Translating the Bible聖書の翻訳

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Figuring Out a Bible Translation聖書の翻訳を測る

People sometimes wonder why there are various "Versions" or "Translations" of the Bible. After all, all of the many English language Bible Versions are translated from the exact same source text , which was in Greek (NT) and Ancient Hebrew (OT).ときどき、なぜ人々が様々な"バージョン"または"翻訳"のバイブルです。 結局のところ、聖書のすべてのバージョンでは、多くの言語を英語に翻訳同じソースからの正確なテキスト 、これは、古代ギリシャ語です( NT )とヘブライ語( ot ) 。 Shouldn't really smart people be able to figure out how to translate something exactly right?本当にスマートではない人々をする方法を見つけ出すことができる何かを正確に翻訳する権利ですか? Especially something as important as the Bible, where many thousands of people have been involved?特に何かと同様に重要である聖書は、何千人もの人々が多く関わってきたか?

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Well, the problem turns out to be a little harder than that.ええと、結局はその問題よりも少し難しくしています。 First of all, many of the source artifacts that we have are incomplete.まず第一に、工芸品の多くは、ソースとは、私たちは不完全です。 At some point in history, weather or vandalism or war or just plain age has caused some parts of documents to have disappeared.歴史のある時点では、天気予報や荒らし行為、または単に平野の年齢や戦争の原因にはいくつかの文書の部分に姿を消した。 Next, even though there are several thousand existing (partial) source documents, once in a while, in one of those source documents (which are actually scribe-copied copies of earlier documents), a single character sometimes somehow gets mis-copied by some scribe along the way.次のページにもかかわらず、数千人には、既存の文書(部分)のソースは、たまには、これらのソースの1つの文書(これは、実際にコピーされますコピー先の書類筆記)は、時折、何らかの理由で、 1つの文字を取得されたいくつかのコピーを誤る筆記者の道に沿っている。 After all, by the time that scribe made our source document around a thousand years ago (about as old as most existing documents actually are), that document is a scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy of an earlier scribe-copy, etc. All of those scribes were as careful as humans are capable of, and most of them truly believed that they would be banished to Hell if they made even a single copying error!結局のところ、我々の前に筆記された時間で約1000年前のソースドキュメント(約として最も古いとして実際には、既存の文書)は、その文書のコピーは、以前の筆記には、以前の筆記筆記-コピー-コピー、等。 scribesがそれらのすべての人間としての能力があるとして慎重には、ほとんどの人となると考えられて本当に地獄の追放を前にすれば、 1つのコピーしてもエラーが発生! But the Bible contains around 800,000 words and around three million characters.しかし、聖書に含まれる単語や周りの周り3000000 800000文字です。 Extremely careful comparison between the thousands of different scribe copies that still exist have found some very minor copying errors in some of the existing copies of the earlier original Manuscripts.何千人もの間の比較を極めて慎重にコピーして別の筆記体はまだ存在してコピー中にエラーが見つかったいくつかの非常にマイナーいくつかの既存のコピー先の元の原稿です。 None of them have changed any significant wording or belief.それらのすべての重要な言葉遣いや信念が変わった。

In addition to this, the actual way the Bible used to be written was quite different from the way we read it today.これに加えて、実際に使用される方法では、聖書に書かれたのは、全く違う方法で読むことが今日我々です。 To give you the "flavor" of the problems, we are presenting Genesis 1 IN ENGLISH here in some historical formats, working our way backward in time as we go.にある場合、あなたは"フレーバー"の問題に、我々はここで提示創世記1英語でいくつかの歴史的なフォーマットは、私たちのように後方で作業時間として生きていく。 Of course, the original source documents were not in English.もちろん、元のソースドキュメントが英語ではありません。 Many (over 5,000) are in Greek.多くの( 5,000以上)は、ギリシャ語です。 Others (over 10,000) are Latin copies of the Vulgate Bible (of about 400 AD).その他( 10000以上)は、ラテン語のウルガタ聖書の聖書のコピー(広告には約400人) 。 A lesser number are in a variety of other languages.小数では、さまざまな他の言語です。

