which preceded the transfiguration (i. 9; comp. Mark ix. 2-13), prepared the Apostles, who hitherto had looked for the establishment of a Jewish kingdom by Jesus (i. 6), for their work. The growth of the Church is given in round numbers. Beginning with 120 members under the leadership of Peter, chief of the Twelve Apostles (i. 15-26)-Matthew having taken the place of Judas, the relation of whose end here differs from that in Matt. xxvii. 3-10-the new sect is said to have increased to 3,000, as a result of the miracle of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon the multitude at Pentecost, which won converts from all the nations represented in Jerusalem (ii. 1-2; comp. I Cor. xv. 6, where "five hundred brethren" are referred to). 3-10-the new sect is said to have increased to 3000, as a result of the miracle of the pouring out of the Holy Spirit upon the multitude at Pentecost, which won converts from all the nations represented in Jerusalem (ii. 1- 2; comp. I Cor. xv. 6, where "five hundred brethren" are referred to). This undoubtedly echoes the rabbinical Pentecost legend of the flashing forth of the Sinaitic word in seventy languages to reach the seventy nations of the world (Shab. 88b; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxviii. 12; Philo, "De Decalogo," §§ 9-11; Spitta, "Apostelgeschichte," 1891, pp. 28 et seq.). This undoubtedly echoes the rabbinical Pentecost legend of the flashing forth of the Sinaitic word in seventy languages to reach the seventy nations of the world (Shab. 88b; Midr. Teh. to Ps. lxviii. 12; Philo, "De Decalogo," § § 9-11; Spitta, "Apostelgeschichte," 1891, pp. 28 et seq.).

The description of the communistic life of the early Christians, their regular gathering in the Temple hall to spend the time in prayer and in works of charity, after the manner of the Essenes (ii. 42, iii. 2, iv. 32-37, v. 12, 25), seems to rest on facts. The description of the communistic life of the early Christians, their regular gathering in the Temple hall to spend the time in prayer and in works of charity, after the manner of the Essenes (ii. 42, iii. 2, iv. 32-37 , v. 12, 25), seems to rest on facts. The institution of seven deacons who were elected by the laying on of hands and under the power of the Holy Spirit (vi. 3, 5) has its parallel in the Jewish community (Josephus, "Ant." iv. 8, § 14; idem, "BJ" ii. 20, § 5; Meg. 7a). The institution of seven deacons who were elected by the laying on of hands and under the power of the Holy Spirit (vi. 3, 5) has its parallel in the Jewish community (Josephus, "Ant." iv. 8, § 14; idem, "BJ" ii. 20, § 5; Meg. 7a). It is interesting to note that the enemies of Jesus are correctly represented as the Sadducees (iv. 1, v. 17) and not, as in the gospels, the Pharisees, who are rather on his side (v. 17, xv. 5, xxiii. 6), though in the fictitious speeches of Peter, Stephen, and others, the Jews and not Pontius Pilate are spoken of as his crucifiers (iii. 13-15, vii. 52). It is interesting to note that the enemies of Jesus are correctly represented as the Sadducees (iv. 1, v. 17) and not, as in the gospels, the Pharisees, who are rather on his side (v. 17, xv. 5 , xxiii. 6), though in the fictitious speeches of Peter, Stephen, and others, the Jews and not Pontius Pilate are spoken of as his crucifiers (iii. 13-15, vii. 52). Like the gospel according to Luke, the Acts of the Apostles is a compilation. The story of the death of Stephen (vi. 8-vii. 59) is, like the crucifixion story in the gospels, written in a spirit of hatred toward Jews; reference to the Romans is omitted when persecution of the new sect is mentioned (viii. 1). The story of the death of Stephen (vi. 8-vii. 59) is, like the crucifixion story in the gospels, written in a spirit of hatred toward Jews; reference to the Romans is omitted when persecution of the new sect is mentioned ( viii. 1).

Peter and Paul.

