Caliph, Caliphs, Muslim Early History ChartStoria Musulmana Primi Grafico

General Information Informazioni generali

.
(Shi'ites, Shi'a) (Sciiti, sciiti) (Kharijites, Kharijiyyah) (Kharijites, Kharijiyyah) (Sunni, Sunnites) (Sunniti, sunniti)
Ali Ben Abu Talib (656-661) (1st Imam) Ben Ali Abu Talib (656-661) (1 ° Imam)
al-Hasan (661-669) (2nd Imam) Al-Hasan (661-669) (2 ° Imam)
al-Husayn (669-680) (3rd Imam) Al-Husayn (669-680) (3 ° Imam)
Ali Zayn al-'Abidin (680-713) (4th Imam) O Zayn al-'Abidin (680-713) (4a Imam)
Muhammad al-Baqir (713-733) (5th Imam) Muhammad al-Baqir (713-733) (5 ° Imam)
Ja'far al-Sadiq (733-765) Ja'far al-Sadiq (733-765)
(or Jafar ibn Muhammad) (6th Imam) (O Muhammad ibn Jafar) (6 ° Imam)

(Ismailis, Isma'iliyyah) (Ismailis, Isma'iliyyah)
(Sevener Shi'ites) (Sevener sciiti)

Ismail (died before, 760,) Ismail (morto prima, 760,)
(7th imam, last for Ismailis) (7a imam, per ultimo Ismailis)
or Muhammad , his son O Muhammad, il figlio
(either is considered to still be alive, hiding) (O è considerata essere ancora in vita, nascondendo)


(Fatimids) (through Ismail) () (Fatimids attraverso Ismail)

Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (909- ) Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi (909 -)

al-Qa'im Al-Qa'im

al-Mansur -972) Al-Mansur -972)

Moizz (972- ) Moizz (972 -)

Al-Hakim (3rd Fatimid Caliph) Al-Hakim (3 ° Califfo Fatimide)

Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021) Abu 'Ali al-Mansur al-Hakim (985-1021)
(6th Fatimid Caliph) (6 ° Califfo Fatimide)

al-Mustansir ( -1094) Al-Mustansir (-1.094)

al-Mustali (1094- ) began Musta'liyyah Al-Mustali (1094 -) ha iniziato Musta'liyyah

he killed brother, Nizar , began Nizariyyah, Nizaris, Khojas Ha ucciso il fratello, Nizar, iniziò Nizariyyah, Nizaris, Khojas

( -1171) (-1171)

(overthrown by Saladin 1171) (1171)

(but endures as the Druzes) (Ma dura come il Druzes)

Twelver Shi'ites, Imamiyyah Twelver sciiti, Imamiyyah
(Ithna Ashariyya) (Ithna Ashariyya)

Musa al-Kazim (765-799) (7th imam) Musa al-Kazim (765-799) (7a imam)
'Ali al-Rida (799-818) (8th Imam) 'Ali al-Rida (799-818) (8a Imam)
Muhammad al-Jawad (818-835) (9th Imam) Muhammad al-Jawad (818-835) (9 ° Imam)
'ali al-Hadi (835-868) (10th Imam) 'O al-Hadi (835-868) (10a Imam)
al-Hasan al-'Askari (868-874) (11th Imam) Al-Hasan al-'Askari (868-874) (11 Imam)
had student ibn Nusayr (d.868), began Nusayris, Nusayriyyah Era studente ibn Nusayr (d.868), ha iniziato Nusayris, Nusayriyyah
Muhammad al-Mahdi (12th Imam, last) Muhammad al-Mahdi (12 Imam, ultimo)
(considered to still be alive, hiding) (Considerato essere ancora in vita, nascondendo)


(Buwayhids) (Buwayhids)

(945- ) (945 -)

Adid ( -1171) Adid (-1171)

(conquered by Saladin 1171) (1171)


Ayyubids Ayyubids

Saladin (1171-1193) Saladino (1171-1193)

al-Adil (1193-1218) Al-Adil (1193-1218)

al-Kamil (1218-1238) Al-Kamil (1218-1238)

( -1249) (-1249)

(conquered by Mamelukes 1249) (1249)