The Greek documents are particularly important, partly because that was the original language of the New Testament Manuscripts, so there was minimal chance of errors from language translation back then.特に重要なのは、ギリシャの書類は、オリジナルの部分だったので、新約聖書の言語の原稿ので、エラーが発生する可能性があった最小限の言語への翻訳を当時からです。 Our thoughts below are based on thinking about those Greek language source documents.私たちの考えの下には、ギリシャ語の言語に基づいてこれらのことを考えるのソースドキュメントです。


Before about 1560 AD and the Genevan New Testament, Bible scripture was not divided into verses. Genesis 1 would then appear (in English) basically like the following: ジュネーヴの前に約1560の広告と新約聖書は、聖書に分かれて啓典の印ではない。創世記1は、次に表示される(英語)を、以下のような基本的に:
In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.初めに、神は、天と地を作成しています。 And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep.地球の形とはせず、ボイド;と暗闇の深さに直面していた。 And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.神の御霊と感動の領海に直面しています。 And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.そして神は、光あれ:光があったとします。 And God saw the light, that it was good: and God divided the light from the darkness.そして神の光を見て、それが良い:神に分かれて、光と闇の中からです。 And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night.光の神と呼ばれる日は、彼と呼ばれ、夜の闇の中だ。 And the evening and the morning were the first day.朝と夕方には、最初の日とした。 And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.そして神によると、あれ大空の真っただ中にある水域では、ほっておくとディバイドの海域の領海からです。 And God made the firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.大空と神の前に、そして、分断された海域の領海から大空の下でされた上記の大空:していたので。 And God called the firmament Heaven.大空天の神と呼ばれる。 And the evening and the morning were the second day.朝と夕方には、 2番目の日です。 And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.そして神によると、水面下でさせてから、天国に1つの場所に集まったかれは、土地と乾燥させてから、表示されます:していたので。 And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.地球の陸地と呼ばれる神;と一緒に集まり、彼の海と呼ばれる海域:神を見たことは、良いです。 And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.そして神によると、地球をもたらすさせてから、草は、種子のハーブ降伏し、彼のような果樹降伏した後の果物は、それ自体の種子は、地上:していたので。 And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.そして、地球甦ら草は、種子やハーブ降伏後に彼のような、素直な果実と、ツリーは、それ自体の種子は、後の彼の種類:神を見たことは、良いです。 And the evening and the morning were the third day.そして、朝と夕方には、 3日目です。 And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years: And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.そして神によると、ライトは、あれは、天の大空を分けるから、その日の夜;せているだけだとの兆候には、季節とは、何日も、そして歳:せているだけだと大空には、ライトのために天を与える光の上に、地球:それは今だ。 And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.そして神の前に2つの偉大なライト;の大きい一日の光を支配し、小光を夜のルール:彼は、星にも。 And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that [it was] good.そして神は、大空を設定して、天の光の上に、地球を与える、とのルールを超えると、その日の夜、暗闇の中から光を分ける:神を見たとして[それは]良い。 And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.そして、朝と夕方には、 4番目の日です。 And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.そして神によると、豊富に産出させてから、海の生き物を移動して、かれらの生活、そして地球の上を飛ぶ鳥が大空を開くのは、天国です。 And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and God saw that it was good.そして神の偉大なクジラを作成し、すべての生き物がmoveth 、この海域で豊富に引き出される、彼らの後のような、そして彼の種類ごとに翼の後家禽:神を見たことは、良いです。 And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.そして神の祝福して、と言って、実り多いが、掛け算と、この海域で海を埋めると、鶏を掛け合わせ、地球に帰還した。 And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.そして、朝と夕方には、 5番目の日です。 And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.そして神によると、地球をもたらすさせてから、彼の後のような生き物は、牛、および忍び寄ることは、彼の後に、地球と獣の種類:それは今だ。 And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and God saw that it was good.獣神の前と後には地球のような彼は、自分の後に、牛の種類、およびすべてのことを彼の種類の後、地球にcreepeth :神を見たことは、良いです。 And God said, Let us make man in our image, afterour likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.そして神によると、男は私たちのイメージを作るまでお問い合わせは、 afterour肖像:そしてドミニオンせているだけだが、海の魚とは、空気の家禽、家畜とすると、地球上のすべて、およびオーバーごとに忍び寄る地球にcreepethものです。 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.だから、神は、自分自身のイメージを作成した男は、神のイメージは、彼は彼の作成;彼はオスとメスを作成してください。 And God blessed them, and God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.神の祝福とかれらは、かれらによると、神は、実り多いが、掛け算とは、地球を補充すると、それを征服:支配して、海の魚、および以上の家禽の空気、そしてすべての生き物をやり直す地上moveth 。 And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.そして神によると、見よ、私は与えられたすべてのハーブを軸受種子、これは、地球上のすべての顔を、そしてすべてのツリーで、これは、果物の木の種子降伏;をものにすることをお肉です。 And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.とは、地球のあらゆる獣は、すべての家禽には、空気とは、あらゆるものとして地球にcreepeth 、そこには人生は、私はすべての緑のハーブを与えられた肉:していたので。 And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold,[it was] very good.そして彼は神の前に見たことごとに、そして、見よ、 [それは]非常に良いです。 And the evening and the morning were the sixth day.そして、朝と夕方には、 6日目です。


