Translating the BibleTraduzione della Bibbia

General Information Informazioni generali

Figuring Out a Bible Translation Per capire una Bibbia traduzione

People sometimes wonder why there are various "Versions" or "Translations" of the Bible. After all, all of the many English language Bible Versions are translated from the exact same source text , which was in Greek (NT) and Ancient Hebrew (OT). Chiedo perché la gente a volte ci sono varie "versioni" o "Traduzione" della Bibbia. Dopo tutto, tutte le numerose versioni della Bibbia in lingua inglese sono tradotte dalla stessa fonte testo, che è stato in greco (NT) e ebraico antico (OT ). Shouldn't really smart people be able to figure out how to translate something exactly right? Non dovrebbero essere persone veramente intelligenti in grado di capire come tradurre esattamente qualcosa di giusto? Especially something as important as the Bible, where many thousands of people have been involved? Soprattutto qualcosa di così importante come la Bibbia, dove molte migliaia di persone sono state coinvolte?

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Well, the problem turns out to be a little harder than that. Ebbene, il problema risulta essere un po 'più difficile di quello. First of all, many of the source artifacts that we have are incomplete. Prima di tutto, la fonte di molti artefatti che abbiamo sono incomplete. At some point in history, weather or vandalism or war or just plain age has caused some parts of documents to have disappeared. Ad un certo punto della storia, le previsioni del tempo o di guerra o di atti di vandalismo o semplicemente per età ha causato alcune parti dei documenti sono scomparsi. Next, even though there are several thousand existing (partial) source documents, once in a while, in one of those source documents (which are actually scribe-copied copies of earlier documents), a single character sometimes somehow gets mis-copied by some scribe along the way. Quindi, anche se ci sono diverse migliaia esistenti (parziale) fonte di documenti, di tanto in tanto, in uno di tali documenti sorgente (che in realtà sono scriba-copiati copie di documenti precedenti), un singolo carattere a volte viene in qualche mis-copiato da alcuni Scriba lungo il cammino. After all, by the time that scribe made our source document around a thousand years ago (about as old as most existing documents actually are), that document is a scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy, etc. All of those scribes were as careful as humans are capable of, and most of them truly believed that they would be banished to Hell if they made even a single copying error! Dopo tutto, dal momento che ha reso il nostro scriba documento di origine circa un migliaio di anni fa (circa il vecchio come la maggior parte dei documenti esistenti sono in realtà), che è un documento di scriba-copia di un precedente scriba-copia di un precedente scriba-copia, etc . Tutte quelle scribi erano come attento come esseri umani sono capaci di, e la maggior parte di loro credeva veramente che sarebbero stati relegati a Hell, anche se hanno fatto la copia di un singolo errore! But the Bible contains around 800,000 words and around three million characters. Ma la Bibbia contiene circa 800000 parole e circa tre milioni di caratteri. Extremely careful comparison between the thousands of different scribe copies that still exist have found some very minor copying errors in some of the existing copies of the earlier original Manuscripts. Estremamente attento confronto tra le diverse migliaia di copie scriba che ancora esistono hanno trovato alcuni errori di copiatura molto minore, in alcuni degli attuali copie dei manoscritti originali in precedenza. None of them have changed any significant wording or belief. Nessuno di loro hanno cambiato in modo significativo formulazione o le convinzioni personali.

In addition to this, the actual way the Bible used to be written was quite different from the way we read it today. In aggiunta a questo, l'attuale modo in cui la Bibbia usata per essere scritto è stato molto diverso dal modo in cui leggiamo oggi. To give you the "flavor" of the problems, we are presenting Genesis 1 IN ENGLISH here in some historical formats, working our way backward in time as we go. Per darvi il "sapore" dei problemi, stiamo presentando Genesi 1 IN INGLESE qui, in alcuni formati storico, il nostro modo di lavoro a ritroso nel tempo, come andiamo. Of course, the original source documents were not in English. Naturalmente, la fonte originaria documenti non sono stati in inglese. Many (over 5,000) are in Greek. Molti (oltre 5.000) sono in greco. Others (over 10,000) are Latin copies of the Vulgate Bible (of about 400 AD). Altri (oltre 10.000) sono latino della Vulgata copie della Bibbia (circa 400 dC). A lesser number are in a variety of other languages. Un numero minore si trovano in una varietà di altre lingue.