(Babis) (Babis)

(1830- ) (1830 -)

Ali Muhammad Shirazi ( -1850), started Babism Muhammad Ali Shirazi (-1850), ha iniziato Babismo

Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (c.1863), started Ba'hai Mirza Husayn Ali Nuri (c.1863), ha iniziato Ba'hai

. (c. 650 - c.720) Often called the Puritans of Islam, as they demanded purity of conscience as well as body. (C. 650 - c.720) Spesso chiamato il Puritans di Islam, in quanto richiesto purezza della coscienza, nonché il corpo. They tended to brand everyone who did not agree with them as unbelievers. Essi tendono a marchio chiunque non sia d'accordo con loro come miscredenti. A sub-sect, the Azraqites, believed in such rigid following of the Koran as to massacre large groups of Muslims who had allegedly committed grave sins. Un sub-setta, la Azraqites, creduto in questo rigido seguenti del Corano, come il massacro di grandi gruppi di musulmani che avrebbe commesso peccati gravi. Interestingly, Kharijites were very tolerant of non-Muslims. Curiosamente, Kharijites erano molto tollerante dei non-musulmani. Umayyad Caliphs (661-750) Omayyadi Caliphs (661-750)

  • Muawiyah I ibn Abu Sufyan (661-680) Muawiyah I ibn Abu Sufyan (661-680)
    related to Uthman Relativi a Uthman
  • Yazid I ibn Muawiyah (680-683) Yazid ibn Muawiyah I (680-683)
  • Muawiya II ibn Yazid (683-684) Muawiya ibn Yazid II (683-684)
  • Marwan I (684-685) Marwan I (684-685)
  • Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705) Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan (685-705)
  • al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik (705-715) Al-Walid I ibn Abd al-Malik (705-715)
  • Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik (715-717) Suleiman ibn Abd al-Malik (715-717)
  • Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-720) Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz (717-720)
  • Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik (720-724) Yazid II ibn Abd al-Malik (720-724)
  • Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743) Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik (724-743)
  • al-Walid II ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744) Al-Walid II, ibn Abd al-Malik (743-744)
  • Yazid III ibn Abd al-Malik (744) Yazid III ibn Abd al-Malik (744)
  • Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik (744) Ibrahim ibn Abd al-Malik (744)
  • Marwan II (744-750) Marwan II (744-750)
    (end of Umayyad) (Fine del Omayyadi)
    (conquered by Abbasids 750) (Conquistata da abbasidi 750)


Umayyad Caliphs of Cordoba Califfi Omayyadi di Cordoba
(Spanish Umayyads) (929-1031) (Spagnolo Ommayyadi) (929-1031)

  • Abd-ar-rahman I, escaped to Spain, 756-788 Abd-ar-rahman I, sfuggito alla Spagna, 756-788

  • Abd-ar-rahman III , as caliph, 929-961 Abd-ar-rahman III, come califfo, 929-961
  • Al-Hakam II , 961-976 Al-Hakam II, 961-976
  • Hisham II , 976-1008 Hisham II, 976-1008
  • civil war (1008-1028) La guerra civile (1008-1028)
  • Mohammed II , 1008-1009 Maometto II, 1008-1009
  • Suleiman , 1009-1010 Suleiman, 1009-1010
  • Hisham II , restored, 1010-1012 Hisham II, restaurata, 1010-1012
  • Suleiman , restored, 1012-1017 Suleiman, restaurata, 1012-1017
  • Abd-ar-rahman IV , 1021-1022 Abd-ar-rahman IV, 1021-1022
  • Abd-ar-rahman V , 1022-1023 Abd-ar-rahman V, 1022-1023
  • Muhammad III , 1023-1024 Maometto III, 1023-1024
  • Hisham III , 1027-1031 Hisham III, 1027-1031

Abbasid Caliphs of Baghdad (750-1258) Abbasid Caliphs di Baghdad (750-1258)
descendants of Prophet's uncle Abbas Discendenti del profeta zio Abbas
Sunnites Sunniti