That is pretty easy to read and understand, although not quite as much so as our modern Bibles with verses separated and numbered.それはとても簡単に理解して読んで、とてもではないが今と同じくらいの印として分離して、我々の近代聖書番号です。


Earlier than that, the Greek texts were written without spaces or breaks between words, and no punctuation. As an example, the same Genesis 1 would look very different from the above: 以前に比べて、テキストは、ギリシャ語で書かれた単語をスペースや休憩の間には、句読点やないです。例として、同じ創世記1は非常に異なって見える上:
InthebeginningGodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthAndtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepAndtheSpiritofGodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersAndGodsaidLettherebelightandtherewaslightAndGodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandGoddividedthelightfromthedarknessAndGodcalledthelightDayandthe darknesshecalledNightAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayAndGodsaid Lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersAndGodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoAndGodcalledthefirmament HeavenAndtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayAndGodsaidLetthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoAndGodcalledthedrylandEarthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heSeasandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoAndtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand GodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayAndGodsaid Lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsAndletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoAndGodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoAndGodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthAndtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andGodsawthatitwasgoodAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayAndGod saidLetthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenAndGodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGod blessedthemsayingBefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthAndtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayAndGodsaid Lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoAndGodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandGodsawthatitwasgoodAndGodsaidLetusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthSoGodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof GodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemAndGodblessedthemandGodsaid untothemBefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthAndGodsaidBeholdIhavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatAndtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeIhavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoAndGodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodAndtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithoutformand voidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceof thewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgodsawthelightthatit wasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthe darknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaid lettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthe watersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmament fromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmament heavenandtheeveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewaters undertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearandit wassoandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalled heseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherb yieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitself upontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldingseed afterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinitselfafterhiskindand godsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaid lettherebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightand letthembeforsignsandforseasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsin thefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwo greatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthe madethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightuponthe earthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfromthedarkness andgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgod saidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowl thatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhales andeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafter theirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgod blessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandlet fowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaid lettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthing andbeastoftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearth afterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninour imageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandover thefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreeping thingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageof godcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthemandgodsaid untothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthandsubdueitandhave dominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereveryliving thingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegivenyoueveryherb bearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheearthandeverytreeinthewhichis thefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastofthe earthandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearth whereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaw everythingthathehadmadeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthe morningwerethesixthday