The Greek documents are particularly important, partly because that was the original language of the New Testament Manuscripts, so there was minimal chance of errors from language translation back then. Il greco documenti sono particolarmente importanti, in parte perché questa era la lingua originale del Nuovo Testamento, i manoscritti, per cui vi è stato minimo la possibilità di errori di traduzione dalla lingua allora. Our thoughts below are based on thinking about those Greek language source documents. Sotto i nostri pensieri sono basati su pensando a coloro lingua greca fonte documenti.


Before about 1560 AD and the Genevan New Testament, Bible scripture was not divided into verses. Genesis 1 would then appear (in English) basically like the following: Prima di circa 1560 dC e il ginevrino Nuovo Testamento, Bibbia Scrittura non è stata divisa in versetti. Genesi 1 sarebbe quindi apparire (in inglese) fondamentalmente come la seguente:
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. In principio Dio creò il cielo e la terra. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. E la terra era senza forma, e nulla, e il buio era sopra la faccia della profondità. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. E lo Spirito di Dio spostato sopra la faccia delle acque. And God said, Let there be light: and there was light. E Dio disse: «Sia la luce: e la luce fu. And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness. E Dio vide la luce, che era cosa buona: e Dio divise la luce dalle tenebre. And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. E Dio chiamò la luce Giorno, e le tenebre egli chiamò Notte. And the evening and the morning were the first day. E fu sera e fu mattina: primo giorno. And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters. E Dio disse: «Sia il firmamento in mezzo alle acque, e lasciar separare le acque dalle acque. And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so. E Dio fece il firmamento e separò le acque che sono sotto il firmamento, dalle acque che son sopra il firmamento: ed è stato così. And God called the firmament Heaven. E Dio chiamò il firmamento cielo. And the evening and the morning were the second day. E fu sera e fu mattina: secondo giorno. And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so. E Dio disse: «Le acque che sono sotto il cielo, si raccolgano in un luogo fino, e lasciate asciugare il terreno appare: e così avvenne. And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good. E Dio chiamò l'asciutto terra e la massa delle acque mare chiamato: e Dio vide che era cosa buona. And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so. E Dio disse: «portare via la terra erba, erba cedere il seme, l'albero da frutta e frutta cedere dopo la sua natura, il cui seme è, di per sé, sulla terra: e così avvenne. And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good. E la terra ha portato via erba, erba e cedendo il seme dopo la sua natura, e di cedere l'albero di frutta, il cui seme è stato di per sé, dopo il suo genere: e Dio vide che era cosa buona. And the evening and the morning were the third day. E fu sera e fu mattina: terzo giorno. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so. E Dio disse: «Ci siano luci nel firmamento del cielo, per distinguere il giorno dalla notte; anni e di essere per loro segni, e per le stagioni, e per giorni e anni: E che il loro essere per luci nel firmamento del Il cielo per illuminare la terra: e così avvenne. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also. E Dio fece due grandi luci, la luce maggiore per regolare il giorno e la luce minore per regolare la notte: ha fatto le stelle. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that [it was] good. E Dio le pose nel firmamento del cielo per illuminare la terra, e per regolare giorno e notte e per separare la luce dalle tenebre e Dio vide che [era] buono. And the evening and the morning were the fourth day. E fu sera e fu mattina: quarto giorno. And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven. E Dio disse: le acque portare via il movimento abbondantemente creatura che ha la vita, e uccelli che possono volare sopra la terra, davanti al firmamento del cielo. And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good. E Dio creò grandi balene, e di ogni creatura vivente, che striscia, che ha portato via l'acqua in abbondanza, dopo la loro natura, e ogni alata pollame dopo la sua natura: e Dio vide che era cosa buona. And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth. E Dio li benedisse, dicendo: Siate fecondi e moltiplicatevi e riempite le acque dei mari, gli uccelli si moltiplichino sulla terra. And the evening and the morning were the fifth day. E fu sera e fu mattina: quinto giorno. And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so. E Dio disse: la terra portare via la creatura vivente dopo la sua natura, bovini, e strisciante cosa, e la bestia della terra dopo il suo genere: ed è stato così. And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good. E Dio fece la bestia della terra dopo il suo genere, e dopo il loro bestiame tipo, e ogni cosa che creepeth sulla terra dopo il suo genere: e Dio vide che era cosa buona. And God said, Let us make man in our image, afterour likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. E Dio disse: «Facciamo l'uomo a nostra immagine, afterour somiglianza: e lasciar domini sui pesci del mare e sugli uccelli del cielo, e il bestiame, e su tutta la terra, e più di ogni strisciante Cosa che creepeth sulla terra. So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them. Dio creò l'uomo a sua immagine, a immagine di Dio lo creò, maschio e femmina li creò. And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth. E Dio li benedisse, e Dio disse loro: Siate fecondi e moltiplicatevi, e riempire la terra e soggiogatela: e domini sui pesci del mare e sugli uccelli del cielo e su ogni essere vivente che Striscia sulla terra. And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat. E Dio disse: «Ecco, vi ho dato ogni erba cuscinetto seme, che è sopra la faccia di tutta la terra, e ogni albero, in cui è il frutto di un albero di cedere sementi; a voi, sono per la carne. And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so. E ad ogni bestia della terra, e ad ogni uccelli del cielo, e per ogni cosa che creepeth sulla terra, in cui vi è la vita, ho dato ogni erba verde per la carne: e così avvenne. And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold,[it was] very good. E Dio vide tutte le cose che aveva fatto, ed ecco, [era] molto buono. And the evening and the morning were the sixth day. E fu sera e fu mattina: sesto giorno.