  • Abu'l Abbas Al-Saffah 750-754 Abu'l Abbas Al-Saffah 750-754
  • Al-Mansur 754-775 Al-Mansur 754-775
  • Al-Mahdi 775-785 Al-Mahdi 775-785
  • Al-Hadi 785-786 Al-Hadi 785-786
  • Harun al-Rashid 786-809 Harun al-Rashid 786-809
  • Al-Amin 809-813 Al-Amin 809-813
  • Al-Ma'mun 813-833 Al-Ma'mun 813-833
  • Al-Mu'tasim 833-842 Al-Mu'tasim 833-842
  • Al-Wathiq 842-847 Al-Wathiq 842-847
  • Al-Mutawakkil 847-861 Al-Mutawakkil 847-861
  • Al-Muntasir 861-862 Al-Muntasir 861-862
  • Al-Musta'in 862-866 Al-Musta'in 862-866
  • Al-Mu'tazz 866-869 Al-Mu'tazz 866-869
  • Al-Muhtadi 869-870 Al-Muhtadi 869-870
  • Al-Mu'tamid 870-892 Al-Mu'tamid 870-892
  • Al-Mu'tadid 892-902 Al-Mu'tadid 892-902
  • Al-Muktafi 902-908 Al-Muktafi 902-908
  • ??? ? (908, one day) (908, un giorno)
  • Al-Muqtadir 908-932 Al-Muqtadir 908-932
  • Al-Qahir 932-934 Al-Qahir 932-934
  • Al-Radi 934-940 Al-Radi 934-940
  • Al-Muttaqi 940-944 Al-Muttaqi 940-944
  • Al-Mustakfi 944-946 Al-Mustakfi 944-946
  • (by about 950, very little power) (Di circa 950, molto poco potere)
  • Al-Muti 946-974 Al-Muti 946-974
  • Al-Ta'i 974-991 Al-Ta'i 974-991
  • Al-Qadir 991-1031 El-Kader 991-1031
  • Al-Qa'im 1031-1075 Al-Qa'im 1031-1075
  • Al-Muqtadi 1075-1094 Al-Muqtadi 1075-1094
  • Al-Mustazhir 1094-1118 Al-Mustazhir 1094-1118
  • Al-Mustarshid 1118-1135 Al-Mustarshid 1118-1135
  • Al-Rashid 1135-1136 Al-Rashid 1135-1136
  • Al-Muqtafi 1136-1160 Al-Muqtafi 1136-1160
  • Al-Mustanjid 1160-1170 Al-Mustanjid 1160-1170
  • Al-Mustadi 1170-1180 Al-Mustadi 1170-1180
  • An-Nasir 1180-1225 An-Nasir 1180-1225
  • Az-Zahir 1225-1226 Az-Zahir 1225-1226
  • Al-Mustansir 1226-1242 Al-Mustansir 1226-1242
  • Al-Musta'sim 1242-1258 Al-Musta'sim 1242-1258
  • (conquered by Mongols in 1258) (1258)

(Mamelukes) (Mamelukes)

(first Dynasty, Bahri) (1250-1382) (Prima dinastia, Bahri) (1250-1382)

(second Dynasty, Burji) (1382-1517) (Seconda dinastia, Burji) (1382-1517)

[two Caliphs, but just symbolic] [Caliphs due, ma solo simbolico]

(defeated by Selim, 1517) (1517)

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From about the 13th century various monarchs throughout the Muslim world, particularly the Ottoman sultans, assumed the title caliph indiscriminately without regard to the prescribed requirements of the caliphate. Da circa 13 ° secolo vari monarchi in tutto il mondo musulmano, in particolare i sultani ottomani, assunse il titolo di califfo indiscriminatamente, senza riguardo per le esigenze del prescritto califfato. The title held little significance for the Ottoman sultans until their empire began to decline. Il titolo ha tenuto poco significato per la sultani ottomani fino a quando il loro impero iniziò a declinare. In the 19th century, with the advent of Christian powers in the Near East, the sultan began to emphasize his role as caliph in an effort to gain the support of Muslims living outside his realm. Nel 19 ° secolo, con l'avvento di poteri cristiana nel Vicino Oriente, il sultano cominciò a sottolineare il suo ruolo di califfo, nel tentativo di ottenere l'appoggio dei musulmani che vivono fuori il suo regno. The Ottoman Empire collapsed during World War I (1914-1918). Crollato l'impero ottomano durante la prima guerra mondiale (1914-1918). After the war, Turkish nationalists deposed the sultan, and the caliphate was finally abolished (March 1924) by the Turkish Grand National Assembly. Dopo la guerra, i nazionalisti turchi deposto il sultano, e il califfato è stato finalmente abolito (marzo 1924) da parte della Grande Assemblea Nazionale turca.