OK.分かりました。 That's still somewhat easy to figure out.それはまだいくらかを簡単に把握する。 But, earlier yet, the Greek manuscripts were written without differences of upper and lower cases, so our example text would appear as the following:しかし、それ以前にもかかわらず、ギリシャ語で書かれた原稿なしでは、大文字と小文字の違いのため、私たちの例として、以下のテキストが表示されます:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswithout formandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoved uponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightand godsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfromthedarknessand godcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednightandtheeveningandthe morningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthe watersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadethefirmamentand dividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefirmamentfromthewaterswhichwere abovethefirmamentanditwassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandthe eveningandthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersunderthe heavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwas soandgodcalledthedrylandearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaters calledheseasandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforth grasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskind whoseseedisinitselfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforth grassandherbyieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhose seedwasinitselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningand themorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmament oftheheaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandfor seasonsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthemade thestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupon theearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethelightfrom thedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethe fourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreature thathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmamentofheaven andgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcreaturethatmovethwhichthe watersbroughtforthabundantlyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafter hiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfuland multiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmultiplyintheearthand theeveningandthemorningwerethefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbring forththelivingcreatureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeast oftheearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafter hiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeverythingthatcreepethuponthe earthafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemanin ourimageafterourlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthe seaandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandover everycreepingthingthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisown imageintheimageofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgod blessedthemandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishthe earthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowl oftheairandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaid beholdihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouit shallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairandto everythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegivenevery greenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehadmadeandbehold itwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesixthday

When we get back to about the Ninth Century AD, this Greek text was written in a scriptio continua called MINUSCULE WRITING or Cursives.ときに戻ることが我々の広告については、 9世紀には、このテキストは、ギリシャ語で書かれてあるscriptio continuumの書面またはcursivesミナスキュールと呼ばれる。 This had the text not only unspaced but written in a handwritten script where all the letters were connected.これは、テキストだけでなく、手書きで書かれたスクリプトunspacedしかしそこではすべての文字が接続しています。 The appearance of our example text would now look more like:テキストの外観は、今私たちの例のように見えるこちら:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandthe earthwaswithoutformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefac eofthedeepandthespiritofgodmoveduponthefaceofthewa tersandgodsaidlettherebelightandtherewaslightandgo dsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfrom thedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshe callednightandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstd ayandgodsaidlettherebeafirmamentinthemidstofthewat ersandletitdividethewatersfromthewatersandgodmadet hefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderthefir mamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentandit wassoandgodcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningan dthemorningweretheseconddayandgodsaidletthewatersu ndertheheavenbegatheredtogetheruntooneplaceandlett hedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedrylandear thandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasan dgodsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringfort hgrasstheherbyieldingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfr uitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinitselfupontheearthandi twassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherbyieldings eedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwas initselfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheev eningandthemorningwerethethirddayandgodsaidletther ebelightsinthefirmamentoftheheaventodividethedayfr omthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseasonsandford aysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentofth eheaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmade twogreatlightsthegreaterlighttorulethedayandtheles serlighttorulethenighthemadethestarsalsoandgodsett heminthefirmamentoftheheaventogivelightupontheeart handtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeve ningandthemorningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthew atersbringforthabundantlythemovingcreaturethathath lifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthintheopenfirmame ntofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeverylivingcr eaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundant lyaftertheirkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodblessedthemsayingbefruitfu landmultiplyandfillthewatersintheseasandletfowlmul tiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefi fthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcrea tureafterhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastofth eearthafterhiskindanditwassoandgodmadethebeastofth eearthafterhiskindandcattleaftertheirkindandeveryt hingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandgodsawt hatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageaftero urlikenessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishofthese aandoverthefowloftheairandoverthecattleandoverallt heearthandovereverycreepingthingthatcreepethuponth eearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheimageofgodc reatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessed themandgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandrepl enishtheearthandsubdueitandhavedominionoverthefish oftheseaandoverthefowloftheairandovereverylivingth ingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbeholdihavegive nyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofallthe earthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldi ngseedtoyouitshallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheear thandtoeveryfowloftheairandtoeverythingthatcreepet hupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegiveneverygree nherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethesixthday


This text might have been presented in either Greek or Latin in that era.このテキストの可能性があるのどちらかに提示され、その時代のギリシャ語やラテン語です。 We might as well look at what this sort of situation would have looked like in Greek, except we don't have available a computer font that can represent connected Greek script:我々は何を見ても同様だが、この種のような状況でギリシャ語を除いて、我々には、利用可能なコンピュータに接続ギリシャ語のフォントを表すことができるスクリプト:
inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday inthebeginninggodcreatedtheheavenandtheearthandtheearthwaswith outformandvoidanddarknesswasuponthefaceofthedeepandthespiritof godmoveduponthefaceofthewatersandgodsaidlettherebelightandther ewaslightandgodsawthelightthatitwasgoodandgoddividedthelightfr omthedarknessandgodcalledthelightdayandthedarknesshecallednigh tandtheeveningandthemorningwerethefirstdayandgodsaidlettherebe afirmamentinthemidstofthewatersandletitdividethewatersfromthew atersandgodmadethefirmamentanddividedthewaterswhichwereunderth efirmamentfromthewaterswhichwereabovethefirmamentanditwassoand godcalledthefirmamentheavenandtheeveningandthemorningwerethese conddayandgodsaidletthewatersundertheheavenbegatheredtogetheru ntooneplaceandletthedrylandappearanditwassoandgodcalledthedryl andearthandthegatheringtogetherofthewaterscalledheseasandgodsa wthatitwasgoodandgodsaidlettheearthbringforthgrasstheherbyield ingseedandthefruittreeyieldingfruitafterhiskindwhoseseedisinit selfupontheearthanditwassoandtheearthbroughtforthgrassandherby ieldingseedafterhiskindandthetreeyieldingfruitwhoseseedwasinit selfafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemorni ngwerethethirddayandgodsaidlettherebelightsinthefirmamentofthe heaventodividethedayfromthenightandletthembeforsignsandforseas onsandfordaysandyearsandletthembeforlightsinthefirmamentoftheh eaventogivelightupontheearthanditwassoandgodmadetwogreatlights thegreaterlighttorulethedayandthelesserlighttorulethenighthema dethestarsalsoandgodsettheminthefirmamentoftheheaventogiveligh tupontheearthandtoruleoverthedayandoverthenightandtodividethel ightfromthedarknessandgodsawthatitwasgoodandtheeveningandthemo rningwerethefourthdayandgodsaidletthewatersbringforthabundantl ythemovingcreaturethathathlifeandfowlthatmayflyabovetheearthin theopenfirmamentofheavenandgodcreatedgreatwhalesandeveryliving creaturethatmovethwhichthewatersbroughtforthabundantlyafterthe irkindandeverywingedfowlafterhiskindandgodsawthatitwasgoodandg odblessedthemsayingbefruitfulandmultiplyandfillthewatersinthes easandletfowlmultiplyintheearthandtheeveningandthemorningweret hefifthdayandgodsaidlettheearthbringforththelivingcreatureafte rhiskindcattleandcreepingthingandbeastoftheearthafterhiskindan ditwassoandgodmadethebeastoftheearthafterhiskindandcattleafter theirkindandeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthafterhiskindandg odsawthatitwasgoodandgodsaidletusmakemaninourimageafterourlike nessandletthemhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowloft heairandoverthecattleandoveralltheearthandovereverycreepingthi ngthatcreepethupontheearthsogodcreatedmaninhisownimageintheima geofgodcreatedhehimmaleandfemalecreatedhethemandgodblessedthem andgodsaiduntothembefruitfulandmultiplyandreplenishtheearthand subdueitandhavedominionoverthefishoftheseaandoverthefowlofthea irandovereverylivingthingthatmovethupontheearthandgodsaidbehol dihavegivenyoueveryherbbearingseedwhichisuponthefaceofalltheea rthandeverytreeinthewhichisthefruitofatreeyieldingseedtoyouits hallbeformeatandtoeverybeastoftheearthandtoeveryfowloftheairan dtoeverythingthatcreepethupontheearthwhereinthereislifeihavegi veneverygreenherbformeatanditwassoandgodsaweverythingthathehad madeandbeholditwasverygoodandtheeveningandthemorningwerethesix thday


Prior to around 900 AD, essentially all texts in most languages were apparently written with only the consonants presented, without ever recording any of the vowels!前に約900の広告は、基本的にすべてのテキストはほとんどの言語で書かれたどうやら、子音だけを提示して、録音のいずれかの母音なく! So consider this same text, first in English and then in Greek!:これと同じテキストを検討するため、最初にギリシャ語、英語、それから! :