Two mythical narratives are given of the conversion through Peter of the Samaritans and of Simon the magician (viii. 4-24; comp. "Ant." xx. 7, § 2, and Simon Magus), and of the eunuch of the Queen of Ethiopia through the apostle Philip (viii. 25-39). Two mythical narratives are given of the conversion through Peter of the Samaritans and of Simon the magician (viii. 4-24; comp. "Ant." xx. 7, § 2, and Simon Magus), and of the eunuch of the Queen of Ethiopia through the apostle Philip (viii. 25-39). Very dramatic, but in conflict with his own account (Gal. i. 15 et seq.; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8), is the story of the conversion of Paul, which follows (ix. 1-30; comp. xxii. 6 et seq., 26). Very dramatic, but in conflict with his own account (Gal. i. 15 et seq.; I Cor. ix. 1, xv. 8), is the story of the conversion of Paul, which follows (ix. 1-30; comp. xxii. 6 et seq., 26). By visions, and by the imparting of the Holy Spirit through Ananias, Saul, the persecutor of the Christians, is transformed into Paul, "the chosen vessel" to spread the new faith among both Jews and Gentiles. First, however, Peter is represented as having converted the heathen by miraculous cures (ix. 31-42), the proselytes being in Jewish terms called "yere shamayim" (= "God-fearing ones"; x. 2, 7, 22, 28, 35; xiii. 16, 26-50; xvi. 14; xvii. 1, 17); he succeeded in having the Holy Spirit poured out also upon uncircumcised converts (x. 45). First, however, Peter is represented as having converted the heathen by miraculous cures (ix. 31-42), the proselytes being in Jewish terms called "yere shamayim" (= "God-fearing ones"; x. 2, 7, 22 , 28, 35; xiii. 16, 26-50; xvi. 14; xvii. 1, 17); he succeeded in having the Holy Spirit poured out also upon uncircumcised converts (x. 45).

Finally, Peter is described as having been won over by a special vision to the Pauline view disregarding the dietary laws (xi. 1-18). The whole story is intended to reconcile the wide differences existing between Peter's and Paul's teachings and to bridge over the gulf between the Judæo-Christian sect under the leadership of James and the Pauline church. From this point of view the origin of the name of "Christian" in the community of Antioch can be explained, Barnabas being ranked above Paul, and the Antioch church being represented as an offshoot of the Jerusalem church. Peter is dismissed with a miraculous story describing his release from prison and the punishment of Herod by a sudden death (xii. 1-24); and the missionary travels of Paul are related in the latter part of the book (xiii.-xxviii.). Peter is dismissed with a miraculous story describing his release from prison and the punishment of Herod by a sudden death (xii. 1-24); and the missionary travels of Paul are related in the latter part of the book (xiii.-xxviii. ).

Spirit of Jewish Proselytism in Christianity.

However much these reports differ from Paul's own writings (see Gal. i. 21, ii. 1, et al.), they interest the Jewish investigator, inasmuch as they describe the progress of the Church along the lines of the synagogue and of Jewish proselytism. However much these reports differ from Paul's own writings (see Gal. i. 21, ii. 1, et al.), they interest the Jewish investigator, inasmuch as they describe the progress of the Church along the lines of the synagogue and of Jewish proselytism. The apostles Barnabas and Paul engaged in the work of collecting gifts for the holy church at Jerusalem (xii. 25, xvii. 1, 10), traveled as prophets and teachers wheresoever the Holy Spirit of the Church, invoked through prayer and fasting, bade them go (xiii. 1-4), and preached the Gospel in the Jewish synagogue (xiii. 5, 14; xiv. 1; xviii. 4, 19; xix. 8), addressing Jews and proselytes (xiii. 16, 26, 43; xviii. 7). The apostles Barnabas and Paul engaged in the work of collecting gifts for the holy church at Jerusalem (xii. 25, xvii. 1, 10), traveled as prophets and teachers wheresoever the Holy Spirit of the Church, invoked through prayer and fasting, bade them go (xiii. 1-4), and preached the Gospel in the Jewish synagogue (xiii. 5, 14; xiv. 1; xviii. 4, 19; xix. 8), addressing Jews and proselytes (xiii. 16, 26 , 43; xviii. 7). They won the heathen chiefly by miraculous cures, which even caused their own deification (xiv. 8-13; xxviii. 6), but encountered fierce opposition from the Jews (xiii., xiv.-xvii., et al.). Three great journeys by Paul are reported. The first, through Cyprus and Asia Minor, culminated, according to Acts xv. 1-31, in the establishment of the fundamental rule laid down by the church of Jerusalem for the admission of proselytes. For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, and of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws-namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry, fornication, and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal-should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church. For great as was the success of Barnabas and Paul in the heathen world, the authorities in Jerusalem insisted upon circumcision as the condition of admission of members into the church, until, on the initiative of Peter, and of James, the head of the Jerusalem church, it was agreed that acceptance of the Noachian Laws-namely, regarding avoidance of idolatry, fornication, and the eating of flesh cut from a living animal-should be demanded of the heathen desirous of entering the Church.