Also, see: Inoltre, si veda:
Islam, Muhammad Islam, Muhammad
Koran, Qur'an Corano, Corano
Pillars of Faith Pilastri della Fede
Abraham Abramo
Testament of Abraham Testamento di Abramo
Allah Allah
Hadiths Hadiths
Revelation - Hadiths from Book 1 of al-Bukhari Rivelazione - Hadiths da 1 Libri di al-Bukhari
Belief - Hadiths from Book 2 of al-Bukhari Credenza - Hadiths da Book 2 di al-Bukhari
Knowledge - Hadiths from Book 3 of al-Bukhari Conoscenza - Hadiths Prenota da 3 di al-Bukhari
Times of the Prayers - Hadiths from Book 10 of al-Bukhari Tempi della preghiera - Hadiths Prenota da 10 di al-Bukhari
Shortening the Prayers (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths from Book 20 of al-Bukhari L'accorciamento della preghiera (At-Taqseer) - Hadiths Prenota da 20 di al-Bukhari
Pilgrimmage (Hajj) - Hadiths from Book 26 of al-Bukhari Pellegrinaggio (Hajj) - Hadiths Prenota da 26 di al-Bukhari
Fighting for the Cause of Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths of Book 52 of al-Bukhari Lottano per la causa di Allah (Jihad) - Hadiths del libro 52 di al-Bukhari
ONENESS, UNIQUENESS OF ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths of Book 93 of al-Bukhari ONENESS, UNIQUENESS DI ALLAH (TAWHEED) - Hadiths del libro 93 di al-Bukhari
Hanafiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanafiyyah Scuola di Teologia (sunniti)
Malikiyyah School Theology (Sunni) Malikiyyah Scuola di Teologia (sunniti)
Shafi'iyyah School Theology (Sunni) Shafi'iyyah Scuola di Teologia (sunniti)
Hanbaliyyah School Theology (Sunni) Hanbaliyyah Scuola di Teologia (sunniti)
Maturidiyyah Theology (Sunni) Maturidiyyah Teologia (sunniti)
Ash'ariyyah Theology (Sunni) Ash'ariyyah Teologia (sunniti)
Mutazilah Theology Mutazilah Teologia
Ja'fari Theology (Shia) Ja'fari Teologia (sciita)
Nusayriyyah Theology (Shia) Nusayriyyah Teologia (sciita)
Zaydiyyah Theology (Shia) Zaydiyyah Teologia (sciita)
Kharijiyyah Kharijiyyah
Imams (Shia) Imam (sciita)
Druze Drusi
Qarmatiyyah (Shia) Qarmatiyyah (sciita)
Ahmadiyyah Ahmadiyyah
Ishmael, Ismail Ismaele, Ismail
Early Islamic History Outline Early storia islamica Outline
Hegira Hegira
Averroes Averroè
Avicenna Avicenna
Machpela Machpela
Kaaba, Black Stone Kaaba, pietra nera
Ramadan Ramadan
Sunnites, Sunni Sunniti, sunniti
Shiites, Shia Sciiti, sciiti
Mecca Mecca
Medina Medina
Sahih, al-Bukhari Sahih, al-Bukhari
Sufism Sufismo
Wahhabism Wahhabismo
Abu Bakr Abu Bakr
Abbasids Abbasidi
Ayyubids Ayyubids
Umayyads Ommayyadi
Fatima Fatima
Fatimids (Shia) Fatimids (sciita)
Ismailis (Shia) Ismailis (sciita)
Mamelukes Mamelukes
Saladin Saladino
Seljuks Seljuks
Aisha Aisha
Ali O
Lilith Lilith
Islamic Calendar Calendario islamico
Interactive Muslim Calendar Interattiva calendario musulmano


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