Please note that this first one is actually in English! Could you have studied it or even read it back then? この最初の1つに注意してください英語では、実際!勉強してもらえませんかすら読むことが当時のですか? Since you know much of the wording, you can pick out some familiar words.ご存じの多くは、以降の文言は、いくつかのなじみの言葉を選び出すことができます。 But could you fully understand everything presented here?しかし、ここで提示さのすべてを完全に理解してもらえませんか? Pick some random spot in the middle of this text and see if you can figure out the wording.いくつかのランダムな場所を選ぶの真ん中を参照している場合、このテキストや言葉遣いを考え出すことができます。 Find the part where God Created mankind!人類はどこの部分を見つける神の作成! (It is about ten lines up from the end). (それは約10行の終わりまでより) 。 THAT is the only form of Bible texts that was available to anyone prior to around 900 AD, and it was generally only available to Churches and virtually never to individuals, unless they were permitted to copy it themselves.聖書には、テキストのみの形式には、誰でも利用できるようにする前に約900の広告は、通常でのみ利用可能とすることが事実上、教会や個人には決してしない限り、かれらはそれ自身のコピーを許可しています。

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddr knsswspnthfcfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdl tthrblghtndthrwslghtndgdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthl ghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndthdrknsshclldnghtndt hvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnthmdstfth wtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwt rswhchwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssn dgdclldthfrmmnthvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdl tthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthrntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtws sndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfthwtrsclldhssndg dswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdndth frttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrth brghtfrthgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdw sntslfftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthth rddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntdvdthdfrmthnght ndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbfrlghtsnthf rmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgr trlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstt hmnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnght ndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmr nngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrthbndntlthmvngcrtrt hththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdcrtdgrt whlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftr thrkndndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthm sngbfrtflndmltplndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthn dthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvn gcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrthftrhskndndtw ssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthngt htcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnr mgftrrlknssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndv rthcttlndvrllthrthndvrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgd crtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmlndfmlcrtdhthmndgdblss dthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthndsbdtndhv dmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpn thrthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthn dvrtrnthwhchsthfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrt hndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngthtcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgv nvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngththhdmdndbhldtwsvrg dndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


The same in Greek:で、同じギリシャ語:

nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd nthbgnnnggdcrtdthhvnndthrthndthrthwswthtfrmndvdnddrknsswspnthf cfthdpndthsprtfgdmvdpnthfcfthwtrsndgdsdltthrblghtndthrwslghtnd gdswthlghtthttwsgdndgddvddthlghtfrmthdrknssndgdclldthlghtdndth drknsshclldnghtndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrstdndgdsdltthrbfrmmntnth mdstfthwtrsndlttdvdthwtrsfrmthwtrsndgdmdthfrmmntnddvddthwtrswh chwrndrthfrmmntfrmthwtrswhchwrbvthfrmmntndtwssndgdclldthfrmmnt hvnndthvnngndthmrnngwrthscnddndgdsdltthwtrsndrthhvnbgthrdtgthr ntnplcndltthdrlndpprndtwssndgdclldthdrlndrthndthgthrngtgthrfth wtrsclldhssndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltthrthbrngfrthgrssthhrbldngsdn dthfrttrldngfrtftrhskndwhssdsntslfpnthrthndtwssndthrthbrghtfrt hgrssndhrbldngsdftrhskndndthtrldngfrtwhssdwsntslfftrhskndndgds wthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrththrddndgdsdltthrblghtsnthfrmmntf thhvntdvdthdfrmthnghtndltthmbfrsgnsndfrssnsndfrdsndrsndltthmbf rlghtsnthfrmmntfthhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtwssndgdmdtwgrtlghtsthgrt rlghttrlthdndthlssrlghttrlthnghthmdthstrslsndgdstthmnthfrmmntf thhvntgvlghtpnthrthndtrlvrthdndvrthnghtndtdvdthlghtfrmthdrknss ndgdswthttwsgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthfrthdndgdsdltthwtrsbrngfrth bndntlthmvngcrtrthththlfndfwlthtmflbvthrthnthpnfrmmntfhvnndgdc rtdgrtwhlsndvrlvngcrtrthtmvthwhchthwtrsbrghtfrthbndntlftrthrkn dndvrwngdfwlftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdblssdthmsngbfrtflndmltpl ndfllthwtrsnthssndltfwlmltplnthrthndthvnngndthmrnngwrthffthdnd gdsdltthrthbrngfrththlvngcrtrftrhskndcttlndcrpngthngndbstfthrt hftrhskndndtwssndgdmdthbstfthrthftrhskndndcttlftrthrkndndvrthn gthtcrpthpnthrthftrhskndndgdswthttwsgdndgdsdltsmkmnnrmgftrrlkn ssndltthmhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrthcttlndvrllthrthnd vrvrcrpngthngthtcrpthpnthrthsgdcrtdmnnhswnmgnthmgfgdcrtdhhmmln dfmlcrtdhthmndgdblssdthmndgdsdntthmbfrtflndmltplndrplnshthrthn dsbdtndhvdmnnvrthfshfthsndvrthfwlfthrndvrvrlvngthngthtmvthpnth rthndgdsdbhldhvgvnvrhrbbrngsdwhchspnthfcfllthrthndvrtrnthwhchs thfrtftrldngsdttshllbfrmtndtvrbstfthrthndtvrfwlfthrndtvrthngth tcrpthpnthrthwhrnthrslfhvgvnvrgrnhrbfrmtndtwssndgdswvrthngthth hdmdndbhldtwsvrgdndthvnngndthmrnngwrthsxthd