After the separation of Paul from Barnabas, owing to differences regarding the fitness of Mark as their companion (xv. 35-41), and after the Abrahamicrite had been performed upon his companion Timothy (xvi. 1-3; comp. Gal. ii. 3-18), Paul is represented as having undertaken his second journey at the bidding of the Holy Spirit. After the separation of Paul from Barnabas, owing to differences regarding the fitness of Mark as their companion (xv. 35-41), and after the Abrahamicrite had been performed upon his companion Timothy (xvi. 1-3; comp. Gal. ii . 3-18), Paul is represented as having undertaken his second journey at the bidding of the Holy Spirit. He went to Phrygia, Galatia, and Macedonia to preach the Gospel, but avoided Asia and Mysia (xvi. 6-xxii. 14). In Philippi he founded the first church in Europe, owing his success (according to xvi. 14-40) chiefly to miracles and winning especially women for the Gospel (xvii. 4, 12). The climax of his second trip was his address, delivered at the Areopagus, to the men of Athens. With a witty reference to the insciption, "To an unknown god" (that is, to undiscovered deities), found upon some of the Greek altars, he admonished the idolatrous people to turn to the God of heaven and earth, the Father of all men, in whom they all lived and moved and had their being, but whom they knew not; to cast aside their gods of gold and silver and stone, and prepare themselves in repentance for the great Day of Judgment, on which the crucified and arisen Christ will judge the world (xvii. 16-34). With a witty reference to the insciption, "To an unknown god" (that is, to undiscovered deities), found upon some of the Greek altars, he admonished the idolatrous people to turn to the God of heaven and earth, the Father of all men, in whom they all lived and moved and had their being, but whom they knew not; to cast aside their gods of gold and silver and stone, and prepare themselves in repentance for the great Day of Judgment, on which the crucified and arisen Christ will judge the world (xvii. 16-34). The tenor of this discourse is so thoroughly monotheistic and un-Pauline that the presumption is that, with the exception of the closing sentence, which refers to Jesus as judge of souls, it is copied from one of the many Jewish propagandist writings which circulated in Alexandria. The tenor of this discourse is so thoroughly monotheistic and un-Pauline that the presumption is that, with the exception of the closing sentence, which refers to Jesus as judge of souls, it is copied from one of the many Jewish propagandist writings which circulated in Alexandria.

Paul the Miracle-Worker.

In Corinth, where he stayed for a year and a half, Paul won, notwithstanding the opposition of the Jews, many adherents, especially among the proselytes, Aquila of Pontus and his wife Priscilla also having been engaged there in the work of proselytism (xviii. 1-17). In Corinth, where he stayed for a year and a half, Paul won, notwithstanding the opposition of the Jews, many adherents, especially among the proselytes, Aquila of Pontus and his wife Priscilla also having been engaged there in the work of proselytism (xviii . 1-17). In Ephesus he met Apollos of Alexandria, a follower of John the Baptist, and he succeeded-so the story goes-in persuading him and his eleven disciples to identify their "Way of God" with his own. By the laying on of his hands he communicated the Holy Spirit to them, so that, like the converts at the Pentecost miracle, they "spake with tongues and prophesied" (xviii. 18-xix. 7.). His two years' stay in Ephesus was especially productive of miraculous cures, which so eclipsed the works of the magicians who made the Ephesian scrolls famous throughout the world, that, "in the sight of all, they burned these scrolls, which were valued at 50,000 pieces of silver." His two years' stay in Ephesus was especially productive of miraculous cures, which so eclipsed the works of the magicians who made the Ephesian scrolls famous throughout the world, that, "in the sight of all, they burned these scrolls, which were valued at 50000 pieces of silver." The idol-traders of Diana of the Ephesians created a riot because idols were no longer bought by the people, owing to Paul's preaching, and the consequence was that he was compelled to leave the city with his companions (xix. 8-41).

Paul's third journey had Rome for its goal. He first traveled through Asia Minor and Greece, again warning the people against the Gnostic heresies; there were "wolves in sheep's clothing" that would do great harm to the faith. Then he went to Judea, and, in spite of the warnings he received through the Holy Ghost and the seven daughters of the evangelist Philip, who were prophetesses, and a Jewish prophet by the name of Agabas, he went to Jerusalem and appeared before James and the other authorities of the Church. Then he went to Judea, and, in spite of the warnings he received through the Holy Ghost and the seven daughters of the evangelist Philip, who were prophetesses, and a Jewish prophet by the name of Agabas, he went to Jerusalem and appeared before James and the other authorities of the Church. Reproached for not having observed the rules regarding the admission of converts, he purified himself, went with his companions to the Temple, and offered a Nazarite's sacrifice; but when pointed out as the one who wandered through the lands preaching against the Law and the Temple, he was cast out of the Temple and almost killed by the enraged people. Reproached for not having observed the rules regarding the admission of converts, he purified himself, went with his companions to the Temple, and offered a Nazarite's sacrifice; but when pointed out as the one who wandered through the lands preaching against the Law and the Temple , he was cast out of the Temple and almost killed by the enraged people. Summoned before the Roman captain, he related the history of his life, so stating his belief in the resurrection as to please the Pharisees but provoke the Sadducees (xxi.-xxiii. 9).