That is pretty easy to read and understand, although not quite as much so as our modern Bibles with verses separated and numbered. Che è abbastanza facile da leggere e capire, anche se non tanto come la nostra in modo molto moderno Bibbie con versetti separati e numerati.


Earlier than that, the Greek texts were written without spaces or breaks between words, and no punctuation. As an example, the same Genesis 1 would look very different from the above: Anteriore a quella, il greco testi sono stati scritti senza spazi o interruzioni tra le parole, e senza segni di punteggiatura. A titolo di esempio, la stessa Genesi 1 avrebbe un aspetto molto diverso da quanto sopra:
InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday


OK. That's still somewhat easy to figure out. Questo è ancora un po 'facile da capire. But, earlier yet, the Greek manuscripts were written without differences of upper and lower cases, so our example text would appear as the following: , Ma, prima ancora, il greco manoscritti sono stati scritti senza differenze di maiuscole e minuscole, quindi il nostro esempio di testo che viene visualizzato nel seguente modo:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday Inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday

When we get back to about the Ninth Century AD, this Greek text was written in a scriptio continua called MINUSCULE WRITING or Cursives. Quando ci si torna a circa il Nono secolo dC, il testo greco è stato scritto in un scriptio continua chiamato MINUSCULE ISCRITTO o Cursives. This had the text not only unspaced but written in a handwritten script where all the letters were connected. Questo era il testo, ma non solo unspaced scritto a mano in un copione in cui tutte le lettere sono state collegate. The appearance of our example text would now look more like: L'aspetto del nostro esempio di testo che ora più simile:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday Inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth Eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday


This text might have been presented in either Greek or Latin in that era. Questo testo potrebbe essere stato presentato sia in latino o greco, mentre in quella epoca. We might as well look at what this sort of situation would have looked like in Greek, except we don't have available a computer font that can represent connected Greek script: Possiamo anche guardare a ciò che questo tipo di situazione avrebbe guardato come in greco, tranne che non abbiamo a disposizione un computer che può rappresentare il font collegato greco script:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday Inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad Madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday


Prior to around 900 AD, essentially all texts in most languages were apparently written with only the consonants presented, without ever recording any of the vowels! Prima di circa il 900 dC, in sostanza, tutti i testi nella maggior parte delle lingue sono stati apparentemente scritto solo con le consonanti presentato, senza mai alcuna registrazione delle vocali! So consider this same text, first in English and then in Greek!: Quindi considero questo stesso testo, prima in inglese e poi in greco!:

Please note that this first one is actually in English! Could you have studied it or even read it back then? Si prega di notare che questo primo è effettivamente in inglese! Potrebbe hanno studiato o addirittura leggere allora? Since you know much of the wording, you can pick out some familiar words. Dal momento che lei conosce molto del testo, è possibile selezionare alcune parole familiari. But could you fully understand everything presented here? Ma potrebbe comprendere appieno tutto qui presentati? Pick some random spot in the middle of this text and see if you can figure out the wording. Pick alcuni casuale posto nel mezzo di questo testo e vedi se puoi capire il testo. Find the part where God Created mankind! Trova la parte dove Dio Creato il genere umano! (It is about ten lines up from the end). (Si tratta di una decina di righe fino alla fine). THAT is the only form of Bible texts that was available to anyone prior to around 900 AD, and it was generally only available to Churches and virtually never to individuals, unless they were permitted to copy it themselves. CHE è l'unica forma di testi biblici che era a disposizione di chiunque prima di circa 900 dC, e si è generalmente disponibile solo per le Chiese e praticamente mai a persone fisiche, a meno che essi non sono stati autorizzati a copiarlo.

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd Nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


The same in Greek: Lo stesso in greco:

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd Nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


This is only Genesis 1, a tiny portion of the Bible. Questo è solo Genesi 1, una piccola porzione della Bibbia. Imagine that you were a Monk responsible for precisely copying about 300 times this much text (the whole Bible), in that connected (English) script format above, by hand, one character at a time, are you SURE that your entire copy would be absolutely free of even a single copyist error? Immagino che lei fosse un monaco responsabile proprio per la copia di circa 300 volte molto di questo testo (tutta la Bibbia), e che collegati (in inglese) in formato script di cui sopra, a mano, un carattere alla volta, siete CERTI che tutta la tua copia sarebbe Assolutamente libero di anche un solo copista errore?

It truly is a remarkable achievement by the many hundreds of Scribes who had to copy the entire Bible that they made astoundingly few copying errors! Esso è davvero un risultato notevole da molte centinaia di scribi che aveva per copiare l'intera Bibbia, che hanno fatto sorprendente pochi errori di copiatura! (We know that there were a few, and we now know where they were, because thousands of existing copies of those Scribe written Manuscripts have been carefully compared to see if and when they had any tiny differences. (Sappiamo che ci sono stati pochi, e ora sappiamo dove sono state, perché migliaia di copie di quelle esistenti Scribe Manoscritti scritti sono stati accuratamente rispetto per vedere se e quando hanno avuto nessun piccolo differenze.

An Experiment Un esperimento

If you're part of a Bible Study Group or some other Christian Small Group, why not try hand copying just this Genesis 1 (not the Greek text, but the script style continuous English text without the vowels) as carefully as you can. Se fai parte di un gruppo di studio della Bibbia o di qualche altro gruppo cristiano Piccola, perché non provare a mano solo la copia di questa Genesi 1 (non il testo greco, ma lo script di stile continuo testo in lingua inglese senza le vocali), come attentamente come si può. Then give YOUR copy to a different member of the group to copy. Poi dare TUA copia a un altro membro del gruppo di copiare. Then THAT copy would be given to a third person, and so on through the Group. Poi CHE copia potrebbe essere dato ad una terza persona, e così via attraverso il gruppo. Once everyone has copied their given source text as precisely as possible, you would finally get back a final copy. Una volta che tutti hanno copiato la loro fonte di testo dato la massima precisione possibile, si dovrebbe finalmente ricevere una copia definitiva. As long as all of you had done a perfect job of being able to read each others handwriting and of copying, that final copy should read EXACTLY like the original. Finché tutti voi avesse fatto un perfetto lavoro di essere in grado di leggere ogni altro grafia e di copia, che la copia definitiva dovrebbe leggere ESATTAMENTE come l'originale. But it will probably have at least a few minor variations. Ma avrà probabilmente almeno alcune variazioni minori. Even though each of you copyists are familiar with the Genesis story, and even though each of you was extremely careful, small errors are bound to appear. Anche se ognuno di voi copisti hanno familiarità con il racconto della Genesi, e anche se ciascuno di voi è stato molto attento, i piccoli errori sono tenuti a comparire. Such an experiment definitely increases one's respect for the multitude of anonymous Scribes that copied the Bible over the many centuries. Un esperimento di questo tipo sicuramente aumenta il rispetto per la moltitudine di anonimi scribi che la Bibbia copiato su molti secoli.