This is only Genesis 1, a tiny portion of the Bible.これは創世記1だけは、聖書の小さな部分です。 Imagine that you were a Monk responsible for precisely copying about 300 times this much text (the whole Bible), in that connected (English) script format above, by hand, one character at a time, are you SURE that your entire copy would be absolutely free of even a single copyist error?想像して責任を負うことは、僧侶約300倍、このくらい正確にコピーするテキスト(全体のバイブル) 、 (英語)に接続して上記のスクリプト形式では、手作業で、一度に1つのキャラクターは、サイト全体をコピーしてもよろしいだろう完全無料の筆耕でも、 1つのエラーですか?

It truly is a remarkable achievement by the many hundreds of Scribes who had to copy the entire Bible that they made astoundingly few copying errors!それは、本当に驚くべき偉業scribesされた何百人もの多くの全体をコピーしていたという聖書の前に驚くほどの数のコピーエラー! (We know that there were a few, and we now know where they were, because thousands of existing copies of those Scribe written Manuscripts have been carefully compared to see if and when they had any tiny differences. (いくつかあったことが分かっているし、彼らは我々を今どこに知っているので、既存のコピーが何千人もの人が筆記体で書かれた原稿を参照している場合と比較して慎重にされていたときにどんな小さな違いです。

An Experimentある実験

If you're part of a Bible Study Group or some other Christian Small Group, why not try hand copying just this Genesis 1 (not the Greek text, but the script style continuous English text without the vowels) as carefully as you can.団体の場合は、キリスト教の聖書の勉強会や他のいくつかの小さなグループには、なぜ手をコピーしてみてくださいだけではなく、この創世記1 (テキストは、ギリシャ語ではなく、スクリプトのスタイル母音連続英語テキストなし)できるだけ注意深くすることができます。 Then give YOUR copy to a different member of the group to copy.その後、別のコピーを提供して、グループのメンバーにコピーしています。 Then THAT copy would be given to a third person, and so on through the Group.次に指定してコピーして、三人称だろう、といったように、グループを介しています。 Once everyone has copied their given source text as precisely as possible, you would finally get back a final copy.かつて誰もが自分の与えられたソースをテキストとしてコピー可能な限り正確には、最後に仕返しするには、最終的にコピーします。 As long as all of you had done a perfect job of being able to read each others handwriting and of copying, that final copy should read EXACTLY like the original.限り、すべての完ぺきな仕事をした際にそれが行われている他の手書き文字を読むことができますそれぞれのコピーと、最終的にコピーして、元のように正確に読むべきだ。 But it will probably have at least a few minor variations.しかし、それは、おそらくが、少なくともいくつかのマイナーバリエーションです。 Even though each of you copyists are familiar with the Genesis story, and even though each of you was extremely careful, small errors are bound to appear.それぞれの場合にもかかわらずcopyists創世記の物語を知っていると、それぞれの場合にもかかわらず、非常に慎重には、小規模なエラーが表示される運命にある。 Such an experiment definitely increases one's respect for the multitude of anonymous Scribes that copied the Bible over the many centuries.このような実験は、確実に増加する多数の匿名scribes尊重して、多くの世紀にもわたって聖書をコピーしておいた。