Paul before Felix.

Before the prefect Felix in Cæsarea, Paul was charged with having made insurrectionary speeches in various countries and with having profaned the Temple (xxiii. 10-xxiv. 6). In answer to this charge he points out that he had all along been collecting money for the Temple treasury and had himself brought sacrifices there, and that he is only being arraigned for his belief in the resurrection (xxiv. 10-21). The prefect, known as a Jew-hater of the worst type, is deeply impressed by Paul's plea for the Christian faith; but his greed induces him to hand Paul over as prisoner to his successor Festus (xxiv. 24-27). Paul recounts the history of his life before Agrippa, the King of Judea, who is so impressed as to exclaim, "Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian" (xxvi. 1-28). But because Paul desired, as a Roman citizen, to be judged by the emperor himself, he was sent to Rome (xxv. 11, xxvi. 32). The voyage was the occasion of new proof of the miraculous powers of Paul; he predicted the storm that, but for him, would have wrecked the ship, was recognized as a benefactor and savior by the captain, and was treated with great consideration (xxvii.). The voyage was the occasion of new proof of the miraculous powers of Paul; he predicted the storm that, but for him, would have wrecked the ship, was recognized as a benefactor and savior by the captain, and was treated with great consideration (xxvii .). Other miracles performed by him on the ship caused the people to regard him as a god. As in Asia Minor, he won the people of Italy by his wonderful cures. The book closes with the story of his arrival at Rome, where for the first time he met Jews without being able to win them for the new faith, though during a two years' stay he succeeded in making converts among the heathen (xxviii. 1-31). The book closes with the story of his arrival at Rome, where for the first time he met Jews without being able to win them for the new faith, though during a two years' stay he succeeded in making converts among the heathen (xxviii. 1 -31).

The whole work, like the Gospel of Luke, is a compilation from several sources, among which one is a historical document written by a companion of Paul who had kept a journal of his travels, the so-called "We" source (xvi. 10-17; xx. 5-6, 13-15; xxi. 1-18; xxvii. 1-xxviii. 16). The whole work, like the Gospel of Luke, is a compilation from several sources, among which one is a historical document written by a companion of Paul who had kept a journal of his travels, the so-called "We" source (xvi. 10-17; xx. 5-6, 13-15; xxi. 1-18; xxvii. 1-xxviii. 16). The greater part is written with the ostensible purpose of reconciling Paul's acts with the views of the Judæo-Christian Church. The miracle tales, however, appear to be drawn from popular tradition and to have been committed to writing, possibly at an early date.

For the Jewish investigator the Acts of the Apostles is of twofold interest. It shows how the propagandic work of the Jews extended over the entire Greek and Roman world, Jewish proselytism having paved the way for Paul as well as his followers to win the pagan world. In all the cities where Greek was spoken the synagogues formed the centers of instruction for Jews and the "God-fearing" proselytes, and their mention in connection with all the places visited by Paul shows how the Jewish settlements extended over the highroads of commerce under the Roman empire. In all the cities where Greek was spoken the synagogues formed the centers of instruction for Jews and the "God-fearing" proselytes, and their mention in connection with all the places visited by Paul shows how the Jewish settlements extended over the highroads of commerce under the Roman empire. The story of the Acts also indicates that the progress of Christianity in its earlieststages was due not to the learned arguments of Paul and his dogmatic views, however potent a factor they afterward became in the formation of the creed, but to the miracles thought to have been wrought by him and the rest of the apostles and other leaders of the Church. The story of the Acts also indicates that the progress of Christianity in its earlieststages was due not to the learned arguments of Paul and his dogmatic views, however potent a factor they afterward became in the formation of the creed, but to the miracles thought to have been wrought by him and the rest of the apostles and other leaders of the Church. These appealed to the masses and made converts in large numbers. In this respect the Acts of the Apostles is the logical sequence of the gospels.

See, for the Pauline epistles, Saul of Tarsus; for the Petrine epistles, Simon Cephas; for the Apocalypse of John and the epistles ascribed to John, Revelation; for the gospels in the Talmud, Gilyonim. See also James, General Epistle of.ECK

Executive Committee of the Editorial Board, Kaufmann Kohler
Jewish Encyclopedia, published between 1901-1906.



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