The situation with the Bible and its extensive size seems like it would have caused massive copyist errors over the centuries because of the scale of the task and the format that is being copied. La situazione con la Bibbia e la sua ampia dimensione sembra che avrebbe causato enormi errori di copista nel corso dei secoli a causa della portata del compito e il formato che si sta copiando. It is truly a sign of how incredibly careful the copyists all were that there were as few (minor) errors as are found in a few of the manuscripts. E 'veramente un segno di come incredibilmente attento tutti i copisti che ci sono stati sono stati i pochi errori (minore), come si trovano in alcuni dei manoscritti. Fortunately for us, there are so many source manuscripts that exist that the few variations that have been found have been checked in all the source documents and scholars are now extremely certain of the accuracy of modern translations. Fortunatamente per noi, ci sono molte sorgenti che esistono manoscritti che le poche variazioni, che sono stati trovati sono stati controllati in tutti i documenti sorgente e studiosi sono ora estremamente determinati l'esattezza delle traduzioni moderne.

As an additional element to think about, many early Old Testament source manuscripts are written in Hebrew. Come un ulteriore elemento a pensare, molti primi Testamento fonte manoscritti sono scritti in ebraico. Before about 900 AD, Hebrew was also written without any vowels. Prima di circa 900 dC, ebraico è stato anche scritto senza vocali. Can you imagine the possibilities of what might happen if copyists were even slightly careless? Potete immaginare la possibilità di ciò che potrebbe accadere se copisti sono stati anche leggermente incurante? By the way, this is closely related to YHWH, the Name of God, becoming Yahowah or Jehovah (or Yahweh), when the vowels from Adonai (another ancient Name for God) were inserted into YHWH many centuries later. In ogni modo, questo è strettamente legato a YHWH, il nome di Dio, diventando Yahowah o Geova (o Signore), quando le vocali di Adonai (un altro antico nome di Dio) sono stati inseriti in YHWH molti secoli più tardi.

This discussion has been presented so you might better appreciate the amazing efforts put forth by the many copyists of the Bible Manuscripts over the centuries, and also in the task that Bible translators face in making sure they have the absolutely most accurate translation that can be made. Questa discussione è stata presentata in modo che tu possa meglio apprezzare lo straordinario sforzo messo avanti da molti copisti della Bibbia Manoscritti nel corso dei secoli, e anche nel compito che la Bibbia traduttori volto a fare in modo che l'hanno assolutamente più accurata traduzione, che può essere fatta . It's not quite as easy as translating Buenos Dias into Hello ! Non è molto facile come tradurre in Buenos Dias Ciao! (even though that phrase could equally mean goodbye!) (Anche se questa frase potrebbe ugualmente dire addio!)

Finally, we have here really only been considering here the difficulties of perfect copying (for the Scribes) and in confirming the perfect accuracy (for the Bible scholars). Infine, abbiamo qui è davvero solo qui in considerazione le difficoltà di perfetta copia (per gli Scribi), e confermando la perfetta precisione (per gli studiosi della Bibbia). There is yet another level of complication in the translators' job. C'è ancora un altro livello di complicazione e traduttori 'di posti di lavoro. Many ancient words had several different meanings, often very different from each other. Molte antiche parole avuto diversi significati diversi, spesso molto diversi gli uni dagli altri. We created a separate little presentation to give you a taste of that aspect of the problem, at Literal Translation . Abbiamo creato una piccola presentazione per darvi un assaggio di questo aspetto del problema, in traduzione letterale.


Also, see: Inoltre, si veda:
Romanized Bible Text Romanized Bibbia testo
Transliteration of Hebrew Di traslitterazione ebraico
Literal Translation Traduzione letterale
Septuagint and early Manuscripts Manoscritti e primi Settanta
A Thorough Presentation of Jewish Genesis 1 text which shows the Hebrew characters. Una accurata presentazione del testo ebraico Genesi 1, che mostra i caratteri ebraici.

This subject presentation in the original English language Questo oggetto la presentazione in lingua originale inglese


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