The situation with the Bible and its extensive size seems like it would have caused massive copyist errors over the centuries because of the scale of the task and the format that is being copied.聖書を持って事態を大規模の大きさとそのように思えます。筆耕大規模なエラーが発生することが原因のため、何世紀にもわたる規模の課題となっているとの形式でコピーされます。 It is truly a sign of how incredibly careful the copyists all were that there were as few (minor) errors as are found in a few of the manuscripts.それは本当に信じられないほどの兆候をどのように注意することがあったが、すべてcopyists (マイナー)としていくつかのエラーが見つかりましたが、数としては、原稿です。 Fortunately for us, there are so many source manuscripts that exist that the few variations that have been found have been checked in all the source documents and scholars are now extremely certain of the accuracy of modern translations.我々にとって幸運なことに、そこには、とても多くのソース原稿は、いくつかのバリエーションが存在することが発見されてチェックしてきたすべてのソースの特定の文書や学者が現在、非常に精度の近代訳語です。

As an additional element to think about, many early Old Testament source manuscripts are written in Hebrew.要素として追加することを考えると、多くの早期旧約聖書ヘブライ語で書かれた原稿がソースです。 Before about 900 AD, Hebrew was also written without any vowels.前に約900の広告は、ヘブライ語でも母音なしに書かれた。 Can you imagine the possibilities of what might happen if copyists were even slightly careless?その可能性を想像できますcopyistsれた場合にも起こるかもしれないことを少し不注意か? By the way, this is closely related to YHWH, the Name of God, becoming Yahowah or Jehovah (or Yahweh), when the vowels from Adonai (another ancient Name for God) were inserted into YHWH many centuries later.ところで、これはyhwh密接に関連して、神の名、またはエホバyahowahなる(またはヤハウェ)は、そのときから母音上帝(別の名前を古代の神)に挿入された後の世紀にもわたって多くのyhwh 。

This discussion has been presented so you might better appreciate the amazing efforts put forth by the many copyists of the Bible Manuscripts over the centuries, and also in the task that Bible translators face in making sure they have the absolutely most accurate translation that can be made.このディスカッションを提示されて良いかもしれませんので、驚くほどの努力を高く評価さを出すのは、聖書の多くの原稿copyists世紀にもわたって、聖書の翻訳者でも、タスクに直面していることを確認し、絶対に彼らは、最も正確な翻訳は作ることができる。 It's not quite as easy as translating Buenos Dias into Hello !それは全く同じように簡単に翻訳するおはようハロー (even though that phrase could equally mean goodbye!) (たとえそのフレーズを意味する可能性を均等にさよなら! )

Finally, we have here really only been considering here the difficulties of perfect copying (for the Scribes) and in confirming the perfect accuracy (for the Bible scholars).最後に、我々はここで本当にここだけの困難を考慮され、完璧なコピー( scribesのため)とは、完璧な精度を確認する(聖書学者) 。 There is yet another level of complication in the translators' job.合併症には、もう一つのレベルの翻訳者の仕事です。 Many ancient words had several different meanings, often very different from each other.古代の多くは、いくつかの異なる意味を持つ単語は、しばしばお互いに非常に異なっています。 We created a separate little presentation to give you a taste of that aspect of the problem, at Literal Translation .リトル我々を個別に作成したプレゼンテーションをさせることができるの味がして、問題の側面で、 直訳です。


Also, see:また、参照してください:
Romanized Bible Text 聖書のテキストをローマ字
Transliteration of Hebrew 転写のヘブライ語
Literal Translation 直訳
Septuagint and early Manuscripts セプトゥアギンタと早期原稿
A Thorough Presentation of Jewish Genesis 1 text which shows the Hebrew characters. 創世記1のプレゼンテーションを徹底的にユダヤ人のヘブライ語の文字のテキストが表示されます。

This subject presentation in the original English languageで、元のプレゼンテーションこのテーマ英語言語


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